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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245169/-mistakes-and-drawbacks-in-german-newspaper-articles-on-epidemiologic-studies-meat-consumption-and-colorectal-cancer-as-an-example
#1
Bernd Kowall, Andreas Stang
Background Results of epidemiologic studies are often reported in the media because they are of vital interest for many people. Using the example of meat consumption and colorectal cancer, we investigated whether results of epidemiologic studies are reported in an understandable and correct manner in German newspapers and magazines. Methods We gathered all articles published in 13 selected German newspapers and magazines that referred to a press release on meat consumption and colorectal cancer issued by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) on October 26th 2015...
December 15, 2017: Das Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245102/random-responses-inflate-statistical-estimates-in-heavily-skewed-addictions-data
#2
Kevin M King, Dale S Kim, Connor J McCabe
BACKGROUND: Some respondents may respond at random to self-report surveys, rather than responding conscientiously (Meade and Craig, 2012), and this has only recently come to the attention of researchers in the addictions field (Godinho et al., 2016). Almost no research in the published addictions literature has reported screening for random responses. We illustrate how random responses can bias statistical estimates using simulated and real data, and how this is especially problematic in skewed data, as is common with substance use outcomes...
December 9, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245042/is-the-diagnostic-threshold-for-bulimia-nervosa-clinically-meaningful
#3
Danielle A N Chapa, Brittany K Bohrer, Kelsie T Forbush
The DSM-5 differentiates full- and sub-threshold bulimia nervosa (BN) according to average weekly frequencies of binge eating and inappropriate compensatory behaviors. This study was the first to evaluate the modified frequency criterion for BN published in the DSM-5. The purpose of this study was to test whether community-recruited adults (N=125; 83.2% women) with current full-threshold (n=77) or sub-threshold BN (n=48) differed in comorbid psychopathology and eating disorder (ED) illness duration, symptom severity, and clinical impairment...
December 8, 2017: Eating Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245019/genetic-polymorphism-of-21-non-codis-str-loci-in-chengdu-han-population-and-its-interpopulation-analysis-between-25-populations-in-china
#4
Ye Li, Hepei Li, Guanglin He, Weibo Liang, Haibo Luo, Miao Liao, Ji Zhang, Jing Yan, Yingbi Li, Yiping Hou, Jin Wu
AGCU 21+1 STR kit contains 21 non-combined DNA index system (non-CODIS) short tandem repeats (STR) loci and a sex-determining locus amelogenin. In this study, we evaluated the genetic diversity and forensically relevant population statistics of 21 non-CODIS loci in 210 Chinese Han individuals from Chengdu city, Sichuan province, Southwest China. No significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were observed within the 21 non-CODIS STR loci. The combined power of discrimination (CPD) and combined power of exclusion (CPE) were 0...
December 9, 2017: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244989/global-use-of-traditional-and-complementary-medicine-in-childhood-cancer-a-systematic-review
#5
Caroline Diorio, Catherine G Lam, Elena J Ladas, Festus Njuguna, Glenn M Afungchwi, Katherine Taromina, Stacey Marjerrison
Purpose Traditional and complementary medicine (T&CM) strategies are commonly used in pediatric oncology. Patterns may vary based on country income. We systematically reviewed published studies describing T&CM use among pediatric oncology patients in low-income countries (LIC/LMIC), middle-income countries (UMIC), and high-income countries (HIC). Objectives included describing estimated prevalence of use, reasons for use, perceived effectiveness, modalities used, rates of disclosure, and reporting of delayed or abandoned treatment...
December 2017: Journal of Global Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244969/treatment-of-open-upper-limb-injuries-with-infection-prevention-and-negative-pressure-wound-therapy-a-systematic-review
#6
E Ali, M Raghuvanshi
OBJECTIVE: Open upper limb injuries requiring soft reconstruction can pose a dilemma for trauma surgeons when considering the treatment options. The British Orthopaedic Association and British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons Standard for Trauma (BOAST) have addressed the management of severe open lower limb fractures with the creation of the BOAST 4 guidelines. However, no such gold standard exists for the treatment of open injuries of the upper limb. Furthermore, treatment of these injuries is often more difficult and requires complicated strategies...
December 2, 2017: Journal of Wound Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244902/feasibility-of-predicting-tumor-motion-using-online-data-acquired-during-treatment-and-a-generalized-neural-network-optimized-with-offline-patient-tumor-trajectories
#7
Troy Teo, Syed Bilal Ahmed, Nadia Alayoubi, Neil Bruce, Ethan Lyn, Stephen Pistorius
PURPOSE: The accurate prediction of intra-fraction lung tumor motion is required to compensate for system latency in image-guided adaptive radiotherapy systems. The goal of this study was to identify an optimal prediction model that has a short learning period so that prediction and adaptation can commence soon after treatment begins, and requires minimal re-optimization for individual patients. Specifically, the feasibility of predicting tumor position using a combination of a generalized (i...
December 15, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244832/productivity-impact-and-collaboration-differences-between-transdisciplinary-and-traditionally-trained-doctoral-students-a-comparison-of-publication-patterns
#8
Anna-Sigrid Keck, Stephanie Sloane, Janet M Liechty, Barbara H Fiese, Sharon M Donovan
Transdisciplinary (TD) approaches are increasingly used to address complex public health problems such as childhood obesity. Compared to traditional grant-funded scientific projects among established scientists, those designed around a TD, team-based approach yielded greater publication output after three to five years. However, little is known about how a TD focus throughout graduate school training may affect students' publication-related productivity, impact, and collaboration. The objective of this study was to compare the publication patterns of students in traditional versus TD doctoral training programs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244826/magpie-simplifying-access-and-execution-of-computational-models-in-the-life-sciences
#9
Christoph Baldow, Sebastian Salentin, Michael Schroeder, Ingo Roeder, Ingmar Glauche
Over the past decades, quantitative methods linking theory and observation became increasingly important in many areas of life science. Subsequently, a large number of mathematical and computational models has been developed. The BioModels database alone lists more than 140,000 Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) models. However, while the exchange within specific models classes has been supported by standardisation and database efforts, the generic application and especially the re-use of models is still limited by practical issues such as easy and straight forward model execution...
December 15, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244785/co-authorship-and-scientific-collaboration-networks-in-medwave
#10
Ibraín Enrique Corrales-Reyes
Scientific collaboration between researchers is one of the most important aspects in the evolution of science helping promote the quality of the studies that are carried out. In turn, it determines an increase in citations when research results are published in scholarly journals. It is interesting to explore the dynamics of scientific collaboration networks regarding co-authorship of scientific articles published in Medwave from January 2014 to September of 2017 and indexed in PubMed/MEDLINE. The largest collaboration networks occurred among authors Rada G, Corsi O and Peña J; and, at universities and healthcare centers level, in the Faculty of Medicine belonging to the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile located in Santiago, Chile...
December 15, 2017: Medwave
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244729/comparative-evaluation-of-u-s-brand-and-generic-intravenous-sodium-ferric-gluconate-complex-in-sucrose-injection-in-vitro-cellular-uptake
#11
Min Wu, Dajun Sun, Katherine Tyner, Wenlei Jiang, Rodney Rouse
Iron deficiency anemia is a common clinical consequence for people who suffer from chronic kidney disease, especially those requiring dialysis. Intravenous (IV) iron therapy is a widely accepted safe and efficacious treatment for iron deficiency anemia. Numerous IV iron drugs have been approved by U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), including a single generic product, sodium ferric gluconate complex in sucrose. In this study, we compared the cellular iron uptake profiles of the brand (Ferrlecit®) and generic sodium ferric gluconate (SFG) products...
December 15, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244612/letter-to-the-editor-regarding-the-role-of-age-sex-interaction-in-the-development-of-post-herpetic-neuralgia
#12
Cintia Muñoz-Quiles, Mónica López-Lacort, Alejandro Orrico-Sánchez, Javier Díez-Domingo
The objective of the study was to evaluate the role of age and sex and their combined effect in the development of post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) in a large population-based study, in order to confirm the results published previously by Amicizia et al. Data were extracted from population and healthcare databases from the Valencia Region (2009-2014). Logistic regressions were implemented to estimate the effect of increasing age on the probability of developing PHN stratified by sex. From a cohort of 2,289,485 subjects ≥ 50 years, 87,086 cases of HZ were registered and 13,658 (15...
December 15, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244540/overcoming-impediments-to-otp-expansion-in-the-united-states-and-abroad
#13
Mark W Parrino
By all published accounts and federal government reports, the United States is experiencing a serious opioid use epidemic. Additional treatment resources are needed in order to provide access to evidence based medical care for untreated individuals with substance use disorders. The focus of this commentary is increasing access to more opioid treatment programs and overcoming the significant impediments, which block such efforts.
December 15, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244496/quantitating-volatile-phenols-in-cabernet-franc-berries-and-wine-after-on-vine-exposure-to-smoke-from-a-simulated-forest-fire
#14
Matthew Noestheden, Eric G Dennis, Wesley Zandberg
Smoke-taint is a wine defect linked to organoleptic volatile phenols (VPs) in Vitis vinifera L. berries that have been exposed to smoke from wildland fires. Herein, the levels of smoke-taint-associated VPs are reported in Cabernet Franc berries from veraison to commercial maturity and in wine after primary fermentation following on-vine exposure to simulated wildland fire smoke. VPs increased after smoke exposure, were rapidly stored as acid-labile conjugates, and the levels of both free VPs and conjugated forms remained constant through ripening to commercial maturity...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244179/sedaxane-use-of-nuclear-receptor-transactivation-assays-toxicogenomics-and-toxicokinetics-as-part-of-a-mode-of-action-framework-for-rodent-liver-tumors
#15
Richard C Peffer, David E Cowie, Richard A Currie, Daniel J Minnema
Experimental data demonstrate a mode of action (MOA) for liver tumors in male rats and mice treated with sedaxane that starts with activation of CAR, followed by altered expression of CAR-responsive genes, increased cell proliferation, and eventually clonal expansion of preneoplastic cells, leading to the development of altered foci and tumors. This MOA is non-relevant to human risk assessments. Methods and results in the MOA work for sedaxane illustrate promising directions that future MOA studies may be able to employ, in the spirit of "Tox21" and reduction of in vivo animal use: 1) currently available in vitro CAR and PXR reporter assays demonstrated that sedaxane is a direct CAR activator in mice and rats, and a weak PXR activator in rats; 2) mouse liver microarray results compared to a published CAR biomarker signature (based on 83 genes) showed a clear, statistical match, and a lack of correlation to similar biomarker signatures for AhR, PPARα, and STAT5B; 3) Ki67 immunohistochemistry and zonal image analysis showed significant increases in this marker of cell proliferation in mouse liver, without the need to dose a DNA labelling agent; and 4) toxicokinetic analysis of Cmax levels of sedaxane in blood showed a marked species difference between mice and rats that helps to explain differences in sensitivity to sedaxane...
December 13, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244082/quantitation-of-cocaine-and-metabolites-phencyclidine-butalbital-and-phenobarbital-in-meconium-by-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#16
Triniti L Scroggin, Gwendolyn A McMillin
In this study, a quantitative polarity switching liquid chromatography coupled with a tandem mass spectrometer (LC-MS/MS) method was developed to detect and quantify cocaine and metabolites (cocaethylene, benzoylecgonine and meta-hydroxybenzoylecgonine), phencyclidine (PCP) and barbiturates (phenobarbital and butalbital) in meconium. Accuracy and precision samples at 0.0125% and 75% of the upper limit of quantitation (ULOQ) were analyzed in triplicate over 5 days with accuracy above 84% and average %CV values below 11%...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244060/the-residual-medium-and-long-term-cognitive-effects-of-benzodiazepine-use-an-updated-meta-analysis
#17
Simon F Crowe, Elizabeth K Stranks
Objective: This study presents an updated meta-analysis of the effects of benzodiazepines on cognitive functioning in long-term, current users of these agents, those who have recently withdrawn and on those who have successfully abstained following withdrawal. The study represents an update of the previous meta-analyses published by our group. Method: A comprehensive search of the computerized databases Medline and PsycINFO was undertaken to identify studies that assessed the cognitive effects of benzodiazepines published up to 28 November 2016 (the date of the last update)...
December 13, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244054/a-systematic-review-for-functional-neuroimaging-studies-of-cognitive-reserve-across-the-cognitive-aging-spectrum
#18
Mia Anthony, Feng Lin
Objective: Cognitive reserve has been proposed to explain the discrepancy between clinical symptoms and the effects of aging or Alzheimer's pathology. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) may help elucidate how neural reserve and compensation delay cognitive decline and identify brain regions associated with cognitive reserve. This systematic review evaluated neural correlates of cognitive reserve via fMRI (resting-state and task-related) studies across the cognitive aging spectrum (i...
December 13, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243995/the-relationship-of-erectile-dysfunction-and-subclinical-cardiovascular-disease-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
Chukwuemeka U Osondu, Bryan Vo, Ebenezer T Oni, Michael J Blaha, Emir Veledar, Theodore Feldman, Arthur S Agatston, Khurram Nasir, Ehimen C Aneni
Erectile dysfunction (ED) is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and CVD mortality. However, the relationship between ED and subclinical CVD is less clear. We synthesized the available data on the association of ED and measures of subclinical CVD. We searched multiple databases for published literature on studies examining the association of ED and measures of subclinical CVD across four domains: endothelial dysfunction measured by flow-mediated dilation (FMD), carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), coronary artery calcification (CAC), and other measures of vascular function such as the ankle-brachial index, toe-brachial index, and pulse wave velocity...
December 1, 2017: Vascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243959/application-of-glycemic-variability-percentage-implications-for-continuous-glucose-monitor-utilization-and-analysis-of-artificial-pancreas-data
#20
Arturo Garcia, Andrew K Balo, Bruce A Buckingham, Irl B Hirsch, Thomas A Peyser
BACKGROUND: The problem of glycemic variability has been widely acknowledged in patients with diabetes with severe insulin deficiency. In a companion article, we proposed a novel metric, the glycemic variability percentage (GVP), for assessing glycemic variability that accounts for both the amplitude and frequency of glycemic fluctuations. METHOD: We applied the new metric, the GVP, to a previously reported case of a subject using an earlier generation continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) device, in which successive periods of use were associated with an apparent decrease in glycemic variability...
December 2017: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
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