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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300473/cells-on-the-move-modulation-of-guidance-cues-during-germ-cell-migration
#1
Girish Deshpande, Justinn Barr, Offer Gerlitz, Lyubov Lebedeva, Yulii Shidlovskii, Paul Schedl
In Drosophila melanogaster the progenitors of the germ-line stem cells, the primordial germ cells (PGCs) are formed on the outside surface of the early embryo, while the somatic gonadal precursor cells (SGPs) are specified during mid-embryogenesis. To form the primitive embryonic gonad, the PGCs travel from outside of the embryo, across the mid-gut and then migrate through the mesoderm to the SGPs. The migratory path of PGCs is dictated by a series of attractive and repulsive cues. Studies in our lab have shown that one of the key chemoattractants is the Hedgehog (Hh) ligand...
March 16, 2017: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299188/genome-wide-measurement-of-spatial-expression-in-patterning-mutants-of-drosophila-melanogaster
#2
Peter A Combs, Michael B Eisen
Patterning in the Drosophila melanogaster embryo is affected by multiple maternal factors, but the effect of these factors on spatial gene expression has not been systematically analyzed. Here we characterize the effect of the maternal factors Zelda, Hunchback and Bicoid by cryosectioning wildtype and mutant blastoderm stage embryos and sequencing mRNA from each slice. The resulting atlas of spatial gene expression highlights the intersecting roles of these factors in regulating spatial patterns, and serves as a resource for researchers studying spatial patterning in the early embryo...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294450/initiation-of-drosophila-chorion-gene-amplification-requires-claspin-and-mus101-whereas-claspin-but-not-mus101-plays-a-major-role-during-elongation
#3
Seung Ho Choi, Ji-Hong Park, Tram Thi Ngoc Nguyen, Hee Jin Shim, Young-Han Song
BACKGROUND: Claspin and TopBP1 are checkpoint mediators that are required for the phosphorylation of Chk1 by ATR to maintain genomic stability. Here, we investigated the functions of Drosophila Claspin and mus101 (TopBP1 ortholog) during chorion (eggshell component) gene amplification, which occurs in follicle cells in the absence of global genomic DNA replication. RESULTS: Unlike Drosophila mei-41 (ATR ortholog) mutant embryos, Claspin and mus101 mutant embryos showed severe eggshell defects resulting from defects in chorion gene amplification...
March 14, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282454/identification-of-the-essential-protein-domains-for-mib2-function-during-the-development-of-the-drosophila-larval-musculature-and-adult-flight-muscles
#4
Katrin Domsch, Andreas Acs, Claudia Obermeier, Hanh T Nguyen, Ingolf Reim
The proper differentiation and maintenance of myofibers is fundamental to a functional musculature. Disruption of numerous mostly structural factors leads to perturbations of these processes. Among the limited number of known regulatory factors for these processes is Mind bomb2 (Mib2), a muscle-associated E3 ubiquitin ligase, which was previously established to be required for maintaining the integrity of larval muscles. In this study, we have examined the mechanistic aspects of Mib2 function by performing a detailed functional dissection of the Mib2 protein...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263180/uncoupling-apical-constriction-from-tissue-invagination
#5
SeYeon Chung, Sangjoon Kim, Deborah J Andrew
Apical constriction is a widely utilized cell shape change linked to folding, bending and invagination of polarized epithelia. It remains unclear how apical constriction is regulated spatiotemporally during tissue invagination and how this cellular process contributes to tube formation in different developmental contexts. Using Drosophila salivary gland (SG) invagination as a model, we show that regulation of folded gastrulation expression by the Fork head transcription factor is required for apicomedial accumulation of Rho kinase and non-muscle myosin II, which coordinate apical constriction...
March 6, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251865/in-silico-evolution-of-the-drosophila-gap-gene-regulatory-sequence-under-elevated-mutational-pressure
#6
Aleksandra A Chertkova, Joshua S Schiffman, Sergey V Nuzhdin, Konstantin N Kozlov, Maria G Samsonova, Vitaly V Gursky
BACKGROUND: Cis-regulatory sequences are often composed of many low-affinity transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs). Determining the evolutionary and functional importance of regulatory sequence composition is impeded without a detailed knowledge of the genotype-phenotype map. RESULTS: We simulate the evolution of regulatory sequences involved in Drosophila melanogaster embryo segmentation during early development. Natural selection evaluates gene expression dynamics produced by a computational model of the developmental network...
February 7, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248294/a-wolbachia-deubiquitylating-enzyme-induces-cytoplasmic-incompatibility
#7
John F Beckmann, Judith A Ronau, Mark Hochstrasser
Wolbachia are obligate intracellular bacteria(1) that infect arthropods, including approximately two-thirds of insect species(2). Wolbachia manipulate insect reproduction by enhancing their inheritance through the female germline. The most common alteration is cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI)(3-5), where eggs from uninfected females fail to develop when fertilized by sperm from Wolbachia-infected males. By contrast, if female and male partners are both infected, embryos are viable. CI is a gene-drive mechanism impacting population structure(6) and causing reproductive isolation(7), but its molecular mechanism has remained unknown...
March 1, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245789/mechanisms-of-groucho-mediated-repression-revealed-by-genome-wide-analysis-of-groucho-binding-and-activity
#8
Michael Chambers, Wiam Turki-Judeh, Min Woo Kim, Kenny Chen, Sean D Gallaher, Albert J Courey
BACKGROUND: The transcriptional corepressor Groucho (Gro) is required for the function of many developmentally regulated DNA binding repressors, thus helping to define the gene expression profile of each cell during development. The ability of Gro to repress transcription at a distance together with its ability to oligomerize and bind to histones has led to the suggestion that Gro may spread along chromatin. However, much is unknown about the mechanism of Gro-mediated repression and about the dynamics of Gro targeting...
February 28, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241146/prophage-wo-genes-recapitulate-and-enhance-wolbachia-induced-cytoplasmic-incompatibility
#9
Daniel P LePage, Jason A Metcalf, Sarah R Bordenstein, Jungmin On, Jessamyn I Perlmutter, J Dylan Shropshire, Emily M Layton, Lisa J Funkhouser-Jones, John F Beckmann, Seth R Bordenstein
The genus Wolbachia is an archetype of maternally inherited intracellular bacteria that infect the germline of numerous invertebrate species worldwide. They can selfishly alter arthropod sex ratios and reproductive strategies to increase the proportion of the infected matriline in the population. The most common reproductive manipulation is cytoplasmic incompatibility, which results in embryonic lethality in crosses between infected males and uninfected females. Females infected with the same Wolbachia strain rescue this lethality...
March 9, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231245/signalling-crosstalk-at-the-leading-edge-controls-tissue-closure-dynamics-in-the-drosophila-embryo
#10
Raphaël Rousset, Fabrice Carballès, Nadège Parassol, Sébastien Schaub, Delphine Cérézo, Stéphane Noselli
Tissue morphogenesis relies on proper differentiation of morphogenetic domains, adopting specific cell behaviours. Yet, how signalling pathways interact to determine and coordinate these domains remains poorly understood. Dorsal closure (DC) of the Drosophila embryo represents a powerful model to study epithelial cell sheet sealing. In this process, JNK (JUN N-terminal Kinase) signalling controls leading edge (LE) differentiation generating local forces and cell shape changes essential for DC. The LE represents a key morphogenetic domain in which, in addition to JNK, a number of signalling pathways converges and interacts (anterior/posterior -AP- determination; segmentation genes, such as Wnt/Wingless; TGFβ/Decapentaplegic)...
February 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218276/natural-and-laboratory-mutations-in-kuzbanian-are-associated-with-zinc-stress-phenotypes-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#11
Hung Le Manh, Lain Guio, Miriam Merenciano, Quirze Rovira, Maite G Barrón, Josefa González
Organisms must cope with altered environmental conditions such as high concentrations of heavy metals. Stress response to heavy metals is mediated by the metal-responsive transcription factor 1 (MTF-1), which is conserved from Drosophila to humans. MTF-1 binds to metal response elements (MREs) and changes the expression of target genes. kuzbanian (kuz), a metalloendopeptidase that activates the evolutionary conserved Notch signaling pathway, has been identified as an MTF-1 target gene. We have previously identified a putatively adaptive transposable element in the Drosophila melanogaster genome, named FBti0019170, inserted in a kuz intron...
February 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215335/optogenetic-inhibition-of-apical-constriction-during-drosophila-embryonic-development
#12
G Guglielmi, S De Renzis
Morphogenesis of multicellular organisms is driven by changes in cell behavior, which happen at precise locations and defined developmental stages. Therefore, the studying of morphogenetic events would greatly benefit from tools that allow the perturbation of cell activity with spatial and temporal precision. We recently developed an optogenetic approach to modulate cell contractility with cellular precision and on fast (seconds) timescales during Drosophila embryogenesis. We present here a protocol to handle genetically engineered photosensitive Drosophila embryos and achieve light-mediated inhibition of apical constriction during tissue invagination...
2017: Methods in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215334/probing-tissue-interaction-with-laser-based-cauterization-in-the-early-developing-drosophila-embryo
#13
M Rauzi
Tissue morphogenesis is governed by mechanical forces generated by cell cytoskeletal networks. It has been shown that subcellular forces are responsible for cell shape changes. Nevertheless cells in a developing organism do not act in isolation: cells contact and adhere one another, and forces are transmitted from cell-to-cell throughout tissues. Understanding how forces are integrated at the tissue level and finally at the full animal scale is nowadays a major challenge that will allow shedding new light on how embryo morphogenesis takes place...
2017: Methods in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213553/automated-cell-tracking-identifies-mechanically-oriented-cell-divisions-during-drosophila-axis-elongation
#14
Michael F Z Wang, Miranda Hunter, Gang Wang, Christopher McFaul, Christopher M Yip, Rodrigo Fernandez-Gonzalez
Embryos extend their anterior-posterior (AP) axis in the conserved process of axis elongation. Drosophila axis elongation occurs in an epithelial monolayer, the germband, and is driven by cell intercalation, cell shape changes, and oriented cell divisions at the posterior germband. Anterior germband cells also divide during axis elongation. We developed image analysis and pattern recognition methods to track dividing cells from confocal microscopy movies in a generally-applicable approach. Mesectoderm cells, forming the ventral midline, divided parallel to the AP axis, while lateral cells displayed a uniform distribution of division orientations...
February 17, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207183/combining-the-auxin-inducible-degradation-system-with-crispr-cas9-based-genome-editing-for-the-conditional-depletion-of-endogenous-drosophila-melanogaster-proteins
#15
Melinda Bence, Ferenc Jankovics, Tamás Lukácsovich, Miklós Erdélyi
Inducible protein degradation techniques have considerable advantages over classical genetic approaches, which generate loss-of-function phenotypes at the gene or mRNA level. The plant-derived auxin-inducible degradation system (AID) is a promising technique which enables the degradation of target proteins tagged with the AID motif in non-plant cells. Here, we present a detailed characterization of this method employed during the adult oogenesis of Drosophila. Furthermore, with the help of CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing, we improve the utility of the AID system in the conditional elimination of endogenously expressed proteins...
February 16, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203524/in-vivo-mapping-of-a-dynamic-ribonucleoprotein-granule-interactome-in-early-drosophila-embryos
#16
Jimiao Zheng, Ming Gao, Nhan Huynh, Samuel J Tindell, Hieu D L Vo, W Hayes McDonald, Alexey L Arkov
Macromolecular complexes and organelles play crucial roles within cells, but their native architectures are often unknown. Here, we use an evolutionarily conserved germline organelle, the germ granule, as a paradigm. In Drosophila embryos, we map one of its interactomes using a novel in vivo crosslinking approach that employs two interacting granule proteins and determines their common neighbor molecules. We identified an in vivo granule assembly of Tudor, Aubergine, motor and metabolic proteins, and RNA helicases, and provide evidence for direct interactions within this assembly using purified components...
December 2016: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202603/tension-regulates-myosin-dynamics-during-drosophila-embryonic-wound-repair
#17
Anna B Kobb, Teresa Zulueta-Coarasa, Rodrigo Fernandez-Gonzalez
Embryos repair epithelial wounds rapidly in a process driven by collective cell movements. Upon wounding, actin and the molecular motor non-muscle myosin II are redistributed in the cells adjacent to the wound, forming a supracellular purse string around the lesion. Purse string contraction coordinates cell movements and drives rapid wound closure. By using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching in Drosophila embryos, we found that myosin turns over as the purse string contracts. Myosin turnover at the purse string was slower than in other actomyosin networks that had a lower level of contractility...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196807/correction-microtubule-induced-nuclear-envelope-fluctuations-control-chromatin-dynamics-in-drosophila-embryos
#18
Bernhard Hampoelz, Yannick Azou-Gros, Roxane Fabre, Olga Markova, Pierre-Henri Puech, Thomas Lecuit
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179368/transfer-of-dorsoventral-and-terminal-information-from-the-ovary-to-the-embryo-by-a-common-group-of-eggshell-proteins-in-drosophila
#19
Alessandro Mineo, Marc Furriols, Jordi Casanova
The Drosophila eggshell is an extracellular matrix that confers protection to the egg and also plays a role in transferring positional information from the ovary to pattern the embryo. Among the constituents of the Drosophila eggshell, Nasrat, Polehole and Closca form a group of proteins related by sequence, secreted by the oocyte and mutually required for their incorporation into the eggshell. Besides their role in eggshell integrity, Nasrat, Polehole and Closca are also required for embryonic terminal patterning by anchoring or stabilizing Torso-like at the eggshell...
February 7, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167048/biochemical-fractionation-of-time-resolved-drosophila-embryos-reveals-similar-transcriptomic-alterations-in-replication-checkpoint-and-histone-mrna-processing-mutants
#20
Fabio Alexis Lefebvre, Louis Philip Benoit Bouvrette, Julie Bergalet, Eric Lécuyer
In higher eukaryotes, maternally provided gene products drive the initial stages of embryogenesis until the zygotic transcriptional program takes over, a developmental process called the midblastula transition (MBT). In addition to zygotic genome activation, the MBT involves alterations in cell-cycle length and the implementation of DNA damage/replication checkpoints that serve to monitor genome integrity. Previous work has shown that mutations affecting histone mRNA metabolism or DNA replication checkpoint factors severely impact developmental progression through the MBT, prompting us to characterize and contrast the transcriptomic impact of these genetic perturbations...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
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