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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793160/water-footprint-characteristic-of-less-developed-water-rich-regions-case-of-yunnan-china
#1
Yiying Qian, Huijuan Dong, Yong Geng, Shaozhuo Zhong, Xu Tian, Yanhong Yu, Yihui Chen, Dana Avery Moss
Rapid industrialization and urbanization pose pressure on water resources in China. Virtual water trade proves to be an increasingly useful tool in water stress alleviation for water-scarce regions, while bringing opportunities and challenges for less developed water-rich regions. In this study, Yunnan, a typical province in southwest China, was selected as the case study area to explore its potential in socio-economic development in the context of water sustainability. Both input-output analysis and structural decomposition analysis on Yunnan's water footprint for the period of 2002-2012 were performed at not only an aggregated level but also a sectoral level...
March 30, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791453/the-association-between-food-insecurity-and-incident-type-2-diabetes-in-canada-a-population-based-cohort-study
#2
Christopher A Tait, Mary R L'Abbé, Peter M Smith, Laura C Rosella
BACKGROUND: A pervasive and persistent finding is the health disadvantage experienced by those in food insecure households. While clear associations have been identified between food insecurity and diabetes risk factors, less is known about the relationship between food insecurity and incident type 2 diabetes. The objective of this study is to investigate the association between household food insecurity and the future development of type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We used data from Ontario adult respondents to the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey, linked to health administrative data (n = 4,739)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791255/the-calorie-labeling-saga-federal-preemption-and-delayed-implementation-of-public-health-law
#3
Jason P Block
Passing the 2010 Affordable Care Act (ACA) was a landmark event in health care policy. The ACA’s scope also went beyond health care. Included among myriad health insurance reforms and coverage expansions was Section 4205, a federal requirement for food-establishment chains with 20 or more locations..
May 23, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788484/an-e-liquid-flavor-wheel-a-shared-vocabulary-based-on-systematically-reviewing-e-liquid-flavor-classifications-in-literature
#4
Erna Johanna Zegerina Krüsemann, Sanne Boesveldt, Kees de Graaf, Reinskje Talhout
Introduction: E-liquids are available in a high variety of flavors. A systematic classification of e-liquid flavors is necessary to increase comparability of research results. In the food, alcohol and fragrance industry, flavors are classified using flavor wheels. We systematically reviewed literature on flavors related to e-cigarette use, to investigate how e-liquid flavors have been classified in research, and propose an e-liquid flavor wheel to classify e-liquids based on marketing descriptions...
May 18, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785612/water-forests-people-the-swedish-experience-in-building-resilient-landscapes
#5
Mats Eriksson, Lotta Samuelson, Linnéa Jägrud, Eskil Mattsson, Thorsten Celander, Anders Malmer, Klas Bengtsson, Olof Johansson, Nicolai Schaaf, Ola Svending, Anna Tengberg
A growing world population and rapid expansion of cities increase the pressure on basic resources such as water, food and energy. To safeguard the provision of these resources, restoration and sustainable management of landscapes is pivotal, including sustainable forest and water management. Sustainable forest management includes forest conservation, restoration, forestry and agroforestry practices. Interlinkages between forests and water are fundamental to moderate water budgets, stabilize runoff, reduce erosion and improve biodiversity and water quality...
May 21, 2018: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785254/low-rates-of-patient-reported-outcome-claims-for-orphan-drugs-approved-by-the-us-food-and-drug-administration
#6
Szymon Jarosławski, Pascal Auquier, Borislav Borissov, Claude Dussart, Mondher Toumi
Background : Claims included in package inserts (PIs) for medicinal products approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) constitute the regulatory definition of drugs' benefits and risks. Objective : We sought to assess the usage of patient-reported outcome (PRO) claims in a comprehensive set of US FDA orphan drug approvals dated between 1/1/2012 and 31/12/2016, and characterize them. Study design : Orphan drug approval documentation was obtained from the US FDA website. Drug Package Inserts (PI) were analyzed to extract information on PRO-related language...
2018: Journal of Market Access & Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783622/risk-mitigation-for-immunocompromised-consumers-of-mucormycete-spoiled-and-fermented-foods-germain-guidance-and-remaining-needs
#7
REVIEW
Abigail B Snyder, Randy W Worobo
Mucoralean invasive fungal infections, while unusual among the general population, have a high mortality rate among immunocompromised individuals who become infected. They are also common spoilage organisms in cultured dairy products, some fresh produce, and baked goods. Additionally, Mucor and Rhizopus spp. are utilized in the production of traditional fermented foods including mold ripened cheeses and fermented soy products. The risk that consumption of these foods poses to immunocompromised consumers has been previously identified...
May 18, 2018: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782893/quantity-based-analysis-of-household-food-consumption-patterns-and-drivers-the-case-of-israel
#8
Yuval Damari, Meidad Kissinger
The interest in better understanding the characteristics and drivers of food consumption by individuals and social groups has grown in recent years, because of various social, environmental, health and economic issues. Most analyses have focused either on the macro or national scale, using food balance/disappearance data, or on the micro scale, focusing on nutrition analysis in limited groups of individual consumers. While various household characteristics are expected to influence food-purchasing habits, the scope and methodology of most previous studies limited their ability to relate to multiple factors, and integrate all into specific consumption patterns...
May 18, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779507/examining-associations-between-school-food-environment-characteristics-and-sugar-sweetened-beverage-consumption-among-canadian-secondary-school-students-in-the-compass-study
#9
Katelyn M Godin, Ashok Chaurasia, David Hammond, Scott T Leatherdale
OBJECTIVE: To examine associations between Canadian adolescents' sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and several school food environment characteristics, and to investigate differences in these characteristics between schools in provinces with voluntary (Alberta) v. mandatory (Ontario) provincial school nutrition policies. DESIGN: We used a questionnaire to assess the number of weekdays participants consumed three SSB categories (soft drinks, sweetened coffees/teas, energy drinks) and various sociodemographic and behavioural characteristics...
May 21, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779494/not-so-sweet-refrain-sugar-sweetened-beverage-taxes-industry-opposition-and-harnessing-the-lessons-learned-from-tobacco-control-legal-challenges
#10
Anita George
As a growing number of countries implement, or announce plans to introduce, a sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) tax, this paper explores the public health rationale for such a tax and provides an overview of the international normative and policy instruments supporting the introduction of fiscal measures on sugary drinks. After examining parallels between the legal arguments raised by the food and beverage industry in opposition to SSB taxes and those raised by the tobacco industry in response to tobacco control measures, this paper draws four key lessons that will assist countries to design effective and robust SSB tax measures and counter food and beverage industry opposition: regulatory distinctions in tax coverage should be based on bona fide, evidence-based reasoning; evidence-based measures need to be tailored to a country's public health objectives as part of a comprehensive strategy to address unhealthy diet consumption; procedural requirements and due process should be observed in the drafting and implementation of the measure; and regulatory space exists within domestic constitutions, laws and international trade and investment agreements recognising the sovereign right of states to regulate in the interests of public health...
May 21, 2018: Health Economics, Policy, and Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777969/multicontextual-correlates-of-adolescent-sugar-sweetened-beverage-intake
#11
Allison W Watts, Jon Miller, Nicole I Larson, Marla E Eisenberg, Mary T Story, Dianne Neumark-Sztainer
PURPOSE: To examine personal, home, peer, school, neighborhood, and media correlates of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake in a diverse sample of adolescents. METHODS: Cross-sectional, population-based study (EAT 2010: Eating and Activity in Teens) of 2793 adolescents (54% female, mean age [SD] = 14.5 [2.0], 80% nonwhite) attending public secondary schools in Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota. Adolescents completed a food frequency questionnaire and answered survey questions about their diet/health perceptions and behaviors...
May 1, 2018: Eating Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777749/burden-of-liver-disease-in-europe-epidemiology-and-analysis-of-risk-factors-to-identify-prevention-policies
#12
REVIEW
Laura Pimpin, Helena Cortez-Pinto, Francesco Negro, Emily Corbould, Jeffrey V Lazarus, Laura Webber, Nick Sheron
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The burden of liver disease in Europe continues to grow. We aimed to describe the epidemiology of liver diseases and their risk factors in European countries, and identify public health interventions that could impact on these risk factors to reduce the burden of liver disease. METHODS: As part of the HEPAHEALTH project, commissioned by EASL, we extracted information on historical and current prevalence and mortality from national and international literature and databases on liver disease in 35 countries in the WHO European region, as well as historical and recent prevalence data on their main determinants; alcohol consumption, obesity and hepatitis B and C virus infections...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777733/food-allergy-guidance-in-the-united-states-military-a-work-group-report-from-the-aaaai-military-allergy-and-immunology-assembly-maia
#13
Kirk Waibel, Rachel Lee, Christopher Coop, Yun Mendoza, Kevin White
A diagnosis of food allergy adversely impacts one's ability to join or remain in the military. Inadequate knowledge or misconceptions of current military-specific standards regarding food allergy and how these apply to enlistment, induction, and retention in the United States military can potentially lead to inaccurate counseling as each military service has specific regulations which impact the evaluation and decision-making process. Recognizing this knowledge gap, the American Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology (AAAAI) Military Allergy and Immunology Assembly (MAIA) established a Work Group who reviewed and summarized all aspects of military instructions, policies, and regulations regarding IgE mediated food allergy...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776786/increases-in-sugary-drink-marketing-during-supplemental-nutrition-assistance-program-benefit-issuance-in-new-york
#14
Alyssa J Moran, Aviva Musicus, Mary T Gorski Findling, Ian F Brissette, Ann A Lowenfels, S V Subramanian, Christina A Roberto
INTRODUCTION: The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) is the largest federal food assistance program, providing $67 billion in benefits to 44 million Americans. Some states distribute SNAP benefits over one or a few days each month, which may create an incentive for retailers to heavily promote top-selling products, like sugar-sweetened beverages, when benefits are disbursed. METHODS: A beverage environment scan assessing presence of displays, advertisements, and price promotions for sugar-sweetened, low-calorie, and unsweetened beverages was administered in a census of SNAP-authorized beverage retailers (n=630) in three cities in New York from November to September 2011...
May 15, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775945/greenhouse-gas-emissions-reduction-in-different-economic-sectors-mitigation-measures-health-co-benefits-knowledge-gaps-and-policy-implications
#15
REVIEW
Jinghong Gao, Hongli Hou, Yunkai Zhai, Alistair Woodward, Sotiris Vardoulakis, Sari Kovats, Paul Wilkinson, Liping Li, Xiaoqin Song, Lei Xu, Bohan Meng, Xiaobo Liu, Jun Wang, Jie Zhao, Qiyong Liu
To date, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, mitigation strategies and the accompanying health co-benefits in different economic sectors have not been fully investigated. The purpose of this paper is to review comprehensively the evidence on GHG mitigation measures and the related health co-benefits, identify knowledge gaps, and provide recommendations to promote further development and implementation of climate change response policies. Evidence on GHG emissions, abatement measures and related health co-benefits has been observed at regional, national and global levels, involving both low- and high-income societies...
May 15, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770960/interventions-for-increasing-fruit-and-vegetable-consumption-in-children-aged-five-years-and-under
#16
REVIEW
Rebecca K Hodder, Kate M O'Brien, Fiona G Stacey, Rebecca J Wyse, Tara Clinton-McHarg, Flora Tzelepis, Erica L James, Kate M Bartlem, Nicole K Nathan, Rachel Sutherland, Emma Robson, Sze Lin Yoong, Luke Wolfenden
BACKGROUND: Insufficient consumption of fruits and vegetables in childhood increases the risk of future non-communicable diseases, including cardiovascular disease. Interventions to increase consumption of fruit and vegetables, such as those focused on specific child-feeding strategies and parent nutrition education interventions in early childhood may therefore be an effective strategy in reducing this disease burden. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness, cost effectiveness and associated adverse events of interventions designed to increase the consumption of fruit, vegetables or both amongst children aged five years and under...
May 17, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770050/enhancing-antimicrobial-stewardship-by-strengthening-the-veterinary-drug-regulatory-framework
#17
M Mehrotra, X-Z Li, M J Ireland
Antimicrobial resistance is a major and growing public health threat. Recently, Health Canada introduced multiple regulatory changes to strengthen the oversight of antimicrobial drugs for veterinary use. These changes aim specifically at increasing control over importation of veterinary drugs and active pharmaceutical ingredients, mandatory reporting of antimicrobial sales data from manufacturers, importers and compounders and facilitating access to low risk veterinary health products. Additional policy changes under existing authorities are also being made to enhance veterinary supervision of antimicrobial use and to remove production claims for food animals from labels of medically important antimicrobial drugs...
November 2, 2017: Canada Communicable Disease Report, Relevé des Maladies Transmissibles Au Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766721/policy-considerations-for-mobile-biosensors
#18
Steven M Russell, Roberto de la Rica
Meeting policy requirements is essential for advancing molecular diagnostic devices from the laboratory to real-world applications and commercialization. Considering policy as a starting point in the design of new technology is a winning strategy. Rapid developments have put mobile biosensors at the frontier of molecular diagnostics, at times outpacing policymakers, and therefore offering new opportunities for breakthroughs in global health. In this manuscript we survey influential global health policies and recent developments in mobile biosensing in order to gain a new perspective for the future of the field...
May 16, 2018: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764767/a-systematic-review-of-mobile-produce-markets-facilitators-and-barriers-to-use-and-associations-with-reported-fruit-and-vegetable-intake
#19
Bi-Sek Hsiao, Lindiwe Sibeko, Lisa M Troy
BACKGROUND: Diet-related chronic diseases are a major public health burden. There is growing awareness that disparities in healthful food access contribute to disparities in health. Mobile produce markets (MPMs) have emerged as a strategy to improve fruit and vegetable access and consumption, particularly among low-income, minority, and other vulnerable populations (eg, older adults and children) in food desert neighborhoods. OBJECTIVE: This review examined research on MPMs in the United States and specifically aimed to assess the relationship between MPM use and fruit and/or vegetable intake, and facilitators and barriers related to MPM use within a social ecological framework...
May 12, 2018: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764520/investigation-of-a-typhoid-fever-epidemic-in-moyale-sub-county-kenya-2014-2015
#20
Dahabo Adi Galgallo, Zeinab Gura Roka, Waqo G Boru, Khalumi Abill, James Ransom
AIM: Typhoid fever is a vaccine-preventable bacterial disease that causes significant morbidity and mortality throughout Africa. This paper describes an upsurge of typhoid fever cases in Moyale Sub-County (MSC), Kenya, 2014-2015. METHODS: We conducted active hospital and health facility surveillance and laboratory and antimicrobial sensitivity testing for all patients presenting with headache, fever, stomach pains, diarrhea, or constipation at five MSC health facilities between December 2014 and January 2015...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition
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