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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920954/drosophila-chem-mutations-disrupt-epithelial-polarity-in-drosophila-embryos
#1
José M Zamudio-Arroyo, Juan R Riesgo-Escovar
Drosophila embryogenesis has proven to be an extremely powerful system for developmental gene discovery and characterization. We isolated five new EMS-induced alleles that do not complement the l(3R)5G83 lethal line isolated in the Nüsslein-Volhard and Wieschaus screens. We have named this locus chem. Lethality of the new alleles as homozygous zygotic mutants is not completely penetrant, and they have an extended phenocritical period. Like the original allele, a fraction of mutant embryos die with cuticular defects, notably head involution and dorsal closure defects...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913640/the-drosophila-hox-gene-ultrabithorax-acts-both-in-muscles-and-motoneurons-to-orchestrate-formation-of-specific-neuromuscular-connections
#2
Christian Hessinger, Gerhard M Technau, Ana Rogulja-Ortmann
Hox genes are known to specify motoneuron pools in the developing vertebrate spinal cord and to control motoneuronal targeting in several species. However, the mechanisms controlling axial diversification of muscle innervation patterns are still largely unknown. We present data showing that the Drosophila Hox gene Ultrabithorax (Ubx) acts in the late embryo to establish target specificity of ventrally projecting RP motoneurons. In abdominal segments A2 to A7, RP motoneurons innervate the ventro-lateral muscles VL1-4, with VL1 and VL2 being innervated in a Wnt4-dependent manner...
December 2, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911728/modulation-of-bmp-signalling-by-integrins
#3
REVIEW
Hilary L Ashe
The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway is a major conserved signalling pathway with diverse roles in development and homeostasis. Given that cells exist in three-dimensional environments, one important area is to understand how the BMP pathway operates within such complex cellular environments. The extracellular matrix contains information regarding tissue architecture and its mechanical properties that is transmitted to the cell via integrin receptors. In this review, I describe various examples of modulation of the BMP pathway by integrins...
October 15, 2016: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906168/immunofluorescent-antibody-staining-of-intact-drosophila-larvae
#4
Laurina Manning, Chris Q Doe
Antibody staining is a vital technique for studying the development of many model organisms, including Drosophila. Reliable protocols have long been available for antibody staining of Drosophila whole-mount embryos and dissected larvae. By contrast, methods for staining whole larvae have rarely been reported, are unreliable, and fail to work on large third-instar larvae. This has become a major limitation to understanding the role of multitissue interactions such as neural circuit formation and cell metastasis...
January 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900350/swath-ms-dataset-of-heat-shock-treated-drosophila-melanogaster-embryos
#5
Bertrand Fabre, Dagmara Korona, Daniel J H Nightingale, Steven Russell, Kathryn S Lilley
Data independent acquisition (DIA) has emerged as a promising mass spectrometry based approach, combining the advantages of shotgun and targeted proteomics. Here we applied a DIA approach (termed SWATH) to monitor the dynamics of the Drosophila melanogaster embryonic proteome upon heat-shock treatment. Embryos were incubated for 0.5, 1 or 3 h at 37 °C to induce heat-shock or maintained at 25 °C. The present dataset contains SWATH files acquired on a Sciex Triple-TOF 6600. A spectral library built in-house was used to analyse these data and led to the quantification of more than 2500 proteins at every timepoint...
December 2016: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899510/identification-and-in-silico-modeling-of-enhancers-reveals-new-features-of-the-cardiac-differentiation-network
#6
Denis Seyres, Yad Ghavi-Helm, Guillaume Junion, Ouarda Taghli-Lamallem, Céline Guichard, Laurence Röder, Charles Girardot, Eileen E M Furlong, Laurent Perrin
Developmental patterning and tissue formation are regulated through complex gene regulatory networks (GRNs) driven through the action of transcription factors (TFs) converging on enhancer elements. Here, as a point of entry to dissect the poorly defined GRN underlying cardiomyocyte differentiation, we apply an integrated approach to identify active enhancers and TFs involved in Drosophila heart development. The Drosophila heart consists of 104 cardiomyocytes, representing less than 0.5% of all cells in the embryo...
December 1, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887593/expression-of-barhl2-and-its-relationship-with-pax6-expression-in-the-forebrain-of-the-mouse-embryo
#7
Elisa V Parish, John O Mason, David J Price
BACKGROUND: The transcription factor Barhl2 is an antiproneural transcription factor with roles in neuronal differentiation. The functions of its homologue in Drosophila development are better understood than its functions in mammalian brain development. Existing evidence suggests that its expression in the embryonic forebrain of the mouse is regional and may complement that of another transcription factor that is important for forebrain development, Pax6. The aim of this study is to provide a more detailed description of the Barhl2 expression pattern in the embryonic forebrain than is currently available, to relate its expression domains to those of Pax6 and to examine the effects of Pax6 loss on Barhl2 expression...
November 25, 2016: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876811/unlocking-sperm-chromatin-at-fertilization-requires-a-dedicated-egg-thioredoxin-in-drosophila
#8
Samantha Tirmarche, Shuhei Kimura, Raphaëlle Dubruille, Béatrice Horard, Benjamin Loppin
In most animals, the extreme compaction of sperm DNA is achieved after the massive replacement of histones with sperm nuclear basic proteins (SNBPs), such as protamines. In some species, the ultracompact sperm chromatin is stabilized by a network of disulfide bonds connecting cysteine residues present in SNBPs. Studies in mammals have established that the reduction of these disulfide crosslinks at fertilization is required for sperm nuclear decondensation and the formation of the male pronucleus. Here, we show that the Drosophila maternal thioredoxin Deadhead (DHD) is specifically required to unlock sperm chromatin at fertilization...
November 23, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875093/autolysosome-biogenesis-and-developmental-senescence-are-regulated-by-both-spns1-and-v-atpase
#9
Tomoyuki Sasaki, Shanshan Lian, Alam Khan, Jesse R Llop, Andrew V Samuelson, Wenbiao Chen, Daniel J Klionsky, Shuji Kishi
Spns1 (Spinster homolog 1 [Drosophila]) in vertebrates, as well as Spin (Spinster) in Drosophila, is a hypothetical lysosomal H(+)-carbohydrate transporter, which functions at a late stage of macroautophagy (hereafter autophagy). The Spin/Spns1 defect induces aberrant autolysosome formation that leads to developmental senescence in the embryonic stage and premature aging symptoms in adulthood. However, the molecular mechanism by which loss of Spin/Spns1 leads to the specific pathogenesis remains to be elucidated...
November 22, 2016: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864380/setd5-is-essential-for-mammalian-development-and-co-transcriptional-regulation-of-histone-acetylation
#10
Anna B Osipovich, Rama Gangula, Pedro G Vianna, Mark A Magnuson
SET-domain containing proteins play a vital role in regulating gene expression during development through modifications in chromatin structure. Here we show that SET domain containing 5 (Setd5) is divergently transcribed with Gt(ROSA26)Sor, is necessary for mammalian development, and interacts with the PAF1 co-transcriptional complex and other proteins. Setd5-deficient embryos exhibit severe defects in neural tube formation, somitogenesis, and cardiac development, have aberrant vasculogenesis in embryos, yolk sacs, and placentas; and die between embryonic day 10...
November 18, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858939/chromatin-remodeling-during-in-vivo-neural-stem-cells-differentiating-to-neurons-in-early-drosophila-embryos
#11
Youqiong Ye, Min Li, Liang Gu, Xiaolong Chen, Jiejun Shi, Xiaobai Zhang, Cizhong Jiang
Neurons are a key component of the nervous system and differentiate from multipotent neural stem cells (NSCs). Chromatin remodeling has a critical role in the differentiation process. However, its in vivo epigenetic regulatory role remains unknown. We show here that nucleosome depletion regions (NDRs) form in both proximal promoters and distal enhancers during NSCs differentiating into neurons in the early Drosophila embryonic development. NDR formation in the regulatory regions involves nucleosome shift and eviction...
November 18, 2016: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858334/identification-of-medaka-magnetoreceptor-and-cryptochromes
#12
Yunzhi Wang, Jianbin Chen, Feng Zhu, Yunhan Hong
Magnetoreception is a hallmark ability of animals for orientation and migration via sensing and utilizing geomagnetic fields. Magnetoreceptor (MagR) and cryptochromes (Cry) have recently been identified as the basis for magnetoreception in Drosophila. However, it has remained unknown whether MagR and Cry have conserved roles in diverse animals. Here we report the identification and expression of magr and cry genes in the fish medaka (Oryzias latipes). Cloning and sequencing identified a single magr gene, four cry genes and one cry-like gene in medaka...
November 17, 2016: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853896/discrete-mesh-approach-in-morphogenesis-modelling-the-example-of-gastrulation
#13
J Demongeot, A Lontos, E Promayon
Morphogenesis is a general concept in biology including all the processes which generate tissue shapes and cellular organizations in a living organism. Many hybrid formalizations (i.e., with both discrete and continuous parts) have been proposed for modelling morphogenesis in embryonic or adult animals, like gastrulation. We propose first to study the ventral furrow invagination as the initial step of gastrulation, early stage of embryogenesis. We focus on the study of the connection between the apical constriction of the ventral cells and the initiation of the invagination...
November 16, 2016: Acta Biotheoretica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844044/swath-ms-data-of-drosophila-melanogaster-proteome-dynamics-during-embryogenesis
#14
Bertrand Fabre, Dagmara Korona, Daniel J H Nightingale, Steven Russell, Kathryn S Lilley
Embryogenesis is one of the most important processes in the life of an animal. During this dynamic process, progressive cell division and cellular differentiation are accompanied by significant changes in protein expression at the level of the proteome. However, very few studies to date have described the dynamics of the proteome during the early development of an embryo in any organism. In this dataset, we monitor changes in protein expression across a timecourse of more than 20 h of Drosophila melanogaster embryonic development...
December 2016: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833845/drosophila-ataxin-2-gene-encodes-two-differentially-expressed-isoforms-and-its-function-in-larval-fat-body-is-crucial-for-development-of-peripheral-tissues
#15
Murilo Carlos Bizam Vianna, Deise Cristina Poleto, Paula Fernanda Gomes, Valéria Valente, Maria Luisa Paçó-Larson
Different isoforms of ataxin-2 are predicted in Drosophila and may underlie different cellular processes. Here, we validated the isoforms B and C of Drosophila ataxin-2 locus (dAtx2), which we found to be expressed in various tissues and at different levels during development. dAtx2-B mRNA was detected at low amounts during all developmental stages, whereas dAtx2-C mRNA levels increase by eightfold from L3 to pupal-adult stages. Higher amounts of dAtx2-B protein were detected in embryos, while dAtx2-C protein was also expressed in higher levels in pupal-adult stages, indicating post-transcriptional control for isoform B and transcription induction for isoform C, respectively...
November 2016: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830063/a-fully-featured-combine-archive-of-a-simulation-study-on-syncytial-mitotic-cycles-in-drosophila-embryos
#16
Martin Scharm, Dagmar Waltemath
COMBINE archives are standardised containers for data files related to a simulation study in computational biology. This manuscript describes a fully featured archive of a previously published simulation study, including (i) the original publication, (ii) the model, (iii) the analyses, and (iv) metadata describing the files and their origin. With the archived data at hand, it is possible to reproduce the results of the original work. The archive can be used for both, educational and research purposes. Anyone may reuse, extend and update the archive to make it a valuable resource for the scientific community...
2016: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825099/regulation-of-the-protein-kinase-activity-of-shaggyzeste-white3-by-components-of-the-wingless-pathway-in-drosophila-cells-and-embryos
#17
Laurent Ruel, Vuk Stambolic, Adnan Ali, Armen S Manoukian, James R Woodgett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 28, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821533/cell-chirality-its-origin-and-roles-in-left-right-asymmetric-development
#18
REVIEW
Mikiko Inaki, Jingyang Liu, Kenji Matsuno
An item is chiral if it cannot be superimposed on its mirror image. Most biological molecules are chiral. The homochirality of amino acids ensures that proteins are chiral, which is essential for their functions. Chirality also occurs at the whole-cell level, which was first studied mostly in ciliates, single-celled protozoans. Ciliates show chirality in their cortical structures, which is not determined by genetics, but by 'cortical inheritance'. These studies suggested that molecular chirality directs whole-cell chirality...
December 19, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807477/chromatin-proteins-and-rna-are-associated-with-dna-during-all-phases-of-mitosis
#19
Kathryn L Black, Svetlana Petruk, Tyler K Fenstermaker, Jacob W Hodgson, Jeffrey L Caplan, Hugh W Brock, Alexander Mazo
Mitosis brings about major changes to chromosome and nuclear structure. We used recently developed proximity ligation assay-based techniques to investigate the association with DNA of chromatin-associated proteins and RNAs in Drosophila embryos during mitosis. All groups of tested proteins, histone-modifying and chromatin-remodeling proteins and methylated histones remained in close proximity to DNA during all phases of mitosis. We also found that RNA transcripts are associated with DNA during all stages of mitosis...
2016: Cell Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802137/chromatin-profiling-of-drosophila-cns-subpopulations-identifies-active-transcriptional-enhancers
#20
Joseph C Pearson, Daniel J McKay, Jason D Lieb, Stephen T Crews
One of the key issues in studying transcriptional regulation during development is how to employ genome-wide assays that reveals sites of open chromatin and transcription factor binding to efficiently identify biologically relevant genes and enhancers. Analysis of Drosophila CNS midline cell development provides a useful system for studying transcriptional regulation at the genomic level due to a large, well-characterized set of midline-expressed genes and in vivo validated enhancers. In this study, FAIRE-seq on FACS-purified midline cells was performed and the midline FAIRE data were compared with whole-embryo FAIRE data...
October 15, 2016: Development
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