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Food skills

Pamela Fergusson, Nicole Greenspan, Lukas Maitland, Rémy Huberdeau
Transgender people are an important group for whom access to healthcare is often problematic. Dietitians need to be aware of key issues in transgender health to provide culturally competent clinical nutritional care. This article serves as a primer, clarifying key terms and concepts, exploring the impact of stigma and discrimination on health and nutrition for people from transgender communities, and offering practical advice for nutritional and other related issues. Education for dietitians both pre- and postqualification is an important part of improving care and building skills and awareness of cultural humility...
March 15, 2018: Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research
Sarah Haemmerli, Corinne Thill, Federica Amici, Trix Cacchione
From early infancy, humans reason about the external world in terms of identifiable, solid, cohesive objects persisting in space and time. This is one of the most fundamental human skills, which may be part of our innate conception of object properties. Although object permanence has been extensively studied across a variety of taxa, little is known about how non-human animals reason about other object properties. In this study, we therefore tested how domestic horses (Equus ferus caballus) intuitively reason about object properties like solidity and height, to locate hidden food...
March 10, 2018: Animal Cognition
Jennifer Utter, Nicole Larson, Melissa N Laska, Megan Winkler, Dianne Neumark-Sztainer
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether perceived cooking skills in emerging adulthood predicts better nutrition a decade later. METHODS: Data were collected as part of the Project Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults longitudinal study. Participants reported on adequacy of cooking skills in 2002-2003 (age 18-23 years) and subsequently reported on nutrition-related outcomes in 2015-2016 (age 30-35 years) (n = 1,158). Separate regression models were used to examine associations between cooking skills at age 18-23 years and each subsequent outcome...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
Pierantonio Parmiani, Cristina Lucchetti, Gianfranco Franchi
Skilled reaching is a complex movement in which a forelimb is extended to grasp food for eating. Video-recordings analysis of control rats enables us to distinguish several components of skilled reaching: Orient, approaching the front wall of the reaching box and poking the nose into the slot to locate the food pellet; Transport, advancing the forelimb through the slot to reach-grasp the pellet; and Withdrawal of the grasped food to eat. Although food location and skilled reaching is guided by olfaction, the importance of whisker/nose tactile sense in rats suggests that this too could play a role in reaching behavior...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Dima Faour-Klingbeil, Ewen C D Todd
Food safety standards are a necessity to protect consumers' health in today's growing global food trade. A number of studies have suggested safety standards can interrupt trade, bringing financial and technical burdens on small as well as large agri-food producers in developing countries. Other examples have shown that economical extension, key intermediaries, and funded initiatives have substantially enhanced the capacities of growers in some countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region to meet the food safety and quality requirements, and improve their access to international markets...
March 3, 2018: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
Laura M Anderson, Thomas P Chacko
Binge eating disorder, food addiction, and dysregulated overeating are common among people with severe obesity and prevalent among bariatric surgery populations. These problematic eating habits share commonalities with other addictions. Effective, holistic self-management is needed to promote long-term weight loss and psychosocial adjustment among patients who are severely obese who undergo surgery, especially those with clinically remarkable levels of binge eating, food addiction, or dysregulated overeating...
January 2018: Journal of Addictions Nursing
Rainier Masa, Gina Chowa, Victor Nyirenda
The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of Chuma na Uchizi, a livelihood intervention for people living with HIV (PLHIV) in rural Eastern Province, Zambia, on food security. The intervention included cash transfers to purchase income-generating assets, access to a savings account, and life-skills training. The study employed a non-equivalent groups design to compare intervention (n = 50) and control participants (n = 51) who were receiving outpatient care from two comparable health facilities in distinct constituencies in the same geographic area...
2018: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
Geoff Bardwell, Solanna Anderson, Lindsey Richardson, Lorna Bird, Hugh Lampkin, Will Small, Ryan McNeil
BACKGROUND: While drug user organizations (DUO) have received public health attention as a means to potentially reduce the harms associated with drug use, there is a lack of research on the compensation and structural forces that promote or inhibit participation in DUO. Against the backdrop of structural vulnerability experienced by people who use drugs (PWUD), we examined the impact of monetary 'volunteer stipends' provided through a DUO and explore their role in providing low-threshold employment opportunities and shaping participation in DUO...
March 1, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Norhidayu Sahimin, Benacer Douadi, Yvonne Ai Lian Lim, Jerzy M Behnke, Siti Nursheena Mohd Zain
The influx of low skilled workers from socioeconomically deprived neighbouring countries to Malaysia has raised concerns about the transmission of communicable gastrointestinal diseases such as giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis to the local population. Therefore, a cross sectional study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of both diseases and the genetic diversity of these pathogens in the migrant population. Microscopic examination of faecal samples from 388 migrant workers involved in five working sectors were screened and 10...
March 1, 2018: Acta Tropica
Cecilia Gardsten, Kerstin Blomqvist, Mikael Rask, Åse Larsson, Agneta Lindberg, Gith Olsson
AIM AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to identify perceived challenges related to self-management among recently diagnosed adults and those with longer experience of type 2 diabetes as a foundation for the future development of a person-centred information and communication technology service. BACKGROUND: Learning self-management of type 2 diabetes includes mastering the skills required to complete complex emotional and physical tasks. A service developed with the participation of stakeholders may be an alternative way to meet rising needs for self-management...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
John P Swaddle, Tessa R Diehl, Capwell E Taylor, Aaron S Fanaee, Jessica L Benson, Neil R Huckstep, Daniel A Cristol
Environmental stressors can negatively affect avian cognitive abilities, potentially reducing fitness, for example by altering response to predators, display to mates, or memory of locations of food. We expand on current knowledge by investigating the effects of dietary mercury, a ubiquitous environmental pollutant and known neurotoxin, on avian cognition. Zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata were dosed for their entire lives with sub-lethal levels of mercury, at the environmentally relevant dose of 1.2 parts per million...
April 2017: Current Zoology
Margaret Raber, Monika Patterson, Wenyan Jia, Mingui Sun, Tom Baranowski
BACKGROUND: Food preparation skills may encourage healthy eating. Traditional assessment of child food preparation employs self- or parent proxy-reporting methods, which are prone to error. The eButton is a wearable all-day camera that has promise as an objective, passive method for measuring child food preparation practices. PURPOSE: This paper explores the feasibility of the eButton to reliably capture home food preparation behaviors and practices in a sample of pre- and early adolescents (ages 9 to 13)...
February 24, 2018: Nutrition Journal
Ashley A Blackwell, Mark Banovetz, Qandeel, Ian Q Whishaw, Douglas G Wallace
Arm and hand use by the mouse have been studied in a variety of tasks in order to understand the structure of skilled movements and motor learning, the anatomy and function of neural pathways, and to develop animal models of neurological conditions. The present study describes string-pulling by the mouse, a behavior in which a mouse uses hand-over-hand movements to pull down a string that hangs from the top of a test cage. Mice both spontaneously string-pull and also string-pull to obtain cashew nuts tied to the end of the string as food reward...
February 20, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Jeffrey M Brunstrom, Bobby K Cheon
Many people struggle to control their food intake and bodyweight. This is often interpreted as evidence that humans are generally predisposed to consume food when it is available, because adiposity offered insurance against the threat of starvation in our ancestral environment. In this paper we suggest that modern humans have actually inherited a far broader range of foraging skills that continue to influence our dietary behaviour. To evaluate this idea, we identify three challenges that would need to be addressed to achieve efficient foraging; (1) monitoring the 'procurement cost' of foods, (2) determining the energy content of foods, and (3) proactively adapting to perceived food insecurity...
February 19, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Catherine A Wickham, Elena T Carbone
Over one-third of adolescents are overweight or obese. Food literacy (FL), the ability to plan and manage, select, prepare, and eat healthy foods, is a contemporary concept that provides a mechanism to understand the relationship between food-related knowledge and skills and dietary intake. Innovative interventions which focus on the core concepts of FL and include generationally appropriate technology have the potential to provide positive impact on the dietary habits of adolescents. This systematic review followed PRISMA guidelines and employed the Downs and Black criteria for rating studies...
February 19, 2018: Appetite
Gabriela R Oates, Janice M Phillips, Lori B Bateman, Monica L Baskin, Mona N Fouad, Isabel C Scarinci
Objective: In the search of solutions to the rising rates of obesity, community perspectives are important because they highlight areas of need and help determine the level of community support for potential interventions. This study aimed to identify community perceptions of factors associated with obesity in two urban municipalities - one racially mixed and one predominantly African American - and to explore community-driven solutions to the problem of obesity. Methods: The study used Photovoice methodology to understand what community members perceived as obesity-promoting factors in their residential environments...
2018: Ethnicity & Disease
K Vikrant, Daniel Cw Tsang, Nadeem Raza, Giri Balendu Shekher, Deepak Kukkar, Ki-Hyun Kim
The progress in modern agricultural practices could not have been realized without the large-scale contribution of assorted pesticides (e.g., organophosphates [OPs] and non-organophosphates [non-OPs]). Precise tracking of these chemicals has become a crucial component for safeguarding the environment and food resources owing to their very high toxicity. Hence, the development of sensitive and convenient sensors for the on-site detection of pesticides is imperative to overcome practical limitations encountered in conventional methodologies which require skilled manpower at the expense of high cost and low portability...
February 21, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Ángela García-González, María Achón, Elena Alonso-Aperte, Gregorio Varela-Moreiras
This study focuses on understanding factors that influence food agency in the Spanish population, specifically with regard to cooking habits, knowledge, and determinants and their possible relationship with body weight. A cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted. Individuals were asked about their cooking responsibilities, how they learned to cook, factors that affect their food choices, and their preferred cooking techniques. Anthropometric data were also recorded. Participants were randomly selected, and we finally had 2026 respondents aged ≥18 years (60% women, 40% men)...
February 15, 2018: Nutrients
Federica Amici, Josep Call, Julia Watzek, Sarah Brosnan, Filippo Aureli
The ability to inhibit previously employed strategies and flexibly adjust behavioural responses to external conditions may be critical for individual survival. However, it is unclear which factors predict their distribution across species. Here, we investigated social inhibition and behavioural flexibility in six primate species (chimpanzees, bonobos, orangutans, gorillas, capuchin monkeys and spider monkeys) differing in terms of phylogenetic relatedness, foraging ecology and social organization. Depending on the social context, individuals could maximize their food intake by inhibiting the selection of a larger food reward in one condition (i...
February 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Alex J Adams, Karen Suchanek Hudmon
OBJECTIVES: To characterize the status of state laws regarding the expansion of pharmacists' prescriptive authority for smoking cessation medications and to summarize frequently asked questions and answers that arose during the associated legislative debates. DATA SOURCES: Legislative language was reviewed and summarized for all states with expanded authority, and literature supporting the pharmacist's capacity for an expanded role in smoking cessation is described...
February 6, 2018: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
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