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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331928/being-in-control-a-thematic-content-analysis-of-14-in-depth-interviews-with-2-4-dinitrophenol-users
#1
Neha Prasad Ainsworth, Elisabeth Julie Vargo, Andrea Petróczi
BACKGROUND: 2,4-Dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP) is a compound with multiple industrial purposes. Currently unlicensed for human consumption, it is used by the gym-going population for drastic, short-term body fat loss. Nonetheless, physiological mechanisms can lead to potentially fatal hyperthermia. Reported fatal incidents have caused concern and highlighted the need for intervention. Understanding decision-making leading to 2,4-DNP use alongside the perceived outgroup attitudes is vital to forming effective harm minimisation policies targeting current and potential users...
January 11, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331464/somatic-cell-count-based-selection-reduces-susceptibility-to-energy-shortage-during-early-lactation-in-a-sheep-model
#2
J Bouvier-Muller, C Allain, F Enjalbert, Y Farizon, D Portes, G Foucras, R Rupp
During the transition from late gestation to early lactation ruminants experience a negative energy balance (NEB), which is considered to increase susceptibility to mammary infections. Our previous study in 2 divergent lines of sheep selected for high and low somatic cell score (SCS) suggested an association between the response to NEB and genetic susceptibility to mastitis. Forty-eight early-lactation primiparous dairy ewes from the 2 SCS genetic lines were allocated to 2 homogeneous subgroups-an NEB group, which was energy restricted and received 60% of the energy requirements for 15 d, and a control-fed group-to obtain 4 balanced groups of 12 ewes: high-SCS positive energy balance, low-SCS positive energy balance, high-SCS NEB, and low-SCS NEB...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327267/antimicrobial-peptide-gene-bdpho-responds-to-peptidoglycan-infection-and-mating-stimulation-in-oriental-fruit-fly-bactrocera-dorsalis-hendel
#3
Shi-Huo Liu, Hong-Fei Li, Yang Yang, Dong Wei, Hong-Bo Jiang, Wei Dou, Guo-Rui Yuan, Jin-Jun Wang
Phormicins belong to defensin family, which are important antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in insects. These AMPs are inducible upon challenging by immune triggers. In the present study, we identified the cDNA of a phormicin gene (BdPho) in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), a ruinous agricultural pest causing great economic losses to fruits and vegetables. The cDNA of BdPho contains a 282 bp open reading frame encoding 93 amino acid residues, and the predicted molecular weight and isoelectric point of BdPho peptide were 9...
January 11, 2018: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326031/depressive-symptoms-and-poorer-performance-on-the-stroop-task-are-associated-with-weight-gain
#4
Emma J Stinson, Jonathan Krakoff, Marci E Gluck
OBJECTIVE: Executive function impairments and depression are associated with obesity but whether they predict weight gain is unclear. METHODS: Forty-six individuals (35m, 37±10y) completed the Stroop Task, Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST), Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (IDS-SR), Physical Anhedonia Scale (PAS), and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Body composition (DXA) and fasting glucose were also measured. Data from return visits were used to assess changes in weight...
January 8, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326022/the-effects-of-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-on-eating-behaviors-and-body-weight-in-obesity-a-randomized-controlled-study
#5
Se-Hong Kim, Ju-Hye Chung, Tae-Hong Kim, Seong Hoon Lim, Youngkook Kim, Yun-Ah Lee, Sang-Wook Song
BACKGROUND: Although some studies have reported significant reductions in food cravings following repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), none have examined changes in body weight. OBJECTIVE: We conducted 2-week randomized, sham-controlled, single-blind, parallel-group trial to examine the effect of rTMS on body weight in obese patients. METHODS: Sixty obese patients (body mass index [BMI] ≥25 kg/m2) aged between 18 and 65 years were recruited...
December 1, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325772/the-association-of-snp276g-t-at-adiponectin-gene-with-insulin-resistance-and-circulating-adiponectin-in-response-to-two-different-hypocaloric-diets
#6
Daniel Antonio de Luis, Olatz Izaola, David Primo, R Aller, A Ortola, E Gómez, J J Lopez
BACKGROUND: Several adiponectin gene (ADIPOQ) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPS) have been related with adiponectin levels and risk for obesity. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to analyze the effect of rs1501299 ADIPOQ gene polymorphism and dietary intake on total adiponectin levels and insulin resistance after two hypocaloric diets in obese subjects. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A Caucasian population of 284 obese patients was enrolled in a randomized clinical trial with two hypocaloric diets (I: moderate carbohydrates vs II: low fat)...
January 8, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325023/the-extending-spectrum-of-npc1-related-human-disorders-from-niemann-pick-c1-disease-to-obesity
#7
Amel Lamri, Marie Pigeyre, William S Garver, David Meyre
The Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) protein regulates the transport of cholesterol and fatty acids from late endosomes / lysosomes and has a central role in maintaining lipid homeostasis. NPC1 loss-of-function mutations in humans cause NPC1 disease, a rare autosomal-recessive lipid-storage disorder characterized by progressive and lethal neurodegeneration, liver and lung failure, due to cholesterol infiltration. In humans, genome wide association studies (GWAS) and post-GWAS reports highlight the implication of common variants in NPC1 in adult-onset obesity, body fat mass, and type 2 diabetes...
January 9, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324808/a-novel-prescription-pedometer-assisted-walking-intervention-and-weight-management-for-chinese-occupational-population
#8
Yingxiang Yu, Yiran Lv, Bin Yao, Liguang Duan, Xiaoyuan Zhang, Lan Xie, Cuiqing Chang
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Information technology has been previously used for the research and practice of health promotion. Appropriate and effective health promotion methods used by professional groups remain to be investigated. This study aimed to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of a weight management program among the Chinese occupational population using and a novel information technology exercise prescription. STUDY DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: A 3-month open, self-monitored intervention trial, involving individualized pedometer-assisted exercise prescription and a one-time targeted dietary guidance prior to exercise was conducted on the Chinese occupational population aged 18-65 years in China from 2015 to 2016...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324061/the-prediction-of-deterioration-of-nutritional-status-during-chemoradiation-therapy-in-patients-with-esophageal-cancer
#9
Sofia C M Rietveld, Jill E Witvliet-van Nierop, Karen Ottens-Oussoren, Donald L van der Peet, Marian A E de van der Schueren
Patients with esophageal cancer are at high risk of developing malnutrition during neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (CRT), which in turn is associated with postoperative morbidity. The aim of the study is to explore whether parameters of a complete pre-treatment nutritional status may predict deterioration of nutritional status during CRT in patients with esophageal cancer. In this prospective cohort study, 101 patients with esophageal cancer treated with CRT were included. Data of patient characteristics, tumor classification, performance score, %weight change, body mass index, fat (free) mass index, phase angle, handgrip strength, energy- and protein intake, and use of (additional) dietary supplements were collected...
January 11, 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319436/plasma-fatty-acids-as-markers-for-desaturase-and-elongase-activities-in-spinal-cord-injured-males
#10
Lynnette M Jones, Michael Legge
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the use of surrogate plasma fatty acid analysis to provide further insights into the underlying adiposity and the development of metabolic syndrome in men with spinal cord injury (SCI). DESIGN: Case-control, cross-sectional study. SETTING: Community-based individuals with spinal cord injury and healthy controls. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty men with SCI age, height and weight matched with 20 able-bodied controls...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318700/time-course-and-dynamics-of-obesity-related-behavioral-changes-induced-by-energy-dense-foods-in-mice
#11
Jose Espinosa-Carrasco, Aurelijus Burokas, Marta Fructuoso, Ionas Erb, Elena Martín-García, Miriam Gutiérrez-Martos, Cedric Notredame, Rafael Maldonado, Mara Dierssen
Obesity represents an important risk factor contributing to the global burden of disease. The current obesogenic environment with easy access to calorie-dense foods is fueling this obesity epidemic. However, how these foods contribute to the progression of feeding behavior changes that lead to overeating is not well understood and needs systematic assessment. Using novel automated methods for the high-throughput screening of behavior, we here examine mice meal pattern upon long-term exposure to a free-choice chocolate-mixture diet and a high-fat diet with face validity for a rapid development of obesity induced by unhealthy food regularly consumed in our societies...
January 10, 2018: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316939/dietary-fats-promote-functional-and-structural-changes-in-the-median-eminence-blood-spinal-fluid-interface-the-protective-role-for-bdnf
#12
Albina F Ramalho, Bruna Bombassaro, Nathalia R Dragano, Carina Solon, Joseane Morari, Milena Fioravante, Roberta Barbizan, Licio A Velloso, Eliana P Araujo
BACKGROUND: The consumption of large amounts of dietary fats activates an inflammatory response in the hypothalamus, damaging key neurons involved in the regulation of caloric intake and energy expenditure. It is currently unknown why the mediobasal hypothalamus is the main target of diet-induced brain inflammation. We hypothesized that dietary fats can damage the median eminence blood/spinal fluid interface. METHODS: Swiss mice were fed on a high-fat diet, and molecular and structural studies were performed employing real-time PCR, immunoblot, immunofluorescence, transmission electron microscopy, and metabolic measurements...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316143/basal-insulin-peglispro-increases-lipid-oxidation-metabolic-flexibility-thermogenesis-and-ketone-bodies-compared-to-insulin-glargine-in-subjects-with-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#13
Niels K Porksen, Helle Linnebjerg, Eric Chen Quin Lam, Parag Garhyan, Alok Pachori, Richard E Pratley, Steven R Smith
AIMS: When treated with basal insulin peglispro (BIL), patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) exhibit weight loss and lower prandial insulin requirements versus insulin glargine (GL), while total insulin requirements remain similar. One possible explanation is enhanced lipid oxidation and improved ability to switch between glucose and lipid metabolism with BIL. This study compared the effects of BIL and GL on glucose and lipid metabolism in subjects with T1DM. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen subjects with T1DM were enrolled into this open-label, randomised, crossover study, and received once-daily stable, individualised, subcutaneous doses of BIL and GL for 4 weeks each...
January 8, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314446/effects-of-an-immune-stimulant-inactivated-mycobacterium-phlei-on-the-growth-performance-as-well-as-meat-quality-of-fattening-pigs
#14
Jin-Feng Zhong, Wei-Gao Wu, Aseyinjan Tastan, Xiao-Qing Zhang, Bin Wang, Xiao-Peng Tang, Re-Jun Fang
Inactivated mycobacterium phlei (M. phlei) is well known for its immune-stimulatory functions in humans and livestock, but less information is available about the influence on meat quality of pigs when used as a feed additive. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of inactivated M. phlei on growth performance as well as meat quality of fattening pigs. A total of 240 cross-bred pigs ([Landrace × Yorkshire] × Duroc) with initial body weight of 80.14 ± 0.29 kg were randomly allocated to five treatments, each of which consisted of eight replicates with 6six pigs per replicate...
January 3, 2018: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313984/dietary-branched-chain-amino-acids-and-metabolic-health-when-less-is-more
#15
Cristal M Hill, Christopher D Morrison
Within obesity research it is almost axiomatic that the consumption of adequate protein is healthy. A large body of work suggests that high protein diets reduce food intake, while maintaining protein intake but reducing caloric intake promotes fat loss while sustaining lean mass. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
January 5, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305434/modulation-of-the-il-33-il-13-axis-in-obesity-by-il-13r%C3%AE-2
#16
Jennifer Duffen, Melvin Zhang, Katherine Masek-Hammerman, Angela Nunez, Agnes Brennan, Jessica E C Jones, Jeffrey Morin, Karl Nocka, Marion Kasaian
In obesity, IL-13 overcomes insulin resistance by promoting anti-inflammatory macrophage differentiation in adipose tissue. Endogenous IL-13 levels can be modulated by the IL-13 decoy receptor, IL-13Rα2, which inactivates and depletes the cytokine. In this study, we show that IL-13Rα2 is markedly elevated in adipose tissues of obese mice. Mice deficient in IL-13Rα2 had high expression of IL-13 response markers in adipose tissue, consistent with increased IL-13 activity at baseline. Moreover, exposure to the type 2 cytokine-inducing alarmin, IL-33, enhanced serum and tissue IL-13 concentrations and elevated tissue eosinophils, macrophages, and type 2 innate lymphoid cells...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305401/changes-in-gut-microbiota-related-metabolites-and-long-term-successful-weight-loss-in-response-to-weight-loss-diets-the-pounds-lost-trial
#17
Yoriko Heianza, Dianjianyi Sun, Steven R Smith, George A Bray, Frank M Sacks, Lu Qi
OBJECTIVE: Adiposity and the gut microbiota are both related to the risk of type 2 diabetes. We aimed to comprehensively examine how changes induced by a weight-loss diet intervention in gut microbiota-related metabolites, such as trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) and its precursors (choline and l-carnitine), were associated with improvements in adiposity and regional fat deposition. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This study included 510 overweight and obese individuals who were randomly assigned one of four diets varying in macronutrient intake...
January 5, 2018: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304744/a-randomised-controlled-intervention-study-investigating-the-efficacy-of-carotenoid-rich-fruits-and-vegetables-and-extra-virgin-olive-oil-on-attenuating-sarcopenic-symptomology-in-overweight-and-obese-older-adults-during-energy-intake-restriction-protocol-paper
#18
Anthony Villani, Hattie Wright, Gary Slater, Jonathan Buckley
BACKGROUND: Weight loss interventions have not been advocated for overweight/obese older adults due to potential loss of skeletal muscle and strength impacting on physical function with potential loss of independence. Carotenoids and polyphenols are inversely associated with sarcopenic symptomology. This paper reports the protocol of a study evaluating the efficacy of a high-protein, energy restricted diet rich in carotenoids and polyphenols on body composition, muscle strength, physical performance and quality of life in overweight and obese older adults...
January 5, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301516/the-effect-of-dapagliflozin-treatment-on-epicardial-adipose-tissue-volume
#19
Takao Sato, Yoshifusa Aizawa, Sho Yuasa, Shohei Kishi, Koichi Fuse, Satoshi Fujita, Yoshio Ikeda, Hitoshi Kitazawa, Minoru Takahashi, Masahito Sato, Masaaki Okabe
BACKGROUND: Glycosuria produced by sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors is associated with weight loss. SGLT-2 inhibitors reportedly might reduce the occurrence of cardiovascular events. Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is a pathogenic fat depot that may be associated with coronary atherosclerosis. The present study evaluated the relationship between an SGLT-2 inhibitor (dapagliflozin) and EAT volume. METHODS: In 40 diabetes mellitus patients with coronary artery disease (10 women and 30 men; mean age of all 40 patients was 67...
January 4, 2018: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301371/the-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitor-dapagliflozin-prevents-renal-and-liver-disease-in-western-diet-induced-obesity-mice
#20
Dong Wang, Yuhuan Luo, Xiaoxin Wang, David J Orlicky, Komuraiah Myakala, Pengyuan Yang, Moshe Levi
Obesity and obesity related kidney and liver disease have become more prevalent over the past few decades, especially in the western world. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a new class of antidiabetic agents with promising effects on cardiovascular and renal function. Given SGLT2 inhibitors exert both anti-diabetic and anti-obesity effects by promoting urinary excretion of glucose and subsequent caloric loss, we investigated the effect of the highly selective renal SGLT2 inhibitor dapagliflozin in mice with Western diet (WD) induced obesity...
January 3, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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