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Lu Cao, Mingui Fu, Santosh Kumar, Anil Kumar
Methamphetamine (METH), a commonly used controlled substance, is known to exacerbate neuropathological dysfunction in HIV-infected individuals. The neuropathological manifestation results from cell death or dysfunction in the central nervous system (CNS) wherein autophagy is expected to have an important role. Autophagy is generally considered protective during deprivation/stress. However, excessive autophagy can be destructive, leading to autophagic cell death. This study was designed to investigate if METH and HIV-1 gp120 interact to induce autophagy in SVGA astrocytes, and whether autophagy is epiphenomenal or it has a role in METH- and gp120-induced cytotoxicity...
October 20, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
Roman Gabrhelík, Blanka Nechanská, Viktor Mravčík, Svetlana Skurtveit, Ingunn Olea Lund, Marte Handal
Licit and illicit drug use in pregnant women constitutes a long lasting and serious problem worldwide. Information on long-term effects of maternal drug use on the child is limited. Nationwide registers provide a great potential to study short and long-term consequences for children exposed to licit and illicit drugs during pregnancy. We discuss this potential, with a special emphasis on exposure to methamphetamine, heroin and prescription drugs used for opioid maintenance treatment (OMT). We also discuss the advantages of register data and of merging such data from different regions...
September 2016: Central European Journal of Public Health
Craig Cumming, Lakkhina Troeung, Jesse T Young, Erin Kelty, David B Preen
BACKGROUND: Methamphetamine use is associated with a range of poor health, social and justice outcomes. In many parts of the world increased methamphetamine use has been identified as a major public health concern. Methamphetamine treatment programmes have been effective in reducing and ceasing use, however a range of barriers have prevented these programmes being widely adopted by methamphetamine users. This review examines the barriers to accessing meth/amphetamine treatment identified in the literature...
October 6, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Oliver Rawashdeh, Shannon J Clough, Randall L Hudson, Margarita L Dubocovich
The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)-often referred to as the master circadian clock-is essential in generating physiologic rhythms and orchestrating synchrony among circadian clocks. This study tested the hypothesis that periodic motivation induced by rhythmically pairing 2 reinforcing stimuli [methamphetamine (METH) and running wheel (RW)] restores autonomous circadian activity in arrhythmic SCN-lesioned (SCNX) C3H/HeN mice. Sham-operated and SCNX mice were treated with either METH (1.2 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle in association, dissociation, or absence of an RW...
October 12, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Sarah MacLean, Ross Hengsen, Raelene Stephens
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: This article identifies factors that participants in a study based in an Australian regional centre believed to be critical to understanding and responding to crystal methamphetamine (ice) use among Aboriginal people. DESIGN AND METHODS: The study entailed a participatory methodology involving a university and an Aboriginal community controlled organisation. Semi-structured interviews conducted with ice users (n = 14), family members (n = 6) and workers (n = 6) were analysed thematically...
October 11, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Review
Martha K Berg, Andréa L Hobkirk, John A Joska, Christina S Meade
Objective: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a critical global health issue associated with poor psychosocial outcomes. Individuals with CSA histories are at risk for drug use, which is a growing problem in the Western Cape of South Africa. The present study of methamphetamine users in this region examined whether substance use coping, a contextually relevant type of avoidance-based coping, mediates the relation between CSA and depressive symptoms. Method: Participants included 161 men and 108 women seeking treatment for methamphetamine use...
October 6, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Liu Liu, Suh Chen Hsiao, Charles Kaplan
This study explored drug initiation among 46 Chinese women in a compulsory drug treatment institution. The study adopted a mixed method with a strong emphasis on qualitative techniques to capture the perspectives of women in long-term treatment regarding their drug initiation experiences. A complementary analysis of quantitative data was used to help interpret, refine, deepen, and extend qualitative findings. Participants were divided into two groups according to their main drug of choice: 27 used methamphetamines and 19 used heroin (11 of them used methamphetamines occasionally)...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Yusuf S Althobaiti, Atiah H Almalki, Sujan C Das, Fahad S Alshehri, Youssef Sari
Repeated exposure to high doses of methamphetamine (METH) is known to alter several neurotransmitters in certain brain regions. Little is known about the effects of ceftriaxone (CEF), a β-lactam antibiotic, known to upregulate glutamate transporter subtype 1, post-treatment on METH-induced depletion of dopamine and serotonin (5-HT) tissue content in brain reward regions. Moreover, the effects of METH and CEF post-treatment on glutamate and glutamine tissue content are not well understood. In this study, Wistar rats were used to investigate the effects of METH and CEF post-treatment on tissue content of dopamine/5-HT and glutamate/glutamine in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and prefrontal cortex (PFC)...
October 1, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Erika Pike, William W Stoops, Craig R Rush
There is not an approved pharmacotherapy for treating methamphetamine use disorder. This study sought to determine the effects of acute buspirone treatment on the subjective and cardiovascular effects of oral methamphetamine in order to provide an initial assessment of the utility, safety, and tolerability of buspirone for managing methamphetamine use disorder. We predicted that acute buspirone administration would reduce the subjective effects of methamphetamine. We also predicted that the combination of buspirone and methamphetamine would be safe and well tolerated...
September 30, 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Diane Warden, Katherine Sanchez, Tracy Greer, Thomas Carmody, Robrina Walker, Adriane Dela Cruz, Marisa Toups, Chad Rethorst, Madhukar H Trivedi
This study aimed to determine if current comorbid psychiatric disorders differ in adults with cocaine use disorder, other stimulant (primarily methamphetamine) use disorder, or both, and identify demographic and clinical characteristics in those with increasing numbers of comorbid disorders. Baseline data from a randomized controlled trial beginning in residential settings (N=302) was used. Mood disorders were present in 33.6%, and anxiety disorders in 29.6%, with no differences among stimulant use disorder groups...
September 15, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Minseon Park, Harry Levine, Michal Toborek
While no effective therapy is available for the treatment of methamphetamine (METH)-induced neurotoxicity, aerobic exercise is being proposed to improve depressive symptoms and substance abuse outcomes. The present study focuses on the effect of exercise on METH-induced aberrant neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus in the context of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) pathology. Mice were administered with METH or saline by i.p. injections for 5 days with an escalating dose regimen. One set of mice was sacrificed 24 h post last injection of METH, and the remaining animals were either subjected to voluntary wheel running (exercised mice) or remained in sedentary housing (sedentary mice)...
September 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
Xavier Castells, Ruth Cunill, Clara Pérez-Mañá, Xavier Vidal, Dolors Capellà
BACKGROUND: Cocaine dependence is a severe disorder for which no medication has been approved. Like opioids for heroin dependence, replacement therapy with psychostimulants could be an effective therapy for treatment. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of psychostimulants for cocaine abuse and dependence. Specific outcomes include sustained cocaine abstinence and retention in treatment. We also studied the influence of type of drug and comorbid disorders on psychostimulant efficacy...
September 27, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Miriam Boeri, Megan Gardner, Erin Gerken, Melissa Ross, Jack Wheeler
PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to understand how people with problematic drug use access positive social capital. Social capital is defined as relations that provide valuable resources to individuals through participation in social networks. People with low socioeconomic status remain at a disadvantage for acquiring positive social capital, a component of recovery capital. The concept of social recovery emphasises the relational processes of recovery. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: In-depth life history data were collected from 29 individuals who used heroin, cocaine, crack, or methamphetamine for at least five years, have less than a high school education, and unstable employment and housing...
2016: Drugs Alcohol Today
Teerayuth Rungnirundorn, Viroj Verachai, Joel Gelernter, Robert T Malison, Rasmon Kalayasiri
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Males and females who use methamphetamine (MA) differ in sociodemographics, MA diagnoses, comorbidities, and brain activity. The objective of this study was to investigate sex differences in the characteristics of MA use and dependence in patients at a Thai substance treatment center. METHODS: Demographic, MA use, and diagnostic data for 782 MA users were obtained by using the Semi-Structured Assessment for Drug Dependence and Alcoholism-Thai version...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Jun Zhao, Jianuo Liu, Enquan Xu, Yunlin Liu, Anmu Xie, Huangui Xiong
AIMS: Methamphetamine (Meth) abuse causes neural injury in the brain. There are no efficacious therapies available to treat Meth-induce neural injury. The present study intended to test the therapeutic potential of DL-3-n-Butylphthalide (NBP), a chemical compound extracted originally from the seeds of Chinese Celery, in the amelioration and prevention of Meth-induced neural injury. MAIN METHODS: Experiments were carried out on SH-SY5Y cells. Neuronal injury and apoptotic cell death were detected by MTT assay and analysis of nuclear morphology...
September 15, 2016: Life Sciences
Natalie R Sealover, Bruce Felts, Charles P Kuntz, Rachel E Jarrard, Gregory H Hockerman, Eric L Barker, L Keith Henry
The substituted amphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy), is a widely used drug of abuse that induces non-exocytotic release of serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine through their cognate transporters as well as blocking the reuptake of neurotransmitter by the same transporters. The resulting dramatic increase in volume transmission and signal duration of neurotransmitters leads to psychotropic, stimulant, and entactogenic effects. The mechanism by which amphetamines drive reverse transport of the monoamines remains largely enigmatic, however, promising outcomes for the therapeutic utility of MDMA for post-traumatic stress disorder and the long-time use of the dopaminergic and noradrenergic-directed amphetamines in treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and narcolepsy increases the importance of understanding this phenomenon...
September 13, 2016: Biochemical Pharmacology
S J Brooks, K H Burch, S A Maiorana, E Cocolas, H B Schioth, E K Nilsson, K Kamaloodien, D J Stein
BACKGROUND: Protracted methamphetamine (MA) use is associated with decreased control over drug craving and altered brain volume in the frontostriatal network. However, the nature of volumetric changes following a course of psychological intervention for MA use is not yet known. METHODS: 66 males (41 MA patients, 25 healthy controls, HC) between the ages of 18-50 were recruited, the MA patients from new admissions to an in-patient drug rehabilitation centre and the HC via public advertisement, both in Cape Town, South Africa...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
Emily E Reichard, Nisha Nanaware-Kharade, Guillermo A Gonzalez, Shraddha Thakkar, S Michael Owens, Eric C Peterson
PURPOSE: Methamphetamine (METH) abuse is a worldwide drug problem, yet no FDA-approved pharmacological treatments are available for METH abuse. Therefore, we produced an anti-METH single chain antibody fragment (scFv7F9Cys) as a pharmacological treatment for METH abuse. ScFv's have a short half-life due to their small size, limiting their clinical use. Thus, we examined the pharmacokinetic effects of conjugating poly(ethylene) glycol (-PEG) to scFv7F9Cys to extend its functional half-life...
September 12, 2016: Pharmaceutical Research
Morteza Danaee-Far, Masoomeh Maarefvand, Hassan Rafiey
UNLABELLED: Methamphetamine, a highly addictive psychostimulant drug, is widely used by substance users who are not motivated to undergo treatment throughout the world, including Iran. This research was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a brief home-based social work motivational intervention (HSWMI) to encourage male methamphetamine users to participate in a treatment program. METHOD: Fifty-six unmotivated male methamphetamine users participated in a randomized controlled trial...
December 5, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Kevin P Jensen
Substance use disorders (SUD) are a major contributor to disability and disease burden worldwide. Risk for developing SUDs is influenced by variation in the genome. Identifying the genetic variants that influence SUD risk may help us to understand the biological mechanisms for the disorders and improve treatments. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been successful in identifying many regions of the genome associated with common human disorders. Here, findings from recent GWAS of SUDs that involve illicit substances will be reviewed...
May 2016: Molecular Neuropsychiatry
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