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Nicole G Campos, Naomi Lince-Deroche, Carla J Chibwesha, Cynthia Firnhaber, Jennifer S Smith, Pam Michelow, Gesine Meyer-Rath, Lise Jamieson, Suzette Jordaan, Monisha Sharma, Catherine Regan, Stephen Sy, Gui Liu, Vivien Tsu, Jose Jeronimo, Jane J Kim
BACKGROUND: Women with HIV face an increased risk of human papillomavirus (HPV) acquisition and persistence, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, and invasive cervical cancer. Our objective was to determine the cost-effectiveness of different cervical cancer screening strategies among women with HIV in South Africa. METHODS: We modified a mathematical model of HPV infection and cervical disease to reflect co-infection with HIV. The model was calibrated to epidemiologic data from HIV-infected women in South Africa...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Rebecca F D'Cruz, Georgios Kaltsakas, Eui-Sik Suh, Patrick B Murphy, Nicholas Hart
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Breathlessness is a common symptom in many chronic diseases and may be refractory to pharmacotherapy. In this review, we discuss the pathophysiology of breathlessness and the role of positive airway pressure (PAP) devices to ameliorate it. RECENT FINDINGS: Breathlessness is directly related to neural respiratory drive, which can be modified by addressing the imbalance between respiratory muscle load and capacity. Noninvasive PAP devices have been applied to patients limited by exertional breathless and, as the disease progresses, breathlessness at rest...
June 18, 2018: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
Ahmad Farajzadah Sheikh, Sajad Aslani, Seyed Ahmad Hosseini, Mansour Amin, Hamed Goodarzi, Nabi Jomehzadeh, Reza Ranjbar, Mina Moradzadeh, Samireh Azarpira, Mohammad Moradi, Mohamad Hashemzadeh
Different E.coli phylogenetic groups (A, B1, B2 and D) through possess four functional groups; (I) adhesins , (II) microcins , (III) toxins , and (IV) capsule can be caused urinary tract infections. Special phylogenetic group with high virulence content become a worldwide health concern. Resistance to antimicrobial agents increasingly complicates the management of extraintestinal infections due to E.coli , which are a major source of illness, death, and increased healthcare costs. The aim of this study was to determination of virulence content and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of different Uropathogenic E...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Katia Ramos Moreira Leite, Thais Silva, Bruna Naum, Flavio Canavez, Juliana Canavez, Ruan Pimenta, Sabrina Reis, Luiz Heraldo Camara-Lopes
OBJECTIVE: To test the performance of a new fixative for pap smear collection for liquid-based cervical cytology, CellPreserv® and compare it with the commercially available, PreservCyt® used in the diagnosis and detection of human papillomavirus (HPV). METHODS: Seven hundred twenty five women participated in this study after signing an informed consent. The specimens were collected using a traditional device, agitated in PBS, and equally divided in both fixatives...
June 18, 2018: Acta Cytologica
Francisco Cuenca-Fernández, Ana Ruiz-Teba, Gracia López-Contreras, Raúl Arellano
Cuenca-Fernández, F, Ruiz-Teba, A, López-Contreras, G, and Arellano, R. Effects of 2 types of activation protocols based on postactivation potentiation on 50-m freestyle performance. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-Postactivation potentiation (PAP) is a phenomenon which improves muscle contractility, strength, and speed in sporting performances through previously applied maximal or submaximal loads on the muscle system. This study aimed to assess the effects of 2 types of activation protocols based on PAP, on sprint swimming performance...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Roxanne D Zwijnenburg, Vivan J M Baggen, Laurie W Geenen, Kelly R Voigt, Jolien W Roos-Hesselink, Annemien E van den Bosch
BACKGROUND: The development or persistence of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) after atrial septal defect (ASD) closure at adult age is associated with a poor prognosis. The objective of this review was to investigate the prevalence of PAH before and after ASD closure and to identify factors that are associated with PAH. METHODS: EMBASE and MEDLINE databases were searched for publications until March 2017. All studies reporting the prevalence of PAH or data on pulmonary artery pressures both before and after surgical or percutaneous ASD closure in an adult population (≥16 years of age) were included...
July 2018: American Heart Journal
David López-Escardó, Jordi Paps, Colomban de Vargas, Ramon Massana, Iñaki Ruiz-Trillo, Javier Del Campo
Although animals are among the best studied organisms, we still lack a full description of their diversity, especially for microscopic taxa. This is partly due to the time-consuming and costly nature of surveying animal diversity through morphological and molecular studies of individual taxa. A powerful alternative is the use of high-throughput environmental sequencing, providing molecular data from all organisms sampled. We here address the unknown diversity of animal phyla in marine environments using an extensive dataset designed to assess eukaryotic ribosomal diversity among European coastal locations...
June 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ruchi Arun, Jai Prakash Singh, Shyam Bihari Gupta
Background: It is possible to prevent deaths due to cervical cancer through screening and treatment. Cervical cytology which is a standard screening tool in developed countries fails as a screening method in low-resource countries due to financial and technical constraints. Objective: To determine the prevalence of pre-malignant lesions of the cervix by VIA and Pap smear test among rural married women and to find out association of socio demographic factors with positive screening test results...
April 2018: Indian Journal of Community Medicine
Sang-Hyun Hwang, Hye Young Shin, Dong Ock Lee, Na Young Sung, Bomyee Lee, Do-Hoon Lee, Jae Kwan Jun
This pilot study sought to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing vaginal self-swabs and urine samples for HPV-based cervical cancer screening in 700 women who had undergone conventional Pap smear screening via the national cervical cancer program in Korea. The cobas 4800 HPV test was utilized to detect HPV in the self-samples. Pap smear results revealed three cases of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, 649 cases of negative for an intraepithelial lesion or malignancy, and 48 non-specific inflammatory findings...
June 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Satoshi Akagi, Hiromi Matsubara, Kazufumi Nakamura, Hiroshi Ito
Treatment goals in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) include improved quality of life and exercise capacity as well as improved life prognosis. In our experience, only remarkable reductions in pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) improve long-term survival. Lowering PAP could contribute to reverse remodeling by reducing hemodynamic stress. Proper and prompt use of PAH-specific drugs lowers PAP in patients with PAH. Upfront combination therapy with different PAH-specific drugs and quickly establishing high-dose epoprostenol lowers PAP sufficiently to improve prognosis in patients with PAH...
June 10, 2018: Journal of Cardiology
Jata S Misra, Anand N Srivastava, Hem P Gupta
OBJECTIVE: Cytological screening was carried out in rural women of Lucknow West, India, through a camp approach to detect cervical cancer in its preinvasive phase and to see whether the primitive living conditions in the villages have any effect on the incidence of precancer and carcinoma of the cervix and the associated predisposing factors of cervical carcinogenesis. STUDY DESIGN: During a span of 4 years (May 2013 to March 2017), a total of 135 camps were organized under the auspice of Era's Lucknow Medical College and Hospital (Lucknow, India)...
June 13, 2018: Acta Cytologica
Jardel Francisco Mazzi-Chaves, Igor Bassi Ferreira Petean, Isadora Mello Vilarinho Soares, Alessandro Guimarães Salles, Lívia Azeredo Alves Antunes, Raquel Assed Bezerra Segato, Léa Assed Bezerra da Silva, Erika Calvano Küchler, Leonardo Santos Antunes, Manoel Damião Sousa-Neto
Persistent apical periodontitis (AP) is a situation involving an inflammatory and immune response caused mainly by anaerobic polymicrobial infection of the root canal system and the outcome and follow-up of the root canal treatment has been reported as intimately related to host response. The apical periodontitis repair might be associated with genetic polymorphisms. This study aimed to evaluate the association between HIF1A genetic polymorphisms (rs2301113 and rs2057482) with PAP in Brazilian patients. Subjects with at least 1 year of follow-up after root canal therapy (RCT) were recalled...
March 2018: Brazilian Dental Journal
Jane Elizabeth Frawley, Erica McIntyre, David Sibbritt, Jon Wardle, Janet Schloss, Romy Lauche, Jon Adams
INTRODUCTION: Complementary medicine (CM) use has been found to influence the uptake of conventional cancer treatment. This study examines associations between CM use and cancer screening rates. METHODS: Women aged 62 to 67 years from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health were surveyed regarding their use of cancer screening initiatives. Associations between cancer screening behavior and visits to CM practitioners were analyzed. RESULTS: Of the 9151 women, 9049 (98...
June 1, 2018: Integrative Cancer Therapies
Xianxu Zeng, Xiaoan Zhang, Canyu Li, Xiaofang Wang, Jason Jerwick, Tao Xu, Yuan Ning, Yihong Wang, Linlin Zhang, Zhan Zhang, Yutao Ma, Chao Zhou
Cervical cancer remains the fourth most common cause of cancer worldwide and the third leading cause of cancer deaths for women in developing countries. Traditional screening tools, such as human papillomavirus and Pap tests, cannot provide results in real-time and cannot localize suspicious regions. Colposcopy-directed biopsies are invasive in nature and only a few sites of the cervix may be chosen for investigation. A non-invasive, label-free and real-time imaging method with a resolution approaching that of histopathology is desirable for early detection of the disease...
2018: Theranostics
Vijayalakshmi Chandrasekhar, Chandrasekhar Krishnamurti
Born in 1883 in Kyme, Greece, George Papanicolaou obtained his medical degree in 1904 from the University of Athens and doctorate in Zoology in 1910 from the University of Munich. He migrated to the USA in 1913 and worked as an assistant at the Department of Anatomy in the Cornell Medical College. There, Papanicolaou examined vaginal smears under his microscope, charted the cyclic ovarian and uterine changes every day and harvested the oocytes at the appropriate time. He published his research on the cytologic patterns in guinea pigs in the American Journal of Anatomy in 1917...
June 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of India
Célia Landmann Szwarcwald, Wanessa da Silva de Almeida, Giseli Nogueira Damacena, Paulo Roberto Borges de Souza-Júnior, Orlando da Costa Ferreira-Júnior, Mark Drew Crosland Guimarães
BACKGROUND: The present study aims at investigating the progress made toward controlling the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS epidemic among female sex workers (FSW) from 2009 to 2016. METHODS: The baseline of respondent-driven sampling (RDS) study among FSW was carried out in 2009, in 10 Brazilian municipalities. In 2016, information on FSW were collected in 12 municipalities. The analyses took into account the dependence among observations, resulting from the recruitment chains, and the unequal probabilities of selection, resulting from the different network sizes...
May 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Ester Herrmann, Andreas Ecke, Eva Herrmann, Nina Eissing, Stephan Fichtlscherer, Andreas M Zeiher, Birgit Assmus
AIM: Patients with advanced systolic chronic heart failure frequently suffer from progressive functional mitral regurgitation. We report our initial experience in patients with an implanted pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) sensor, who developed severe mitral regurgitation, which was treated with the MitraClip system. We non-invasively compared changes in PAP values in patients after MitraClip with PAP changes in patients without MitraClip. METHODS AND RESULTS: Among 28 patients with New York Heart Association III heart failure with implanted PAP sensor for haemodynamic telemonitoring from a single centre, four patients (age 66 ± 6 years, left ventricular ejection fraction 21 ± 3%, and cardiac index 1...
June 12, 2018: ESC Heart Failure
Ariel Diaz, Paola Merino, Luis G Manrique, Lihong Cheng, Manuel Yepes
Cerebral ischemia has a harmful effect on the synapse associated with neurological impairment. The "tripartite synapse" is assembled by the pre- and postsynaptic terminals, embraced by astrocytic elongations known as peripheral astrocytic processes (PAPs). Ischemic stroke induces the detachment of PAPs from the synapse, leading to synaptic dysfunction and neuronal death. Ezrin is a membrane-associated protein, required for the formation of PAPs, that links the cell surface to the actin cytoskeleton...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Makoto Nishimori, Tomoyuki Honjo, Kenji Kaihotsu, Naohiko Sone, Sachiko Yoshikawa, Junichi Imanishi, Kazuhiko Nakayama, Noriaki Emoto, Masanori Iwahashi
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare complication of dasatinib that was approved as a first-line therapy for chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML). A 24-year-old man presenting dyspnea at rest and leg edema was admitted to our hospital. He had been diagnosed with CML and prescribed dasatinib for 4 years. Chest X-ray showed significant bilateral pleural effusion and heart enlargement. Echocardiography revealed interventricular septal compression and elevated peak tricuspid regurgitation pressure gradient of 66...
2018: Case Reports in Cardiology
Q Y Zheng, M D Kuang, Y Li, X T Wu, J Y Huang, C T Zhang, H W Liu, W J Lu, J Wang, Y Q Chen
Objective: By evaluating the hemodynamic parameters such as cardiac output (CO), right ventricular pressure (RVP), pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) and total pulmonary resistance index (TPRI) in pulmonary hypertension rat model, we established a more comprehensive hemodynamic evaluation system, which objectively evaluated the severity of disease and exercise tolerance in rats with pulmonary hypertension. Methods: SD rats were randomly divided into a control group and a model group with 5 rats in each group. The model group was intraperitoneally injected with SU5416 (20 mg/kg) and placed in an oxygen chamber at a 10% oxygen concentration for 21 days and then placed in a normoxic environment for 14 days...
June 12, 2018: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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