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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316054/the-effect-of-fluid-intake-following-dehydration-on-subsequent-athletic-and-cognitive-performance-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
REVIEW
Danielle McCartney, Ben Desbrow, Christopher Irwin
BACKGROUND: The deleterious effects of dehydration on athletic and cognitive performance have been well documented. As such, dehydrated individuals are advised to consume fluid in volumes equivalent to 1.25 to 1.5 L kg(-1) body mass (BM) lost to restore body water content. However, individuals undertaking subsequent activity may have limited time to consume fluid. Within this context, the impact of fluid intake practices is unclear. This systematic review investigated the effect of fluid consumption following a period of dehydration on subsequent athletic and cognitive performance...
December 2017: Sports Medicine—Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303099/meet-spinky-an-open-source-spindle-and-k-complex-detection-toolbox-validated-on-the-open-access-montreal-archive-of-sleep-studies-mass
#2
Tarek Lajnef, Christian O'Reilly, Etienne Combrisson, Sahbi Chaibi, Jean-Baptiste Eichenlaub, Perrine M Ruby, Pierre-Emmanuel Aguera, Mounir Samet, Abdennaceur Kachouri, Sonia Frenette, Julie Carrier, Karim Jerbi
Sleep spindles and K-complexes are among the most prominent micro-events observed in electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings during sleep. These EEG microstructures are thought to be hallmarks of sleep-related cognitive processes. Although tedious and time-consuming, their identification and quantification is important for sleep studies in both healthy subjects and patients with sleep disorders. Therefore, procedures for automatic detection of spindles and K-complexes could provide valuable assistance to researchers and clinicians in the field...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295718/the-practice-and-perception-of-precautionary-allergen-labelling-by-the-australasian-food-manufacturing-industry
#3
Giovanni A Zurzolo, Rachel L Peters, Jennifer J Koplin, Maximilian de Courten, Michael L Mathai, Jason A Tye-Din, Mimi L K Tang, Dianne E Campbell, Anne-Louise Ponsonby, Susan L Prescott, Lyle Gurrin, Shyamali Dharmage, Katrina J Allen
BACKGROUND: The precautionary allergen labelling (PAL) and Voluntary Incidental Trace Allergen Labelling (VITAL(®) ) tools were designed by industry to assist consumers with selecting safe foods for consumption. However, a sizeable proportion of food products bear no label and it is unclear whether these products are free from allergens and therefore safe to consume or have simply not undergone a risk assessment and therefore remain unlabelled for that reason. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of unlabelled products that have undergone a risk assessment process and to examine the factors influencing industry's uptake of the VITAL(®) process...
March 14, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290273/from-the-ebm-pyramid-to-the-greek-temple-a-new-conceptual-approach-to-guidelines-as-implementation-tools-in-mental-health
#4
L Salvador-Carulla, S Lukersmith, W Sullivan
Guideline methods to develop recommendations dedicate most effort around organising discovery and corroboration knowledge following the evidence-based medicine (EBM) framework. Guidelines typically use a single dimension of information, and generally discard contextual evidence and formal expert knowledge and consumer's experiences in the process. In recognition of the limitations of guidelines in complex cases, complex interventions and systems research, there has been significant effort to develop new tools, guides, resources and structures to use alongside EBM methods of guideline development...
April 2017: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288686/outcomes-of-dysvascular-partial-foot-amputation-and-how-these-compare-to-transtibial-amputation-a-systematic-review-for-the-development-of-shared-decision-making-resources
#5
Michael P Dillon, Matthew Quigley, Stefania Fatone
BACKGROUND: Dysvascular partial foot amputation (PFA) is a common sequel to advanced peripheral vascular disease. Helping inform difficult discussions between patients and practitioners about the level of PFA, or the decision to have a transtibial amputation (TTA) as an alternative, requires an understanding of the current research evidence on a wide range of topics including wound healing, reamputation, quality of life, mobility, functional ability, participation, pain and psychosocial outcomes, and mortality...
March 14, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276922/science-technology-power-and-sex-prep-and-hiv-positive-gay-men-in-paris
#6
Julien Brisson, Vinh-Kim Nguyen
The pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) drug Truvada is a new HIV prevention technology that is predominantly promoted as relevant to HIV-negative gay men. This paper explores what PrEP represents for HIV-positive gay men living in Paris, based upon data collected through interviews and ethnographic research. While HIV-positive gay men do not directly consume Truvada through PrEP, they nonetheless hold opinions and understandings of this drug, specifically as it relates to their own sexuality. This paper expands the representations and meanings of this new technology in a different light through the voices of gay men living with HIV in Paris...
February 21, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274219/a-household-survey-of-medicine-storage-practices-in-gondar-town-northwestern-ethiopia
#7
Fitsum Sebsibe Teni, Abdrrahman Shemsu Surur, Assefa Belay, Dawit Wondimsigegn, Dessalegn Asmelashe Gelayee, Zewdneh Shewamene, Befikadu Legesse, Eshetie Melese Birru
BACKGROUND: Household surveys are crucial to get accurate information on how medicines are acquired, and used by consumers, as they provide the best evidence in the area. The objective of this study was to document household medicine storage practices in Gondar town, northwestern Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional household survey was conducted from April 5 to May 6, 2015. In the study, 809 households were surveyed from four sub-cities in the town selected through multistage sampling with 771 included in the final analysis...
March 9, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272908/metabolomics-assisted-biotechnological-interventions-for-developing-plant-based-functional-foods-and-nutraceuticals
#8
Arun Kumar, Kareem A Mosa, Liyao Ji, Udaykumar Kage, Dhananjay Dhokane, Shailesh Karre, Deepa Madalageri, Neemisha Pathania
Today, the dramatic changes in types of food consumed have led to an increased burden of chronic diseases. Therefore, the emphasis of food research is not only to ensure quality food that can supply adequate nutrients to prevent nutrition related diseases, but also to ensure overall physical and mental-health. This has led to the concept of functional foods and nutraceuticals (FFNs), which can be ideally produced and delivered through plants. Metabolomics can help in getting the most relevant functional information, and thus has been considered the greatest -OMICS technology to date...
March 8, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266262/using-exposure-bands-for-rapid-decision-making-in-the-risk21-tiered-exposure-assessment
#9
M Dellarco, R Zaleski, B J Gaborek, H Qian, C A Bellin, P Egeghy, N Heard, O Jolliet, D R Lander, N Sunger, K S Stylianou, J Y Tanir
The ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) Risk Assessment in the Twenty-first Century (RISK21) project was initiated to address and catalyze improvements in human health risk assessment. RISK21 is a problem formulation-based conceptual roadmap and risk matrix visualization tool, facilitating transparent evaluation of both hazard and exposure components. The RISK21 roadmap is exposure-driven, that is, exposure is used as the second step (after problem formulation) to define and focus the assessment...
February 10, 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264720/improving-and-sustaining-delivery-of-cpt-for-ptsd-in-mental-health-systems-a-cluster-randomized-trial
#10
Shannon Wiltsey Stirman, Erin P Finley, Norman Shields, Joan Cook, Rachel Haine-Schlagel, James F Burgess, Linda Dimeff, Kelly Koerner, Michael Suvak, Cassidy A Gutner, David Gagnon, Tasoula Masina, Matthew Beristianos, Kera Mallard, Vanessa Ramirez, Candice Monson
BACKGROUND: Large-scale implementation of evidence-based psychotherapies (EBPs) such as cognitive processing therapy (CPT) for posttraumatic stress disorder can have a tremendous impact on mental and physical health, healthcare utilization, and quality of life. While many mental health systems (MHS) have invested heavily in programs to implement EBPs, few eligible patients receive EBPs in routine care settings, and clinicians do not appear to deliver the full treatment protocol to many of their patients...
March 6, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264497/nattokinase-an-oral-antithrombotic-agent-for-the-prevention-of-cardiovascular-disease
#11
REVIEW
Yunqi Weng, Jian Yao, Sawyer Sparks, Kevin Yueju Wang
Natto, a fermented soybean product, has been consumed as a traditional food in Japan for thousands of years. Nattokinase (NK), a potent blood-clot dissolving protein used for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, is produced by the bacterium Bacillus subtilis during the fermentation of soybeans to produce Natto. NK has been extensively studied in Japan, Korea, and China. Recently, the fibrinolytic (anti-clotting) capacity of NK has been recognized by Western medicine. The National Science Foundation in the United States has investigated and evaluated the safety of NK...
February 28, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261319/non-destructive-determination-of-floral-staging-in-cereals-using-x-ray-micro-computed-tomography-%C3%A2%C2%B5ct
#12
Saoirse R Tracy, José Fernández Gómez, Craig J Sturrock, Zoe A Wilson, Alison C Ferguson
BACKGROUND: Accurate floral staging is required to aid research into pollen and flower development, in particular male development. Pollen development is highly sensitive to stress and is critical for crop yields. Research into male development under environmental change is important to help target increased yields. This is hindered in monocots as the flower develops internally in the pseudostem. Floral staging studies therefore typically rely on destructive analysis, such as removal from the plant, fixation, staining and sectioning...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259786/new-methodology-for-mechanical-characterization-of-human-superficial-facial-tissue-anisotropic-behaviour-in-vivo
#13
C Then, B Stassen, K Depta, G Silber
Mechanical characterization of human superficial facial tissue has important applications in biomedical science, computer assisted forensics, graphics, and consumer goods development. Specifically, the latter may include facial hair removal devices. Predictive accuracy of numerical models and their ability to elucidate biomechanically relevant questions depends on the acquisition of experimental data and mechanical tissue behavior representation. Anisotropic viscoelastic behavioral characterization of human facial tissue, deformed in vivo with finite strain, however, is sparse...
February 21, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257498/text-mining-for-improved-exposure-assessment
#14
Kristin Larsson, Simon Baker, Ilona Silins, Yufan Guo, Ulla Stenius, Anna Korhonen, Marika Berglund
Chemical exposure assessments are based on information collected via different methods, such as biomonitoring, personal monitoring, environmental monitoring and questionnaires. The vast amount of chemical-specific exposure information available from web-based databases, such as PubMed, is undoubtedly a great asset to the scientific community. However, manual retrieval of relevant published information is an extremely time consuming task and overviewing the data is nearly impossible. Here, we present the development of an automatic classifier for chemical exposure information...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250099/computing-exponentially-faster-implementing-a-non-deterministic-universal-turing-machine-using-dna
#15
Andrew Currin, Konstantin Korovin, Maria Ababi, Katherine Roper, Douglas B Kell, Philip J Day, Ross D King
The theory of computer science is based around universal Turing machines (UTMs): abstract machines able to execute all possible algorithms. Modern digital computers are physical embodiments of classical UTMs. For the most important class of problem in computer science, non-deterministic polynomial complete problems, non-deterministic UTMs (NUTMs) are theoretically exponentially faster than both classical UTMs and quantum mechanical UTMs (QUTMs). However, no attempt has previously been made to build an NUTM, and their construction has been regarded as impossible...
March 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231290/mapping-the-sensory-perception-of-apple-using-descriptive-sensory-evaluation-in-a-genome-wide-association-study
#16
Beatrice Amyotte, Amy J Bowen, Travis Banks, Istvan Rajcan, Daryl J Somers
Breeding apples is a long-term endeavour and it is imperative that new cultivars are selected to have outstanding consumer appeal. This study has taken the approach of merging sensory science with genome wide association analyses in order to map the human perception of apple flavour and texture onto the apple genome. The goal was to identify genomic associations that could be used in breeding apples for improved fruit quality. A collection of 85 apple cultivars was examined over two years through descriptive sensory evaluation by a trained sensory panel...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231289/rehr-an-r-package-for-manipulating-and-analysing-electronic-health-record-data
#17
David A Springate, Rosa Parisi, Ivan Olier, David Reeves, Evangelos Kontopantelis
Research with structured Electronic Health Records (EHRs) is expanding as data becomes more accessible; analytic methods advance; and the scientific validity of such studies is increasingly accepted. However, data science methodology to enable the rapid searching/extraction, cleaning and analysis of these large, often complex, datasets is less well developed. In addition, commonly used software is inadequate, resulting in bottlenecks in research workflows and in obstacles to increased transparency and reproducibility of the research...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229194/screening-level-assessment-of-metal-concentrations-in-streambed-sediments-and-floodplain-soils-within-the-grand-lake-watershed-in-northeastern-oklahoma-usa
#18
Ean M Garvin, Cas F Bridge, Meredith S Garvin
Metal releases have been received by the Grand Lake watershed from the Tri-State Mining District (TSMD) since the mid 1800s. To address data gaps in metal distributions in the Oklahoma portion of the watershed, streambed sediment and floodplain soil was sampled on various streams. The <63-µm fraction was analyzed for Cd, Pb, and Zn concentrations by portable X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Mean metal concentration results at reference transects indicated that background sediment/soil concentrations for Cd, Pb, and Zn within the watershed were 0...
February 22, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228185/knowledge-of-childhood-materiality-text-and-the-history-of-science-an-interdisciplinary-round-table-discussion
#19
Felix Rietmann, Mareike Schildmann, Caroline Arni, Daniel Thomas Cook, Davide Giuriato, Novina Göhlsdorf, Wangui Muigai
This round table discussion takes the diversity of discourse and practice shaping modern knowledge about childhood as an opportunity to engage with recent historiographical approaches in the history of science. It draws attention to symmetries and references among scientific, material, literary and artistic cultures and their respective forms of knowledge. The five participating scholars come from various fields in the humanities and social sciences and allude to historiographical and methodological questions through a range of examples...
February 23, 2017: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228138/current-management-practices-for-patients-presenting-with-low-back-pain-to-a-large-emergency-department-in-canada
#20
Matthew L Nunn, Jill A Hayden, Kirk Magee
BACKGROUND: Low back pain (LBP) is one of the leading causes of disability. Presentations to the emergency department (ED) are common and consume significant healthcare resources. However, treatment of patients with LBP is variable and highly physician dependent. Our study objective was to describe the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients presenting to the ED with LBP, the diagnostic strategies employed by ED physicians, and the subsequent management. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study using clinical and electronic health data at the Queen Elizabeth II Health Science Center's Charles V...
February 23, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
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