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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758544/conduct-and-reporting-of-acceptability-attitudes-beliefs-and-experiences-of-pregnant-women-in-randomised-trials-on-diet-and-lifestyle-interventions-a-systematic-review
#1
E Adela A Hamilton, Ann K Nowell, Angela Harden, Shakila Thangaratinam
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the conduct and reporting of views of pregnant women on the acceptability, attitudes, beliefs and their experiences in randomised trials on diet and lifestyle interventions. STUDY DESIGN: We undertook a systematic review of literature of randomised trials identified from our previous search in major electronic databases (until February 2017) without language restrictions. We included trials on diet and lifestyle interventions that reported acceptability, attitudes, beliefs and experiences of pregnant women...
May 9, 2018: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754253/young-macaques-macaca-fascicularis-preferentially-bias-attention-towards-closer-older-and-better-tool-users
#2
Amanda W Y Tan, Charlotte K Hemelrijk, Suchinda Malaivijitnond, Michael D Gumert
Examining how animals direct social learning during skill acquisition under natural conditions, generates data for examining hypotheses regarding how transmission biases influence cultural change in animal populations. We studied a population of macaques on Koram Island, Thailand, and examined model-based biases during interactions by unskilled individuals with tool-using group members. We first compared the prevalence of interactions (watching, obtaining food, object exploration) and proximity to tool users during interactions, in developing individuals (infants, juveniles) versus mature non-learners (adolescents, adults), to provide evidence that developing individuals are actively seeking information about tool use from social partners...
May 12, 2018: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753634/the-unequal-impact-of-food-insecurity-on-cognitive-and-behavioral-outcomes-among-5-year-old-urban-children
#3
Savannah Hobbs, Christian King
OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations of food insecurity with children's cognitive and behavioral outcomes using quantile regression. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study dataset. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 2,046 children aged 5 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Child behavioral outcomes were measured using externalizing (aggressive) and internalizing (emotional) behavior problems. Child cognitive outcomes were measured using the Peabody Vocabulary test and the Woodcock-Johnson letter-word identification test...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753052/fruit-and-vegetable-intake-influence-of-perceived-food-environment-and-self-efficacy
#4
Mariana Carvalho Menezes, Ana Victoria Diez Roux, Aline Cristine Souza Lopes
OBJECTIVE: Identify the effects of food environment and self-efficacy perceptions on fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with a representative sample population from a public health service in a Brazilian city. Participants (3414) aged ≥20 years were recruited from 18 Health Academy Program centres via stratified cluster sampling. Perceptions of the food environment were measured by survey; participants indicated how confident they were about FV availability in their food environment...
May 9, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750578/so-you-want-to-be-a-principal-investigator
#5
Mansoor Saleh, Gurudatta Naik
Therapeutic trials represent the front line of clinical progress, where the rubber meets the road. The conduct of clinical trials requires unique skills, innate as well as learned, on the part of the investigators who conduct these studies. Often such skills are acquired on the job and are passed on from mentor to junior investigator. However, over the years, the role of the principal investigator (PI) has evolved into a vast list of roles and responsibilities that cannot readily be conveyed through a hands-on approach alone...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Oncology Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735953/teens-implementing-a-childhood-obesity-prevention-program-in-the-community-feasibility-and-perceptions-of-a-partnership-with-hsta-and-icook-4-h
#6
Rebecca L Hagedorn, Jade A White, Lisa Franzen-Castle, Sarah E Colby, Kendra K Kattelmann, Adrienne A White, Melissa D Olfert
High school student researchers and teen leaders from the Health Science Technology Academy (HSTA), under the supervision of HSTA teachers, led a childhood obesity prevention (COP) program (iCook 4-H). The objective was to evaluate the feasibility and perceptions of having teen leaders implement a COP program for dyads of youth (9⁻10 years old) and their primary adult food preparer. Behavior change and perceptions were assessed through surveys and open-ended interviews. Across eight HSTA organizations, 43 teen leaders participated in teaching the iCook 4-H program to 24 dyads...
May 7, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732933/challenges-imposed-by-hypoglycemia-in-adults-with-type-1-diabetes
#7
Pamela Martyn-Nemeth, Jennifer Duffecy, Cynthia Fritschi, Laurie Quinn
Little is known regarding how hypoglycemia and associated fears influence day-to-day life among adults with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) who use contemporary diabetes management strategies. To address this gap, we performed an exploratory qualitative study with five focus groups of 30 people aged 20 to 57 years with T1DM. Sessions were audiotaped and transcribed, and then analyzed. Eight themes emerged: (a) hypoglycemic worry, (b) unpredictability and loss of control, (c) contending with life stress, (d) exercise benefits and challenges, (e) a changed relationship with food, (f) sleep fears, (g) a love/hate relationship with technology, and (h) coping strategies to make it better...
May 1, 2018: Clinical Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719245/corticospinal-circuits-from-the-sensory-and-motor-cortices-differentially-regulate-skilled-movements-through-distinct-spinal-interneurons
#8
Masaki Ueno, Yuka Nakamura, Jie Li, Zirong Gu, Jesse Niehaus, Mari Maezawa, Steven A Crone, Martyn Goulding, Mark L Baccei, Yutaka Yoshida
Little is known about the organizational and functional connectivity of the corticospinal (CS) circuits that are essential for voluntary movement. Here, we map the connectivity between CS neurons in the forelimb motor and sensory cortices and various spinal interneurons, demonstrating that distinct CS-interneuron circuits control specific aspects of skilled movements. CS fibers originating in the mouse motor cortex directly synapse onto premotor interneurons, including those expressing Chx10. Lesions of the motor cortex or silencing of spinal Chx10+ interneurons produces deficits in skilled reaching...
May 1, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718280/early-communication-development-of-children-with-auditory-brainstem-implants
#9
Laurie S Eisenberg, Dianne Hammes Ganguly, Amy S Martinez, Laurel M Fisher, Margaret E Winter, Jamie L Glater, Debra K Schrader, Janice Loggins, Eric P Wilkinson
The auditory brainstem implant (ABI) is an auditory sensory device that is surgically placed on the cochlear nucleus of the brainstem for individuals who are deaf but unable to benefit from a cochlear implant (CI) due to anatomical abnormalities of the cochlea and/or eighth nerve, specific disease processes, or temporal bone fractures. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration has authorized a Phase I clinical trial to determine safety and feasibility of the ABI in up to 10 eligible young children who are deaf and either derived no benefit from the CI or were anatomically unable to receive a CI...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704540/-a-bumpy-road-kindergarten-staff-s-experiences-with-an-intervention-to-promote-healthy-diets-in-toddlers
#10
Berit Johannessen, Sissel H Helland, Elling Bere, Nina Cecilie Øverby, Liv Fegran
This study explores the experiences of kindergarten staff with a multi-component kindergarten-based intervention, the aims of which were to reduce levels of food neophobia and to promote healthy diets in toddlers (aged 2-3 years). A qualitative design was chosen for the study, and the data are based on three focus group interviews. Altogether, 15 kindergarten staff were interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. The focus group interviews were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Five main themes emerged from the interviews: i) Successful development of sensory knowledge, ii) Food neophobia, iii) Implementing new routines, a challenge for some, iv) Lack of cooking skills, and v) Inspired to continue...
April 25, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685785/validation-of-a-low-cost-do-it-yourself-model-for-neonatal-thoracoscopic-congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia-repair
#11
Pedro Reino-Pires, Manuel Lopez
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to develop and validate a low cost, do-it-yourself model for neonatal thoracoscopic congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). DESIGN: Volunteers with varying skills in neonatal minimally invasive surgery tested and evaluated the model simulating a neonatal thoracoscopic CDH repair. The model was built from ordinary materials purchased in a dime store: a small food container, a neoprene band simulating a diaphragm, an inflated balloon simulating a spleen, a tissue chord simulating intestine, and a body wash sponge simulating a collapsed lung...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684799/elevated-heavy-metals-levels-in-cognitively-impaired-patients-from-pakistan
#12
Ghazala Iqbal, Wahid Zada, Abdul Mannan, Touqeer Ahmed
The deficit in the visuospatial skills, thinking, learning and memory is termed as cognitive impairment. Human exposure to heavy metals is a potential risk factor for developing cognitive impairment. This study aimed to investigate the possible association between the concentration of heavy metals and the extent of cognitive impairment. Blood samples were subjected to microwave assisted acid digestion and evaluated for metals levels using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. We measured the levels of Cu, Pb, Al, Zn, Cd and Mn in 183 patients diagnosed with cognitive impairment; mild (n = 72), moderate (n = 86) and severe (n = 25) and compared them to age-matched healthy controls (n = 90)...
April 16, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663976/factors-related-to-weight-gain-loss-among-emerging-adults-with-obesity
#13
Ping H Johnson, James J Annesi
OBJECTIVES: We examined the reasons for weight gain and barriers to weight loss among emerging adults with obesity. METHODS: Eighty-one female undergraduate students with obesity completed 4-open ended questions in 2015-2016. Qualitative responses were analyzed using NVivo 11 Pro software. RESULTS: Most participants experienced weight gain prior to attending college. The most commonly reported reasons for weight gain include a lack of ability to control one's behaviors or overcome barriers (ie, poor eating habits, lack of physical activity, lack of time, easy access to food), emotional/mental health issues, physical health, and influence of significant others...
May 1, 2018: American Journal of Health Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655761/the-relationship-between-culinary-skills-and-eating-behaviors-challenges-and-opportunities-for-parents-and-families
#14
Jessica Jarick Metcalfe, Darin Leonard
Unhealthy dietary intake among American children and adults is of great concern to public health practitioners, nutritional scientists, and child development experts. Cooking skills are related to healthier dietary intake among Americans of all ages, but remain a substantial barrier for many parents who want to serve healthy meals for their families at home. Culinary education interventions are effective solutions for many parents who do not know how to cook, but issues with participation bias mean that these programs are not effective solutions for all individuals...
April 12, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625915/healthy-choices-for-every-body-adult-curriculum-improves-participants-food-resource-management-skills-and-food-safety-practices
#15
Omolola A Adedokun, Paula Plonski, Brooke Jenkins-Howard, Debra B Cotterill, Ann Vail
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of the University of Kentucky's Healthy Choices for Every Body (HCEB) adult nutrition education curriculum on participants' food resource management (FRM) skills and food safety practices. METHODS: A quasi-experimental design was employed using propensity score matching to pair 8 intervention counties with 8 comparison counties. Independent-samples t tests and ANCOVA models compared gains in FRM skills and food safety practices between the intervention and comparison groups (n = 413 and 113, respectively)...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624720/case-study-behavior-changes-in-the-family-focused-obesity-prevention-home-plus-program
#16
Michelle L Myers, Jayne A Fulkerson, Sarah E Friend, Melissa L Horning, Colleen F Flattum
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this case study is to describe two successful HOME Plus participants and highlight how an intervention with individual and group components can help families make lifestyle changes that result in improvements in child weight status. DESIGN: One hundred and sixty families participated in the HOME Plus study, and were randomized to either a control or intervention group. SAMPLE: Two successful HOME Plus participants were chosen because of their healthful changes in weight status and behavior and high engagement in the program...
April 6, 2018: Public Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617162/dietary-acculturation-among-black-immigrant-families-living-in-ottawa-a-qualitative-study
#17
Rosanne Blanchet, Constance P Nana, Dia Sanou, Malek Batal, Isabelle Giroux
The study explores the dietary acculturation process among first-generation immigrant families from sub-Saharan Africa or the Caribbean living in Ottawa (Canada). In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 12 mothers. The interaction between accelerating factors and other mediating factors resulted in a spiral of dietary changes triggered by immigration. The spiral evolved at different paces from traditional to acculturated and toward healthy or unhealthy diets and was hard to stop or to change in its direction once it started...
April 4, 2018: Ecology of Food and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616916/effects-of-treatment-associated-increases-in-fruit-and-vegetable-intake-on-the-consumption-of-other-food-groups-and-weight-through-self-regulatory-processes
#18
James J Annesi
CONTEXT: Increased intake of fruits and vegetables (FV) may be useful for weight loss. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to evaluate the effects of changes in FV intake on the overall diet and to determine if self-regulation affects the association between changes in FV intake and weight. METHODS: Women with obesity (N = 74, mean age = 47.7 years) participating in a year-long behavioral weight-loss treatment were assessed regarding changes in consumption of various food groups, physical activity, and eating self-regulation over 6, 12, and 24 months...
March 30, 2018: Permanente Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601917/measuring-feeding-difficulties-in-toddlers-with-down-syndrome
#19
Marijn van Dijk, Wilma Lipke
Early feeding problems occur frequently across the population, but have a higher incidence in children with Down syndrome (DS). Early identification can possibly be improved with the help of a valid screening instrument based on caregiver reports. In a previous study, we investigated the concurrent validity of the Dutch version of the Montreal Children's Hospital Feeding Scale (MCH-FS, SEP in Dutch) in a sample of typically developing toddlers, and we found a correlation between the score on the instrument and observed behavior during a regular meal...
March 27, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558834/-everyone-sees-you-sitting-there-struggling-with-your-food-experiences-of-adolescents-and-young-adults-with-cerebral-palsy
#20
Lianne Remijn, Lenie van den Engel-Hoek, Ton Satink, Bert J M de Swart, Maria W G Nijhuis-van der Sanden
OBJECTIVE: The impact of difficulties with eating and drinking in adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy is unknown. The purpose of this study is to find out which difficulties adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy experience with eating and drinking in daily life and how they deal with these difficulties. The study also explores how they think about themselves with respect to eating and what does or does not help regarding social participation. METHOD: We collected the data from ten participants with spastic cerebral palsy (aged 15-23 years) living in the Netherlands...
March 21, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
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