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Loai Albarqouni, Khamis Elessi, Niveen Abu-Rmeileh
BACKGROUND: Highest priority should be given to research on conditions responsible for the greatest disease burden. This is particularly important in settings where resources are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess the association between research output and disease burden in the occupied Palestinian territory and to identify the conditions that are under-investigated or over-investigated, if any. METHODS: We searched PubMed and Scopus for reports of original research relevant to human health or health care that was authored by researchers affiliated with Palestinian institutions and published between Jan 1, 2000, and Dec 31, 2015...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Klim McPherson, Shaymaa Al Waheidi
BACKGROUND: There has been extensive debate about whether mammographic screening has done more good than harm. Recent reviews showed that women who undergo mammographic screening are more likely to have a tumour that was an overdiagnosis and therefore would not cause them problems. In the Gaza Strip, a strong forum of people advocate an increase in mammographic screening, and the aim of this study was to establish the evidence for this view. METHODS: Research papers that have focused on breast screening in the Gaza Strip or elsewhere in the occupied Palestinian territory were reviewed...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Karuna D Sagili, Srinath Satyanarayana, Sarabjit S Chadha, Nevin C Wilson, Ajay M V Kumar, Patrick K Moonan, John E Oeltmann, Vineet K Chadha, Sharath Burugina Nagaraja, Smita Ghosh, Terrence Q Lo, Tyson Volkmann, Matthew Willis, Kalpita Shringarpure, Ravichandra Chinnappa Reddy, Prahlad Kumar, Sreenivas A Nair, Raghuram Rao, Mohammed Yassin, Perry Mwangala, Rony Zachariah, Jamhoih Tonsing, Anthony D Harries, Sunil Khaparde
BACKGROUND: The Global Fund encourages operational research (OR) in all its grants; however very few reports describe this aspect. In India, Project Axshya was supported by a Global Fund grant to improve the reach and visibility of the government Tuberculosis (TB) services among marginalised and vulnerable communities. OR was incorporated to build research capacity of professionals working with the national TB programme and to generate evidence to inform policies and practices. OBJECTIVES: To describe how Project Axshya facilitated building OR capacity within the country, helped in addressing several TB control priority research questions, documented project activities and their outcomes, and influenced policy and practice...
2018: Global Health Action
Irina Tammenmaa-Aho, Rosie Asher, Karla Soares-Weiser, Hanna Bergman
BACKGROUND: Tardive dyskinesia (TD) remains a troublesome adverse effect of conventional antipsychotic (neuroleptic) medication. It has been proposed that TD could have a component of central cholinergic deficiency. Cholinergic drugs have been used to treat TD. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of cholinergic drugs (arecoline, choline, deanol, lecithin, meclofenoxate, physostigmine, RS 86, tacrine, metoxytacrine, galantamine, ipidacrine, donepezil, rivastigmine, eptastigmine, metrifonate, xanomeline, cevimeline) for treating antipsychotic-induced TD in people with schizophrenia or other chronic mental illness...
March 19, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Jonathan Barry
Restoration London saw a wave of publications by physicians advocating that the 'compleat physician' should be one who experimented and produced his own medicines. Only thus, they argued, could the medical hierarchy be restored and medical authority re-established on a defensible basis. This article seeks to explain the context for this unusual approach, and why it failed to attract mainstream physicians by the end of the century, by considering the sixty-year career of one of its leading advocates, Everard Maynwaring (c...
April 2018: Medical History
Saraschandra Vallabhajosyula, Hamza A Rayes, Ankit Sakhuja, Mohammad Hassan Murad, Jeffrey B Geske, Jacob C Jentzer
The data on speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE) in patients with sepsis are limited. This systematic review from 1975 to 2016 included studies in adults and children evaluating cardiovascular dysfunction in sepsis, severe sepsis, and septic shock utilizing STE for systolic global longitudinal strain (GLS). The primary outcome was short- or long-term mortality. Given the significant methodological and statistical differences between published studies, combining the data using meta-analysis methods was not appropriate...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
Victoria E Jackson, Helen Hurst, Sandip Mitra
INTRODUCTION: Arteriovenous fistulae remain the gold standard of vascular access in haemodialysis. There is currently no consensus on standardised methods of monitoring arteriovenous fistulae. Assessment techniques and practice remain widely variable. The purpose of this study is to determine whether existing evidence supports physical assessment as an effective tool and a good predictor of arteriovenous fistulae dysfunction to allow for timely intervention and improve outcomes. METHODS: A literature search was performed using CINAHL, PubMed, Medline and BNI databases and relevant search terms...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Vascular Access
Jun-Hua Zhang, You-Ping Li, Bo-Li Zhang
The introduction and popularization of evidence-based medicine has opened up a new research field of clinical efficacy evaluation of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM), produced new research ideas and methods, and promoted the progress of clinical research of TCM. After about 20 years assiduous study and earnest practice, the evidence based evaluation method and technique, which conforms to the characteristics of TCM theory and practice, has been developing continuously. Evidence-based Chinese medicine (EBCM) has gradually formed and become an important branch of evidence-based medicine...
January 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Karla Soares-Weiser, John Rathbone, Yusuke Ogawa, Kiyomi Shinohara, Hanna Bergman
BACKGROUND: Antipsychotic (neuroleptic) medication is used extensively to treat people with chronic mental illnesses. Its use, however, is associated with adverse effects, including movement disorders such as tardive dyskinesia (TD) - a problem often seen as repetitive involuntary movements around the mouth and face. This review, one in a series examining the treatment of TD, covers miscellaneous treatments not covered elsewhere. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether drugs, hormone-, dietary-, or herb-supplements not covered in other Cochrane reviews on TD treatments, surgical interventions, electroconvulsive therapy, and mind-body therapies were effective and safe for people with antipsychotic-induced TD...
March 19, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Lijuan Wang, Yanchun Quan, Yongfang Yue, Xueyuan Heng, Fengyuan Che
Interleukin (IL)-37, a new IL-1 family member, has received increasing attention in recent years. In the past decade, it has been determined that IL-37 is expressed in various normal cells and tissues and is regulated by inflammatory stimuli and pro-cytokines via different signal transduction pathways. Recently, it has been found that IL-37 is expressed in a variety of cancers, chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disorders, and exerts anti-inflammatory effects. Moreover, a growing body of literature demonstrates that IL-37 plays a vital role in inhibiting both innate and adaptive immune responses as well as inflammatory reactions...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Boram Lee, Jihong Lee, Jin-Hong Cheon, Hyun-Kyung Sung, Seung-Hun Cho, Gyu Tae Chang
Objectives. We aimed to summarize and critically evaluate the available evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of acupuncture for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Methods. We searched 13 databases for studies published up to December 2016. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the efficacy of acupuncture for children with ASD were included. Outcome measures were the overall scores on scales evaluating the core symptoms of ASD and the scores for each symptom, such as social communication ability and skills, stereotypies, language ability, and cognitive function...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Meghan N Jeffres, Elizabeth A Hall-Lipsy, S Travis King, John D Cleary
OBJECTIVE: To describe medical negligence and malpractice cases in which a patient with a known penicillin allergy received a beta-lactam and experienced an adverse reaction related to the beta-lactam. DATA SOURCES: Lexis-Nexus, Westlaw, and Google Scholar were searched. STUDY SELECTIONS: Medical negligence and malpractice cases were eligible for inclusion if they met the following criteria: the plaintiff had a known penicillin allergy, received a beta-lactam, and experienced an adverse event...
March 15, 2018: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
Emily E Adams, Morgan L Wrightson
The present study aims to synthesize current evidence on the impact of LVAD implantation on quality of life. Current evidence was systematically reviewed to obtain relevant quantitative and qualitative articles published after 2007. Sandelowski's recommended steps for meta-summary were used to analyze the 19 studies that met the inclusion criteria. LVADs can improve HF symptoms and some aspects of QoL. Emotional and physical adaptation involves many changes and learning to manage the device takes time. Functional limitations still exist and patients still lack independence...
March 15, 2018: Heart & Lung: the Journal of Critical Care
Liya Lu, Daniel F Mackay, Jill P Pell
BACKGROUND: Active smoking is an important risk factor for all-cause mortality and peripheral arterial disease (PAD). In contrast, published studies on the associations with secondhand smoke (SHS) are limited. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between SHS exposure and incident PAD, as well as mortality, among middle-aged non-smokers. METHODS: We undertook a retrospective, cohort study using record linkage of the Scottish Health Surveys between 1998 and 2010 to hospital admissions and death certificates...
March 19, 2018: BMC Public Health
C B Terwee, C A C Prinsen, A Chiarotto, M J Westerman, D L Patrick, J Alonso, L M Bouter, H C W de Vet, L B Mokkink
BACKGROUND: Content validity is the most important measurement property of a patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) and the most challenging to assess. Our aims were to: (1) develop standards for evaluating the quality of PROM development; (2) update the original COSMIN standards for assessing the quality of content validity studies of PROMs; (3) develop criteria for what constitutes good content validity of PROMs, and (4) develop a rating system for summarizing the evidence on a PROM's content validity and grading the quality of the evidence in systematic reviews of PROMs...
March 17, 2018: Quality of Life Research
Sophia Merisier, Caroline Larue, Louise Boyer
BACKGROUND: Problem-based learning is an educational method promoting clinical reasoning that has been implemented in many fields of health education. Questioning is a learning strategy often employed in problem-based learning sessions. AIM: To explore what is known about the influence of questioning on the promotion of clinical reasoning of students in health care education, specifically in the field of nursing and using the educational method of problem-based learning...
March 10, 2018: Nurse Education Today
Carolien J Aantjes, Andrew Gilmoor, Elena V Syurina, Tamaryn L Crankshaw
OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review of the status of post-abortion care (PAC) provision in Eastern and Southern Africa with particular reference to reach, quality and costs of these services. STUDY DESIGN: We searched Pubmed, EMBASE, Science Direct, POPLINE and Web of Science for articles published between 2000 and October 2017 presenting primary or secondary data from one or more countries in the region. RESULTS: Seventy articles representing data from fourteen countries were abstracted and included in the review...
March 14, 2018: Contraception
Frederick Fasslrinner, Johannes Schetelig, Andreas Burchert, Michael Kramer, Rudolf Trenschel, Ute Hegenbart, Michael Stadler, Kerstin Schäfer-Eckart, Michael Bätzel, Hans Eich, Martin Stuschke, Rita Engenhart-Cabillic, Mechthild Krause, Peter Dreger, Andreas Neubauer, Gerhard Ehninger, Dietrich Beelen, Wolfgang E Berdel, Timo Siepmann, Matthias Stelljes, Martin Bornhäuser
BACKGROUND: The impact of the intensity of conditioning before allogeneic haemopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) has been studied in a randomised phase 3 trial comparing reduced-intensity conditioning with myeloablative conditioning in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia in first complete remission. Because of the short follow-up of the original trial, whether reduced-intensity conditioning increases the risk of late relapse compared with myeloablative conditioning remained unclear...
March 14, 2018: Lancet Haematology
Evgenios Agathokleous, Mitsutoshi Kitao, Edward J Calabrese
Lanthanum is a rare earth element (REE) which has been extensively studied due to its wide application in numerous fields with a potential accumulation in the environment. It has long been known for its potential to stimulate plant growth within a hormetic-biphasic dose response framework. This article provides evidence from a series of high resolution studies published within the last two decades demonstrating a substantial and significant occurrence of lanthanum-induced hormesis in plants. These findings suggest that hormetic responses should be built into the study design of hazard assessment study protocols and included in the risk assessment process...
March 14, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Giuseppe Brescia, Claudia Zanotti, Daniela Parrino, Umberto Barion, Gino Marioni
PURPOSE: Endotyping chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) poses a challenge for rhinologists nowadays. Phenotyping CRSwNP proved inappropriate as an approach to their classification because of their common clinical features. Endotyping, being based on the pathogenic mechanism, provides a precise picture more appropriate for use in clinical practice. Patients' treatment and follow-up can thus be tailored to cope with the degree of aggressiveness of a specific CRSwNP endotype...
March 7, 2018: American Journal of Otolaryngology
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