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Consumer science

Mirta Crovetto, Macarena Valladares, Valentina Espinoza, Francisco Mena, Gloria Oñate, Macarena Fernandez, Samuel Durán-Agüero
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to characterize and compare eating patterns of university students in Chile, by sex and body weight, body mass index, and nutritional status. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study. University students (n = 1454) of Chile were evaluated. A self-assessment survey was used to evaluate healthy eating habits using a questionnaire with values between 1 (do not consume) and 5 (consume) for a total of 9 to 45 points (higher values represent better eating habits)...
February 19, 2018: Nutrition
Mary Grace Umlauf, Yuki Mochizuki
The purpose of this report is to inform and warn academics about practices used by cybercriminals who seek to profit from unwary scholars and undermine the industry of science. This report describes the signs, symptoms, characteristics, and consequences of predatory publishing and related forms of consumer fraud. Methods to curb these cybercrimes include educating scholars and students about tactics used by predatory publishers; institutional changes in how faculty are evaluated using publications; soliciting cooperation from the industries that support academic publishing and indexing to curb incorporation of illegitimate journals; and taking an offensive position by reporting these consumer fraud crimes to the authorities...
April 2018: International Journal of Nursing Practice
Reginald Boersma, Bart Gremmen
We investigate how people form attitudes and make decisions without having extensive knowledge about a technology. We argue that it is impossible for people to carefully study all technologies they encounter and that they are forced to use inferences to make decisions. When people are confronted with an intangible abstract technology, the only visible attribute is the name. This name can determine which inferences a person will use. Considering these inferences is important: first, a name will reach consumers before detailed information, if any, will...
April 17, 2018: Life Sciences, Society and Policy
Rakhi Chakraborty, Swarnendu Roy
The Himalayas have provided shelter to the various communities for thousands of years and have remained the cradle for the origin of diverse cultures and traditions. The Himalayan belt is rich in biodiversity and have ushered mankind with numerous gifts for survival and existence. The art of pickling is believed to have developed independently among the different communities of this region. In this region, the main meal is supplemented with pickles or achar that not only adds flavour, but also enhances the value of the meal and often comes with inherent health benefits...
May 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Jillian Conte, Margret J Potoczniak, Shanan S Tobe
Real-time PCR (qPCR) is widely used in the life sciences. For quantifying DNA, a standard curve is required. Common methods for standard development are time consuming, costly, necessitate a specific skill set, and pose a contamination risk. Using a targeted synthetic oligonucleotide, such as a gBlocks® Gene Fragment, overcomes these drawbacks and provides researchers an accurate and quick solution to standard development. Here, we demonstrate that using a gBlocks fragment as a standard provides comparable sensitivity, reliability, and assay performance to a purified amplicon standard...
April 2018: BioTechniques
Vaishali Vasant Koranne, Amit A Mhapuskar, Swati P Marathe, Sameer A Joshi, Rashmi S Saddiwal, Shams Ul Nisa
Background: Age estimation from tooth coronal index (TCI) using intraoral periapical radiographs by paralleling technique based on a reduction in the size of the dental pulp cavity with advancing age as a result of secondary dentin deposition. Aim and Objectives: The aim of this study is to estimate age for Indian adults using radiographs of mandibular first molar and second premolar teeth using coronal pulp cavity index. Materials and Methods: The study material consists of 400 intraoral periapical radiographs of mandibular second premolar and mandibular first molar from enrolled participants of either gender in the age group of 20-60 years...
September 2017: Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences
Howarth Bouis
Fundamentally, the prevalence of mineral and vitamin deficiencies is high in developing countries due to the fact that agricultural systems do not produce sufficient foods rich in minerals and vitamins. Biofortification involves breeding staple food crops to increase their micronutrient content, targeting staple foods widely consumed by low-income families globally. In so doing, biofortification contributes to solving the underlying problem of mineral and vitamin deficiencies by increasing the amount of iron, zinc, and provitamin A produced by food systems...
April 13, 2018: World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics
Wen Chyan, Henry R Kilgore, Ronald T Raines
Dextrans are a versatile class of polysaccharides with applications that span medicine, cell biology, food science, and consumer goods. Here, we report on a new type of large monofunctionalized dextran that exhibits unusual properties: efficient cytosolic and nuclear uptake. This dextran permeates various human cell types without the use of transfection agents, electroporation, or membrane perturbation. Cellular uptake occurs primarily through active transport via receptor-mediated processes. These monofunctionalized dextrans could serve as intracellular delivery platforms for drugs or other cargos...
April 12, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Elnaz Bagheri, Khalil Abnous, Mona Alibolandi, Mohammad Ramezani, Seyed Mohammad Taghdisi
Utilization of traditional analytical techniques is limited because they are generally time-consuming and require high consumption of reagents, complicated sample preparation and expensive equipment. Therefore, it is of great interest to achieve sensitive, rapid and simple detection methods. It is believed that nucleic acids assays, especially aptamers, are very important in modern life sciences for target detection and biological analysis. Aptamers and DNA-based sensors have been widely used for the design of various sensors owing to their unique features...
April 3, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
F Biscarini, P Cozzi, P Orozco-Ter Wengel
The 'omics revolution has made a large amount of sequence data available to researchers and the industry. This has had a profound impact in the field of bioinformatics, stimulating unprecedented advancements in this discipline. Mostly, this is usually looked at from the perspective of human 'omics, in particular human genomics. Plant and animal genomics, however, have also been deeply influenced by next-generation sequencing technologies, with several genomics applications now popular among researchers and the breeding industry...
April 6, 2018: Animal Genetics
George A Brooks
Once thought to be a waste product of anaerobic metabolism, lactate is now known to form continuously under aerobic conditions. Shuttling between producer and consumer cells fulfills at least three purposes for lactate: (1) a major energy source, (2) the major gluconeogenic precursor, and (3) a signaling molecule. "Lactate shuttle" (LS) concepts describe the roles of lactate in delivery of oxidative and gluconeogenic substrates as well as in cell signaling. In medicine, it has long been recognized that the elevation of blood lactate correlates with illness or injury severity...
April 3, 2018: Cell Metabolism
Lidia Nazaret Gómez-Arribas, Elena Benito-Peña, María Del Carmen Hurtado-Sánchez, María Cruz Moreno-Bondi
Food allergy is one of the major health threats for sensitized individuals all over the world and, over the years, the food industry has made significant efforts and investments to offer safe foods for allergic consumers. The analysis of the concentration of food allergen residues in processing equipment, in raw materials or in the final product, provides analytical information that can be used for risk assessment as well as to ensure that food-allergic consumers get accurate and useful information to make their food choices and purchasing decisions...
April 4, 2018: Sensors
Eric Mellink, Mónica E Riojas-López, José Antonio Rivera-Villanueva
BACKGROUND: The Guachichiles were a group of Chichimeca people that inhabited the southern and central parts of the Mexican Plateau. In the southern area of their distribution, they occupied and used the tunales, extensive forests of arborescent nopales (Opuntia spp.). Their pre-Columbian distribution was dissected by the Royal Silver Road established by the Spaniards, and this lead to them being main protagonists in the so-called Chichimeca War, during the sixteenth century. With very little first-hand documentation, the Guachichiles were described as savage, warring, primitive, hunting nomads, but little efforts have been done to understand their daily life habits...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
Hassan Keramati, Raheb Ghorbani, Yadolah Fakhri, Amin Mousavi Khaneghah, Gea Oliveri Conti, Margherita Ferrante, Mansour Ghaderpoori, Mahmoud Taghavi, Zahra Baninameh, Abotaleb Bay, Mohammad Golaki, Bigard Moradi
The current study was performed to review the conducted studies regarding the concentration of radon 222 in the tap drinking water; furthermore, by estimation of ingestion and inhalation effective dose, the health risk assessment in the adults and children using MCS technique was assessed. All related studies published among January 1990 to October 2016; were screened in the available databases such as Web of Science, PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, SID, and Irandoc. The total effective dose was estimated by calculating Eing (Effective dose of ingestion) and Einh (Effective dose of inhalation) by Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) method...
March 30, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Claudia Gonzalez Viejo, Sigfredo Fuentes, Damir D Torrico, Kate Howell, Frank R Dunshea
Sensory attributes of beer are directly linked to perceived foam-related parameters and beer color. The aim of this study was to develop an objective predictive model using machine learning modeling to assess the intensity levels of sensory descriptors in beer using the physical measurements of color and foam-related parameters. A robotic pourer (RoboBEER), was used to obtain 15 color and foam-related parameters from 22 different commercial beer samples. A sensory session using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA® ) with trained panelists was conducted to assess the intensity of 10 beer descriptors...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Food Science
P Wesley Schultz, Jessica M Nolan, Robert B Cialdini, Noah J Goldstein, Vladas Griskevicius
The influence of social norms on behavior has been a longstanding storyline within social psychology. Our 2007 Psychological Science publication presented a new rendition of this classic telling. The reported field experiment showed that social norms could be leveraged to promote residential energy conservation, but importantly, the descriptive norm was shown to increase consumption for low-consuming households. This potential destructive effect of social norms was eliminated with the addition of an injunctive message of social approval for using less energy...
March 2018: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
Israel Halperin
Despite the progress made by the scientific exercise community in collaborating and communicating with non-scientist coaches, there is room for improvement. Coaches find research difficult to understand, feel that their interests are not being addressed by exercise research, and rely on peer-discussion to further their coaching knowledge base while consuming little peer-reviewed articles. One useful strategy to bridge the science-practice gap is with case-studies. In addition to furthering our understanding of the physiology, psychology, and training schedules of elite athletes, case studies can serve 1) as a useful communication channel with coaches if presented as narratives and 2) to establish and strengthen relationships between scientists and coaches leading to fruitful research collaborations...
March 27, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Justin D Smith, Kaitlyn N Egan, Zorash Montaño, Spring Dawson-McClure, Danielle E Jake-Schoffman, Madeline Larson, Sara M St George
Considering the vast ongoing challenge of preventing obesity, the time has come to reconceptualize and change the way we study the development of obesity in childhood. The developmental cascade model, which refers to the cumulative consequences and spreading downstream effects of risk and protective factors, offers a longitudinal framework for understanding obesity. This perspective elucidates the way an accumulation of risk factors, across and within biopsychosocial spheres and phases of development, can propel individuals toward obesity...
March 27, 2018: Health Psychology Review
Georgina M S Ross, Monique G E G Bremer, Michel W F Nielen
In this critical review, we provide a comprehensive overview of immunochemical food allergen assays and detectors in the context of their user-friendliness, through their connection to smartphones. Smartphone-based analysis is centered around citizen science, putting analysis into the hands of the consumer. Food allergies represent a significant worldwide health concern and consumers should be able to analyze their foods, whenever and wherever they are, for allergen presence. Owing to the need for a scientific background, traditional laboratory-based detection methods are generally unsuitable for the consumer...
March 26, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Negar Hamidiyan, Amin Salehi-Abargouei, Zeynab Rezaei, Roohollah Dehghani-Tafti, Fateme Akrami-Mohajeri
Listeria monocytogenes can cause circling disease, encephalitis, meningitis, septicemia, and mastitis in dairy cattle. Contamination from the environment can contaminate foods with Listeria spp. Consumption of foods containing L. monocytogenes can lead to listeriosis in susceptible people (adults with a compromised immune system), pregnant women, and infants. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes in various foods in Iran. We searched PubMed, Science direct, Scopus, Google scholar, and Iranian local databases including Iranian scientific information database and Magiran for relevant studies up to May 2015 using related keywords...
May 2018: Food Research International
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