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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455703/the-development-of-a-single-health-endorsement-logo-for-south-africa
#1
Nelene Koen, Edelweiss Wentzel-Viljoen, Reneé Blaauw
OBJECTIVE: To develop health-endorsement logos (HEL) for food products indicating healthy choices based on the South African nutrient profile model and to pilot test these logos with consumers. DESIGN: Multistage mixed-methods design. SETTING: Cape Town, South Africa. SUBJECTS: Nine focus group discussions (FGD) were conducted with adult consumers to explore what types of HEL are preferred and why. Based on the findings, ten HEL were designed by a graphic design team...
February 19, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453936/a-new-method-for-the-rapid-characterization-of-root-growth-and-distribution-using-digital-image-correlation
#2
Tan Bao, Garrett W Melenka, Megan K Ljubotina, Jason P Carey, James F Cahill
Rapidly determining root growth patterns is biologically important and technically challenging. Current methods focus on direct observation of roots and require destructive excavations or time-consuming root tracing. We developed a novel methodology based on analyzing soil particle displacement, rather than direct observation of roots. This inferred root growth method uses digital image correlation (DIC) analysis, an established and high-throughput method used in many engineering and science disciplines. By applying DIC analyses to repeated images of plants grown in clear window boxes, we produced visually intuitive and quantifiable strain maps, indicating the magnitude and direction of soil movement...
February 17, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433283/potential-application-of-lipid-organogels-for-food-industry
#3
REVIEW
Kamila Ferreira Chaves, Daniel Barrera-Arellano, Ana Paula Badan Ribeiro
Controversial issues regarding the role of trans fatty acids in food have led to progressive changes in the legislation of several countries to include more information for consumers. In response, the industries decided to gradually replace trans fat in various products with the development of fatty bases of equivalent functionality and economic viability to partially hydrogenated fats, causing, however, a substantial increase in the content of saturated fatty acids in foods. Today, the lipid science aims to define alternatives to a problem that is widely discussed by health organizations worldwide: limit the saturated fat content in food available to the population...
March 2018: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425378/government-cloud-computing-policies-potential-opportunities-for-advancing-military-biomedical-research
#4
Frank J Lebeda, Jeffrey J Zalatoris, Julia B Scheerer
Introduction: This position paper summarizes the development and the present status of Department of Defense (DoD) and other government policies and guidances regarding cloud computing services. Due to the heterogeneous and growing biomedical big datasets, cloud computing services offer an opportunity to mitigate the associated storage and analysis requirements. Having on-demand network access to a shared pool of flexible computing resources creates a consolidated system that should reduce potential duplications of effort in military biomedical research...
February 7, 2018: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417916/prestige-asymmetry-in-american-physics-aspirations-applications-and-the-purloined-letter-effect
#5
Joseph D Martin
Argument Why do similar scientific enterprises garner unequal public approbation? High energy physics attracted considerable attention in the late-twentieth-century United States, whereas condensed matter physics - which occupied the greater proportion of US physicists - remained little known to the public, despite its relevance to ubiquitous consumer technologies. This paper supplements existing accounts of this much remarked-upon prestige asymmetry by showing that popular emphasis on the mundane technological offshoots of condensed matter physics and its focus on human-scale phenomena have rendered it more recondite than its better-known sibling field...
December 2017: Science in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417740/the-clinical-educator-and-complexity-a-review
#6
REVIEW
Adrian Schoo, Koshila Kumar
BACKGROUND: Complexity science perspectives have helped in examining fundamental assumptions about learning and teaching in the health professions. The implications of complexity thinking for how we understand the role and development of the clinical educator is less well articulated. This review article outlines: the key principles of complexity science; a conceptual model that situates the clinical educator in a complex system; and the implications for the individual, organisation and the system...
February 8, 2018: Clinical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411097/-big-data-in-imaging
#7
REVIEW
Philipp Sewerin, Benedikt Ostendorf, Axel J Hueber, Arnd Kleyer
Until now, most major medical advancements have been achieved through hypothesis-driven research within the scope of clinical trials. However, due to a multitude of variables, only a certain number of research questions could be addressed during a single study, thus rendering these studies expensive and time consuming. Big data acquisition enables a new data-based approach in which large volumes of data can be used to investigate all variables, thus opening new horizons. Due to universal digitalization of the data as well as ever-improving hard- and software solutions, imaging would appear to be predestined for such analyses...
February 6, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Rheumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407475/systematic-review-and-health-risk-assessment-of-arsenic-and-lead-in-the-fished-shrimps-from-the-persian-gulf
#8
Yadolah Fakhri, Anoushiravan Mohseni-Bandpei, Gea Oliveri Conti, Margherita Ferrante, Antonio Cristaldi, Ali Khani Jeihooni, Maryam Karimi Dehkordi, Abdolazim Alinejad, Hassan Rasoulzadeh, Seyed Mohsen Mohseni, Maryam Sarkhosh, Hassan Keramati, Bigard Moradi, Nazak Amanidaz, Zahra Baninameh
The ingestion of heavy metals through contaminated seafood can causes significant outcomes on human health. In recent years, consume fishes and shrimps has increased in Iran, and several study about heavy metals content in fishes and shrimps from Persian Gulf were carried out to check their food safety. The aims of these systematic reviews and meta-analysis was to summarize the evidence on the relation of the intakes of Arsenic (As) and lead (Pb) levels, based on the origin and sub-groups of shrimp species consumed, Hence that we can estimate the risk of oral cancer induced by Pb and As in these groups of shrimp from the persian gulf...
January 31, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404576/effect-of-hot-tea-consumption-and-its-interactions-with-alcohol-and-tobacco-use-on-the-risk-for-esophageal-cancer-a-population-based-cohort-study
#9
Canqing Yu, Haijing Tang, Yu Guo, Zheng Bian, Ling Yang, Yiping Chen, Aiyu Tang, Xue Zhou, Xu Yang, Junshi Chen, Zhengming Chen, Jun Lv, Liming Li
Background: Although consumption of tea at high-temperatures has been suggested as a risk factor for esophageal cancer, an association has not been observed consistently, and whether any relationship is independent of alcohol and tobacco exposure has not been evaluated. Objective: To examine whether high-temperature tea drinking, along with the established risk factors of alcohol consumption and smoking, is associated with esophageal cancer risk. Design: China Kadoorie Biobank, a prospective cohort study established during 2004 to 2008...
February 6, 2018: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402857/association-between-comt-polymorphism-val158met-and-opioid-consumption-in-patients-with-postoperative-pain-a-meta-analysis
#10
Bo Hu, Xiaomin Zhang, Guangtao Xu, Qinmei Zhang, Ping Qian, Shengbing Liu, Jia Zhu, Ruilin Shen
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Several factors influencing postoperative pain and the effect of opioid analgesics have been investigated on an individual level. The aim of this study was to clarify the impact of catecholamine-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene Val158Met on opioid consumption in postoperative patients. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature up to September 30, 2017, were performed by using PubMed, Cochrane Library, ISI Web of Science, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) database...
January 25, 2018: Neuro-Signals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389640/protected-designation-of-origin-pdo-protected-geographical-indication-pgi-and-traditional-speciality-guaranteed-tsg-a-bibiliometric-analysis
#11
REVIEW
Claudia Dias, Luís Mendes
Despite the importance of the literature on food quality labels in the European Union (PDO, PGI and TSG), our search did not find any review joining the various research topics on this subject. This study aims therefore to consolidate the state of academic research in this field, and so the methodological option was to elaborate a bibliometric analysis resorting to the term co-occurrence technique. Analysis was made of 501 articles on the ISI Web of Science database, covering publications up to 2016. The results of the bibliometric analysis allowed identification of four clusters: "Protected Geographical Indication", "Certification of Olive Oil and Cultivars", "Certification of Cheese and Milk" and "Certification and Chemical Composition"...
January 2018: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389634/biocontrol-strategies-for-mediterranean-style-fermented-sausages
#12
REVIEW
Márcia Oliveira, Vânia Ferreira, Rui Magalhães, Paula Teixeira
Naturally fermented meat sausages have a long tradition in Mediterranean countries and are one of the most important groups of traditional foods consumed throughout Europe. Despite all the advances in food science and technology and increased regulatory requirements and concerns for safety and quality during the last decades, the challenge to control important foodborne pathogens in this type of meat products still persists. Simultaneously, growing consumer interest in safe, high quality and minimal processed products, with less additives/preservatives have driven the food industry and scientists in a crusade for innovative technologies to maintain the safety of these products by natural means...
January 2018: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386350/a-universal-standard-for-the-validation-of-blood-pressure-measuring-devices-association-for-the-advancement-of-medical-instrumentation-european-society-of-hypertension-international-organization-for-standardization-aami-esh-iso-collaboration-statement
#13
George S Stergiou, Bruce Alpert, Stephan Mieke, Roland Asmar, Neil Atkins, Siegfried Eckert, Gerhard Frick, Bruce Friedman, Thomas Graßl, Tsutomu Ichikawa, John P Ioannidis, Peter Lacy, Richard McManus, Alan Murray, Martin Myers, Paolo Palatini, Gianfranco Parati, David Quinn, Josh Sarkis, Andrew Shennan, Takashi Usuda, Jiguang Wang, Colin O Wu, Eoin O'Brien
In the past 30 years, several organizations, such as the US Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI), the British Hypertension Society, the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) Working Group on Blood Pressure (BP) Monitoring, and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), have developed protocols for clinical validation of BP measuring devices. However, it is recognized that science, as well as patients, consumers, and manufacturers, would be best served if all BP measuring devices were assessed for accuracy according to an agreed single validation protocol that had global acceptance...
January 31, 2018: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385587/social-and-behavioral-science-priorities-for-genomic-translation
#14
Laura M Koehly, Susan Persky, Erica Spotts, Gillian Acca
This commentary highlights the essential role of the social and behavioral sciences for genomic translation, and discusses some priority research areas in this regard. The first area encompasses genetics of behavioral, social, and neurocognitive factors, and how integration of these relationships might impact the development of treatments and interventions. The second area includes the contributions that social and behavioral sciences make toward the informed translation of genomic developments. Further, there is a need for behavioral and social sciences to inform biomedical research for effective implementation...
January 29, 2018: Translational Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384983/a-universal-standard-for-the-validation-of-blood-pressure-measuring-devices-association-for-the-advancement-of-medical-instrumentation-european-society-of-hypertension-international-organization-for-standardization-aami-esh-iso-collaboration-statement
#15
George S Stergiou, Bruce Alpert, Stephan Mieke, Roland Asmar, Neil Atkins, Siegfried Eckert, Gerhard Frick, Bruce Friedman, Thomas Graßl, Tsutomu Ichikawa, John P Ioannidis, Peter Lacy, Richard McManus, Alan Murray, Martin Myers, Paolo Palatini, Gianfranco Parati, David Quinn, Josh Sarkis, Andrew Shennan, Takashi Usuda, Jiguang Wang, Colin O Wu, Eoin O'Brien
: In the last 30 years, several organizations, such as the US Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI), the British Hypertension Society, the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) Working Group on Blood Pressure (BP) Monitoring and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) have developed protocols for clinical validation of BP measuring devices. However, it is recognized that science, as well as patients, consumers and manufacturers would be best served if all BP measuring devices were assessed for accuracy according to an agreed single validation protocol that had global acceptance...
March 2018: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384019/the-tear-turnover-and-tear-clearance-tests-a-review
#16
Izabela K Garaszczuk, Robert Montes Mico, D Robert Iskander, Alejandro Cerviño Expósito
The aim is to provide a summary of methods available for the assessment of tear turnover and tear clearance rates. The review defines tear clearance and tear turnover and describes their implication for ocular surface health. Additionally, it describes main types of techniques for measuring tear turnover, including fluorescein tear clearance tests, techniques utilizing electromagnetic spectrum and tracer molecule and novel experimental techniques utilizing optical coherence tomography and fluorescein profilometry...
January 31, 2018: Expert Review of Medical Devices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382677/computerised-decision-to-reduce-inappropriate-medication-in-the-elderly-a-systematic-review-with-meta-analysis-protocol
#17
Luís Monteiro, Tiago Maricoto, Isabel S Solha, Matilde Monteiro-Soares, Carlos Martins
INTRODUCTION: Life expectancy continues to increase in developed countries. Elderly people are more likely to consume more medications and become vulnerable to age-related changes in drugs' pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Recent studies have identified opportunities and barriers for deprescribing potentially inappropriate medications. It has already been demonstrated that computerised decision support systems can reduce physician orders for unnecessary tests. We will systematically review the available literature to understand if computerised decision support is effective in reducing the use of potentially inappropriate medications, thus having an impact on health outcomes...
January 30, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29376638/environmental-impacts-by-fragments-released-from-nanoenabled-products-a-multiassay-multimaterial-exploration-by-the-sun-approach
#18
Mónica J B Amorim, Sijie Lin, Karsten Schlich, José M Navas, Andrea Brunelli, Nicole Neubauer, Klaus Vilsmeier, Anna L Costa, Andreas Gondikas, Tian Xia, Liliana Galbis, Elena Badetti, Antonio Marcomini, Danail Hristozov, Frank von der Kammer, Kerstin Hund-Rinke, Janeck J Scott-Fordsmand, André Nel, Wendel Wohlleben
Nanoenabled products (NEPs) have numerous outdoor uses in construction, transportation or consumer scenarios, and there is evidence that their fragments are released in the environment at low rates. We hypothesized that the lower surface availability of NEPs fragment reduced their environmental effects with respect to pristine nanomaterials. This hypothesis was explored by testing fragments generated by intentional micronisation ("the SUN approach"; Nowack et al. Meeting the Needs for Released Nanomaterials Required for Further Testing: The SUN Approach...
January 27, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373023/understanding-conversion-type-electrodes-for-lithium-rechargeable-batteries
#19
Seung-Ho Yu, Xinran Feng, Na Zhang, Jeesoo Seok, Héctor D Abruña
The need/desire to lower the consumption of fossil fuels and its environmental consequences has reached unprecedented levels in recent years. A global effort has been undertaken to develop advanced renewable energy generation and especially energy storage technologies, as they would enable a dramatic increase in the effective and efficient use of renewable (and often intermittent) energy sources. The development of electrical energy storage (EES) technologies with high energy and power densities, long life, low cost, and safe use represents a challenge from both the fundamental science and technological application points of view...
January 26, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364498/synthetic-cathinones-related-fatalities-an-update
#20
S Zaami, R Giorgetti, S Pichini, F Pantano, E Marinelli, F P Busardò
OBJECTIVE: Synthetic cathinones, more commonly known as "bath salts", are synthetic drugs chemically related to cathinone, a psychostimulant found in the khat plant. They are the first most consumed products among new psychoactive substances, which cause psychostimulant and hallucinogenic effects determining a number of fatalities worldwide.  In this paper, we have systematically reviewed cases of synthetic cathinones-related fatalities analytically confirmed, which have occurred in the last few years...
January 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
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