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Food policy

Cheryl Doss, Ruth Meinzen-Dick, Agnes Quisumbing, Sophie Theis
Sustainable Development Goal 5 (SDG) on gender equality and women's rights and at least 11 of the 17 SDGs require indicators related to gender dynamics. Despite the need for reliable indicators, stylized facts on women, agriculture, and the environment persist. This paper analyzes four gender myths: 1) 70% of the world's poor are women; 2) Women produce 60 to 80% of the world's food; 3) Women own 1% of the world's land; and 4) Women are better stewards of the environment. After reviewing the conceptual and empirical literature, the paper presents the kernel of truth underlying each myth, questions its underlying assumptions and implications, and examines how it hinders us from developing effective food security policies...
March 2018: Global Food Security
Isabel Nascimento Dos Santos, Jorginete de Jesus Damião, Maria de Jesus Mendes da Fonseca, Cláudia Dos Santos Cople-Rodrigues, Odaleia Barbosa de Aguiar
OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between food insecurity (IA) and social support in families of children with sickle-cell disease (DF). METHODS: This cross-sectional study in families of 190 children from five to nine years old in follow-up at a hematology referral hospital in Rio de Janeiro State. IA was measured using the Brazilian food insecurity scale and social support was measured using the Brazilian version of the MOS social support survey instrument...
March 15, 2018: Jornal de Pediatria
Honor Young, Lorraine Burke, Saoirse Nic Gabhainn
BACKGROUND: The need to tackle sexual health problems and promote positive sexual health has been acknowledged in Irish health policy. Young people's sexual behaviour however remains under-researched with limited national data available. METHODS: This study presents the first nationally representative and internationally comparable data on young people's sexual health behaviours in Ireland. Self-complete questionnaire data were collected from 4494 schoolchildren aged 15-18 years as part of a broader examination of health behaviour and their context...
March 16, 2018: BMC Public Health
Ashley H Snyder, Carol S Weisman, Guodong Liu, Douglas Leslie, Cynthia H Chuang
OBJECTIVES: The Affordable Care Act (ACA) contraceptive coverage mandate issued in August 2012 requires most private health insurance plans to cover all U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved contraceptive methods without cost sharing. We evaluate the impact of this policy on out-of-pocket costs and use of long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) and other prescription methods through 2014. METHODS: Data from Truven Health MarketScan were used to examine out-of-pocket costs and contraceptive use patterns for all reversible prescription contraceptives before and after the implementation of the contraceptive mandate for privately insured women ages 13 to 45...
March 2, 2018: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
Nancy A Scott, Taryn Vian, Jeanette L Kaiser, Thandiwe Ngoma, Kaluba Mataka, Elizabeth G Henry, Godfrey Biemba, Mary Nambao, Davidson H Hamer
BACKGROUND: The WHO recommends maternity waiting homes (MWH) as one intervention to improve maternal and newborn health. However, persistent structural, cultural and financial barriers in their design and implementation have resulted in mixed success in both their uptake and utilization. Guidance is needed on how to design a MWH intervention that is acceptable and sustainable. Using formative research and guided by a sustainability framework for health programs, we systematically collected data from key stakeholders and potential users in order to design a MWH intervention in Zambia that could overcome multi-dimensional barriers to accessing facility delivery, be acceptable to the community and be financially and operationally sustainable...
2018: PloS One
Hung-Hao Chang, Kannika Saeliw
OBJECTIVES: This study investigates the association between eating out and depressive symptoms among elderly people. Potential mediators that may link to elderly eating out and depressive symptoms are also discussed. METHODS: A unique dataset of 1,184 individuals aged 65 and older was drawn from the National Health and Nutrition Survey in 2008 in Taiwan. A bivariate probit model and an instrumental variable probit model were estimated to account for correlated, unmeasured factors that may be associated with both the decision and frequency of eating out and depressive symptoms in the elderly...
June 2017: Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics
Pepita Barlow, Paulo Serôdio, Gary Ruskin, Martin McKee, David Stuckler
Critics have long accused food and beverage companies of trying to exonerate their products from blame for obesity by funding organisations that highlight alternative causes. Yet, conclusions about the intentions of food and beverage companies in funding scientific organisations have been prevented by limited access to industry's internal documents. Here we allow the words of Coca-Cola employees to speak about how the corporation intended to advance its interests by funding the Global Energy Balance Network (GEBN)...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Maxine P Bonham, Gloria K W Leung, Rochelle Davis, Tracey L Sletten, Chiara Murgia, Morag J Young, Nina Eikelis, Elisabeth A Lambert, Catherine E Huggins
INTRODUCTION: Shift work is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Shift workers who are awake overnight and sleep during the day are misaligned with their body's endogenous circadian rhythm. Eating at night contributes to this increased risk of CVD by forcing the body to actively break down and process nutrients at night. This pilot study aims to determine whether altering meal timing overnight, in a shift working population, will impact favourably on modifiable risk factors for CVD (postprandial bplasma lipids and glucose concentration)...
March 14, 2018: BMJ Open
Vladimir Schuindt da Silva, Israel Souza, Diego Augusto Santos Silva, Aline Rodrigues Barbosa, Maria de Jesus Mendes da Fonseca
This study aimed to describe BMI's short-term trends and analyze the association between the Body Mass Index (BMI) and the sociodemographic variables and variables of family perception of the sufficiency and type of food consumed by Brazilian elderly of both sexes. The authors used data from the Household Budget Surveys (HBS) collected by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) in 2002/03 and 2008/09. The prevalence of overweight and obesity increased, whereas normal and low weight decreased...
March 2018: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Luana Romão Nogueira, Mariane de Mello Fontanelli, Breno Souza de Aguiar, Marcelo Antunes Failla, Alex Antonio Florindo, Ligia Vizeu Barrozo, Moisés Goldbaum, Chester Luiz Galvão Cesar, Maria Cecilia Goi Porto Alves, Regina Mara Fisberg
Food environment and income act as determinants of diet, and consequently, of the consumption of fruits and vegetables. The objective of this study is to investigate the association between fruit and vegetable consumption, income, and street market density in adolescents living in São Paulo, Brazil. Data from 521 adolescents (12 to 19 years) participating in the 2015 Health Survey of São Paulo were used. Buffers (500, 1000, and 1500 m) were drawn around the households and the street markets were counted in each zone...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Francesco Valitutti, Barbara De Santis, Chiara Maria Trovato, Monica Montuori, Simona Gatti, Salvatore Oliva, Carlo Brera, Carlo Catassi
OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk of mycotoxin exposure (aflatoxin M1, ochratoxin A, and zearalenone) in celiac disease (CD) breastfeeding mothers and healthy control mothers, as well as in their offspring, by quantifying these contaminants in breast milk. STUDY DESIGN: Thirty-five breastfeeding women with CD on a gluten-free diet and 30 healthy breastfeeding controls were recruited. Milk sampling was performed three times per day for three consecutive days. Mycotoxin content was investigated by an analytical method using immunoaffinity column clean-up and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorometric detection...
March 10, 2018: Nutrients
Shan-Xuan Lim, Jia-Ying Toh, Linde van Lee, Wee-Meng Han, Lynette Pei-Chi Shek, Kok-Hian Tan, Fabian Yap, Keith M Godfrey, Yap-Seng Chong, Mary Foong-Fong Chong
Adequate nutrition during complementary feeding is important for the growth, development and well-being of children. We aim to examine the energy and macronutrient intake composition and their main food sources in a mother-offspring cohort study in Singapore. The diets of infants were assessed by 24 h dietary recalls or food diaries collected from mothers when their offspring were 6 (n = 760), 9 (n = 893) and 12 (n = 907) months of age. Food sources of energy and macronutrients were determined using the population proportion methodology...
March 10, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Yu Shi, Danqing Hu, Erin L Rodgers, Slavica K Katusic, Stephen J Gleich, Andrew C Hanson, Darrell R Schroeder, Randall P Flick, David O Warner
BACKGROUND: Utilization of general anesthesia in children has important policy, economic, and healthcare delivery implications, yet there is little information regarding the epidemiology of these procedures in the United States. AIMS: The primary objective of this study was to describe in a geographically defined population the incidence of procedures requiring general anesthesia up to the child's third birthday, and the patient characteristics associated with receiving these procedures...
March 13, 2018: Paediatric Anaesthesia
Anne Marie Thow, Shauna M Downs, Christopher Mayes, Helen Trevena, Temo Waqanivalu, John Cawley
The World Health Organization has recommended that Member States consider taxing energy-dense beverages and foods and/or subsidizing nutrient-rich foods to improve diets and prevent noncommunicable diseases. Numerous countries have either implemented taxes on energy-dense beverages and foods or are considering the implementation of such taxes. However, several major challenges to the implementation of fiscal policies to improve diets and prevent noncommunicable diseases remain. Some of these challenges relate to the cross-sectoral nature of the relevant interventions...
March 1, 2018: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
Esso-Hanam Atake, Djesika D Amendah
BACKGROUND: In Togo, about half of health care costs are paid at the point of service, which reduces access to health care and exposes households to catastrophic health expenditure (CHE). To address this situation, the Togolese government introduced a National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in 2011. This insurance currently covers only employees and retirees of the State as well as their dependents, although plans for extension exist. This study is the first attempt to examine the extent to which Togo's NHIS protects its members financially against the consequences of ill-health...
March 12, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Pauline Gulliver, Janet Fanslow, Theresa Fleming, Mathijs Lucassen, Robyn Dixon
OBJECTIVE: To explore trends, and identify risk factors, that may explain changes in adolescent exposure to family violence over time. METHODS: Data for this study was drawn from the Youth 2000 series of cross-sectional surveys, carried out with New Zealand high school students in 2001, 2007 and 2012. Latent class analysis was used to understand different patterns of exposure to multiple risks for witnessing violence at home among adolescents. RESULTS: Across all time periods, there was no change in witnessing emotional violence and a slight decline in witnessing physical violence at home...
March 12, 2018: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
Paul J Turner, Dianne E Campbell, Robert J Boyle, Michael E Levin
Given the prevalence and impact of childhood food allergy, there is increasing interest in interventions targeting disease prevention. Although interventions such as early introduction of dietary peanut have demonstrated efficacy in a small number of well-conducted randomized clinical trials, evidence for broader effectiveness and successful implementation at a population level is still lacking, although epidemiological data suggest that such strategies are likely to be successful, at least for peanut. In this commentary, we explore the issues of translating evidence of efficacy studies (performed under optimal conditions) to make policy recommendations at a population level, and highlight potential benefits, harms, and unintended consequences of making population-based recommendations on the basis of randomized controlled trials...
March 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
Omid Nekouei, Sylvia Checkley, Cheryl Waldner, Ben A Smith, Jesse Invik, Carolee Carson, Brent Avery, Javier Sanchez, Sheryl Gow
Emergence and dissemination of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in food-borne bacteria is a public health issue. Retail meat is considered an important carrier for antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli. Currently, resistance of E. coli strains to third generation cephalosporins are of particular concern, with significant potential animal and public health consequences. Resistance to tetracyclines is also a concern, due to high prevalence of this resistance and important co-resistance patterns. However, the actual likelihood of exposure to antimicrobial-resistant bacteria via the consumption of retail meats, beyond the simple frequencies of resistance found in samples of meat at the grocery store, in Canada remains to be investigated...
February 27, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
William A Masters, Katherine L Rosettie, Sarah Kranz, Goodarz Danaei, Patrick Webb, Dariush Mozaffarian
Improving maternal and child nutrition in resource-poor settings requires effective use of limited resources, but priority-setting is constrained by limited information about program costs and impacts, especially for interventions designed to improve diet quality. This study utilized a mixed methods approach to identify, describe and estimate the potential costs and impacts on child dietary intake of 12 nutrition-sensitive programs in Ethiopia, Nigeria and India. These potential interventions included conditional livestock and cash transfers, media and education, complementary food processing and sales, household production and food pricing programs...
March 7, 2018: Health Policy and Planning
Y Kovic, J K Noel, J A Ungemack, J A Burleson
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of junk food broadcast marketing policies on nationwide junk food sales and identify policy characteristics effective in reducing sales. METHODS: Country policy data (n = 79) were categorized in a thorough literature review and analysed using a repeated measures design against data on food sales per capita. Study conducted in United States, 2017. RESULTS: Countries with junk food broadcast marketing policies saw a decrease in junk food sales per capita after implementation, while those without said policies saw an increase (p = 0...
March 8, 2018: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
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