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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352754/providing-ethical-healthcare-in-resource-poor-environments
#1
Kenneth V Iserson
The ethics of providing health care in resource-poor environments is a complex topic. It implies two related questions: What can we do with the resources on hand? Of all the things we can do, which ones should we do? "Resource-poor" (i.e., resource-challenged, resource-constrained) environments are situations in which clinicians, organizations, or healthcare systems have the knowledge and skills, but not the means, to carry out highly effective and beneficial interventions. Determinants of a population's health often rely less on disease and injury management than on recognizing and meeting their basic needs...
January 19, 2018: HEC Forum: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Hospitals' Ethical and Legal Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351811/rate-and-determinants-of-non-adherence-to-a-gluten-free-diet-and-nutritional-status-assessment-in-children-and-adolescents-with-celiac-disease-in-a-tertiary-brazilian-referral-center-a-cross-sectional-and-retrospective-study
#2
Maraci Rodrigues, Glauce Hiromi Yonaminez, Carla Aline Satiro
BACKGROUND: Compliance with a gluten-free diet (GFD) is difficult at all ages but particularly for teenagers due to social, cultural, economic, and practical pressures. The multidisciplinary team responsible for the treatment of patients with celiac disease and give support to their parents plays a special role on strengthening GFD and assessing the nutritional and physical health. METHODS: A cross-sectional and retrospective study including patients under 20 years of age, with biopsy-confirmed CD, followed regularly at the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Gastroenterology, Hospital das Clínicas, University of Sao Paulo, School of Medicine, Sao Paulo, Brazil, were surveyed using a questionnaire and serologic test applied between November 2011 and February 2012...
January 19, 2018: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349922/association-between-breast-milk-intake-at-9-10%C3%A2-months-of-age-and-growth-and-development-among-malawian-young-children
#3
Chiza Kumwenda, Jaimie Hemsworth, John Phuka, Ulla Ashorn, Mary Arimond, Kenneth Maleta, Elizabeth L Prado, Marjorie J Haskell, Kathryn G Dewey, Per Ashorn
World Health Organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding for infants for the first 6 months of life, followed by introduction of nutritious complementary foods alongside breastfeeding. Breast milk remains a significant source of nourishment in the second half of infancy and beyond; however, it is not clear whether more breast milk is always better. The present study was designed to determine the association between amount of breast milk intake at 9-10 months of age and infant growth and development by 12-18 months of age...
January 19, 2018: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343459/differing-structural-properties-of-foods-affect-the-development-of-mandibular-control-and-muscle-coordination-in-infants-and-young-children
#4
Meg Simione, Chrystel Loret, Benjamin Le Révérend, Brian Richburg, Mirna Del Valle, Marc Adler, Mireille Moser, Jordan R Green
The development of chewing is an essential motor skill that is continually refined throughout early childhood. From a motor control perspective, the advancement of textures is dependent upon the fit between a child's oral anatomic and motor system and food properties. The purpose of this exploratory study is to identify age-related changes in chewing motor coordination and control and to determine if these changes are associated with the differing structural properties of solid foods, as well as to explore the role of explanatory variables such as the emergence of teeth and bite force...
January 14, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342272/daily-decision-making-about-food-during-pregnancy-a-new-zealand-study
#5
Susan Pullon, Angela Ballantyne, Lindsay Macdonald, Christine Barthow, Kristin Wickens, Julian Crane
Pregnancy has always been a life-changing event for women and their families, but societal concern about pregnancy and motherhood has become intense in the digital age. The role of health promotion agencies and others supplying health-related resources about lifestyle behaviours is both important and in need of scrutiny. Ever increasing advice for pregnant women, their families and health professionals, abounds. This study of decision making during pregnancy investigated how women made everyday decisions during pregnancy about food and drink, as well as dietary supplements and medications, alcohol and recreational drugs...
January 12, 2018: Health Promotion International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338585/the-effects-of-a-nutrition-media-literacy-intervention-on-parents-and-youths-communication-about-food
#6
Erica Weintraub Austin, Bruce W Austin, Brian F French, Marilyn A Cohen
Interventions addressing links between media exposure and obesity risk for school-age youth have not explicitly addressed the role of family communication about media. Youths' influence attempts on parents to purchase advertised foods can create conflict and negatively affect parental food choices. This study tested whether a family-based media literacy curriculum improves parents' media management skills and decreases youths' susceptibility to appealing but unrealistic food marketing. A matched-group pretest/posttest field experiment of parent-youth dyads with control group (N = 100 dyads, youth M = 11 years of age) tested the six-session curriculum...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330488/motor-skill-learning-and-reward-consumption-differentially-affect-vta-activation
#7
Susan Leemburg, Tara Canonica, Andreas Luft
Dopamine release from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) terminals in the primary motor cortex (M1) enables motor skill acquisition. Here, we test the hypothesis that dopaminergic VTA neurons projecting to M1 are activated when rewards are obtained during motor skill acquisition, but not during task execution at plateau performance, or by rewards obtained without performing skilled movements. Rats were trained to perform a skilled reaching task for 3 days (acquisition) or 7 days (plateau). In combination with retrograde labelling of VTA-to-M1 projection neurons, double immunofluorescence for c-fos and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) was used to assess activation of dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic VTA neurons...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323865/building-capacity-through-urban-agriculture-report-on-the-ask%C3%A3-y-project
#8
Wanda Martin, Lindsey Vold
INTRODUCTION: Many North American cities have a built environment that provides access to energy-dense food and little opportunity for active living. Urban agriculture contributes to a positive environment involving food plant cultivation that includes processing, storing, distributing and composting. It is a means to increase local food production and thereby improve community health. The purpose of this study was to understand how participating in urban agriculture can help to empower young adults and build capacity for growing food in the city...
January 2018: Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention in Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315948/a-patient-specific-approach-to-developing-an-exclusion-diet-to-manage-food-allergy-in-infants-and-children
#9
Carina Venter, Marion Groetch, Merryn Netting, Rosan Meyer
Food allergy is becoming increasingly common in infants and young children. This paper set out to explain the different factors that should be taken into account during an individualized allergy consultation: Foods to avoid and degree of avoidance, suitable alternatives, self-management skills, co-and cross-reactive allergens and novel allergens alongside the role of the industry in allergen avoidance, importance of nutritional aspects of the diet and the future directions that nutritional guidance make take...
January 8, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310971/the-relationship-of-health-food-literacy-and-salt-awareness-to-daily-sodium-and-potassium-intake-among-a-workplace-population-in-switzerland
#10
X Luta, S Hayoz, C Gréa Krause, K Sommerhalder, E Roos, P Strazzullo, S Beer-Borst
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: High sodium (Na) and low potassium (K) intake are associated with hypertension and CVD risk. This study explored the associations of health literacy (HL), food literacy (FL), and salt awareness with salt intake, K intake, and Na/K ratio in a workplace intervention trial in Switzerland. METHODS AND RESULTS: The study acquired baseline data from 141 individuals, mean age 44.6 years. Na and K intake were estimated from a single 24-h urine collection...
November 13, 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302132/improving-the-use-of-crop-models-for-risk-assessment-and-climate-change-adaptation
#11
Andrew J Challinor, Christoph Müller, Senthold Asseng, Chetan Deva, Kathryn Jane Nicklin, Daniel Wallach, Eline Vanuytrecht, Stephen Whitfield, Julian Ramirez-Villegas, Ann-Kristin Koehler
Crop models are used for an increasingly broad range of applications, with a commensurate proliferation of methods. Careful framing of research questions and development of targeted and appropriate methods are therefore increasingly important. In conjunction with the other authors in this special issue, we have developed a set of criteria for use of crop models in assessments of impacts, adaptation and risk. Our analysis drew on the other papers in this special issue, and on our experience in the UK Climate Change Risk Assessment 2017 and the MACSUR, AgMIP and ISIMIP projects...
January 2018: Agricultural Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283589/experience-with-featural-cue-reliability-influences-featural-and-geometric-cue-use-by-mice-mus-musculus
#12
Kevin Leonard, Na Tian, Tammy L Ivanco, Debbie M Kelly
Orienting is a critical skill for all mobile animals. Two commonly studied visual components used to guide orientation in an environment are geometric (e.g., distance or direction) and featural cues (e.g., color or texture). Previous research has shown that visual-cue use and cue weighing can depend on the navigator's previous experience, the nature and reliability of the cues, and genetic factors. Accordingly, the domestic mouse (Mus musculus) is a species of increasing interest because of its potential as a model for human neurological disorders with associated spatial disorientation, as is seen in Alzheimer's disease...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Comparative Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283040/-just-say-it-like-it-is-use-of-a-community-based-participatory-approach-to-develop-a-technology-driven-food-literacy-program-for-adolescents
#13
Catherine A Wickham, Elena T Carbone
FuelUp&Go! is a technology-driven food literacy program consisting of six in-person skill building sessions as well as fitness trackers, text messages, and a companion website. A community-based participatory research approach was used with adolescents who were recruited to participate in a Kid Council. Qualitative data were collected about the use of surveys, program activities, recipes, technology and text messages, and music and incentives. Changes suggested by Kid Councilmembers informed the design and development of a pilot program...
January 1, 2017: International Quarterly of Community Health Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281596/youth-empowerment-implementation-project-evaluation-results-a-program-designed-to-improve-the-health-and-well-being-of-low-income-african-american-adolescents
#14
Rhonda K Lewis, Felecia A Lee, Kyrah K Brown, Jamie LoCurto, David Stowell, J'Vonnah Maryman, Teresa Lovelady, Glen Williams, DeAndre M Morris, Thoi McNair
Adolescent obesity is a major health issue facing today's youth. This may be the first generation to have a lower life expectancy than their parents. The Youth Empowerment Implementation Project's (YEIP) goal was to increase fruit and vegetable intake, lower junk food consumption, and increase physical activity among low-income African-American youth living in the Midwest. Thirty middle school aged youth participated in an evidenced-based program (i.e., Botvin's Life Skills Training) and were engaged in health education and physical activities...
January 2018: Journal of Prevention & Intervention in the Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278449/process-evaluation-improves-delivery-of-a-nutrition-sensitive-agriculture-programme-in-burkina-faso
#15
Jennifer N Nielsen, Deanna K Olney, Marcellin Ouedraogo, Abdoulaye Pedehombga, Hippolyte Rouamba, Fanny Yago-Wienne
Evidence is emerging from rigorous evaluations about the effectiveness of nutrition-sensitive agriculture programmes in improving nutritional outcomes. Additional evidence can elucidate how different programme components and pathways contribute and can be optimized for impact. The International Food Policy Research Institute, with Helen Keller International, designed a comprehensive framework to evaluate the delivery, utilization, and impact of Helen Keller International's enhanced homestead food production programme in Burkina Faso...
December 26, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246567/the-nutrition-literacy-assessment-instrument-is-a-valid-and-reliable-measure-of-nutrition-literacy-in-adults-with-chronic-disease
#16
Heather D Gibbs, Edward F Ellerbeck, Byron Gajewski, Chuanwu Zhang, Debra K Sullivan
OBJECTIVE: To test the reliability and validity of the Nutrition Literacy Assessment Instrument (NLit) in adult primary care and identify the relationship between nutrition literacy and diet quality. DESIGN: This instrument validation study included a cross-sectional sample participating in up to 2 visits 1 month apart. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: A total of 429 adults with nutrition-related chronic disease were recruited from clinics and a patient registry affiliated with a Midwestern university medical center...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242140/positive-impacts-of-a-vegetable-cooking-skills-program-among-low-income-parents-and-children
#17
Francine Overcash, Allison Ritter, Traci Mann, Elton Mykerezi, Joseph Redden, Aaron Rendahl, Zata Vickers, Marla Reicks
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of a vegetable-focused cooking skills and nutrition program on parent and child psychosocial measures, vegetable liking, variety, and home availability. DESIGN: Baseline and postcourse surveys collected 1-week after the course. SETTING: Low-income communities in Minneapolis-St Paul. PARTICIPANTS: Parent-child dyads (n = 89; one third each Hispanic, African American, and white) with complete pre-post course data; flyer and e-mail recruitment...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242138/a-high-prevalence-of-food-insecurity-among-university-students-in-appalachia-reflects-a-need-for-educational-interventions-and-policy-advocacy
#18
Laura Helena McArthur, Lanae Ball, Ariel C Danek, Donald Holbert
OBJECTIVES: To measure prevalence and correlates of food insecurity among college students in Appalachia, compare food-insecure and food-secure students on correlates, and identify predictor variables. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, online questionnaire. SETTING: University in Appalachia. PARTICIPANTS: Nonprobability, random sample of 1,093 students (317 male [30.1%]; 723 females [68.4%]). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Food insecurity, coping strategies, money expenditure, academic progress, and demographics...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238902/dietary-therapy-for-eosinophilic-esophagitis-elimination-and-reintroduction
#19
REVIEW
Kara L Kliewer, Alison M Cassin, Carina Venter
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a food antigen-mediated disorder of the esophagus characterized by eosinophil predominant inflammation and symptoms of esophageal dysfunction. Dietary antigen elimination induces clinical and histological remission in patients with EoE. The most restrictive of elimination diets (the elemental diet) removes all possible food antigens while empiric elimination diets remove all (or a subset) of food antigens most commonly reported to cause esophageal eosinophilia and food allergies (milk, egg, wheat, soy, peanuts, tree nuts, fish, or legumes)...
December 14, 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229548/tongue-protrusions-modify-the-syntax-of-skilled-reaching-for-food-by-the-mouse-evidence-for-flexibility-in-action-selection-and-shared-hand-mouth-central-modulation-of-action
#20
Ian Q Whishaw, Behroo Mirza Agha, Jessica R Kuntz, Qandeel, Jamshid Faraji, Majid H Mohajerani
Skilled reaching for food by the laboratory mouse has the appearance of an action pattern with a distinctive syntax in which ten submovements occur in an orderly sequence. A mouse locates the food by Sniffing, Lifts, Aims, Advances, and Shapes the hand to Pronate it over a food target that it Grasps, Retracts, and Withdraws to Release to its mouth for eating. The structure of the individual actions in the chain are useful for the study of the mouse motor system and contribute to the use of the mouse as a model of human neurological conditions...
December 8, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
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