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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432834/molecular-control-of-gut-formation-in-the-spider-parasteatoda-tepidariorum
#1
Natália Martins Feitosa, Matthias Pechmann, Evelyn E Schwager, Vitória Tobias-Santos, Alistair P McGregor, Wim G M Damen, Rodrigo Nunes da Fonseca
The development of a digestive system is an essential feature of bilaterians. Studies of the molecular control of gut formation in arthropods have been studied in detail in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. However, little is known in other arthropods, especially in noninsect arthropods. To better understand the evolution of arthropod alimentary system, we investigate the molecular control of gut development in the spider Parasteatoda tepidariorum (Pt), the primary chelicerate model species for developmental studies...
April 22, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432826/ploidy-has-little-effect-on-timing-early-embryonic-events-in-the-haplo-diploid-wasp-nasonia
#2
Deanna Arsala, Jeremy A Lynch
The nucleocytoplasmic (N/C) ratio plays a prominent role in the maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT) in many animals. The effect of the N/C ratio on cell-cycle lengthening and zygotic genome activation (ZGA) has been studied extensively in Drosophila, where haploid embryos experience an additional division prior to completing cellularization and triploid embryos cellularize precociously by one division. In this study, we set out to understand how the obligate difference in ploidy in the haplodiploid wasp, Nasonia, affects the MZT and which aspects of the Drosophila MZT are conserved...
April 22, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432817/factors-involved-in-early-polarization-of-the-anterior-posterior-axis-in-the-milkweed-bug-oncopeltus-fasciatus
#3
Neta Ginzburg, Mira Cohen, Ariel D Chipman
The axes of insect embryos are defined early in the blastoderm stage. Genes involved in this polarization are well known in Drosophila, but less so in other insects, such as the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus. Using quantitative PCR, we looked at differential expression of several candidate genes for early anterior-posterior patterning and found that none of them are expressed asymmetrically in the early blastoderm. We then used an RNA-Seq approach to identify novel candidate genes that might be involved in early polarization in Oncopeltus...
April 22, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432215/actomyosin-based-tissue-folding-requires-a-multicellular-myosin-gradient
#4
Natalie C Heer, Pearson W Miller, Soline Chanet, Norbert Stoop, Jörn Dunkel, Adam C Martin
Tissue folding promotes three-dimensional (3D) form during development. In many cases, folding is associated with myosin accumulation at the apical surface of epithelial cells, as seen in the vertebrate neural tube and the Drosophila ventral furrow. This type of folding is characterized by constriction of apical cell surfaces, and the resulting cell shape change is thought to cause tissue folding. Here, we use quantitative microscopy to measure the pattern of transcription, signaling, myosin activation, and cell shape in the Drosophila mesoderm...
April 21, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428287/smurf-downregulates-echinoid-in-the-amnioserosa-to-regulate-drosophila-dorsal-closure
#5
Chiao-Ming Lin, Jiajun Xu, Wen-Ting Yang, Chao Wang, Yu-Chiao Li, Lien-Chieh Cheng, Lei Zhang, Jui-Chou Hsu
Drosophila dorsal closure is a morphogenetic movement that involves flanking epidermal cells, assembling actomyosin cables and migrating dorsally over the underlying amnioserosa to seal at the dorsal midline. Echinoid (Ed), a cell adhesion molecule of adherens junctions (AJs), participates in several developmental processes. The disappearance of Ed from the amnioserosa is required to define the epidermal leading edge for actomyosin cable assembly and coordinated cell migration. However, the mechanism by which Ed is cleared from amnioserosa is unknown...
April 19, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428262/uncoupling-neurogenic-gene-networks-in-the-drosophila-embryo
#6
William A Rogers, Yogesh Goyal, Kei Yamaya, Stanislav Y Shvartsman, Michael S Levine
The EGF signaling pathway specifies neuronal identities in the Drosophila embryo by regulating developmental patterning genes such as intermediate neurons defective (ind). EGFR is activated in the ventral midline and neurogenic ectoderm by the Spitz ligand, which is processed by the Rhomboid protease. CRISPR/Cas9 was used to delete defined rhomboid enhancers mediating expression at each site of Spitz processing. Surprisingly, the neurogenic ectoderm, not the ventral midline, was found to be the dominant source of EGF patterning activity...
April 20, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428068/comparative-analysis-of-gene-expression-profiles-for-several-migrating-cell-types-identifies-cell-migration-regulators
#7
Young-Kyung Bae, Frank Macabenta, Heather Leigh Curtis, Angelike Stathopoulos
Cell migration is an instrumental process that ensures cells are properly positioned to support the specification of distinct tissue types during development. To provide insight, we used fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) to isolate two migrating cell types from the Drosophila embryo: caudal visceral mesoderm (CVM) cells, precursors of longitudinal muscles of the gut, and hemocytes (HCs), the Drosophila equivalent of blood cells. ~350 genes were identified from each of the sorted samples using RNA-seq, and in situ hybridization was used to confirm expression within each cell type or, alternatively, within other interacting, co-sorted cell types...
April 17, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410007/key-roles-of-arf-small-g-proteins-and-biosynthetic-trafficking-for-animal-development
#8
Francisco F Rodrigues, Tony J C Harris
Although biosynthetic trafficking can function constitutively, it also functions specifically for certain developmental processes. These processes require either a large increase to biosynthesis or the biosynthesis and targeted trafficking of specific players. We review the conserved molecular mechanisms that direct biosynthetic trafficking, and discuss how their genetic disruption affects animal development. Specifically, we consider Arf small G proteins, such as Arf1 and Sar1, and their coat effectors, COPI and COPII, and how these proteins promote biosynthetic trafficking for cleavage of the Drosophila embryo, the growth of neuronal dendrites and synapses, extracellular matrix secretion for bone development, lumen development in epithelial tubes, notochord and neural tube development, and ciliogenesis...
April 14, 2017: Small GTPases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404752/scaling-of-cytoskeletal-organization-with-cell-size-in-drosophila
#9
Alison K Spencer, Andrew J Schaumberg, Jennifer A Zallen
Spatially organized macromolecular complexes are essential for cell and tissue function, but the mechanisms that organize micron-scale structures within cells are not well understood. Microtubule-based structures such as mitotic spindles scale with cell size, but less is known about the scaling of actin structures within cells. Actin-rich denticle precursors cover the ventral surface of the Drosophila embryo and larva and provide templates for cuticular structures involved in larval locomotion. Using quantitative imaging and statistical modeling, we demonstrate that denticle number and spacing scale with cell size over a wide range of cell lengths in embryos and larvae...
April 12, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404642/squeezing-out-in-a-tug-of-war-the-role-of-myosin-in-neural-stem-cell-delamination
#10
Clara Sidor, Katja Röper
Neural stem cells or neuroblasts in the Drosophila melanogaster embryo delaminate as single cells from the embryonic epidermis to give rise to the nervous system. Using this accessible system to examine the molecular mechanisms of cell ingression at a high temporal and spatial resolution, in this issue, Simões et al. (2017. J. Cell Biol. https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201608038) reveal that myosin-driven anisotropic junction loss and apical constriction are the main drivers of this process.
April 12, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400441/neuralized-regulates-crumbs-endocytosis-and-epithelium-morphogenesis-via-specific-stardust-isoforms
#11
Gantas Perez-Mockus, Vanessa Roca, Khalil Mazouni, François Schweisguth
Crumbs (Crb) is a conserved determinant of apical membrane identity that regulates epithelial morphogenesis in many developmental contexts. In this study, we identify the Crb complex protein Stardust (Sdt) as a target of the E3 ubiquitin ligase Neuralized (Neur) in Drosophila melanogaster Neur interacts with and down-regulates specific Sdt isoforms containing a Neur binding motif (NBM). Using a CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-induced deletion of the NBM-encoding exon, we found that Sdt is a key Neur target and that Neur acts via Sdt to down-regulate Crb...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389210/shape-of-my-heart-cell-cell-adhesion-and-cytoskeletal-dynamics-during-drosophila-cardiac-morphogenesis
#12
REVIEW
Christopher M J McFaul, Rodrigo Fernandez-Gonzalez
The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has recently emerged as an excellent system to investigate the genetics of cardiovascular development and disease. Drosophila provides an inexpensive and genetically-tractable in vivo system with a large number of conserved features. In addition, the Drosophila embryo is transparent, and thus amenable to time-lapse fluorescence microscopy, as well as biophysical and pharmacological manipulations. One of the conserved aspects of heart development from Drosophila to humans is the initial assembly of a tube...
April 4, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381427/the-endoplasmic-reticulum-is-partitioned-asymmetrically-during-mitosis-prior-to-cell-fate-selection-in-proneuronal-cells-in-the-early-drosophila-embryo
#13
Anthony S Eritano, Arturo Altamirano, Sarah Beyeler, Norma Gaytan, Mark Velasquez, Blake Riggs
Asymmetric cell division is the primary mechanism to generate cellular diversity and relies on the correct partitioning of cell fate determinants. However, the mechanism by which these determinants are delivered and positioned is poorly understood and the upstream signal to initiate asymmetric cell division is currently unknown. Here we report that the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) is asymmetrically partitioned during mitosis in epithelial cells just prior to delamination and selection of a proneural cell fate in the early Drosophila embryo...
April 5, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381422/polo-kinase-mediates-the-phosphorylation-and-cellular-localization-of-nuf-fip3-a-rab11-effector
#14
Lotti Brose, Justin Crest, Li Tao, William Sullivan
Animal cytokinesis involves both actin-myosin based contraction and vesicle-mediated membrane addition. In many cell types, including early Drosophila embryos, Nuf/FIP3, a Rab11 effector, mediates recycling endosome (RE)-based vesicle delivery to the cytokinesis furrow. Nuf exhibits a cell cycle-regulated concentration at the centrosome that is accompanied by dramatic changes in its phosphorylation state. Here we demonstrate maximal phosphorylation of Nuf occurs at prophase, when centrosome-associated Nuf disperses throughout the cytoplasm...
April 5, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380363/polycomb-and-hox-genes-control-jnk-induced-remodeling-of-the-segment-boundary-during-drosophila-morphogenesis
#15
Solange Roumengous, Raphaël Rousset, Stéphane Noselli
In segmented tissues, anterior and posterior compartments represent independent morphogenetic domains, which are made of distinct lineages separated by boundaries. During dorsal closure of the Drosophila embryo, specific "mixer cells" (MCs) are reprogrammed in a JNK-dependent manner to express the posterior determinant engrailed (en) and cross the segment boundary. Here, we show that JNK signaling induces de novo expression of en in the MCs through repression of Polycomb (Pc) and release of the en locus from the silencing PcG bodies...
April 4, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363972/myosin-ii-promotes-the-anisotropic-loss-of-the-apical-domain-during-drosophila-neuroblast-ingression
#16
Sérgio Simões, Youjin Oh, Michael F Z Wang, Rodrigo Fernandez-Gonzalez, Ulrich Tepass
Epithelial-mesenchymal transitions play key roles in development and cancer and entail the loss of epithelial polarity and cell adhesion. In this study, we use quantitative live imaging of ingressing neuroblasts (NBs) in Drosophila melanogaster embryos to assess apical domain loss and junctional disassembly. Ingression is independent of the Snail family of transcriptional repressors and down-regulation of Drosophila E-cadherin (DEcad) transcription. Instead, the posttranscriptionally regulated decrease in DEcad coincides with the reduction of cell contact length and depends on tension anisotropy between NBs and their neighbors...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351835/cross-linking-mass-spectrometry-identifies-new-interfaces-of-augmin-required-to-localise-the-%C3%AE-tubulin-ring-complex-to-the-mitotic-spindle
#17
Jack W C Chen, Zhuo A Chen, Kacper B Rogala, Jeremy Metz, Charlotte M Deane, Juri Rappsilber, James G Wakefield
The hetero-octameric protein complex, Augmin, recruits γ-Tubulin Ring Complex (γ-TuRC) to pre-existing microtubules (MTs) to generate branched MTs during mitosis, facilitating robust spindle assembly. However, despite a recent partial reconstitution of the human Augmin complex in vitro, the molecular basis of this recruitment remains unclear. Here, we used immuno-affinity purification of in vivo Augmin from Drosophila and cross-linking/mass spectrometry to identify distance restraints between residues within the eight Augmin subunits in the absence of any other structural information...
March 28, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346461/geometry-can-provide-long-range-mechanical-guidance-for-embryogenesis
#18
Mahamar Dicko, Pierre Saramito, Guy B Blanchard, Claire M Lye, Bénédicte Sanson, Jocelyn Étienne
Downstream of gene expression, effectors such as the actomyosin contractile machinery drive embryo morphogenesis. During Drosophila embryonic axis extension, actomyosin has a specific planar-polarised organisation, which is responsible for oriented cell intercalation. In addition to these cell rearrangements, cell shape changes also contribute to tissue deformation. While cell-autonomous dynamics are well described, understanding the tissue-scale behaviour challenges us to solve the corresponding mechanical problem at the scale of the whole embryo, since mechanical resistance of all neighbouring epithelia will feedback on individual cells...
March 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343963/maternally-inherited-stable-intronic-sequence-rna-triggers-a-self-reinforcing-feedback-loop-during-development
#19
Mandy Li-Ian Tay, Jun Wei Pek
Maternally inherited noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) can regulate zygotic gene expression across generations [1-4]. Recently, many stable intronic sequence RNAs (sisRNAs), which are byproducts of pre-mRNA splicing, were found to be maternally deposited and persist till zygotic transcription in Xenopus and Drosophila [5-7]. In various organisms, sisRNAs can be in linear or circular conformations, and they have been suggested to regulate host gene expression [5-10]. It is unknown whether maternally deposited sisRNAs can regulate zygotic gene expression in the embryos...
April 3, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331071/cell-cell-and-cell-ecm-adhesions-cooperate-to-organize-actomyosin-networks-and-maintain-force-transmission-during-dorsal-closure
#20
Katharine Goodwin, Emily E Lostchuck, Kaitlyn M L Cramb, Teresa Zulueta-Coarasa, Rodrigo Fernandez-Gonzalez, Guy Tanentzapf
Tissue morphogenesis relies on the coordinated action of actin networks, cell-cell adhesions, and cell-ECM adhesions. Such coordination can be achieved through crosstalk between cell-cell and cell-ECM adhesions. Drosophila Dorsal Closure (DC), a morphogenetic process wherein an extra-embryonic tissue called the amnioserosa contracts and ingresses to close a discontinuity in the dorsal epidermis of the embryo, requires both cell-cell and cell-ECM adhesions. However, whether the function of these two types of adhesion is coordinated during DC is not known...
March 22, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
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