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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750312/synthesis-of-2-imino-and-2-hydrazono-thiazolo-4-5-d-pyrimidines-as-corticotropin-releasing-factor-crf-antagonists
#1
Mohamed Teleb, Bhimanna Kuppast, Katerina Spyridaki, George Liapakis, Hesham Fahmy
Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is an important neuropeptide hormone which controls the body's overall response to stress. It plays a crucial role in regulating the behavioral, cardiovascular, immune and gastrointestinal systems. Over-activation of the CRF system has been implicated in many disorders including anxiety, depression, drug addiction, hypertension, Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS), peptic ulcers, inflammation and others. Thus, binding of CRF to its receptors is an attractive target to develop new medications which aim at treating ailments associated with chronic stress...
July 18, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749523/questionnaire-of-core-beliefs-related-to-drug-use-and-craving-for-assessment-of-relapse-risk
#2
José Miguel Martínez-González, Raquel Vilar López, Oscar Lozano-Rojas, Antonio Verdejo-García
This study was aimed at designing a questionnaire for the assessment of addiction-related core beliefs and craving. The sample comprised 215 patients (85.8% males and 14.2% females) in treatment for dependence to alcohol (40%), cocaine (36.3%) and cannabis (23.7%). Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the sample. Variance, regression and factorial analyses were conducted to study the questionnaire structure and its relation with variables such as abstinence and craving. Items about drug-related beliefs yielded a four-factor structure: what patient think that they could not do without drug use, lack of withdrawal, conditions required to use drugs again, and use of drugs as the only way to feel good...
July 12, 2017: Adicciones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747817/conducting-systematic-outcome-assessment-in-private-addictions-treatment-settings
#3
Gerard J Connors, Stephen A Maisto, Clare E Campbell, Brenda To, David Sack
Systematic outcome assessment is central to ascertaining the impact of treatment services and to informing future treatment initiatives. This project was designed to be conducted within the clinical operations of 4 private addictions treatment centers. A structured interview was used to assess patients' alcohol and other drug use and related variables (on treatment entry and at 1, 3, and 6 months following treatment discharge). The primary outcomes were percentage of days abstinent (PDA) from alcohol and drugs, PDA from alcohol, and PDA from other drugs...
2017: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747521/a-novel-18-f-labeled-kappa-opioid-receptor-antagonist-as-pet-radiotracer-synthesis-and-in-vivo-evaluation-of-18-f-ly2459989-in-non-human-primates
#4
Songye Li, Zhengxin Cai, Ming-Qiang Zheng, Daniel Holden, Mika Naganawa, Shu-Fei Lin, Jim Ropchan, David Labaree, Michael Kapinos, Teresa Lara-Jaime, Antonio Navarro, Yiyun Huang
The kappa opioid receptor (KOR) is implicated in depression, addictions, and other central nervous system (CNS) disorders and thus an important target for drug development. We have previously developed a number of (11)C-labeled PET radiotracers for KOR imaging in humans. Here we report the synthesis and evaluation of (18)F-LY2459989 as the first (18)F-labeled KOR antagonist radiotracer in non-human primates and its comparison with (11)C-LY2459989. Methods: The novel radioligand (18)F-LY2459989 was synthesized by (18)F-displacement of a nitro group or an iodonium ylide...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746733/mothers-with-substance-addictions-show-reduced-reward-responses-when-viewing-their-own-infant-s-face
#5
Sohye Kim, Udita Iyengar, Linda C Mayes, Marc N Potenza, Helena J V Rutherford, Lane Strathearn
Maternal addiction constitutes a major public health problem affecting children, with high rates of abuse, neglect, and foster care placement. However, little is known about the ways in which substance addiction alters brain function related to maternal behavior. Prior studies have shown that infant face cues activate similar dopamine-associated brain reward regions to substances of abuse. Here, we report on a functional MRI study documenting that mothers with addictions demonstrate reduced activation of reward regions when shown reward-related cues of their own infants...
July 26, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745668/-an-interim-analysis-of-the-results-of-treatment-program-implementation-with-the-use-of-injectable-extended-release-naltrexone-for-opioid-addicted-patients
#6
T V Agibalova, O V Nedobylskiy, K N Poplevchenkov, I I Sirotko, A V Shcherban, S A Tsarev
AIM: To analyze outcomes of treatment in the 'Point of soberness' program for opioid addicted patients (2015-2016 гг.). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The results of treatment of 83 opioid addicted patients were analyzed. Seventy-four (89.16%) patients received treatment course of injections of extended-release naltrexone (from 4 to 6 injections), maintaining their participation in the outpatient medical rehabilitation program. Thirty-six (43.37%) patients completed a full course of injections of extended-release naltrexone...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743602/menthol-disrupts-nicotine-s-psychostimulant-properties-in-an-age-and-sex-dependent-manner-in-c57bl-6j-mice
#7
Benjamin W Fait, David Thompson, Tenna Mose, Peter Jatlow, Sven Jordt, Marina R Picciotto, Yann S Mineur
Menthol is a commonly used flavorant in tobacco and e-cigarettes, and could contribute to nicotine sensitivity. To understand how menthol could contribute to nicotine intake and addiction, it is important to determine whether specific mechanisms related to sex and age could underlie behavioral changes induced by menthol-laced nicotinic products. Using a validated paradigm of nicotine-dependent locomotor stimulation, adolescent and adult C57BL/6J mice of both sexes were exposed to nicotine, or nicotine laced with menthol, as their sole source of fluid, and psychostimulant effects were evaluated by recording home cage locomotor activity for ten days...
July 22, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742932/a-pilot-randomized-clinical-trial-testing-integrated-twelve-step-facilitation-itsf-treatment-for-adolescent-substance-use-disorder
#8
John F Kelly, Yifrah Kaminer, Christopher W Kahler, Bettina Hoeppner, Julie Yeterian, Julie V Cristello, Christine Timko
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Integration of 12-step philosophy and practices is common in adolescent substance use disorder (SUD) treatment programs, particularly in North America. However, although numerous experimental studies have tested 12-step facilitation (TSF) treatments among adults, no studies have tested TSF-specific treatments for adolescents. We tested the efficacy of a novel integrated TSF. DESIGN: Explanatory, parallel-group, randomized clinical trial comparing 10 sessions of either motivational enhancement therapy/cognitive-behavioral therapy (MET/CBT; n=30) or a novel integrated TSF (iTSF; n=29) with follow-up assessments at 3-, 6-, and 9-months following treatment entry...
July 25, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741741/addiction-related-interactions-of-pregabalin-with-morphine-in-mice-and-humans-reinforcing-and-inhibiting-effects
#9
Elena Vashchinkina, Ossi Piippo, Olga Vekovischeva, Evgeny Krupitsky, Ruslan Ilyuk, Nikholay Neznanov, Kirill Kazankov, Igor Zaplatkin, Esa R Korpi
The gabapentinoid pregabalin is a rapid-acting anxiolytic and analgesic, possibly suitable in supervised opioid detoxification. However, clinicians have been cautious in using it because of its unknown addictive risk and rising number of mortalities after pregabalin self-medication in opioid abusers. Here, we studied interactions of pregabalin and morphine on reward functions of the dopamine system in mice and the efficacy of pregabalin on withdrawal in opioid addicts. After the treatment of mice with pregabalin and morphine, we used electrophysiology to study neuroplasticity in midbrain slices, self-administration and conditioned place preference tests to investigate the rewarding potential of pregabalin and naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal to evaluate opioid withdrawal symptoms...
July 25, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741627/chronic-exposure-to-methamphetamine-disrupts-reinforcement-based-decision-making-in-rats
#10
Stephanie M Groman, Katherine M Rich, Nathaniel J Smith, Daeyeol Lee, Jane R Taylor
The persistent use of psychostimulant drugs, despite the detrimental outcomes associated with continued drug use, may be due to disruptions in reinforcement-learning processes that enable behavior to remain flexible and goal-directed in dynamic environments. To identify the reinforcement-learning processes that are affected by chronic exposure to the psychostimulant methamphetamine (MA), the current study sought to use computational and biochemical analyses to characterize decision-making processes, assessed by probabilistic reversal learning, in rats before and after they were exposed to an escalating dose regimen of MA (or saline control)...
July 25, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737225/psychostimulant-effect-of-dopaminergic-treatment-and-addictions-in-parkinson-s-disease
#11
Benoit Delpont, Eugénie Lhommée, Hélène Klinger, Emmanuelle Schmitt, Amélie Bichon, Valérie Fraix, Anna Castrioto, Jean-Louis Quesada, Pierre Pélissier, Andrea Kistner, Sébastien Carnicella, Christian Lüscher, Emmanuel Broussolle, Pierre Pollak, Stéphane Thobois, Paul Krack
BACKGROUND: Dopamine replacement therapy in PD has been associated with both behavioral addictions and dopamine addiction. OBJECTIVES: To investigate potential association between l-dopa induced neuropsychiatric fluctuations and addictions in PD. METHODS: A cohort of 102 patients with PD suffering from motor complications of l-dopa treatment was prospectively analyzed. We evaluated dopamine addiction, behavioral addictions, and neuropsychiatric fluctuations using the Ardouin scale of behavior in PD...
July 24, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736069/differences-between-cravings-and-health-related-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-alcohol-dependence-with-or-without-dual-pathology-in-outpatient-treatment-a-descriptive-study
#12
María Robles-Martínez, Miguel Ángel García-Carretero, Juan Gibert, Raúl Felipe Palma-Álvarez, Alfonso Carlos Abad, Marta Sorribes, Carlos Roncero
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Dual diagnosis is the coexistence of an addictive disorder and another mental disorder. The objective is to estimate cravings and self-reported quality of life in a sample of patients with alcoholic dependence, with or without dual pathology, who attend an outpatient treatment centre. PATIENTS AND METHOD: A cross-sectional study of 112 patients (56 dual and 56 non-dual), diagnosed with alcohol dependence according to DSM-IV-TR. The presence of cravings is determined by the Multidimensional Alcohol Craving Scale and quality of life through the SF-36 Health Questionnaire...
July 20, 2017: Medicina Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735078/revisiting-the-role-of-the-insula-and-smoking-cue-reactivity-in-relapse-a-replication-and-extension-of-neuroimaging-findings
#13
A C Janes, J M Gilman, M Radoman, G Pachas, M Fava, A E Evins
INTRODUCTION: The ability to direct smoking cessation treatment based on neuroscientific findings holds incredible promise. However, there is a strong need for consistency across studies to confirm neurobiological targets. While our prior work implicated enhanced insula reactivity to smoking cues in tobacco smoking relapse vulnerability, this finding has not been confirmed. METHOD: Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we evaluated the pre-cessation brain reactivity to smoking vs...
July 12, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734766/trpv1-modulates-morphine-induced-conditioned-place-preference-via-p38-mapk-in-the-nucleus-accumbens
#14
Sa-Ik Hong, Thi-Lien Nguyen, Shi-Xun Ma, Hyoung-Chun Kim, Seok-Yong Lee, Choon-Gon Jang
Emerging evidence suggests that the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 channel (TRPV1) is a novel target for the treatment of drug addiction, such as cocaine and morphine. Previously we reported that TRPV1 inhibition reduced morphine reward in the dorsal striatum (DSt) of mice and morphine self-administration through a decrease in accumbal activity in rats. However, the role of TRPV1 on morphine-conditioned reward in addiction-related brain regions, such as the nucleus accumbens (NAc), has not been previously established...
July 19, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734637/-asthma-and-heroin-use
#15
Michel Underner, Jean Perriot, Gérard Peiffer, Nematollah Jaafari
INTRODUCTION: Heroin use can be responsible for many respiratory complications including asthma. OBJECTIVES: Systematic literature review of data on asthma in heroin users. DOCUMENTARY SOURCES: Medline(®), on the period 1980-2017 with the following keywords: keywords: "asthma" or "bronchospasm" and "heroin" or "opiate" or "opiates", limits "title/abstract"; the selected languages were English or French. Among 97 articles, 67 abstracts have given use to a dual reading to select 23 studies...
July 19, 2017: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733811/pharmacological-evidence-that-5-ht2c-receptor-blockade-selectively-improves-decision-making-when-rewards-are-paired-with-audiovisual-cues-in-a-rat-gambling-task
#16
Wendy K Adams, Chris Barkus, Jacqueline-Marie N Ferland, Trevor Sharp, Catharine A Winstanley
RATIONALE: Adding reward-concurrent cues to a rat gambling task (rGT) increases risky choice. This cued version of the task may reflect an "addiction-like" cognitive process, more similar to human gambling than the uncued task. Serotonergic drugs that target 5-HT2 receptors alter mechanisms linked to impulse control. However, relatively little is known regarding the impact of such agents on either risky decision making, or the ability of conditioned stimuli to bias the choice process, despite potential relevance to addiction development and treatment...
July 21, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733097/injectable-naltrexone-oral-naltrexone-and-buprenorphine-utilization-and-discontinuation-among-individuals-treated-for-opioid-use-disorder-in-a-united-states-commercially-insured-population
#17
Jake R Morgan, Bruce R Schackman, Jared A Leff, Benjamin P Linas, Alexander Y Walley
We investigated prescribing patterns for five opioid use disorder (OUD) medications: 1) injectable naltrexone, 2) oral naltrexone, 3) sublingual or oralmucosal buprenorphine/naloxone, 4) sublingual buprenorphine, and 5) transdermal buprenorphine in a nationally representative claims-based database (Truven Health MarketScan®) of commercially insured individuals in the United States. We calculated the prevalence of OUD in the database for each year from 2010 to 2014 and the proportion of diagnosed patient months on OUD medication...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732503/opium-trade-and-the-spread-of-hiv-in-the-golden-crescent
#18
REVIEW
Syeda Ayesha Farooq, Mohammad Hafiz Rasooly, Syed Hani Abidi, Kayvon Modjarrad, Syed Ali
The Golden Crescent region of South Asia-comprising Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan-is a principal global site for opium production and distribution. Over the past few decades, war, terrorism, and a shifting political landscape have facilitated an active heroin trade throughout the region. Protracted conflict has exacerbated already dire socio-economic conditions and political strife within the region and contributed to a consequent rise in opiate trafficking and addiction among the region's inhabitants. The worsening epidemic of injection drug use has paralleled the rising incidence of HIV and other blood-borne infections in the region and drawn attention to the broader implications of the growing opiate trade in the Golden Crescent...
July 21, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732367/significantly-more-intense-pain-in-methadone-maintained-patients-who-are-addicted-to-nicotine
#19
Lian-Zhong Liu, Lin-Xiang Tan, Yan-Min Xu, Xue-Bing Liu, Wen-Cai Chen, Jun-Hong Zhu, Jin Lu, Bao-Liang Zhong
Pain and cigarette smoking are very common in heroin-dependent patients (HDPs) receiving methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) and both have substantial negative effects on HDPs' physical and mental health. Nevertheless, very few studies have assessed the relationship between the two in HDPs. This study examined the association between pain intensity and smoking in Chinese methadone-maintained HDPs. A total of 603 HDPs were consecutively recruited from three MMT clinics in Wuhan, China, and administered with a socio-demographic and drug use questionnaire, a smoking questionnaire concerning average number of cigarettes smoked daily and Heaviness of Smoking Index, and Zung's Self-rating Depression Scale...
July 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731367/methamphetamine-causes-photoreceptor-cell-damage-through-promoting-polarization-of-macrophages-and-inducing-inflammatory-response
#20
Aihui Zhang, Laiwei Wu, Zilin Chen, Guoqiang Huang, Xiaohe Lu
Classically activated macrophages (M1) are proinflammatory effectors and closely related to the progression of neurotoxicity. As a powerful psychostimulant and addictive drug, methamphetamine (Meth) abuse could result in long-lasting abnormalities in retina. This study investigated the effect of Meth at nontoxic concentration on macrophage activation state and its resultant toxicity to photoreceptor cells. Results showed that cytotoxicity was caused by Meth on 661 W cells after coculturing with RAW264.7 macrophage...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Toxicology
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