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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710464/analysis-of-mitochondrial-organization-and-function-in-the-drosophila-blastoderm-embryo
#1
Sayali Chowdhary, Darshika Tomer, Dnyanesh Dubal, Devashree Sambre, Richa Rikhy
Mitochondria are inherited maternally as globular and immature organelles in metazoan embryos. We have used the Drosophila blastoderm embryo to characterize their morphology, distribution and functions in embryogenesis. We find that mitochondria are relatively small, dispersed and distinctly distributed along the apico-basal axis in proximity to microtubules by motor protein transport. Live imaging, photobleaching and photoactivation analyses of mitochondrially targeted GFP show that they are mobile in the apico-basal axis along microtubules and are immobile in the lateral plane thereby associating with one syncytial cell...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706074/germ-line-inherited-h3k27me3-restricts-enhancer-function-during-maternal-to-zygotic-transition
#2
Fides Zenk, Eva Loeser, Rosaria Schiavo, Fabian Kilpert, Ozren Bogdanović, Nicola Iovino
Gametes carry parental genetic material to the next generation. Stress-induced epigenetic changes in the germ line can be inherited and can have a profound impact on offspring development. However, the molecular mechanisms and consequences of transgenerational epigenetic inheritance are poorly understood. We found that Drosophila oocytes transmit the repressive histone mark H3K27me3 to their offspring. Maternal contribution of the histone methyltransferase Enhancer of zeste, the enzymatic component of Polycomb repressive complex 2, is required for active propagation of H3K27me3 during early embryogenesis...
July 14, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705899/a-novel-function-for-cactus-i%C3%AE%C2%BAb-inhibitor-to-promote-dl-nuclear-localization-and-activity-in-the-drosophila-embryo
#3
Maira Arruda Cardoso, Marcio Fontenele, Bomyi Lim, Paulo Mascarello Bisch, Stanislav Shvartsman, Helena Marcolla Araujo
The evolutionarily conserved Toll signaling pathway controls innate immunity across phyla and embryonic patterning in insects. In the Drosophila embryo Toll is required to establish gene expression domains along the dorsal-ventral axis. Pathway activation induces degradation of the IκB inhibitor Cactus, resulting in a ventral-to-dorsal nuclear gradient of the NFκB effector Dorsal. Here we investigate how cactus modulates Toll signals through its effects on the Dorsal gradient and Dorsal target genes. Quantitative analysis using a series of loss and gain-of-function conditions shows that the ventral and lateral aspects of the Dorsal gradient can behave differently respective to Cactus fluctuations...
July 13, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695964/segmentation-gene-expression-patterns-in-bactrocera-dorsalis-and-related-insects-regulation-and-shape-of-blastoderm-and-larval-cuticle
#4
Worramin Suksuwan, Xiaoli Cai, Lertluk Ngernsiri, Stefan Baumgartner
The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is regarded as a severe pest of fruit production in Asia. Despite its economic importance, only limited information regarding the molecular and developmental biology of this insect is known to date. We provide a detailed analysis of B. dorsalis embryology, as well as the expression patterns of a number of segmentation genes known to act during patterning of Drosophila and compare these to the patterns of other insect families. An anterior shift of the expression of gap genes was detected when compared to Drosophila...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691901/decoding-temporal-interpretation-of-the-morphogen-bicoid-in-the-early-drosophila-embryo
#5
Anqi Huang, Christopher Amourda, Shaobo Zhang, Nicholas S Tolwinski, Timothy E Saunders
Morphogen gradients provide essential spatial information during development. Not only the local concentration but also duration of morphogen exposure is critical for correct cell fate decisions. Yet, how and when cells temporally integrate signals from a morphogen remains unclear. Here, we use optogenetic manipulation to switch off Bicoid-dependent transcription in the early Drosophila embryo with high temporal resolution, allowing time-specific and reversible manipulation of morphogen signalling. We find that Bicoid transcriptional activity is dispensable for embryonic viability in the first hour after fertilization, but persistently required throughout the rest of the blastoderm stage...
July 10, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676122/genome-wide-search-for-zelda-like-chromatin-signatures-identifies-gaf-as-a-pioneer-factor-in-early-fly-development
#6
Arbel Moshe, Tommy Kaplan
BACKGROUND: The protein Zelda was shown to play a key role in early Drosophila development, binding thousands of promoters and enhancers prior to maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT), and marking them for transcriptional activation. Recently, we showed that Zelda acts through specific chromatin patterns of histone modifications to mark developmental enhancers and active promoters. Intriguingly, some Zelda sites still maintain these chromatin patterns in Drosophila embryos lacking maternal Zelda protein...
July 4, 2017: Epigenetics & Chromatin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668588/optimized-fish-methods-for-visualizing-rna-localization-properties-in-drosophila-and-human-tissues-and-cultured-cells
#7
Cédric Diot, Ashley Chin, Eric Lécuyer
Eukaryotic gene expression is orchestrated by a large number of regulatory steps to modulate the synthesis, maturation and fate of various families of protein-coding and non-coding RNA molecules. Defining a given RNA molecule subcellular localization is thus of considerable importance for gleaning its function(s) and for elucidating post-transcriptional gene regulation pathways. For decades, fluorescent In Situ hybridization (FISH) has constituted the gold-standard technique for assessing RNA expression and distribution properties in cultured cells, tissue specimens, and whole mount organisms...
June 28, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665982/the-sertad-protein-taranis-plays-a-role-in-polycomb-mediated-gene-repression
#8
Pranabananda Dutta, Willis X Li
The Polycomb group (PcG) proteins have been implicated in epigenetic transcriptional repression in development, stem cell maintenance and in cancer. The chromodomain protein Polycomb (Pc) is a key member of the PcG. Pc binds to the histone mark, trimethylated histone 3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3), to initiate transcriptional repression. How PcG proteins are recruited to target loci is not fully understood. Here we show that the Drosophila SERTA domain protein Taranis (Tara) is involved in transcriptional regulation of Pc target genes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654041/visualization-of-the-axonal-projection-pattern-of-embryonic-motor-neurons-in-drosophila
#9
Sangyun Jeong
The establishment of functional neuromuscular circuits relies on precise connections between developing motor axons and target muscles. Motor neurons extend growth cones to navigate along specific pathways by responding to a large number of axon guidance cues that emanate from the surrounding extracellular environment. Growth cone target recognition also plays a critical role in neuromuscular specificity. This work presents a standard immunohistochemistry protocol to visualize motor neuron projections of late stage-16 Drosophila melanogaster embryos...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636597/phase-separation-drives-heterochromatin-domain-formation
#10
Amy R Strom, Alexander V Emelyanov, Mustafa Mir, Dmitry V Fyodorov, Xavier Darzacq, Gary H Karpen
Constitutive heterochromatin is an important component of eukaryotic genomes that has essential roles in nuclear architecture, DNA repair and genome stability, and silencing of transposon and gene expression. Heterochromatin is highly enriched for repetitive sequences, and is defined epigenetically by methylation of histone H3 at lysine 9 and recruitment of its binding partner heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1). A prevalent view of heterochromatic silencing is that these and associated factors lead to chromatin compaction, resulting in steric exclusion of regulatory proteins such as RNA polymerase from the underlying DNA...
July 13, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633893/genes-encoding-cuticular-proteins-are-components-of-the-nimrod-gene-cluster-in-drosophila
#11
Gyöngyi Cinege, János Zsámboki, Maite Vidal-Quadras, Anne Uv, Gábor Csordás, Viktor Honti, Erika Gábor, Zoltán Hegedűs, Gergely I B Varga, Attila L Kovács, Gábor Juhász, Michael J Williams, István Andó, Éva Kurucz
The Nimrod gene cluster, located on the second chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster, is the largest synthenic unit of the Drosophila genome. Nimrod genes show blood cell specific expression and code for phagocytosis receptors that play a major role in fruit fly innate immune functions. We previously identified three homologous genes (vajk-1, vajk-2 and vajk-3) located within the Nimrod cluster, which are unrelated to the Nimrod genes, but are homologous to a fourth gene (vajk-4) located outside the cluster...
June 17, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628612/novel-interplay-between-jnk-and-egfr-signaling-in-drosophila-dorsal-closure
#12
Tatyana Kushnir, Sharon Mezuman, Shaked Bar-Cohen, Rotem Lange, Ze'ev Paroush, Aharon Helman
Dorsal closure (DC) is a developmental process in which two contralateral epithelial sheets migrate to seal a large hole in the dorsal ectoderm of the Drosophila embryo. Two signaling pathways act sequentially to orchestrate this dynamic morphogenetic process. First, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling activity in the dorsal-most leading edge (LE) cells of the epidermis induces expression of decapentaplegic (dpp). Second, Dpp, a secreted TGF-β homolog, triggers cell shape changes in the adjacent, ventrally located lateral epidermis, that guide the morphogenetic movements and cell migration mandatory for DC...
June 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628128/adaptive-optics-improves-multiphoton-super-resolution-imaging
#13
Wei Zheng, Yicong Wu, Peter Winter, Robert Fischer, Damian Dalle Nogare, Amy Hong, Chad McCormick, Ryan Christensen, William P Dempsey, Don B Arnold, Joshua Zimmerberg, Ajay Chitnis, James Sellers, Clare Waterman, Hari Shroff
We improve multiphoton structured illumination microscopy using a nonlinear guide star to determine optical aberrations and a deformable mirror to correct them. We demonstrate our method on bead phantoms, cells in collagen gels, nematode larvae and embryos, Drosophila brain, and zebrafish embryos. Peak intensity is increased (up to 40-fold) and resolution recovered (up to 176 ± 10 nm laterally, 729 ± 39 nm axially) at depths ∼250 μm from the coverslip surface.
June 19, 2017: Nature Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621415/building-functional-units-of-movement-generation-and-movement-sensation-in-the-embryo
#14
Peleg Hasson, Talila Volk, Adi Salzberg
The musculoskeletal and proprioceptive sensory systems exhibit intricate crosstalk between force generation, force sensation and force transmission, all of which are critical for coordinated animal locomotion. Recent developmental studies of the musculoskeletal and proprioceptive units of the invertebrate Drosophila embryo, have revealed several common molecular and structural principles mediating the formation of each of these systems. These common principles, as well as the differences between the developmental programs of the two systems, are discussed...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617826/cf2-transcription-factor-is-involved-in-the-regulation-of-mef2-rna-levels-nuclei-number-and-muscle-fiber-size
#15
Juan J Arredondo, Jorge Vivar, Sara Laine-Menéndez, Leticia Martínez-Morentin, Margarita Cervera
CF2 and Mef2 influence a variety of developmental muscle processes at distinct stages of development. Nevertheless, the exact nature of the CF2-Mef2 relationship and its effects on muscle building remain yet to be resolved. Here, we explored the regulatory role of CF2 in the Drosophila embryo muscle formation. To address this question and not having proper null CF2 mutants we exploited loss or gain of function strategies to study the contribution of CF2 to Mef2 transcription regulation and to muscle formation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615282/maternal-haploid-a-metalloprotease-enriched-at-the-largest-satellite-repeat-and-essential-for-genome-integrity-in-drosophila-embryos
#16
Xiaona Tang, Jingguo Cao, Liang Zhang, Yingzi Huang, Qianyi Zhang, Yikang S Rong
The incorporation of the paternal genome into the zygote during fertilization requires chromatin remodeling. The maternal haploid (mh) mutation in Drosophila affects this process and leads to the formation of haploid embryos without the paternal genome. mh encodes the Drosophila homolog of SPRTN, a conserved protease essential for resolving DNA-protein cross-linked products. Here we characterize the role of MH in genome maintenance. It is not understood how MH protects the paternal genome during fertilization particularly in lights of our finding that MH is present in both parental pro-nuclei during zygote formation...
June 14, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612512/the-germline-factor-ddx4-functions-in-blood-derived-cancer-cell-phenotypes
#17
Natalie Schudrowitz, Satoshi Takagi, Gary M Wessel, Mamiko Yajima
DDX4 (the human ortholog of Drosophila Vasa) is an RNA helicase and is present in the germ lines of all metazoans tested. It was historically thought to be expressed specifically in germline cells, but with additional organisms studied, it is now clear that in some animals DDX4/Vasa functions outside of the germline, in a variety of somatic cells in the embryo and adult. In this report, we document that DDX4 is widely expressed in soma-derived cancer cell lines, including myeloma (IM-9) and leukemia (THP-1) cells...
June 14, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607409/functional-characterization-of-aquaporin-like-genes-in-the-human-bed-bug-cimex-lectularius
#18
Hitoshi Tsujimoto, Joyce M Sakamoto, Jason L Rasgon
The bed bug Cimex lectularius is a blood-feeding re-emerging annoyance pest insect that has the ability to transmit Trypanosoma cruzi under experimental laboratory conditions. Aquaporins (AQPs) are water channel proteins that are essential in biological organisms. C. lectularius are constantly exposed to water-related stress, suggesting that AQPs may offer novel control avenues. We identified and cloned four AQPs from C. lectularius, assessed tissue and lifestage-specific expression, and characterized biochemical functions in vitro and in vivo...
June 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605365/medium-scale-preparation-of-drosophila-embryo-extracts-for-proteomic-experiments
#19
Liu Yang, Sayantanee Paul, Sarah DuBois-Coyne, Phillip Kyriakakis, Alexey Veraksa
Analysis of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) has become an indispensable approach to study biological processes and mechanisms, such as cell signaling, organism development, and disease. It is often desirable to obtain PPI information using in vivo material, to gain the most natural and unbiased view of the interaction networks. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is an excellent platform to study PPIs in vivo, and lends itself to straightforward approaches to isolating material for biochemical experiments...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604694/a-mutant-o-glcnacase-enriches-drosophila-developmental-regulators
#20
Nithya Selvan, Ritchie Williamson, Daniel Mariappa, David G Campbell, Robert Gourlay, Andrew T Ferenbach, Tonia Aristotelous, Iva Hopkins-Navratilova, Matthias Trost, Daan M F van Aalten
Protein O-GlcNAcylation is a reversible post-translational modification of serines and threonines on nucleocytoplasmic proteins. It is cycled by the enzymes O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAc hydrolase (O-GlcNAcase or OGA). Genetic approaches in model organisms have revealed that protein O-GlcNAcylation is essential for early embryogenesis. The Drosophila melanogaster gene supersex combs (sxc), which encodes OGT, is a polycomb gene, whose null mutants display homeotic transformations and die at the pharate adult stage...
June 12, 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
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