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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471572/-cardiovascular-medication-in-elderly-patients
#1
Robert H G Schwinger
Elderly people show increased probability to develop atherosclerotic diseases; in consequence heart failure - most often following coronary heart disease - as well as atrial fibrillation is more common. Following guidelines may lead to polypharmacy, i. e. use of more than 5 drugs daily. Thus, drug interactions as well as side effects become more likely; especially in elderly patients reduced kidney function has to be taken into account. Only drugs which have shown to prolong life or to reduce symptoms in controlled clinical trials should be used...
February 2018: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470495/reproducibility-of-preclinical-animal-research-improves-with-heterogeneity-of-study-samples
#2
Bernhard Voelkl, Lucile Vogt, Emily S Sena, Hanno Würbel
Single-laboratory studies conducted under highly standardized conditions are the gold standard in preclinical animal research. Using simulations based on 440 preclinical studies across 13 different interventions in animal models of stroke, myocardial infarction, and breast cancer, we compared the accuracy of effect size estimates between single-laboratory and multi-laboratory study designs. Single-laboratory studies generally failed to predict effect size accurately, and larger sample sizes rendered effect size estimates even less accurate...
February 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470366/impact-of-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibition-on-platelet-tissue-factor-expression-in-stroke-prone-rats
#3
Marta Brambilla, Paolo Gelosa, Laura Rossetti, Laura Castiglioni, Chiara Zara, Paola Canzano, Elena Tremoli, Luigi Sironi, Marina Camera
OBJECTIVE: Hypertension is a well known risk factor for thrombotic events such as myocardial infarction and stroke. Platelets express tissue factor (TF), the key activator of blood coagulation and thrombus formation. The number of TF-positive platelets increases in pathological conditions characterized by thrombotic complications but whether this occurs in hypertension is unknown. Here we investigated whether platelet TF expression is increased in a hypertensive status through a mechanism acting on megakaryocytes; the phenomenon could be modulated by antihypertensive drug as captopril; angiotensin (AngII) influences platelet TF expression...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468958/impact-of-pre-procedural-cerebrovascular-events-on-clinical-outcomes-after-transcatheter-aortic-valve-implantation-in-patients-with-severe-aortic-stenosis
#4
Agata Wiktorowicz, Pawel Kleczynski, Artur Dziewierz, Tomasz Tokarek, Danuta Sorysz, Maciej Bagienski, Lukasz Rzeszutko, Dariusz Dudek
BACKGROUND: Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is an increasingly common treatment of symptomatic severe aortic valve stenosis (AS). Thus, it is reasonable to carefully investigate the impact of individual clinical factors on outcomes after TAVI. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the impact of the previous cerebro-vascular events (CVEs) on outcomes of patients with severe AS undergoing TAVI. METHODS: A total of 148 consecutive patients scheduled for TAVI were included and stratified as with and without a history of CVEs (stroke or transient ischemic attack)...
February 19, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468730/comparison-of-three-treatment-strategies-for-patients-with-triple-vessel-coronary-disease-and-left-ventricular-dysfunction
#5
Lin Jiang, Lianjun Xu, Lei Song, Zhan Gao, Jian Tian, Kai Sun, Hongwei Yu, Bo Xu, Lei Song, Jinqing Yuan
INTRODUCTION: Current guidelines recommend coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) for patients with multivessel coronary disease and left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. However, some patients undergo percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or solely medical therapy (MT) in actual practice. The comparison of long-term outcomes of these three treatment strategies in real world is unclear. METHODS: A total of 699 consecutive patients in a single centre from 2004 to 2011 who had TVD and LV ejection fraction ≤40%, no prior PCI or CABG and had completed a median 6...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Interventional Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468706/comparative-cardiovascular-safety-of-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-in-patients-with-hypertension-a-population-based-cohort-study
#6
Yaa-Hui Dong, Chia-Hsuin Chang, Li-Chiu Wu, Jing-Shiang Hwang, Sengwee Toh
AIMS: Prior studies have suggested that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may be associated with higher cardiovascular risks. Few were active-comparison studies that directly assessed potential differential cardiovascular risk between NSAID classes or across individual NSAIDs. We compared the risk of major cardiovascular events between cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme (COX-2) selective NSAIDs and nonselective NSAIDs in patients with hypertension. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study of patients with hypertension who initiated COX-2 selective NSAIDs or nonselective NSAIDs in a population-based Taiwanese database...
February 22, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468596/an-in-vitro-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-model-for-studying-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-of-neuronal-cells
#7
Myoung-Gwi Ryou, Robert T Mallet
Ischemia-reperfusion syndromes of the heart and brain are the leading cause of death and long-term disability worldwide. Development of effective treatments for myocardial infarction, stroke, cardiac arrest and their sequelae requires preclinical models that replicate specific features of ischemia-reperfusion. The complexities of intact animals, including the integrated function of organ systems, autonomic innervation and endocrine factors, often preclude detailed study of specific components of ischemia-reperfusion injury cascades...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467545/vulnerable-atherosclerotic-plaque-review-of-current-concepts-and-advanced-imaging
#8
Miloslav Spacek, David Zemanek, Martin Hutyra, Martin Sluka, Milos Taborsky
Atherosclerosis is the most common cause of both carotid and coronary steno-occlusive disease. Rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque may lead to the formation of an overlying thrombosis resulting in complete arterial occlusion or downstream embolism. Clinically, this may manifest as a stroke or acute myocardial infarction, the overall leading causes of mortality and disability in developed countries. In this article, we summarize current concepts of the development of vulnerable plaque and provide an overview of commonly used imaging methods that may suggest/indicate atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability...
February 21, 2018: Biomedical Papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacký, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467072/social-gradients-in-myocardial-infarction-and-stroke-diagnoses-in-emergency-medicine
#9
Christoph Hanefeld, Alexander Haschemi, Thomas Lampert, Hans J Trampisch, Andreas Mügge, Janine Miebach, Cordula Kloppe, Renate Klaaßen-Mielke
BACKGROUND: Persons of lower socio-economic status are at higher risk of disease, especially with respect to severe and chronic illnesses. To date, there have not been any studies with large case numbers regarding acute medical emergencies in this population. METHODS: In a retrospective study, data were obtained on all cases treated by emergency physicians in Bochum, Germany, in 2014/2015, including the diagnoses that were made by the emergency physicians. There were a total of 16 767 cases...
January 26, 2018: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466210/-elevated-level-of-the-natriuretic-peptide-among-adult-population-in-regions-participating-in-the-esse-rf-study-and-its-association-with-cardiovascular-diseases-and-risk-factors
#10
S A Shalnova, A E Imaeva, A D Deev, V A Metelskaya, G A Muromtseva, A O Konradi, V P Masenko, A Y Efanov, N V Kulakova, O P Rotar, I A Trubacheva, A A Shabunova, E V SHlyakhto, S A Boytsov
AIM: to study associations between elevated blood plasma concentration of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), risk factors and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in samples of adult population of Russian Federation (RF) aged 25-64 years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed data of examination of representative samples of population of 5 regions of RF obtained within the framework of the multicenter ESSE-RF study (2012-2013). Number of examined subjects was 8 077 (3 176 men)...
December 2017: Kardiologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465628/long-term-clinical-and-computed-tomography-angiographic-follow-up-after-totally-endoscopic-coronary-artery-bypass-grafting
#11
Lukas Stastny, Markus Kofler, Julia Dumfarth, Alim Basaran, Dominik Wiedemann, Thomas Schachner, Gudrun Feuchtner, Johannes Bonatti, Nikolaos Bonaros
OBJECTIVE: Totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass grafting was shown to be feasible and safe, with excellent clinical and angiographic mid-term results. Data on long-term outcome are lacking. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the long-term rate of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events and left internal mammary artery patency rate in patients undergoing arrested heart totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass grafting. METHODS: From 2001 to 2012, a total of 208 arrested heart-totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass grafting patients were prospectively included...
February 21, 2018: Innovations: Technology and Techniques in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464356/weighing-the-anti-ischemic-benefits-and-bleeding-risks-from-aspirin-therapy-a-rational-approach
#12
REVIEW
Sagar Dugani, Jeffrey M Ames, JoAnn E Manson, Samia Mora
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The role of aspirin in secondary cardiovascular prevention is well understood; however, the role in primary prevention is less clear, and requires careful balancing of potential benefits with risks. Here, we summarize the evidence base on the benefits and risks of aspirin therapy, discuss clinical practice guidelines and decision support tools to assist in initiating aspirin therapy, and highlight ongoing trials that may clarify the role of aspirin in cardiovascular disease prevention...
February 21, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463714/carbon-monoxide-protects-the-kidney-through-the-central-circadian-clock-and-cd39
#13
Matheus Correa-Costa, David Gallo, Eva Csizmadia, Edward Gomperts, Judith-Lisa Lieberum, Carl J Hauser, Xingyue Ji, Binghe Wang, Niels Olsen Saraiva Câmara, Simon C Robson, Leo E Otterbein
Ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) is the predominant tissue insult associated with organ transplantation. Treatment with carbon monoxide (CO) modulates the innate immune response associated with IRI and accelerates tissue recovery. The mechanism has been primarily descriptive and ascribed to the ability of CO to influence inflammation, cell death, and repair. In a model of bilateral kidney IRI in mice, we elucidate an intricate relationship between CO and purinergic signaling involving increased CD39 ectonucleotidase expression, decreased expression of Adora1, with concomitant increased expression of Adora2a/2b...
February 20, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463150/a-noninferiority-confirmatory-trial-of-prasugrel-versus-clopidogrel-in-japanese-patients-with-non-cardioembolic-stroke-rationale-and-study-design-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial-prastro-i-trial
#14
Takehiko Nagao, Kazunori Toyoda, Kazuo Kitagawa, Takanari Kitazono, Hiroshi Yamagami, Shinichiro Uchiyama, Norio Tanahashi, Masayasu Matsumoto, Kazuo Minematsu, Izumi Nagata, Masakatsu Nishikawa, Shinsuke Nanto, Kenji Abe, Yasuo Ikeda, Akira Ogawa
BACKGROUND: This comparison of PRAsugrel and clopidogrel in Japanese patients with ischemic STROke (PRASTRO)-I trial investigates the noninferiority of prasugrel to clopidogrel sulfate in the prevention of recurrence of primary events (ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, and death from other vascular causes), and the long-term safety of prasugrel in Japanese patients with non-cardioembolic stroke. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This was an active-controlled, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, parallel-group study conducted between July 2011 and March 2016 at multiple centers around Japan...
February 21, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462263/regular-yogurt-intake-and-risk-of-cardiovascular-disease-among-hypertensive-adults
#15
Justin R Buendia, Yanping Li, Frank B Hu, Howard J Cabral, M Loring Bradlee, Paula A Quatromoni, Martha R Singer, Gary C Curhan, Lynn L Moore
BACKGROUND: High blood pressure (HBP) is a major cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor. Clinical trials including Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) have demonstrated beneficial effects of dairy consumption on risks of HBP and CVD. Yogurt, a fermented dairy product, may independently be related to CVD risk. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between yogurt consumption and CVD risk among hypertensive individuals in 2 large cohorts and to determine whether the association differs among those whose eating pattern more closely resembles the DASH diet...
February 15, 2018: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461866/the-prognostic-value-of-combinations-of-genetic-polymorphisms-in-the-itgb3-itga2-and-cyp2c19-2-genes-in-predicting-cardiovascular-outcomes-after-coronary-bypass-grafting
#16
Yuriy I Grinshtein, Aleksandra A Kosinova, Igor Y Grinshtein, Tatyana N Subbotina, Andrey A Savchenko
AIM: To determine if there is an association between the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): rs2046934, rs1126643, rs5918, rs6065, rs4244285; rs4986893 and the occurrence of cardiovascular events (CVE) in patients following coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 130 CABG patients with stable angina grades II-IV. After CABG 69 of the patients were treated with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) alone, and 61 received dual antiplatelet therapy (ASA+clopidogrel)...
February 20, 2018: Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459990/-acute-treatment-and-secondary-prophylaxis-of-ischemic-stroke-an-excellent-example-for-personalized-medicine
#17
R Wachter, K Gröschel
About a quarter of a million people in Germany suffer a stroke every year. Stroke is the most dreaded cardiovascular disease, even before myocardial infarction and heart failure. In the last two to three years, significant progress has been made in acute treatment, secondary prophylaxis in patients with patent foramen ovale, and the interdisciplinary evaluation of atrial fibrillation as the cause of the stroke. These new findings allow for more precise treatment.
February 19, 2018: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459900/kr%C3%A3-ppel-like-factors-in-vascular-inflammation-mechanistic-insights-and-therapeutic-potential
#18
REVIEW
David R Sweet, Liyan Fan, Paishiun N Hsieh, Mukesh K Jain
The role of inflammation in vascular disease is well recognized, involving dysregulation of both circulating immune cells as well as the cells of the vessel wall itself. Unrestrained vascular inflammation leads to pathological remodeling that eventually contributes to atherothrombotic disease and its associated sequelae (e.g., myocardial/cerebral infarction, embolism, and critical limb ischemia). Signaling events during vascular inflammation orchestrate widespread transcriptional programs that affect the functions of vascular and circulating inflammatory cells...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459397/predictors-of-thrombolysis-administration-in-mild-stroke-florida-puerto-rico-collaboration-to-reduce-stroke-disparities
#19
Negar Asdaghi, Kefeng Wang, Maria A Ciliberti-Vargas, Carolina Marinovic Gutierrez, Sebastian Koch, Hannah Gardener, Chuanhui Dong, David Z Rose, Enid J Garcia, W Scott Burgin, Juan Carlos Zevallos, Tatjana Rundek, Ralph L Sacco, Jose G Romano
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Mild stroke is the most common cause for thrombolysis exclusion in patients acutely presenting to the hospital. Thrombolysis administration in this subgroup is highly variable among different clinicians and institutions. We aim to study the predictors of thrombolysis in patients with mild ischemic stroke in the FL-PR CReSD registry (Florida-Puerto Rico Collaboration to Reduce Stroke Disparities). METHODS: Among 73 712 prospectively enrolled patients with a final diagnosis of ischemic stroke or TIA from January 2010 to April 2015, we identified 7746 cases with persistent neurological symptoms and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale ≤5 who arrived within 4 hours of symptom onset...
February 19, 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459361/a-comparison-of-reduced-dose-prasugrel-and-standard-dose-clopidogrel-in-elderly-patients-with-acute-coronary-syndromes-undergoing-early-percutaneous-revascularization
#20
Stefano Savonitto, Luca A Ferri, Luigi Piatti, Daniele Grosseto, Giancarlo Piovaccari, Nuccia Morici, Irene Bossi, Paolo Sganzerla, Giovanni Tortorella, Michele Cacucci, Maurizio Ferrario, Ernesto Murena, Girolamo Sibilio, Stefano Tondi, Anna Toso, Sergio Bongioanni, Amelia Ravera, Elena Corrada, Matteo Mariani, Leonardo Di Ascenzo, A Sonia Petronio, Claudio Cavallini, Giancarlo Vitrella, Renata Rogacka, Roberto Antonicelli, Bruno M Cesana, Leonardo De Luca, Filippo Ottani, Giuseppe De Luca, Federico Piscione, Nadia Moffa, Stefano De Servi
Background -Elderly patients are at elevated risk of both ischemic and bleeding complications after an acute coronary syndrome (ACS), and display higher on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity as compared to younger patients. Prasugrel 5 mg provides more predictable platelet inhibition, as compared to clopidogrel, in the elderly, suggesting the possibility of reducing ischemic events without increasing bleeding. Methods -In a multicenter, randomized, open-label, blinded-endpoint trial, we compared a once daily maintenance dose of prasugrel 5 mg with the standard clopidogrel 75 mg in patients >74 years with ACS undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)...
February 19, 2018: Circulation
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