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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922061/alanine-aminotransferase-and-total-bilirubin-are-synergistically-associated-with-metabolic-syndrome-among-middle-aged-and-elderly-japanese-women
#1
Ryuichi Kawamoto, Daisuke Ninomiya, Kensuke Senzaki, Teru Kumagi
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with an increased risk of major cardiovascular events. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) at high levels and total bilirubin (T-BiL) at low levels were oxidative potentials, but it was uncertain whether ALT and T-BiL had an additive interaction for the risk of MetS. METHODS: From a single community, we recruited 864 women (70 ± 8 years) during their annual health examination. We cross-sectionally investigated whether ALT and T-BiL are associated with MetS and its components based on the modified criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP-ATP) III report...
September 18, 2017: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921996/treatments-for-internet-gaming-disorder-and-internet-addiction-a-systematic-review
#2
Kristyn Zajac, Meredith K Ginley, Rocio Chang, Nancy M Petry
Problems related to excessive use of the Internet and video games have recently captured the interests of both researchers and clinicians. The goals of this review are to summarize the literature on treatment effectiveness for these problems and to determine whether any treatments meet the minimum requirement of an evidence-based treatment as defined by Chambless et al. (1998). Studies of treatments for Internet gaming disorder (IGD) and Internet addiction were examined separately, as past studies have linked IGD to more severe outcomes...
September 18, 2017: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921814/nabilone-pharmacotherapy-for-cannabis-dependence-a-randomized-controlled-pilot-study
#3
Kevin P Hill, Matthew D Palastro, Staci A Gruber, Garrett M Fitzmaurice, Shelly F Greenfield, Scott E Lukas, Roger D Weiss
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We assessed the safety, tolerability, and preliminary efficacy of nabilone, a cannabinoid agonist, to treat cannabis dependence. METHODS: Eighteen adults with DSM-IV cannabis dependence were randomized to receive either 2 mg/day of nabilone (n = 10) or placebo (n = 8) for 10 weeks in addition to medication management. Twelve participants, six in each group, completed treatment. The safety and tolerability of nabilone was assessed at each visit...
September 18, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921780/factors-associated-with-attrition-in-substance-using-patients-enrolled-in-an-intensive-outpatient-program
#4
James Mckowen, Nicholas Carrellas, Courtney Zulauf, Emin Nalan Ward, Ronna Fried, Timothy Wilens
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Data suggest individuals with substance use disorders (SUD) have high rates of attrition from treatment and exhibit impairments on measures of executive functioning (EF). The primary aim of this pilot study was to investigate if EF is associated with attrition from a 1 month intensive outpatient program (IOP) for SUD, and examine the feasibility of implementing the project. METHODS: Baseline neurocognitive functioning was assessed by the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) and the self-reported Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning (BRIEF-A) questionnaire...
September 18, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921760/genome-wide-association-study-of-a-nicotine-metabolism-biomarker-in-african-american-smokers-impact-of-chromosome-19-genetic-influences
#5
Meghan J Chenoweth, Jennifer J Ware, Andy Z X Zhu, Christopher B Cole, Lisa Sanderson Cox, Nikki Nollen, Jasjit S Ahluwalia, Neal L Benowitz, Robert A Schnoll, Larry W Hawk, Paul M Cinciripini, Tony P George, Caryn Lerman, Joanne Knight, Rachel F Tyndale
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The activity of CYP2A6, the major nicotine-inactivating enzyme, is measurable in smokers using the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR; 3'hydroxycotinine/cotinine). Due to its role in nicotine clearance, the NMR is associated with smoking behaviours and response to pharmacotherapies. The NMR is highly heritable (~80%), and on average lower in African Americans (AA) versus Whites. We previously identified several reduce and loss-of-function CYP2A6 variants common in individuals of African descent...
September 16, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921667/polysubstance-use-among-adolescents-in-a-low-income-rural-community-latent-classes-for-middle-and-high-school-students
#6
Roderick A Rose, Caroline B R Evans, Paul R Smokowski, Matthew O Howard, Katie L Stalker
PURPOSE: Rural communities are currently being impacted by a nationwide epidemic of prescription opioid misuse. Rural adolescent substance users may be at substantial risk for later addiction to these and other drugs. METHODS: This study uses Latent Class Analysis to identify subtypes of polysubstance users among a sample of 7,074 rural adolescents. Separate models were estimated for middle- and high-school youth. Predictive validity was estimated using cumulative ordinal logistic regression of the classes on a set of youth and family characteristics...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Rural Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920960/long-noncoding-rna-egfr-as1-mediates-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-addiction-and-modulates-treatment-response-in-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#7
Daniel S W Tan, Fui Teen Chong, Hui Sun Leong, Shen Yon Toh, Dawn P Lau, Xue Lin Kwang, Xiaoqian Zhang, Gopinath M Sundaram, Gek San Tan, Mei Mei Chang, Boon Tin Chua, Wan Teck Lim, Eng Huat Tan, Mei Kim Ang, Tony K H Lim, Prabha Sampath, Balram Chowbay, Anders J Skanderup, Ramanuj DasGupta, N Gopalakrishna Iyer
Targeting EGFR is a validated approach in the treatment of squamous-cell cancers (SCCs), although there are no established biomarkers for predicting response. We have identified a synonymous mutation in EGFR, c.2361G>A (encoding p.Gln787Gln), in two patients with head and neck SCC (HNSCC) who were exceptional responders to gefitinib, and we showed in patient-derived cultures that the A/A genotype was associated with greater sensitivity to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) as compared to the G/A and G/G genotypes...
September 18, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920715/the-mixed-message-behind-medication-assisted-treatment-for-substance-use-disorder
#8
Sean M Robinson, Bryon Adinoff
The gap between treatment utilization and treatment need for substance use disorders (SUDs) remains a significant concern in our field. While the growing call to bridge this gap often takes the form of more treatment services and/or better integration of existing services, this perspective proposes that more effective labels for and transparent descriptions of existing services would also have a meaningful impact. Adopting the perspective of a consumer-based health-care model (wherein treatments and services are products and patients are consumers) allows us to consider how labels like Addiction-focused Medical Management, Medication-Assisted Treatment, Medication-Assisted Therapy, and others may actually be contributing to the underutilization problem rather than alleviating it...
September 18, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920590/incubation-of-accumbal-neuronal-reactivity-to-cocaine-cues-during-abstinence-predicts-individual-vulnerability-to-relapse
#9
Karine Guillem, Serge H Ahmed
An important goal for the treatment of cocaine addiction is to identify neuromarkers that can predict individual vulnerability to relapse after abstinence. There is some evidence that individual reactivity to cue-induced craving may predict subsequent relapse after a period of abstinence. Here we sought to identify the neuronal correlates of this predictive relationship in rats. Rats were trained to self-administer cocaine (6-h) for 16 days to induce escalation of cocaine intake. Then rats underwent a 1-month period of forced abstinence after which they were re-exposed to cocaine self-administration (6-h) for 8 additional days to induce re-escalation of cocaine intake...
September 18, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920521/implementing-evidence-based-smoking-cessation-treatment-in-psychosocial-care-units-caps-in-brazil
#10
João Mauricio Castaldelli-Maia, Nilson R da Silva, Marta Rd Campos, Helena F Moura, Gustavo Zabert, Beatriz M Champagne, Katherine E Kemper, J Taylor Hays
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of smoking among mental health and addiction (MHA) patients is 3 times higher than it is in the general population, yet this patient population has received little help to combat smoking. Considering this, psychosocial care centers (CAPS - Centros de Atenção Psicossocial) are strategic locations for integrating tobacco dependence treatment (TDT) into existing treatment activities. METHODS: Our team provided an 8-hour training package to the staff of CAPS that have not been providing specialized TDT for smokers...
September 1, 2017: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920179/review-of-virtual-reality-treatment-in-psychiatry-evidence-versus-current-diffusion-and-use
#11
REVIEW
Matthew C Mishkind, Aaron M Norr, Andrea C Katz, Greg M Reger
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review provides an overview of the current evidence base for and clinical applications of the use of virtual reality (VR) in psychiatric practice, in context of recent technological developments. RECENT FINDINGS: The use of VR in psychiatric practice shows promise with much of the research demonstrating clinical effectiveness for conditions including post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety and phobias, chronic pain, rehabilitation, and addictions...
September 18, 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919445/cognitive-effects-of-labeled-addictolytic-medications
#12
REVIEW
Camille Noélie Pujol, Cecilia Paasche, Vincent Laprevote, Benoit Trojak, Pierre Vidailhet, Elisabeth Bacon, Laurence Lalanne
INTRODUCTION: Alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drug usage is pervasive throughout the world, and abuse of these substances is a major contributor to the global disease burden. Many pharmacotherapies have been developed over the last 50years to target addictive disorders. While the efficacy of these pharmacotherapies is largely recognized, their cognitive impact is less known. However, all substance abuse disorders are known to promote cognitive disorders like executive dysfunction and memory impairment...
September 14, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918540/a-mixed-method-assessment-of-a-pilot-peer-advocate-intervention-for-rural-gender-and-sexual-minorities
#13
Cathleen E Willging, Audrey Harkness, Tania Israel, David Ley, Patricia S Hokanson, Catherine DeMaria, Aaron Joplin, Verida Smiley
Mental health disparities affect lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) people in rural America. There are few empirically-based mental health interventions for this population. This exploratory study uses a mixed-method approach to assess implementation issues related to the feasibility, acceptability, appropriateness, and preliminary impacts of a novel peer-based intervention designed to enhance support and treatment engagement among rural LGBTQ people with mental distress and/or addiction issues...
September 16, 2017: Community Mental Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918457/effects-of-menthol-and-its-interaction-with-nicotine-conditioned-cue-on-nicotine-seeking-behavior-in-rats
#14
Erin Harrison, Lisa Biswas, Ramachandram Avusula, Meiyu Zhang, Yongzhen Gong, Xiu Liu
RATIONALE: Increasing clinical evidence suggests that menthol, a significant flavoring additive in tobacco products, may contribute to smoking and nicotine dependence. Relapse to smoking behavior presents a formidable challenge for the treatment of tobacco addiction. An unresolved issue is whether the mentholation of tobacco products precipitates relapse to tobacco use in abstinent smokers. OBJECTIVES: The present study examined the effects of menthol on the perseverance and relapse of nicotine-seeking behavior in rats...
September 16, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918267/compulsivity-in-opioid-dependence
#15
Serenella Tolomeo, Keith Matthews, J Douglas Steele, Alex Baldacchino
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between compulsivity versus impulsivity and structural MRI abnormalities in opioid dependence. METHOD: We recruited 146 participants: i) patients with a history of opioid dependence due to chronic heroin use (n=24), ii) heroin users stabilised on methadone maintenance treatment (n=48), iii) abstinent participants with a history of opioid dependence due to heroin use (n=24) and iv) healthy controls (n=50)...
September 13, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918056/the-therapeutic-potential-of-crispr-cas9-systems-in-oncogene-addicted-cancer-types-virally-driven-cancers-as-a-model-system
#16
REVIEW
Luqman Jubair, Nigel A J McMillan
The field of gene editing is undergoing unprecedented growth. The first ex vivo human clinical trial in China started in 2016, more than 1000 US patents have been filed, and there is exponential growth in publications. The ability to edit genes with high fidelity is promising for the development of new treatments for a range of diseases, particularly inherited conditions, infectious diseases, and cancers. For cancer, a major issue is the identification of driver mutations and oncogenes to target for therapeutic effect, and this requires the development of robust models with which to prove their efficacy...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912702/altered-white-matter-integrity-in-smokers-is-associated-with-smoking-cessation-outcomes
#17
Peiyu Huang, Zhujing Shen, Chao Wang, Wei Qian, Huan Zhang, Yihong Yang, Minming Zhang
Smoking is a significant cause of preventable mortality worldwide. Understanding the neural mechanisms of nicotine addiction and smoking cessation may provide effective targets for developing treatment strategies. In the present study, we explored whether smokers have white matter alterations and whether these alterations are related to cessation outcomes and smoking behaviors. Sixty-six smokers and thirty-seven healthy non-smokers were enrolled. The participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging scans and smoking-related behavioral assessments...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910215/substance-misuse-is-associated-with-increased-psychiatric-severity-among-treatment-seeking-individuals-with-borderline-personality-disorder
#18
Laura M Heath, Lise Laporte, Joel Paris, Kevin Hamdullahpur, Kathryn J Gill
Despite high prevalence rates of concurrent borderline personality disorder (BPD) and substance use disorders (SUDs), little is known about the impact of substance misuse on the presentation of BPD. Sixty-five individuals with BPD were assessed at intake and at 3- and 6-month follow-up. Assessment included validated instruments such as the Addiction Severity Index and the Revised Symptom Checklist (SCL-90-R). Over half (58.5%) of individuals entering treatment were currently misusing substances. Substance misuse was associated with more legal and employment problems, greater mood disturbance, impulsivity, and psychiatric severity, including almost all SCL-90-R subscales...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910177/development-and-validation-of-a-brief-measure-of-eating-compulsivity-mec
#19
Ria Schroder, John Douglas Sellman, Simon Adamson
Food addiction is increasingly being recognised as a contributory factor in overweight and obesity. Management of eating compulsivity, a key component of food addiction, may assist greatly in the successful treatment of obesity. Measurement of food addiction and its core characteristic of eating compulsivity is fundamental to increasing understandings of the concept of food addiction, its prevalence among people with and without obesity and its utility within a treatment context. The current study describes the development and initial validation of a brief measure of eating compulsivity that can be used within clinical and research settings to establish a person's level of eating compulsivity...
September 14, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905937/somcl-085-a-novel-multi-targeted-fgfr-inhibitor-displays-potent-anticancer-activity-in-fgfr-addicted-human-cancer-models
#20
Xi-Fei Jiang, Yang Dai, Xia Peng, Yan-Yan Shen, Yi Su, Man-Man Wei, Wei-Ren Liu, Zhen-Bin Ding, Ao Zhang, Ying-Hong Shi, Jing Ai
Aberrant fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) activation is found across a diverse spectrum of malignancies, especially those lacking effective treatments. SOMCL-085 is a novel FGFR-dominant multi-target kinase inhibitor. Here, we explored the FGFR-targeting anticancer activity of SOMCL-085 both in vitro and in vivo. Among a panel of 20 tyrosine kinases screened, SOMCL-085 potently inhibited FGFR1, FGFR2 and FGFR3 kinase activity, with IC50 values of 1.8, 1.9 and 6.9 nmol/L, respectively. This compound simultaneously inhibited the angiogenesis kinases VEGFR and PDGFR, but without obvious inhibitory effect on other 12 tyrosine kinases...
September 14, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
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