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Yuyan Gao, Li Li, David C Schwebel, Peishan Ning, Peixia Cheng, Guoqing Hu
Social medical insurance schemes are crucial for realizing universal health coverage and health equity. The aim of this study was to investigate whether and how reimbursement for injury-induced medical expenses is addressed in Chinese legislative documents relevant to social medical insurance. We retrieved legislative documents from the China National Knowledge Infrastructure and the Lawyee databases. Four types of social medical insurance schemes were included: urban employee basic medical insurance, urban resident basic medical insurance, new rural cooperative medical system, and urban and rural resident medical insurance...
2018: PloS One
Robert D Johnson, Patrizia Camelliti
The heart is a complex organ composed of multiple cell types, including cardiomyocytes and different non-myocyte populations, all working closely together to determine the hearts properties and maintain normal cardiac function. Connexins are abundantly expressed proteins that form plasma membrane hemichannels and gap junctions between cells. Gap junctions are intracellular channels that allow for communication between cells, and in the heart they play a crucial role in cardiac conduction by coupling adjacent cardiomyocytes...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Teresa Fernández-Crespo, Rick J Schulting, Javier Ordoño, Andreas Duering, Francisco Etxeberria, Lourdes Herrasti, Ángel Armendariz, José I Vegas, Christopher Bronk Ramsey
OBJECTIVES: San Juan ante Portam Latinam is one of a small number of European Neolithic sites meeting many of the archaeological criteria expected for a mass grave, and furthermore presents evidence for violent conflict. This study aims to differentiate between what is potentially a single episode of deposition, versus deposition over some centuries, or, alternatively, that resulting from a combination of catastrophic and attritional mortality. The criteria developed are intended to have wider applicability to other such proposed events...
March 15, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Claire Wendland
Maternal and neonatal mortality statistics foreground some possible causes of death at the expense of others. Political place (nation, state) and place of birth (hospital, home) are integral to these statistics; respect for women as persons is not. Using case examples from Malawi and the United States, I argue that the focus on place embedded in these indicators can legitimate coercive approaches to childbirth. Qualitative assessments in both cases reveal that respectful care, while not represented in current indicators, is critical for the health of women and newborns...
March 1, 2018: AMA Journal of Ethics
David Thornby, Jeff Werth, James Hereward, Michelle Keenan, Bhagirath S Chauhan
BACKGROUND: Because herbicide resistance evolves in very large populations over periods of many years, modelling is an important tool for investigating the dynamics of the problem. The Diversity model tracks the simultaneous evolution of resistance to multiple herbicides, using multiple genetic pathways, in several weed species at once. Tracking multiple species and simultaneous resistances is an important development in resistance modelling. We used the Diversity model to test weed management strategies for new cropping cotton varieties with multiple herbicide tolerances ('triple-stacked' varieties), in an Australian context...
March 15, 2018: Pest Management Science
Maurizio Manca, Veridiana Pessoa, Ana Illera Lopez, Patrick T Harrison, Fabio Miyajima, Helen Sharp, Andrew Pickles, Jonathan Hill, Chris Murgatroyd, Vivien J Bubb, John P Quinn
The monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) uVNTR (upstream variable number tandem repeat) is one of the most often cited examples of a gene by environment interaction (GxE) in relation to behavioral traits. However, MAOA possesses a second VNTR, 500 bp upstream of the uVNTR, which is termed d- or distal VNTR. Furthermore, genomic analysis indicates that there are a minimum of two transcriptional start sites (TSSs) for MAOA, one of which encompasses the uVNTR within the 5' untranslated region of one of the isoforms. Through expression analysis in semi-haploid HAP1 cell lines genetically engineered in order to knockout (KO) either the uVNTR, dVNTR, or both VNTRs, we assessed the effect of the two MAOA VNTRs, either alone or in combination, on gene expression directed from the different TSSs...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Paulino Alvarez, Alexandros Briasoulis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Immune system activation plays a central role in heart failure progression. Large-scale immune modulatory clinical trials targeting tumor necrosis factor-α and broad spectrum immune modulation have been negative. The objective of this review is to highlight past, present, and what is in the horizon for the immunomodulation in heart failure with a focus of biologics. RECENT FINDINGS: Strategies targeting interleukin-1 pathway are currently undergoing clinical evaluation and data from pilot studies are promising...
March 15, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
Rosario Francesco Balzano, Maria Mattera, Xiaoguang Cheng, Samantha Cornacchia, Giuseppe Guglielmi
Osteoporosis is a common condition and an important cause of disability. For this reason, early detection of the disease and patients at higher risk of bone fractures is compulsory. In the recent years, conventional quantitative methods have been spreading for the diagnosis of osteoporosis; moreover, new improvements in computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been made in this field and imaging findings may correlate to the morphological and structural changes within the bone.
February 2018: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
Tuva Bjørkvold, Marte Blikstad-Balas
All scientists depend on both reading and writing to do their scientific work. It is of paramount importance to ensure that students have a relevant repertoire of practices they can employ when facing scientific content inside and outside the school context. The present study reports on students in seventh grade acting as researchers. Over an 8-week collaborative research period, students posed their own research question, attempted to answer it by systematically testing hypotheses, discussing findings, presenting their conclusions, and documenting their process in a written report...
March 2018: Science Education
C Genna, C M Oddo, A Mazzoni, A Wahlbom, S Micera, H Jörntell
The presence of contralateral tactile input can profoundly affect ipsilateral tactile perception and unilateral stroke in somatosensory areas can result in bilateral tactile deficits, suggesting that bilateral tactile integration is an important part of brain function. Whereas previous studies have shown that bilateral tactile inputs exist and that there are neural interactions between inputs from the two sides, no previous study explored to what extent the local neuronal circuitry processing contains detailed information about the nature of the tactile input from the two sides...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Sophie H Bennett, Alastair J Kirby, Gerald T Finnerty
Neuronal connections form the physical basis for communication in the brain. Recently, there has been much interest in mapping the "connectome" to understand how brain structure gives rise to brain function, and ultimately, to behaviour. These attempts to map the connectome have largely assumed that connections are stable once formed. Recent studies, however, indicate that connections in mammalian brains may undergo rewiring during learning and experience-dependent plasticity. This suggests that the connectome is more dynamic than previously thought...
March 11, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
M Cheetham, A Wiseman, B Khazaeli, E Gibson, P Gray, P Van der Graaf, R Rushmer
Background: Embedded research (ER) is recognized as one way to strengthen the integration of evidence into public health (PH) practice. In this paper, we outline a promising example of the co-production of research evidence between Fuse, the UKCRC Centre for Translational Research in Public Health and a local authority (LA) in north east England. Methods: We critically examine attempts to share and use research findings to influence decision-making in a LA setting, drawing on insights from PH practitioners, managers, commissioners and academic partners involved in this organizational case study...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Public Health
Carl D Stevens
The sudden, dramatic collapse of the seven-year struggle in Congress to repeal and replace the Affordable Care Act holds important lessons for all would-be reformers, including those advocating fundamental changes in medical education. In this Invited Commentary, the author draws parallels between reform initiatives in health policy and those in medical education, highlighting that, in both settings, stakeholders rarely support "repeal" in the absence of a superior replacement, even when they view the status quo as deeply flawed...
March 13, 2018: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Stéphanie Gamache, François Routhier, Ernesto Morales, Marie-Hélène Vandersmissen, Normand Boucher
BACKGROUND: Due to the ageing population and higher prevalence of individuals living with physical disabilities, there is a critical need for inclusive practices when designing accessible pedestrian infrastructures for ensuring social participation and equal opportunities. PURPOSE: Summarize the physical characteristics of current pedestrian infrastructure design for individuals with physical disabilities (IPD - motor, visual and hearing) found in the scientific literature and assess its quality...
March 14, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
Kerm Henriksen, Chris Dymek, Michael I Harrison, P Jeffrey Brady, Sharon B Arnold
BACKGROUND: The Improving Diagnosis in Health Care report from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine (NASEM) provided an opportunity for many groups to reflect on the role they could play in taking actions to improve diagnostic safety. As part of its own process, AHRQ held a research summit in the fall of 2016, inviting members from a diverse collection of organizations, both inside and outside of Government, to share their suggestions regarding what is known about diagnosis and the challenges that need to be addressed...
June 27, 2017: Diagnosis
Xiaomei Su, Shuo Zhang, Rongwu Mei, Yu Zhang, Muhammad Zaffar Hashmi, Jingjing Liu, Hongjun Lin, Linxian Ding, Faqian Sun
Nowadays, much of what we know regarding the isolated cellulolytic bacteria comes from the conventional plate separation techniques. However, the culturability of many bacterial species is controlled by resuscitation-promoting factors (Rpfs) due to entering a viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state. Therefore, in this study, Rpf from Micrococcus luteus was added in the culture medium to evaluate its role in bacterial isolation and enhanced effects on cellulose-degrading capability of bacterial community in the compost...
March 14, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
A von Braun, C Lübbert
The incidence of clostridium difficile infections (CDI) remains on a high level globally. In Germany, the number of severe or even lethal cases continues to increase. The main risk factor for the development of CDI is exposure to broad spectrum antibiotics, which disturb the physiological microbiome and therefore enable colonization with C. difficile. According to the updated US and European guidelines, orally administered vancomycin is the treatment of choice. Fidaxomicin is as effective as vancomycin but has the advantage of a lower rate of recurrence...
March 13, 2018: Der Internist
Ruyu Yao, Michael Heinrich, Yuanfeng Zou, Eike Reich, Xiaolei Zhang, Yu Chen, Caroline S Weckerle
Goji (fruits of Lycium barbarum L. and L. chinense Mill.) has been used in China as food and medicine for millennia, and globally has been consumed increasingly as a healthy food. Ningxia, with a semi-arid climate, always had the reputation of producing best goji quality ( daodi area). Recently, the increasing market demand pushed the cultivation into new regions with different climates. We therefore ask: How does goji quality differ among production areas of various climatic regions? Historical records are used to trace the spread of goji production in China over time...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Svetlana Tikhonova, Linda Booij, Violet D'Souza, Karla T B Crosara, Walter L Siqueira, Elham Emami
BACKGROUND: This scoping review addressed the question 'what do we know about stress-related changes in saliva and dental caries in general population?' METHODS: The review was conducted using electronic searches via Embase, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and WoS. All published human studies with both observational and experimental designs were included. Two reviewers independently reviewed eligible articles and extracted the data. The studies' quality was assessed using the Effective Public Health Practice Project Quality Assessment Tool...
March 13, 2018: BMC Oral Health
Gabriela Da Silva Xavier
Islets of Langerhans are islands of endocrine cells scattered throughout the pancreas. A number of new studies have pointed to the potential for conversion of non-β islet cells in to insulin-producing β-cells to replenish β-cell mass as a means to treat diabetes. Understanding normal islet cell mass and function is important to help advance such treatment modalities: what should be the target islet/β-cell mass, does islet architecture matter to energy homeostasis, and what may happen if we lose a particular population of islet cells in favour of β-cells? These are all questions to which we will need answers for islet replacement therapy by transdifferentiation of non-β islet cells to be a reality in humans...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
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