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Nutrition in pediatric cancer

Donatello Salvatore, Roberto Buzzetti, Gianni Mastella
Patient registries provide useful information to afford more knowledge on rare diseases like Cystic Fibrosis (CF). Twenty-two studies originating from national CF registries, focusing on demographics, survival, genetics, nutritional status, and non-pulmonary complications, were published between December 2011 and March 2015. The purpose of this review article is to examine these reports, aiming attention to the clinical characteristics of CF patients included in the registries, current, and estimated future epidemiological data, the role of gender gap, the increasing survival in different countries...
September 29, 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
Rhea Li, Hayley Donnella, Phillip Knouse, Margaret Raber, Karla Crawford, Maria C Swartz, Jimin Wu, Diane Liu, Joya Chandra
BACKGROUND: Quality of life in survivors of pediatric acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) can be compromised by chronic diseases including increased risk of second cancers, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. Overweight or obesity further increases these risks. Steroids are a component of chemotherapy for ALL, and weight gain is a common side effect. To impact behaviors associated with weight gain, we conducted a randomized nutrition counseling intervention in ALL patients on treatment...
September 12, 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Karen Tsai, Deepan Singh, Aaron Pinkhasov
Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) is a diagnosis in diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders-5 (DSM-5) manifested by persistent failure to meet nutritional and/or energy needs. Pudendal nerve entrapment (PNE) often causes pelvic discomfort in addition to constipation and painful bowel movements. Current literature on ARFID is sparse and focuses on the pediatric and adolescent population. No association between PNE and ARFID has been described. We present a case of ARFID in an adult male with PNE resulting from subsequent scarring from testicular cancer surgery...
August 19, 2016: International Journal of Eating Disorders
Amy E Caruso Brown, Edwin J Asturias, Mario Melgar, Federico A Antillon-Klussmann, Pamela Mettler, Myron J Levin
BACKGROUND: Varicella-zoster virus infection is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in immune-compromised children, despite treatment with antiviral agents. Universal varicella vaccine programs have significantly decreased this risk in many highincome countries, but in most low-income and middleincome countries, the burden of varicella in children treated for malignancy is poorly defined. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed records of children at the National Unit of Pediatric Oncology (UNOP) in Guatemala diagnosed with varicella between January 2009 and March 2013 in order to calculate incidence of varicella and evaluate morbidity, mortality, treatment interruption, and cost...
August 2016: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
Jisheng Gao, Hongwei Wu, Jinfeng Liu
The multifarious assortment of microorganisms present in gut of humans is termed as gut microbiota. These include 1,000 species accompanied by approximately 2 million genes in an individual adult. The gut microbiota has multifactorial protective roles against allergic reactions, inflammation, cardiac pathological states and even in the state of malignant carcinogenesis existing in humans. By contrast, adverse alterations in the microbiota result in chronic pathological states, including autoimmune diseases, cancer and circulatory system obstructions...
July 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Koen Huysentruyt, Yvan Vandenplas, Jean De Schepper
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The ideal measures for screening and assessing undernutrition in children remain a point of discussion in literature. This review aims to provide an overview of recent advances in the nutritional screening and assessment methods in children. RECENT FINDINGS: This review focuses on two major topics that emerged in literature since 2015: the practical endorsement of the new definition for pediatric undernutrition, with a focus on anthropometric measurements and the search for a consensus on pediatric nutritional screening tools in different settings...
June 18, 2016: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Elena J Ladas, Manuela Orjuela, Kristen Stevenson, Peter D Cole, Meiko Lin, Uma H Athale, Luis A Clavell, Jean-Marie Leclerc, Bruno Michon, Marshall A Schorin, Jennifer Greene Welch, Barbara L Asselin, Stephen E Sallan, Lewis B Silverman, Kara M Kelly
OBJECTIVE: Children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are at elevated risk for nutrition-related morbidity both during and after therapy. We present the demographic characteristics and nutrient intake at study entry of a prospective cohort in which evaluating dietary intake in children diagnosed with ALL was investigated. METHODS: Dietary intake data were collected for participants enrolled on the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute ALL Consortium Protocol. Dietary intake was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire and was compared with the dietary reference intake by ALL risk group (standard and high risk)...
October 2016: Nutrition
Alexia J Murphy, Rebecca J Hill, Helen Buntain, Melinda White, Denise Brookes, Peter S W Davies
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Nutritional status is an important consideration in many pediatric clinical conditions. This paper aimed to examine and compare the nutritional status, represented by body cell mass (BCM), of children with cancer, Crohn's disease (CD), cystic fibrosis (CF) and anorexia nervosa (AN). METHODS: Anthropometry was measured and BCM was calculated from whole body potassium-40 counting in 259 children being treated for clinical conditions (n = 66 cancer; n = 59 AN; n = 75 CF; n = 59 CD) and 108 healthy children...
May 26, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Antonios I Vezakis, Eirini V Pantiora, Elissaios A Kontis, Vasileios Sakellariou, Dimitrios Theodorou, Georgios Gkiokas, Andreas A Polydorou, Georgios P Fragulidis
BACKGROUND: Ingestion of caustic substances is a medical emergency in both the adult and pediatric population and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The extent of injuries after ingestion of caustic substances depends on the nature, amount, and concentration of the agent and on the exposure time. Acutely, caustic substances may cause massive hemorrhage and gastrointestinal tract perforation; the most markedly affected cases require urgent surgical treatment. Patients surviving the initial event may present with aorto-enteric or gastrocolic fistulae, esophageal strictures, dysphagia, and increased risk of esophageal cancer as long term sequelae...
2016: American Journal of Case Reports
Mihaela Ioana Chinceşan, Cristina Oana Mărginean, Septimiu Voidăzan
Cancer patients are particularly susceptible to nutritional depletion. From March 2014 to December 2015, we assessed 146 patients consecutively hospitalized in a tertiary emergency pediatric hospital. The patients were divided into 2 groups: group I, patients with cancer (43 patients), and group II, the control group consisting of 103 age-matched and sex-matched healthy patients. The anthropometric parameters (weight-W, height-H, body mass index [BMI], middle upper arm circumference [MUAC], tricipital skinfold thickness [TST]) and biochemical parameters (proteins, albumin) were comparatively evaluated...
October 2016: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
Elena J Ladas, Brijesh Arora, Scott C Howard, Paul C Rogers, Terezie T Mosby, Ronald D Barr
The utilization of adapted regimens for the treatment of pediatric malignancies has greatly improved clinical outcomes for children receiving treatment in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Nutritional depletion has been associated with poorer outcomes, increased abandonment of therapy, and treatment-related toxicities. Surveys have found that nutritional intervention is not incorporated routinely into supportive care regimens. Establishing nutritional programs based upon institutional resources may facilitate the incorporation of nutritional therapy into clinical care in a way that is feasible in all settings...
August 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Aline Lauria P Abrão, Denise Pinheiro Falcao, Rivadávio Fernandes Batista de Amorim, Ana Cristina B Bezerra, Gilson Augusto N M Pombeiro, Luciano Junqueira Guimarães, Felipe Fregni, Luciano Paulino Silva, Licia Maria Henrique da Mota
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic multisystemic disease characterized by autoimmune inflammatory disturbance. Pleomorphic manifestations are present and a potentially progressive and debilitating course can be detected. SLE rarely manifests before age 5, and its onset peaks is around puberty. Although clinical manifestations, immunological alterations and treatment do not differ between juvenile and adult SLE, children tend to present with a more aggressive disease course than adults. Hence, autoimmune rheumatic diseases are the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in pediatric populations...
April 2016: Medical Hypotheses
Jennifer Cohen, Claire E Wakefield, David G Laing
Malnutrition is common in both adult and pediatric patients undergoing treatment for cancer. Patients commonly attribute difficulties maintaining food intake to an altered taste developed during treatment. This review summarizes what is known about taste and smell dysfunction in patients with undergoing chemotherapy as their main treatment modality. Self-reported taste and smell alterations are prevalent in upwards of 86% of cancer patients. There is some evidence for decreased taste sensitivity in cancer patients when assessed using common gustatory tests...
2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Cak Fleming, K Viani, A J Murphy, T T Mosby, B Arora, J Schoeman, E J Ladas
BACKGROUND: Survivors of childhood cancer are at increased risk for several cardiometabolic complications. Obesity/overweight and metabolic syndrome have been widely reported in Western literature, but data from India are lacking. AIMS: To perform an objective assessment of nutritional status in a cohort of childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) and to find risk factors for extremes in nutritional status. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: The study was a retrospective chart review of CCSs who attended the late effects clinic of a referral pediatric oncology center over the period of 1 year...
April 2015: Indian Journal of Cancer
M Prasad, B Arora, G Chinnaswamy, T Vora, G Narula, S Banavali, P Kurkure
BACKGROUND: Survivors of childhood cancer are at increased risk for several cardiometabolic complications. Obesity/overweight and metabolic syndrome have been widely reported in Western literature, but data from India are lacking. AIMS: To perform an objective assessment of nutritional status in a cohort of childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) and to find risk factors for extremes in nutritional status. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: The study was a retrospective chart review of CCSs who attended the late effects clinic of a referral pediatric oncology center over the period of 1 year...
April 2015: Indian Journal of Cancer
V Radhakrishnan, P Ganesan, R Rajendranath, T S Ganesan, T G Sagar
BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is widely prevalent in the pediatric population in India. There is paucity of data on the prevalence of malnutrition in pediatric cancer patients and the impact of cancer treatment on nutritional status of Indian children. AIMS: The study was conducted to look at the prevalence of malnutrition and assess the impact of treatment on nutritional status of pediatric cancer patients. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This was a retrospective study...
April 2015: Indian Journal of Cancer
A Sharma, E F Negi, B Arora, D Pradhan, M Khurana, P Bagai, R S Arora
BACKGROUND: Assessing nutritional status and delivering optimal nutritional care is a part of modern day treatment of children with cancer. The nutritional practices in India for these children have not been previously described. AIMS: To describe the existing nutrition assessment and management practices for children with cancer in India. METHODS: Attendees of the First International Society of Pediatric Oncology-Pediatric Oncology in Developing Countries workshop on nutrition in children with cancer organized in September 2014 at Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, India were invited to complete a self-administered questionnaire related to three domains: nutritional assessment, intervention, and education...
April 2015: Indian Journal of Cancer
J Schoeman
Nutritional status in children with cancer is an important prognostic factor. Assessment consisting of anthropometry, biochemistry, clinical, and diet that needs to be done on diagnosis and regularly to ensure that patient's nutritional status does not deteriorate. In developing countries, assessment will depend on the availability of all resources, but monitoring is essential. The development of malnutrition during treatment is possible and the reasons are multifactorial. Nutrition plays a deciding role and a key factor in children with cancer and can influence their outcome...
April 2015: Indian Journal of Cancer
K Viani
Although nutritional therapy is essential for the treatment of childhood cancer, it remains a challenge, especially within the developing world, where there are many barriers to optimizing treatment. The oral route is the first approach to nutritional support, however challenging this might be in children with cancer. Oral supplements are indicated in moderate evaluated nutritional risk patients and its use should consider the family's social conditions and access to industrialized oral supplements. If unavailable, homemade oral supplements can be used respecting regional accessibility, local foods, and culture...
April 2015: Indian Journal of Cancer
P C Rogers
A nutritional perspective within pediatric oncology is usually just related to the supportive care aspect during the management of the underlying malignancy. However, nutrition has a far more fundamental importance with respect to a growing, developing child who has cancer as well as viewing cancer from a nutritional cancer control perspective. Nutrition is relevant to all components of cancer control including prevention, epidemiology, biology, treatment, supportive care, rehabilitation, and survivorship. This article briefly describes this perspective of nutrition within a cancer control context and is a summary of the presentation at the "1st International SIOP-PODC Workshop on Nutrition in Children with Cancer" held in Mumbai...
April 2015: Indian Journal of Cancer
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