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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431794/challenging-the-addiction-health-binary-with-assemblage-thinking-an-analysis-of-consumer-accounts
#1
David Moore, Kiran Pienaar, Ella Dilkes-Frayne, Suzanne Fraser
Critical analyses of drug use and 'addiction' have identified a series of binary oppositions between addiction and free will, independence, self-control, responsibility, productivity and autonomy. This critical work has also examined how science, policy and popular discourses frequently characterise addiction as antithetical to health and well-being. Furthermore, those diagnosed with addiction are often understood as indifferent to health and well-being, or as lacking the knowledge or desire required to maintain them...
April 18, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430088/informatics-for-health-2017-advancing-both-science-and-practice
#2
Philip J Scott, Ronald Cornet, Colin McCowan, Niels Peek, Paolo Fraccaro, Nophar Geifman, Wouter T Gude, William Hulme, Glen P Martin, Richard Williams
INTRODUCTION: The Informatics for Health congress, 24-26 April 2017, in Manchester, UK, brought together the Medical Informatics Europe (MIE) conference and the Farr Institute International Conference. This special issue of the Journal of Innovation in Health Informatics contains 113 presentation abstracts and 149 poster abstracts from the congress. DISCUSSION: The twin programmes of "Big Data" and "Digital Health" are not always joined up by coherent policy and investment priorities...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Innovation in Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428979/use-of-consumer-wearable-devices-to-promote-physical-activity-a-review-of-health-intervention-studies
#3
Steven S Coughlin, Jessica Stewart
BACKGROUND: Although many wearable devices for monitoring and tracking physical activity are available to consumers, relatively few research studies have been conducted to determine their efficacy in promoting health. METHODS: In this article, data on the use of consumer wearable devices in promoting healthy behaviors are summarized based upon bibliographic searches in PubMed and Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection with relevant search terms through September 2016...
November 2016: Journal of Environment and Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420455/nutrient-profiling-for-product-reformulation-public-health-impact-and-benefits-for-the-consumer
#4
Undine Lehmann, Véronique Rheiner Charles, Antonis Vlassopoulos, Gabriel Masset, Jörg Spieldenner
The food industry holds great potential for driving consumers to adopt healthy food choices as (re)formulation of foods can improve the nutritional quality of these foods. Reformulation has been identified as a cost-effective intervention in addressing non-communicable diseases as it does not require significant alterations of consumer behaviour and dietary habits. Nutrient profiling (NP), the science of categorizing foods based on their nutrient composition, has emerged as an essential tool and is implemented through many different profiling systems to guide reformulation and other nutrition policies...
April 19, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417511/algal-supplementation-of-vegetarian-eating-patterns-improves-plasma-and-serum-docosahexaenoic-acid-concentrations-and-omega-3-indices-a-systematic-literature-review
#5
REVIEW
J C Craddock, E P Neale, Y C Probst, G E Peoples
BACKGROUND: Vegetarians are likely to have lower intakes of preformed docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) than omnivorous populations who consume fish and animal products. As such, vegetarian populations have omega-3 indices up to 60% lower than those who consume marine products. Algae, the primary producer of DHA in the marine food chain, offer an alternative source of DHA for those who do not consume marine or animal products. This systematic review aims to examine the evidence for the relationship between supplementation with algal forms of DHA and increased DHA concentrations in vegetarian populations...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413923/knowledge-of-healthy-foods-does-not-translate-to-healthy-snack-consumption-among-exercise-science-undergraduates
#6
Laura H McArthur, Antonette Valentino, Donald Holbert
This cross-sectional survey study compared the on- and off-campus snack choices and related correlates of convenience samples of exercise science (ES) ( n = 165, M = 45%, F = 55%) and non-exercise science (NES) ( n =160, M = 43%, F = 57%) undergraduates. The hypothesis posed was that knowledge of healthy foods will not translate to healthier snack consumption by the ES students, and that the snack choices and related correlates of ES and NES students will be similar. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires completed in classrooms (ES sample) and at high-traffic locations on-campus (NES sample)...
January 1, 2017: Nutrition and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410516/environmental-knowledge-and-attitudes-and-behaviours-towards-energy-consumption
#7
Arminda Paço, Tânia Lavrador
Numerous investigations have arisen in order to study and characterise environmentally friendly consumer profiles, with some authors applying the relationship between knowledge, attitudes and behaviour to this end. The present research approach, based upon the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), seeks to verify the existence of relationships between knowledge and attitudes and between knowledge and environmental behaviour. In this instance, data collection involved a questionnaire aimed at assessing the overall environmental knowledge of respondents as well as their attitudes and behaviours regarding energy issues (savings, consumption, interest, use)...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407174/opinion-versus-evidence-for-the-need-to-move-away-from-animal-testing
#8
Thomas Hartung
Science is based on facts and their discourse. Willingly or unwillingly, facts are mixed with opinion, i.e., views or judgments formed, not necessarily based on fact or knowledge. This is often necessary, where we have controversial facts or no definitive evidence yet, because we need to take decisions or have to prioritize. Evidence-based approaches aim at identifying the facts and their quality objectively and transparently; they are now increasingly embraced in toxicology, especially by employing systematic reviews, meta-analyses, quality scoring, risk-of-bias tools, etc...
2017: ALTEX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403019/food-labeling-issues-in-patients-with-severe-food-allergies-solving-a-hamlet-like-doubt
#9
Vincenzo Fierro, Francesco Di Girolamo, Valeria Marzano, Lamia Dahdah, Maurizio Mennini
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review the laws on labeling in the international community, the difficulties they pose to the food manufacturers to prepare the food labels and the methodologies to determine the concentration of potential allergens in foods. RECENT FINDINGS: European Food Safety Authority and International Life Sciences Institute Europe are evaluating strategies to identify the threshold level of allergen that can trigger a reaction in individuals. The most used techniques to detect the presence of protein in food are Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, polymerase chain reaction and real time polymerase chain reaction...
April 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401016/data-mining-and-medical-world-breast-cancers-diagnosis-treatment-prognosis-and-challenges
#10
Rozita Jamili Oskouei, Nasroallah Moradi Kor, Saeid Abbasi Maleki
The amount of data in electronic and real world is constantly on the rise. Therefore, extracting useful knowledge from the total available data is very important and time consuming task. Data mining has various techniques for extracting valuable information or knowledge from data. These techniques are applicable for all data that are collected inall fields of science. Several research investigations are published about applications of data mining in various fields of sciences such as defense, banking, insurances, education, telecommunications, medicine and etc...
2017: American Journal of Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398594/rapid-in-vitro-screening-for-the-location-dependent-effects-of-unnatural-amino-acids-on-protein-expression-and-activity
#11
Song-Min Schinn, William Bradley, Ashtyn Groesbeck, Jeffrey C Wu, Andrew Broadbent, Bradley C Bundy
The incorporation of unnatural amino acids (uAA) can introduce novel functional groups into proteins site-specifically, with important applications in basic sciences and protein engineering. However, uAA incorporation can impact protein expression and functional activity depending on its location within the protein - a process that is not yet completely understood and difficult to predict. Therefore, practical applications often necessitate a time-consuming optimization of uAA location by individual gene cloning, expressions, purification and evaluations for each location tested...
April 11, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394643/metabolic-effects-of-aspartame-in-adulthood-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-clinical-trials
#12
Natalia Cardoso Santos, Laiza Magalhaes de Araujo, Graziela De Luca Canto, Eliete Neves Silva Guerra, Michella Soares Coelho, Maria de Fatima Borin
BACKGROUND: Data about harms or benefits associated with the consumption of aspartame, a non-nutritive sweetener worldwide consumed, is still controversial. This systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials aimed to assess the effect of aspartame consumption on metabolic parameters related to diabetes and obesity. METHODS: The search was performed on Cochrane, LILACS, PubMed, SCOPUS, Web of Science databases and on a grey literature using Open Grey, Google Scholar and ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global...
April 10, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390459/effectiveness-of-xylitol-in-reducing-dental-caries-in-children
#13
Abdullah A Marghalani, Emilie Guinto, Minhthu Phan, Vineet Dhar, Norman Tinanoff
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of xylitol in reducing dental caries in children compared to no treatment, a placebo, or preventive strategies. METHODS: MEDLINE via PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) were searched from January 1, 1995 through Sept. 26, 2016 for randomized and controlled trials on children consuming xylitol for at least 12 months. The primary endpoint was caries reduction measured by mean decayed, missing, and filled primary and permanent surfaces/ teeth (dmfs/t, DMFS/T, respectively)...
March 15, 2017: Pediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383165/shaping-the-professional-landscape-through-research-advocacy-and-education-an-australian-perspective
#14
Gemma Siemensma, Ann Ritchie, Suzanne Lewis
This article is the first in a new series in this regular feature. The intention of the series is to look at important global developments in health science libraries. Librarians will be invited to share with HILJ readers key initiatives in their country or region. These articles should serve as a road map, describing the key changes in the field and exploring factors driving these changes. We initiate this series with an article by three Australian librarians who use research findings to depict the evolving professional landscape in their country...
April 6, 2017: Health Information and Libraries Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381723/regulatory-science-in-professional-education
#15
Hiroshi Akiyama
 In the field of pharmaceutical sciences, the subject of regulatory science (RS) includes pharmaceuticals, food, and living environments. For pharmaceuticals, considering the balance between efficacy and safety is a point required for public acceptance, and in that balance, more importance is given to efficacy in curing disease. For food, however, safety is the most important consideration for public acceptance because food should be essentially free of risk. To ensure food safety, first, any hazard that is an agent in food or condition of food with the potential to cause adverse health effects should be identified and characterized...
2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377366/the-impact-of-mobile-apps-on-alcohol-use-disorder-a-systematic-review-protocol
#16
Antoine Sa Sawares, Nelson Shen, Yunlin Xue, Alexxa Abi-Jaoude, David Wiljer
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is among the most prevalent mental disorders worldwide and is associated with a diverse range of physical and psychological comorbidities. Despite various types of treatment, there are many barriers to accessing treatment (ie, stigma, cost, accessibility of service, etc). Mobile apps have the potential to overcome these barriers and provide support to those who need it. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the effectiveness of mobile apps in reducing alcohol consumption for individuals with AUD and understand the psychological outcomes of using the apps (ie, client empowerment, self-efficacy, etc)...
April 4, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376785/patients-support-for-health-information-exchange-a-literature-review-and-classification-of-key-factors
#17
Pouyan Esmaeilzadeh, Murali Sambasivan
BACKGROUND: Literature indicates that one of the most important factors affecting the widespread adoption of Health Information Exchange (HIE) is patient support and endorsement. In order to reap all the expected benefits of HIE, patients' acceptance of technology is a challenge that is not fully studied. There are a few studies which have focused on requirements of electronic medical information exchange from consumers' views and expectations. This study is aimed at reviewing the literature to articulate factors that affect patients to support HIE efforts...
April 4, 2017: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371913/consumers-responses-to-health-claims-in-the-context-of-other-on-pack-nutrition-information-a-systematic-review
#18
Zenobia Talati, Simone Pettigrew, Bruce Neal, Helen Dixon, Clare Hughes, Bridget Kelly, Caroline Miller
The presence of health claims on food packaging can positively bias consumers' evaluations of foods. This review examined whether cognitive biases endure when other sources of nutrition information [the nutrition facts panel (NFP) and front-of-pack labels] appear on-pack with health claims. The following databases were searched: Web of Science, Ovid, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, Scopus, ProQuest, and Wiley Online Library. The search terms ("health claim*" OR "nutri* claim") AND ("food label*" OR "front of pack") were used to identify studies...
March 21, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370113/structure-influence-on-mechanical-and-acoustic-properties-of-freeze-dried-gels-obtained-with-the-use-of-hydrocolloids
#19
Agnieszka Ciurzyńska, Agata Marzec, Arleta Mieszkowska, Andrzej Lenart
The influence of the structure formed by the type of hydrocolloids (low-methoxyl pectin, the mixture of xanthan gum, and locust bean gum, and mixture of xanthan gum, and guar gum) and the aeration time (3, 5, 7, and 9 min) on textural properties of freeze-dried gels were investigated. The hardest texture generating the strongest acoustic emission was obtained by freeze-dried pectin gel, characterised by the lowest porosity and the largest pore diameter. Aeration time significantly affected mechanical and acoustic properties of the pectin gel lyophilisate...
April 2017: Journal of Texture Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359773/impact-of-egg-consumption-on-cardiovascular-risk-factors-in-individuals-with-type-2-diabetes-and-at-risk-for-developing-diabetes-a-systematic-review-of-randomized-nutritional-intervention-studies
#20
REVIEW
Caroline Richard, Lisa Cristall, Emily Fleming, Erin D Lewis, Maria Ricupero, René L Jacobs, Catherine J Field
Observational studies have reported inconclusive results regarding the relationship between egg consumption (and dietary cholesterol) and the risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in individuals with type 2 diabetes, which has led to inconsistent recommendations to patients. We reviewed the evidence of egg consumption on major CVD risk factors in individuals with or at risk for type 2 diabetes (prediabetes, insulin resistance or metabolic syndrome). We performed a systematic search in the databases PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science in January 2016...
March 27, 2017: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
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