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Consumer science

Subha Rastogi, Madan Mohan Pandey, Aks Rawat
BACKGROUND: Dietary factors play a key role in the development as well as prevention of certain human diseases, including cardiovascular diseases. Currently there has been an increase in global interest to identify medicinal plants that are pharmacologically effective and have low or no side effects for use in preventive medicine. Culinary herbs and spices are an important part of human nutrition in all the cultures of the world. There is a growing amount of literature concerning the potential benefits of these herbs and spices from a health perspective especially in conferring protection against cardiovascular diseases...
October 21, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Indrajit Banerjee, Brijesh Sathian, Rajesh Kumar Gupta, Annavarapu Amarendra, Bedanta Roy, Pugazhandhi Bakthavatchalam, Archana Saha, Indraneel Banerjee
BACKGROUND: In developing countries like Nepal medicines can be acquired from the chemist's without of a prescription which sometime may have many drawbacks due to intake of excessive drugs without a proper diagnosis. The primary objective of the study was to find out the pattern of self-medication practice among the preclinical medical students at Manipal College of Medical Sciences. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a cross sectional study carried out using structured questionnaire at Manipal College of Medical Sciences, Pokhara, Nepal between November 2012- July 2014...
June 2016: Nepal journal of epidemiology
Nina Lefeber, Eva Swinnen, Eric Kerckhofs
PURPOSE: The integration of sufficient cardiovascular stress into robot-assisted gait (RAG) training could combine the benefits of both RAG and aerobic training. The aim was to summarize literature data on the immediate effects of RAG compared to walking without robot-assistance on metabolic-, cardiorespiratory- and fatigue-related parameters. METHODS: PubMed and Web of Science were searched for eligible articles till February 2016. Means, SDs and significance values were extracted...
October 20, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
Jakub Tomek, Rebecca A B Burton, Gil Bub
Cardiac arrhythmias are one of the most frequent causes of death worldwide. A popular biological model used to study arrhythmogenesis is the cultured cardiac cell monolayer, which provides a good trade-off between physiological relevance and experimental access. Excitation wave patterns are imaged using high-bandwidth detectors, producing large data sets that are typically analyzed manually. To make such analysis less time consuming and less subjective, we have designed and implemented a toolkit for segmentation and tracking of cardiac waves in optical mapping recordings...
October 18, 2016: Biophysical Journal
S Ten Hoorn, P W Elbers, A R Girbes, P R Tuinman
BACKGROUND: Ventilator-dependent patients in the ICU often experience difficulties with one of the most basic human functions, namely communication, due to intubation. Although various assistive communication tools exist, these are infrequently used in ICU patients. We summarized the current evidence on communication methods with mechanically ventilated patients in the ICU. Secondly, we developed an algorithm for communication with these patients based on current evidence. METHODS: We performed a systematic review...
October 19, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Francesco Cappuccio
The evidence. Salt (i.e. sodium chloride) is causally related to blood pressure (BP). The higher the salt intake, the higher the BP, an effect seen since birth. A small and sustained reduction in salt intake causes a fall in BP. The evidence from controlled studies, small and large, short and long, all agree on the following: (1) salt intake is one of the major determinants of BP in populations and individuals; (2) a reduction in salt intake causes a dose-dependent reduction in BP - the lower the salt the lower the BP; (3) the effect is seen in both sexes, in people of all ages and ethnic groups, and with all starting BPs...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Sedigheh Asgary, Mahtab Keshvari, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Nizal Sarrafzadegan
BACKGROUND: Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is a polyphenol-rich fruit with diverse medicinal properties. Several lines of experimental and clinical evidence have shown that pomegranate intake helps lowering blood pressure (BP) through different mechanisms. AIMS: This study aimed to present a narrative review on the anti-hypertensive properties of different parts of pomegranate such as pomegranate juice (PJ), pomegranate peels (PP), pomegranate seed oil (PSO), pomegranate fruit extract (PFE) and the mechanisms and phytochemicals responsible for these effects...
October 10, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Khaled Elbahrawy, Alaa El-Deeb
BACKGROUND: Acute mesenteric ischemia is a life-threatening vascular emergency that requires early diagnosis, immediate anticoagulation, and intervention to restore mesenteric blood flow adequately. AIMS: To investigate the effect of rectus sheath block (RSB) for postoperative analgesia in patients with mesenteric vascular occlusion. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Forty patients with mesenteric vascular occlusion, American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I or II or III, scheduled for laparotomy were enrolled in this study...
September 2016: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
Natalija Topić Popović, Snježana P Kazazić, Ivančica Strunjak-Perović, Rozelindra Čož-Rakovac
Identification of bacteria in aquatic and environmental applications, for monitoring purposes and research, for health assessments and therapy considerations of farmed and free-living aquatic organisms, still relies on conventional phenotypic and biochemical protocols. Although molecular techniques based on DNA amplification and sequencing are finding ways into diagnostic laboratories, they are time-consuming, costly and difficult in the case of multiplex assays. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is a rapid and accurate proteomic method reliable for identification of unknown bacteria to the genus and species level...
October 11, 2016: Environmental Research
Basil Chaballout, Margory Molloy, Jacqueline Vaughn, Raymond Brisson Iii, Ryan Shaw
BACKGROUND: Studies show that students who use fidelity-based simulation technology perform better and have higher retention rates than peers who learn in traditional paper-based training. Augmented reality is increasingly being used as a teaching and learning tool in a continual effort to make simulations more realistic for students. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this project was to assess the feasibility and acceptability of using augmented reality via Google Glass during clinical simulation scenarios for training health science students...
March 7, 2016: JMIR Med Educ
Pieter S Hiemstra, Robert Bals
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes, ECIGs) were introduced into the market a decade ago as an alternative to tobacco smoking. Whether ECIGs are safe and whether they qualify as smoking cessation tool is currently unknown. Their use has markedly expanded in that period, despite the fact that potential toxic effects of the vapour created by the e-cigarette and the nicotine-containing cartridge fluid have been incompletely studied. Marketing targets diverse groups including older smokers but also young people...
October 7, 2016: Respiratory Research
Frederick Li, Joseph Tice, Brian D Musselman, Adam B Hall
Improvised explosive devices (IEDs) are often used by terrorists and criminals to create public panic and destruction, necessitating rapid investigative information. However, backlogs in many forensic laboratories resulting in part from time-consuming GC-MS and LC-MS techniques prevent prompt analytical information. Direct analysis in real time - mass spectrometry (DART-MS) is a promising analytical technique that can address this challenge in the forensic science community by permitting rapid trace analysis of energetic materials...
September 2016: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
Monica Mattarozzi, Michele Suman, Claudia Cascio, Davide Calestani, Stefan Weigel, Anna Undas, Ruud Peters
Estimating consumer exposure to nanomaterials (NMs) in food products and predicting their toxicological properties are necessary steps in the assessment of the risks of this technology. To this end, analytical methods have to be available to detect, characterize and quantify NMs in food and materials related to food, e.g. food packaging and biological samples following metabolization of food. The challenge for the analytical sciences is that the characterization of NMs requires chemical as well as physical information...
October 3, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Z W R Loh, M H H Cheen, H L Wee
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Recent reviews have shown that pharmacist-provided medication review in the elderly can improve clinical outcomes and reduce medication discrepancies compared with usual care. However, none determined whether these translate to improved humanistic and economic outcomes. This review sought to evaluate the effects of medication review on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and healthcare costs in the elderly. METHODS: A systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science and the Cochrane library for studies published in English from inception to 31 August 2015 was conducted...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
Zhanwei Zhao, Zifang Yin, Zhongshu Pu, Qingchuan Zhao
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The relationship between consumption of red and processed meat and pancreatic cancer risk is inconclusive. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to analyze this relationship. METHODS: We performed a systematic search of PubMed, EMBASE, and the Web of Science to identify studies that examined associations between consumption of different kinds of meat with pancreatic cancer, published through February 2016. Using data from these articles, we associated level of consumption with cancer risk, and performed subgroup, meta-regression, and publication bias analyses...
September 27, 2016: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Tuba Esatbeyoglu, Gerald Rimbach
The aim of this review is to summarize the relevant literature about the use of canthaxanthin in food science and nutrition research. Canthaxanthin is a red-orange carotenoid that belongs to the xanthophyll group. This naturally occurring pigment is present in bacteria, algae and some fungi. Canthaxanthin is also responsible for the color of flamingo feathers, koi carp skin and crustacean shells. Canthaxanthin is widely used in poultry (broiler, laying hens) as a feed additive. Canthaxanthin can be obtained by total synthesis...
September 30, 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Menglin Guo, Ping Huang, Fei Yu, Huiqing Yang, Yabin Deng, Guangxin Du, Donghui Li
Tetrasulfonated aluminum phthalocyanine (AlS4Pc), a strongly red-emitting compound, shows high detection sensitivity, little effect of photobleaching, and photochemical stability, making it an excellent red-fluorescent probe. We have observed that in acid media, a low concentration of poly-L-lysine (PLL) has a strong fluorescence-quenching effect on AlS4Pc, forming the ion-pair complex as AlS4Pc-PLL with almost no fluorescence. However, in the presence of Bi(3+), the fluorescence of AlS4Pc-PLL dramatically recovers and the emission is visual because of the remarkable recovery...
September 28, 2016: Applied Spectroscopy
Catriona A Burdon, Inge Spronk, Hoi Lun Cheng, Helen T O'Connor
BACKGROUND: Low glycemic index (GI) pre-exercise meals may enhance endurance performance by maintaining euglycemia and altering fuel utilization. However, evidence for performance benefits is equivocal. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of a low GI (LGI) versus a high GI (HGI) pre-exercise meal on endurance performance using meta-analyses. METHODS: Data sources included MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, AUSPORT, AusportMed, Web of Science, and Scopus...
September 28, 2016: Sports Medicine
Clare Meernik, Kristen Jarman, Sarah Towner Wright, Elizabeth G Klein, Adam O Goldstein, Leah Ranney
OBJECTIVE: In this paper we synthesize the evidence from eye tracking research in tobacco control to inform tobacco regulatory strategies and tobacco communication campaigns. METHODS: We systematically searched 11 databases for studies that reported eye tracking outcomes in regards to tobacco regulation and communication. Two coders independently reviewed studies for inclusion and abstracted study characteristics and findings. RESULTS: Eighteen studies met full criteria for inclusion...
October 2016: Tobacco Regulatory Science
Bharath Bangalore Rajeeva, Derek S Hernandez, Mingsong Wang, Evan Perillo, Linhan Lin, Leonardo Scarabelli, Bharadwaj Pingali, Luis M Liz-Marzán, Andrew K Dunn, Jason B Shear, Yuebing Zheng
Selective localization of biomolecules at the hot spots of a plasmonic nanoparticle is an attractive strategy to exploit the light-matter interaction due to the high field concentration. Current approaches for hot spot targeting are time-consuming and involve prior knowledge of the hot spots. Multiphoton plasmonic lithography is employed to rapidly immobilize bovine serum albumin (BSA) hydrogel at the hot spot tips of a single gold nanotriangle (AuNT). Regioselectivity and quantity control by manipulating the polarization and intensity of the incident laser are also established...
November 2015: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
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