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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538730/blocking-fsh-induces-thermogenic-adipose-tissue-and-reduces-body-fat
#1
Peng Liu, Yaoting Ji, Tony Yuen, Elizabeth Rendina-Ruedy, Victoria E DeMambro, Samarth Dhawan, Wahid Abu-Amer, Sudeh Izadmehr, Bin Zhou, Andrew C Shin, Rauf Latif, Priyanthan Thangeswaran, Animesh Gupta, Jianhua Li, Valeria Shnayder, Samuel T Robinson, Yue Eric Yu, Xingjian Zhang, Feiran Yang, Ping Lu, Yu Zhou, Ling-Ling Zhu, Douglas J Oberlin, Terry F Davies, Michaela R Reagan, Aaron Brown, T Rajendra Kumar, Solomon Epstein, Jameel Iqbal, Narayan G Avadhani, Maria I New, Henrik Molina, Jan B van Klinken, Edward X Guo, Christoph Buettner, Shozeb Haider, Zhuan Bian, Li Sun, Clifford J Rosen, Mone Zaidi
Menopause is associated with bone loss and enhanced visceral adiposity. A polyclonal antibody that targets the β-subunit of the pituitary hormone follicle-stimulating hormone (Fsh) increases bone mass in mice. Here, we report that this antibody sharply reduces adipose tissue in wild-type mice, phenocopying genetic haploinsufficiency for the Fsh receptor gene Fshr. The antibody also causes profound beiging, increases cellular mitochondrial density, activates brown adipose tissue and enhances thermogenesis. These actions result from the specific binding of the antibody to the β-subunit of Fsh to block its action...
May 24, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534956/effects-of-octreotide-on-hepatic-glycogenesis-in-rats-with-high-fat-diet%C3%A2-induced-obesity
#2
Xiao-Xia Wang, Ting Ye, Mao Li, Xian Li, Ou Qiang, Cheng-Wei Tang, Rui Liu
Reduced hepatic glycogenesis is one of the most important causes of metabolic abnormalities in non‑alcoholic fatty liver disease. Octreotide, a somatostatin analogue, has been demonstrated to promote weight loss and improve metabolic disorders in mice with high fat diet (HFD)‑induced obesity. However, whether octreotide affects hepatic glycogenesis is unknown. The aim of the present study was to verify the effects of octreotide on hepatic glycogenesis in rats with HFD‑induced obesity. Male Sprague‑Dawley rats were fed a standard diet or a HFD for 24 weeks...
May 16, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530498/negative-consequences-of-low-energy-availability-in-natural-male-bodybuilding-a-review
#3
Petter Fagerberg
Energy availability (EA) is a scientific concept describing how much energy is available for basic metabolic functions such as reproduction, immunity and skeletal homeostasis. Carefully controlled studies on women have shown pathological effects of EA<30kcal/kg fat free mass (FFM) and this state has been labeled low EA (LEA). Bodybuilding is a sport in which athletes compete to show muscular definition, symmetry and low body fat. The process of contest preparation in bodybuilding includes months of underfeeding, thus increasing the risk of LEA and its negative health consequences...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529328/perivascular-adipose-tissue-epiphenomenon-or-local-risk-factor
#4
REVIEW
K Schäfer, I Drosos, S Konstantinides
Obesity is associated with an increased cardiovascular risk, but the mechanisms underlying the link between increased body weight and vascular disease are incompletely understood. Over the past 15 years, perivascular adipose tissue has emerged as active component of the vessel wall involved in vascular homeostasis. However, perivascular adipose tissue can adopt detrimental properties under the influence of obesity and other factors and contribute actively to the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease. Conversely, changes of the vessel wall may negatively affect perivascular adipose tissue qualities...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529141/z-505-hydrochloride-an-orally-active-ghrelin-agonist-attenuates-the-progression-of-cancer-cachexia-via-anabolic-hormones-in-colon-26-tumor-bearing-mice
#5
Makoto Yoshimura, Yoshihiro Shiomi, Yuta Ohira, Mineo Takei, Takao Tanaka
Cancer cachexia is a progressive wasting syndrome characterized by anorexia and weight loss, specifically muscle wasting and fat depletion. There is no therapeutic agent for treatment of this syndrome. We investigated the anti-cachexia effects of Z-505 hydrochloride (Z-505), a new oral growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHSR1a) agonist, using a mouse model of cancer cachexia. We performed a calcium flux assay in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells stably expressing human GHSR1a to quantify the agonistic activity of Z-505...
May 18, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527156/the-effect-of-aerobic-or-aerobic-strength-exercise-on-body-composition-and-functional-capacity-in-patients-with-bmi-%C3%A2-35-after-bariatric-surgery-a-randomized-control-trial
#6
Alireza Hassannejad, Alireza Khalaj, Mohammad Ali Mansournia, Mastaneh Rajabian Tabesh, Zahra Alizadeh
BACKGROUND: Although previous studies suggested that bariatric surgery is the most effective and sustainable treatment method for morbid obesity in long term, but without changing in lifestyle, maintaining optimal weight loss is almost impossible. METHODS: Sixty morbid obese patients (BMI ≥ 35) were evaluated before and after 12 weeks of bariatric surgery in order to compare the impact of two different exercise programs on body composition and functional capacity outcomes...
May 19, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526377/orange-juice-allied-to-a-reduced-calorie-diet-results-in-weight-loss-and-ameliorates-obesity-related-biomarkers-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Carolina Ribeiro, Grace Dourado, Thais Cesar
OBJECTIVE: Assumptions have linked orange juice (OJ) consumption with weight gain and adverse effects on health due to its sugar content; however, epidemiologic studies have not shown increased risk for overweight or obesity with the consumption of 100% OJ. The aim of this study was to verify whether the combination of a reduced-calorie diet (RCD) and 100% OJ contribute to weight loss, promote changes in glucose and lipid metabolism, and improve diet quality in obese individuals. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial with 78 obese patients (age 36 ± 1 y, body mass index [BMI] 33 ± 3 kg/m(2)) were enrolled in two groups: Individuals in the OJ group submitted to an RCD that included OJ (500 mL/d), and individuals in the control group submitted to an RCD without OJ...
June 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524627/weight-loss-interventions-and-gut-microbiota-changes-in-overweight-and-obese-patients-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
F B Seganfredo, C A Blume, M Moehlecke, A Giongo, D S Casagrande, J V N Spolidoro, A V Padoin, B D Schaan, C C Mottin
Imbalances in the gut microbiota, the bacteria that inhabit the intestines, are central to the pathogenesis of obesity. This systematic review assesses the association between the gut microbiota and weight loss in overweight/obese adults and its potential manipulation as a target for treating obesity. This review identified 43 studies using the keywords 'overweight' or 'obesity' and 'microbiota' and related terms; among these studies, 17 used dietary interventions, 11 used bariatric surgery and 15 used microbiota manipulation...
May 19, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523955/collaborative-cross-mouse-population-for-studying-the-alveolar-bone-changes-and-impaired-glucose-tolerance-comorbidity-after-high-fat-diet-consumption
#9
Aysar Nashef, Hanifa J Abu-Toamih Atamni, Yuval Buchnik, Hatice Hasturk, Alpdogan Kantarci, Danielle Stephens, Ervin I Wiess, Yael Houri-Haddad, Fuad A Iraqi
BACKGROUND: High-fat diet (HFD), body weight (BW) gain and impaired glucose tolerance development were associated with alveolar bone loss in susceptible individuals. This report explores the Collaborative Cross (CC) mouse population for studying the impact of genetic background on the comorbidity of alveolar bone change and glucose tolerance following HFD consumption. METHODS: 78 mice from 19 different CC lines were maintained on rodents chow diet (CH) for 8 weeks, and subsequently, transferred to HFD (42% Fat) for an additional 12 weeks...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522295/reversal-of-adipose-tissue-loss-by-probucol-in-mice-with-deficiency-of-both-scavenger-receptor-class-b-type-1-and-ldl-receptor-on-high-fat-diet
#10
Xin Guo, Jiawei Liao, Xiaomin Huang, Yuhui Wang, Wei Huang, George Liu
Scavenger receptor class B type 1(SR-B1) and low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) play vital roles in cholesterol homeostasis. Previous studies indicated a strong link between cholesterol and adipose tissue (AT). In this study, adult male SR-B1 and LDLR double knockout (DKO) mice were fed with high fat diet (HFD) for 3 months. Interestingly, we found severe loss of AT in DKO mice fed with HFD. To reverse the AT loss in DKO mice, 1% probucol was added in HFD. In DKO mice on HFD, plasma total cholesterol (TC) and free cholesterol (FC) levels were increased 6 and 15 folds respectively compared with wild type (WT) mice...
May 15, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513103/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-interval-training-versus-moderate-intensity-continuous-training-on-body-adiposity
#11
REVIEW
S E Keating, N A Johnson, G I Mielke, J S Coombes
Interval training (including high-intensity interval training [HIIT] and sprint interval training [SIT]) is promoted in both scientific and lay media as being a superior and time-efficient method for fat loss compared with traditional moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT). We evaluated the efficacy of HIIT/SIT when directly compared with MICT for the modulation of body adiposity. Databases were searched to 31 August 2016 for studies with exercise training interventions with minimum 4-week duration. Meta-analyses were conducted for within-group and between-group comparisons for total body fat percentage (%) and fat mass (kg)...
May 17, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512158/association-between-changes-in-fat-distribution-and-biomarkers-for-breast-cancer
#12
Willemijn A van Gemert, Evelyn Monninkhof, Anne M May, Sjoerd G Elias, Job van der Palen, Wouter Veldhuis, Maaike Stapper, Rebecca K Stellato, Jantina A Schuit, Petra H M Peeters
We assessed the associations between changes in total and abdominal fat and changes in biomarkers for breast cancer risk using data of the SHAPE-2 trial. In the SHAPE-2 trial, 243 postmenopausal overweight women were included. The intervention in this trial consisted of 5-6 kg weight loss either by diet only or exercise plus diet. After 16 weeks, we measured serum sex hormones, inflammatory markers, total body fat (measured by DEXA scan) and intra and subcutaneous abdominal fat (measured by MRI). Associations between changes in different body fat depots and biomarkers were analysed by linear regression using the study cohort irrespective of randomization in order to make maximal use of the distribution of changes in fat measures...
May 16, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511417/effectiveness-of-a-four-week-diet-regimen-exercise-and-psychological-intervention-for-weight-loss
#13
Tobias Weinreich, Hans-Peter Filz, Ursula Gresser, Barbara M Richartz
INTRODUCTION: Obesity is accompanied by restriction in the quality of life and an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Cardiovascular, orthopedic, and metabolic disorders are among the possible consequences. In the management of obesity, a combination therapy that includes dietary, exercise, and behaviour modules has proven its worth. AIM: To evaluate the effect of weight-associated parameters, circulation associated parameters, glucose metabolism, body composition and life quality changes within a four-week inpatient rehabilitation program...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508276/effects-of-sleeve-gastrectomy-on-serum-12%C3%AE-hydroxylated-bile-acids-in-a-diabetic-rat-model
#14
Minggang Wang, Qunzheng Wu, Haibin Xie, Yi Shao, Mingwei Zhong, Xiang Zhang, Shaozhuang Liu, Xiao He, Sanyuan Hu, Guangyong Zhang
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is a prevalent disease that endangers human health. Bariatric surgery can effectively relieve insulin resistance with elevated serum bile acids (BAs). 12α-Hydroxylated BAs were previously reported to be associated with insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to analyze changes in 12α-hydroxylated BA composition and possible associated mechanisms in diabetic rats following sleeve gastrectomy (SG). METHODS: SG and sham operations were performed in diabetic rats induced by high-fat diet feeding and streptozotocin...
May 15, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507313/chronic-intrahypothalamic-rather-than-subcutaneous-liraglutide-treatment-reduces-body-weight-gain-and-stimulates-the-melanocortin-receptor-system
#15
K Kaineder, T Birngruber, G Rauter, B Obermüller, J Eichler, J Münzker, W Al-Zoughbi, S I Mautner, S S Torekov, B Hartmann, P Kotzbeck, T R Pieber
BACKGROUND: The GLP-1 receptor agonist liraglutide is marketed for obesity treatment where it induces body weight reduction possibly via the hypothalamus, which regulates energy homeostasis. In animal studies, acute liraglutide treatment triggers satiety, weight loss and activates thermogenesis in adipose tissue. However, the precise mechanisms how liraglutide affects in particular chronic weight loss are still under investigation. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate whether chronic hypothalamic or chronic subcutaneous administration of liraglutide induces sustained weight loss through altered adipose tissue function and to what extent hypothalamic neuronal appetite regulators are involved in the liraglutide-induced weight loss in healthy lean rats on a normal diet...
April 25, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507015/preserving-healthy-muscle-during-weight-loss
#16
REVIEW
Edda Cava, Nai Chien Yeat, Bettina Mittendorfer
Weight loss is the cornerstone of therapy for people with obesity because it can ameliorate or completely resolve the metabolic risk factors for diabetes, coronary artery disease, and obesity-associated cancers. The potential health benefits of diet-induced weight loss are thought to be compromised by the weight-loss-associated loss of lean body mass, which could increase the risk of sarcopenia (low muscle mass and impaired muscle function). The objective of this review is to provide an overview of what is known about weight-loss-induced muscle loss and its implications for overall physical function (e...
May 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505470/pilot-test-of-a-novel-food-response-and-attention-training-treatment-for-obesity-brain-imaging-data-suggest-actions-shape-valuation
#17
Eric Stice, Sonja Yokum, Harm Veling, Eva Kemps, Natalia S Lawrence
Elevated brain reward and attention region response, and weaker inhibitory region response to high-calorie food images have been found to predict future weight gain. These findings suggest that an intervention that reduces reward and attention region response and increases inhibitory control region response to such foods might reduce overeating. We conducted a randomized pilot experiment that tested the hypothesis that a multi-faceted food response and attention training with personalized high- and low-calorie food images would produce changes in behavioral and neural responses to food images and body fat compared to a control training with non-food images among community-recruited overweight/obese adults...
April 19, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503750/comparative-effects-of-liraglutide-3%C3%A2-mg-versus-structured-lifestyle-modification-on-body-weight-liver-fat-and-liver-function-in-obese-patients-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-pilot-randomized-trial
#18
Joan Khoo, John Hsiang, Ranu Taneja, Ngai-Moh Law, Tiing-Leong Ang
We compared effects of weight loss induced by the glucagon-like peptide 1-agonist liraglutide with a structured lifestyle intervention in obese adults with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2) , mean weight 96.0 ± 16.3 kg) non-diabetic Asian adults, with NAFLD diagnosed by liver fat fraction (LFF) ≥ 5.5% on MRI without other causes of hepatic steatosis, were randomized to a supervised program of dieting (restriction by 400 kilocalories/day) plus moderate-intensity aerobic exercise (~200 minutes/week) (DE group, n = 12), or liraglutide at the 3 mg daily dose approved for weight loss (LI group, n = 12), for 26 weeks...
May 14, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501537/effects-of-exercise-on-liver-fat-and-metabolism-in-alcohol-drinkers
#19
David Houghton, Kate Hallsworth, Christian Thoma, Sophie Cassidy, Timothy Hardy, Sarah Heaps, Kieren G Hollingsworth, Roy Taylor, Christopher P Day, Steve Masson, Stuart McPherson, Quentin M Anstee, Michael I Trenell
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Exercise is an important component of obesity associated disorders and has been shown to reduce markers of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, little is known about how these effects are influenced by alcohol intake. We performed a randomized controlled trial to investigate the effects of exercise on hepatic triglyceride content (HTGC) and metabolism in overweight or obese patients who consume alcohol. METHODS: We performed a prospective study of 27 patients (mean age 54±11years, body mass index [BMI], 31±4kg/m2) with >5% HTGC in the United Kingdom, consuming alcohol (mean 221±75 g/week)...
May 10, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501343/changes-of-renal-sinus-fat-and-renal-parenchymal-fat-during-an-18-month-randomized-weight-loss-trial
#20
Hila Zelicha, Dan Schwarzfuchs, Ilan Shelef, Yftach Gepner, Gal Tsaban, Lilac Tene, Anat Yaskolka Meir, Avital Bilitzky, Oded Komy, Noa Cohen, Nitzan Bril, Michal Rein, Dana Serfaty, Shira Kenigsbuch, Yoash Chassidim, Benjamin Sarusi, Joachim Thiery, Uta Ceglarek, Michael Stumvoll, Matthias Blüher, Yosef S Haviv, Meir J Stampfer, Assaf Rudich, Iris Shai
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Data regarding the role of kidney adiposity, its clinical implications, and its dynamics during weight-loss are sparse. We investigated the effect of long-term weight-loss induced intervention diets on dynamics of renal-sinus-fat, an ectopic fat depot, and %renal-parenchymal-fat, lipid accumulation within the renal parenchyma. METHODS: We randomized 278 participants with abdominal obesity/dyslipidemia to low-fat or Mediterranean/low-carbohydrate diets, with or without exercise...
May 2, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
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