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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943102/hypothalamic-pathways-regulate-the-anorectic-action-of-p-chloro-diphenyl-diselenide-in-rats
#1
Cristiani F Bortolatto, Cristina W Nogueira, Begoña Porteiro, Mónica Imbernón, Ruben Nogueiras
Behavioral studies have suggested that (p-ClPhSe)2 elicits an anorectic-like action in rats by inducing multiple effects such as satiety-enhancing effect, malaise and specific flavor; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying its anorexigenic action remain unclarified. Here, male Sprague-Dawley rats received acute and sub-chronic intraperitoneal treatments with (p-ClPhSe)2; thereafter, in vivo and ex vivo analyses were carried out. The present study reveals that the reduction of food intake resulting from a single treatment with (p-ClPhSe)2 (1mg/kg, i...
September 21, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942280/nitrate-induces-a-type-1-diabetic-profile-in-alligator-hatchlings
#2
Thea M Edwards, Heather J Hamlin, Haley Freymiller, Stephen Green, Jenna Thurman, Louis J Guillette
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic autoimmune disease that affects 1 in 300 children by age 18. T1D is caused by inflammation-induced loss of insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells, leading to high blood glucose and a host of downstream complications. Although multiple genes are associated with T1D risk, only 5% of genetically susceptible individuals actually develop clinical disease. Moreover, a growing number of T1D cases occur in geographic clusters and among children with low risk genotypes. These observations suggest that environmental factors contribute to T1D etiology...
September 21, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938784/immunocastration-as-an-alternative-to-caponization-evaluation-of-its-effect-on-body-and-bone-development-and-on-meat-color-and-composition
#3
M A G Quaresma, I C Antunes, M F Ribeiro, S Prazeres, R J B Bessa, P Martins da Costa
Caponization is associated with some morbidity and mortality, which contributes to important economic losses. This practice is executed without any pain relief (neither anesthesia nor analgesia) and can be painful and without consideration of animal welfare. On the other hand, immunocastration accomplished by Improvac and Bovipriva in pigs and cattle represents a noninvasive procedure, and for that reason is regarded as an alternative with improved animal welfare. This study includes 4 experimental groups consisting of capons, slips, roosters, and birds submitted to the Improvac treatment...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938473/the-role-of-episodic-postprandial-peptides-in-exercise-induced-compensatory-eating
#4
Catherine Gibbons, John E Blundell, Phillipa Caudwell, Dominic-Luc Webb, Per M Hellström, Erik Näslund, Graham Finlayson
Purpose: Prolonged physical activity gives rise to variable degrees of body weight and fat loss, and is associated with variability in appetite control (hunger and energy intake). Whether these effects are modulated by postprandial 'episodic' peptides is unclear. We examined the role of postprandial peptide response in compensatory eating during 12-weeks aerobic exercise and in response to high (HFLC) and low fat (LFHC) meals. Methods: 32 overweight/obese individuals - 16 completed 12-weeks aerobic exercise and 16 were age- and BMI-matched non-exercising controls...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938290/body-composition-changes-in-severely-burned-children-during-icu-hospitalization
#5
Janos Cambiaso-Daniel, Ioannis Malagaris, Eric Rivas, Gabriel Hundeshagen, Charles D Voigt, Elizabeth Blears, Ron P Mlcak, David N Herndon, Celeste C Finnerty, Oscar E Suman
OBJECTIVES: Prolonged hospitalization due to burn injury results in physical inactivity and muscle weakness. However, how these changes are distributed among body parts is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the degree of body composition changes in different anatomical regions during ICU hospitalization. DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. SETTING: Children's burn hospital. PATIENTS: Twenty-four severely burned children admitted to our institution between 2000 and 2015...
September 21, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930668/aspects-of-sexual-precocity-and-morphometry-of-uterus-placenta-and-embryos-fetuses-in-piau-breed-and-commercial-line-gilts
#6
José Carlos Montes, Jurandy Mauro Penitente-Filho, Simone Eliza Facioni Guimarães, Paulo Sávio Lopes, Breno Soares Camilo, Hugo Hideki Shiomi, Daniel Araújo Lima, Rogério Oliveira Pinho, Jhonata Vieira Tavares do Nascimento Pereira, Denise Silva Okano, Karine Assis Costa, José Domingos Guimarães
In view of the importance of the genetic material of local breeds in the swine industry and the lack of information about reproductive performance of Piau females, two experiments were conducted to evaluate puberty and sexual maturity as well as the morphometry of embryos/fetuses, placenta and uterus during the first 90 days of gestation in Piau breed and Commercial line gilts. In experiment I, 37 Piau and 25 commercial line gilts were used. From the 120 days of age, detection of estrus was performed using mature boars from the first to third estrus of each gilt...
September 12, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929907/management-of-obesity-after-spinal-cord-injury-a-systematic-review
#7
M H Shojaei, S M Alaviniaa, B C Craven
CONTEXT: Individuals with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) are susceptible to central and visceral obesity and it's metabolic consequences; consensus based guidelines for obesity management after SCI have not yet been stablished. OBJECTIVES: To identify and compare effective means of obesity management among SCI individuals. METHODS: This systematic review included English and non-English articles, published prior to April 2017 found in the PubMed/Medline, Embase, CINAHL Psychinfo and Cochrane databases...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929278/effect-and-mechanisms-of-diabetes-resolution-according-to-the-range-of-gastric-resection-and-the-length-of-anastomosis-in-animal-models-implication-for-gastric-cancer-surgery-in-patients-with-diabetes-mellitus
#8
Yeon-Ju Huh, Young-Gil Son, Tae-Han Kim, Ji-Ho Park, Tae-Jung Oh, Boram Choi, Jimin Min, Young Min Cho, Han-Kwang Yang, Hyuk-Joon Lee
BACKGROUND: To examine the effect and mechanism of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) on the improvement of diabetes according to the length of anastomosis and the gastric pouch volume in an animal model. METHODS: Glucose intolerance was induced with a high-fat diet for 3 months in Sprague-Dawley rats. The animals were subjected to conventional RYGB (cRYGB; 5% gastric pouch with 15-cm Roux limb, 40-cm biliopancreatic limb; n = 9), short-limb RYGB (sRYGB; 5%, 8, 4 cm; n = 9), fundus-sparing RYGB (fRYGB; 30%, 8, 4 cm; n = 9), or sham operation (n = 9)...
September 19, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925409/metabolic-and-genomic-adaptations-to-winter-fattening-in-a-primate-species-the-grey-mouse-lemur-microcebus-murinus
#9
J Terrien, M Gaudubois, D Champeval, V Zaninotto, L Roger, J F Riou, F Aujard
AIM: To understand the mechanisms underlying the development of metabolic changes leading to obesity remains a major world health issue. Among such mechanisms, seasonality is quite underestimated although it corresponds to the manifestation of extreme metabolic flexibility in response to a changing environment. Nevertheless, the changes induced by such flexibility are far to be understood, especially at the level of insulin signaling, genomic stability or inflammation. METHODS: Here, we investigated the metabolic regulations displayed by a seasonal primate species, the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) that exhibits pronounced changes in body mass during the 6-month winter season: a fattening period followed by a spontaneous fat loss, without ever reaching pathological stages...
August 14, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925405/intermittent-energy-restriction-improves-weight-loss-efficiency-in-obese-men-the-matador-study
#10
N M Byrne, A Sainsbury, N A King, A P Hills, R E Wood
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The MATADOR (Minimising Adaptive Thermogenesis And Deactivating Obesity Rebound) study examined whether intermittent energy restriction (ER) improved weight loss efficiency compared with continuous ER and, if so, whether intermittent ER attenuated compensatory responses associated with ER. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Fifty-one men with obesity were randomised to 16 weeks of either: (1) continuous (CON), or (2) intermittent (INT) ER completed as 8 × 2-week blocks of ER alternating with 7 × 2-week blocks of energy balance (30 weeks total)...
August 17, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924480/remission-of-type-2-diabetes-in-a-hypogonadal-man-under-long-term-testosterone-therapy
#11
Ahmad Haider, Karim S Haider, Farid Saad
In daily practice, clinicians are often confronted with obese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients for whom the treatment plan fails and who show an inadequate glycemic control and/or no sustainable weight loss. Untreated hypogonadism can be the reason for such treatment failure. This case describes the profound impact testosterone therapy can have on a male hypogonadal patient with metabolic syndrome, resulting in a substantial and sustained loss of body weight, pronounced improvement of all critical laboratory values and finally complete remission of diabetes...
2017: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924247/low-level-activity-thresholds-for-changes-in-nmr-biomarkers-and-genes-in-high-risk-subjects-for-type-2-diabetes
#12
Karl-Heinz Herzig, Juhani Leppäluoto, Jari Jokelainen, Emmanuelle Meugnier, Sandra Pesenti, Harri Selänne, Kari A Mäkelä, Riikka Ahola, Timo Jämsä, Hubert Vidal, Sirkka Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi
Our objectives were to determine if there are quantitative associations between amounts and intensities of physical activities (PA) on NMR biomarkers and changes in skeletal muscle gene expressions in subjects with high risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D) performing a 3-month PA intervention. We found that PA was associated with beneficial biomarker changes in a factor containing several VLDL and HDL subclasses and lipids in principal component analysis (P = <0.01). Division of PA into quartiles demonstrated significant changes in NMR biomarkers in the 2nd - 4th quartiles compared to the 1st quartile representing PA of less than 2850 daily steps (P = 0...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919065/metabolically-healthy-obesity-the-low-hanging-fruit-in-obesity-treatment
#13
REVIEW
Norbert Stefan, Hans-Ulrich Häring, Matthias B Schulze
Obesity increases the risk of several other chronic diseases and, because of its epidemic proportions, has become a major public health problem worldwide. Alarmingly, a lower proportion of adults have tried to lose weight during the past decade than during the mid-1980s to 1990s. The first-line treatment option for obesity is lifestyle intervention. Although this approach can decrease fat mass in the short term, these beneficial effects typically do not persist. If a large amount of weight loss is not an easily achievable goal, other goals that might motivate people with obesity to adopt a healthy lifestyle should be considered...
September 14, 2017: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919064/genetics-of-obesity-what-genetic-association-studies-have-taught-us-about-the-biology-of-obesity-and-its-complications
#14
REVIEW
Mark O Goodarzi
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, and other adiposity traits have identified more than 300 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Although there is reason to hope that these discoveries will eventually lead to new preventive and therapeutic agents for obesity, this will take time because such developments require detailed mechanistic understanding of how an SNP influences phenotype (and this information is largely unavailable). Fortunately, absence of functional information has not prevented GWAS findings from providing insights into the biology of obesity...
September 14, 2017: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917231/portion-controlled-ready-to-eat-meal-replacement-is-associated-with-short-term-weight-loss-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#15
Rebecca Kuriyan, Deepa P Lokesh, Ninoshka D'Souza, Divya J Priscilla, Chandni Halcyon Peris, Sumithra Selvam, Anura V Kurpad
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Strategies to prevent and treat overweight/obesity are urgently needed. This study assessed the effect of a short-term intake of ready-to-eat cereal on body weight and waist circumference of overweight/obese individuals in comparison to a control group. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: A randomized, controlled 2-arm trial was carried out on 101 overweight/obese (Body Mass Index - 29.2±2.4 kg/m2) females aged 18 to 44 years, at St. John's Medical College Hospital...
2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916544/muscle-deficits-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-contribute-to-inferior-cortical-bone-structure-and-trabecular-bone-mineral-density
#16
Joshua F Baker, Jin Long, Sogol Mostoufi-Moab, Michele Denburg, Erik Jorgenson, Prerna Sharma, Babette S Zemel, Elena Taratuta, Said Ibrahim, Mary B Leonard
OBJECTIVE: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with muscle loss, osteoporosis, and fracture. We examined associations between skeletal muscle mass, strength, and quality and trabecular and cortical bone deficits in patients with RA and healthy controls. METHODS: Participants, ages 18-75 years, completed whole-body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) of the tibia to quantify appendicular lean mass and fat mass indices (ALMI, FMI), muscle density at the lower leg, trabecular bone density, and cortical bone thickness...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915134/vitamin-d-in-obesity
#17
Jennifer S Walsh, Simon Bowles, Amy L Evans
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Vitamin D is essential for bone health, and may also have important functions in immunity and other systems. Vitamin D deficiency is common, and testing and supplementation is increasing. Serum vitamin D is lower in obese people; it is important to understand the mechanism of this effect and whether it indicates clinically significant deficiency. RECENT FINDINGS: Vitamin D is fat soluble, and distributed into fat, muscle, liver, and serum. All of these compartments are increased in volume in obesity, so the lower vitamin D likely reflects a volumetric dilution effect and whole body stores of vitamin D may be adequate...
September 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914104/influence-of-previous-body-mass-index-and-sex-on-regional-fat-changes-in-a-weight-loss-intervention
#18
Pedro J Benito, Rocio Cupeiro, Ana B Peinado, Miguel A Rojo, Nicola Maffulli
OBJECTIVES: Men and women may lose weight in a different fashion. This study compares the changes in different anatomical regions after a well-controlled weight loss program by sex and initial BMI. METHODS: A total of 180 subjects (48 overweight women, 36 overweight men, and 48 obese women and 48 obese men) were recruited to participate in a 22-week weight loss programme (diet + exercise). RESULTS: Regarding percentage body weight change from baseline, there was no triple interaction (BMI, sex and anatomical region), but there was interaction between BMI and anatomical region (F2,840=34...
September 15, 2017: Physician and Sportsmedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912804/assessment-of-nutritional-status-digestion-and-absorption-and-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-locally-advanced-pancreatic-cancer
#19
J E Witvliet-van Nierop, C M Lochtenberg-Potjes, N J Wierdsma, H J Scheffer, G Kazemier, K Ottens-Oussoren, M R Meijerink, M A E de van der Schueren
BACKGROUND AND AIM: To provide a comprehensive quantitative assessment of nutritional status, digestion and absorption, and quality of life (QoL) in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC). METHODS: Sixteen patients with LAPC were prospectively assessed for weight loss (WL), body mass index (BMI), fat-free mass index (FFMI), handgrip strength (HGS), dietary macronutrient intake, serum vitamin levels, resting and total energy expenditure (REE and TEE, indirect calorimetry), intestinal absorption capacity and fecal losses (bomb calorimetry), exocrine pancreatic function (fecal elastase-1 (FE1)), and gastrointestinal quality of life (GIQLI)...
2017: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912305/effects-of-liraglutide-on-weight-loss-fat-distribution-and-%C3%AE-cell-function-in-obese-subjects-with-prediabetes-or-early-type-2-diabetes
#20
Francesca Santilli, Paola G Simeone, Maria T Guagnano, Marika Leo, Marica T Maccarone, Augusto Di Castelnuovo, Cristina Sborgia, Riccardo C Bonadonna, Ermanno Angelucci, Virginia Federico, Stefano Cianfarani, Lamberto Manzoli, Giovanni Davì, Armando Tartaro, Agostino Consoli
OBJECTIVE: Obesity is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular complications. The risk depends significantly on adipose tissue distribution. Liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide 1 analog, is associated with weight loss, improved glycemic control, and reduced cardiovascular risk. We determined whether an equal degree of weight loss by liraglutide or lifestyle changes has a different impact on subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in obese subjects with prediabetes or early type 2 diabetes...
September 14, 2017: Diabetes Care
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