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ptsd insomnia

Erin Koffel, Imran S Khawaja, Anne Germain
Sleep disturbances are common in adults with PTSD and range from insomnia and nightmares to periodic leg movements and disruptive nocturnal behaviors. Together these findings suggest profound disturbances in rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep, although there is a lack of consensus regarding a distinct profile of objective sleep disturbances associated with PTSD. Prospective, longitudinal studies have established that sleep disturbances represent a risk factor for the development and course of PTSD, suggesting that sleep is an important neurobiological mechanism in the etiology and maintenance of this disorder...
March 2016: Psychiatric Annals
Scott Shannon, Janet Opila-Lehman
INTRODUCTION: Anxiety and sleep disorders are often the result of posttraumatic stress disorder and can contribute to an impaired ability to focus and to demonstration of oppositional behaviors. CASE PRESENTATION: These symptoms were present in our patient, a ten-year-old girl who was sexually abused and had minimal parental supervision as a young child under the age of five. Pharmaceutical medications provided partial relief, but results were not long-lasting, and there were major side effects...
October 12, 2016: Permanente Journal
Hani Raoul Khouzam
Trazodone is an antidepressant that is FDA-approved for the treatment of depression. It has been used by mental health and primary care providers for the treatment of multiple psychiatric and medical conditions .This review describes trazodone mechanism of action, formulation, dosage and adverse effects and then summarizes the beneficial effects of trazodone in the treatment of various psychiatric and medical conditions such as major depression, as well non-approved FDA indications such as insomnia,anxiety disorders, posttraumatic stress disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, feeding and eating disorders, substance use disorders, behavioral disturbances associated with cognitive dysfunction, sexual dysfunction, certain pain conditions, and rehabilitation after acute ischemic stroke...
October 17, 2016: Postgraduate Medicine
Heidrun Hlodversdottir, Gudrun Petursdottir, Hanne Krage Carlsen, Thorarinn Gislason, Arna Hauksdottir
OBJECTIVES: To examine the long-term development of physical and mental health following exposure to a volcanic eruption. DESIGN: Population-based prospective cohort study. SETTING: In spring 2010, the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull erupted. Data were collected at 2 time points: in 2010 and 2013. PARTICIPANTS: Adult residents in areas close to the Eyjafjallajökull volcano (N=1096), divided according to exposure levels, and a non-exposed sample (n=475), with 80% participation rate in 2013...
2016: BMJ Open
Dawson Church, Terry Sparks, Morgan Clond
Prior research indicates elevated but subclinical posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms as a risk factor for a later diagnosis of PTSD. This study examined the progression of symptoms in 21 subclinical veterans. Participants were randomized into a treatment as usual (TAU) wait-list group and an experimental group, which received TAU plus six sessions of clinical emotional freedom techniques (EFT). Symptoms were assessed using the PCL-M (Posttraumatic Checklist-Military) on which a score of 35 or higher indicates increased risk for PTSD...
September 2016: Explore: the Journal of Science and Healing
Danielle Beck, Lindsay Cosco Holt, Joseph Burkard, Taylor Andrews, Lin Liu, Pia Heppner, Jill E Bormann
Statistics show that more than 80% of Veterans mention posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-related symptoms when seeking treatment. Sleep disturbances and nightmares are among the top 3 presenting problems. Current PTSD trauma-focused therapies generally do not improve sleep disturbances. The mantram repetition program (MRP), a mind-body-spiritual intervention, teaches a portable set of cognitive-spiritual skills for symptom management. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the MRP on insomnia in Veterans with PTSD in a naturalistic, clinical setting...
August 11, 2016: ANS. Advances in Nursing Science
Dawson Church, Garret Yount, Kenneth Rachlin, Louis Fox, Jerrod Nelms
PURPOSE: To assess the feasibility of measuring changes in gene expression associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) treatment using emotional freedom techniques (EFT). DESIGN: Participants were randomized into an EFT group receiving EFT and treatment as usual (TAU) throughout a 10-week intervention period and a group receiving only TAU during the intervention period and then receiving EFT. SETTING: A community clinic and a research institute in California...
August 12, 2016: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
Daniel J Taylor, Kristi E Pruiksma, Willie J Hale, Kevin Kelly, Douglas Maurer, Alan L Peterson, Jim Mintz, Brett T Litz, Douglas E Williamson
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence, correlates, and predictors of insomnia in US Army personnel prior to deployment. METHODS: Cross-sectional cohort design assessing insomnia and other psychosocial variables in active duty service members (n = 4,101), at Fort Hood, Texas, prior to military deployment. Insomnia was defined as an Insomnia Severity Index ≥ 15. RESULTS: The prevalence of insomnia was 19.9%. Enlisted personnel were five times more likely to report insomnia than officers (odds ratio [OR] = 5...
October 1, 2016: Sleep
Yan Wang, Miriam R Raffeld, Natalie Slopen, Lauren Hale, Erin C Dunn
OBJECTIVE: The study aims to evaluate the association between exposure to childhood adversity and insomnia, with an emphasis on the role of adversity type, timing, and accumulation (i.e., the number of specific types of adversities the child reported being exposed to). METHODS: Our analytic sample comprised 9582 adolescents from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A), a nationally representative population-based sample. We examined the association between 18 different types of retrospectively reported adversities (capturing interpersonal violence, accidents and injuries, social network or witnessing events, and other adverse events) and risk of self-reported past-year insomnia...
May 2016: Sleep Medicine
Kristi E Pruiksma, Daniel J Taylor, Jennifer Schuster Wachen, Jim Mintz, Stacey Young-McCaughan, Alan L Peterson, Jeffrey S Yarvis, Elisa V Borah, Katherine A Dondanville, Brett T Litz, Elizabeth A Hembree, Patricia A Resick
OBJECTIVE: Sleep disturbances, including nightmares and insomnia, are frequently reported symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Insomnia is one of the most common symptoms to persist after evidence-based PTSD treatment. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of sleep disturbances in a sample of active duty military personnel before and after receiving therapy for PTSD in a clinical trial and to explore the associations of insomnia and nightmares with PTSD diagnosis after treatment...
May 30, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
J David Kinzie
Refugees are a highly traumatized and culturally diverse group of patients who present many clinical challenges. Refugees have a high prevalence of traumas from torture, ethnic cleansing, and the effects of long civil wars. The most common diagnoses associated with the effects of such traumas are posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or PTSD with comorbid depression; however, psychosis and neurocognitive disorders are also common. For those with PTSD, a suggested treatment approach is long-term supportive psychotherapy with drug treatment directed at reducing the most disruptive symptoms, such as insomnia, nightmares, and irritability or psychosis...
March 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
Kimberly B Werner, Michael G Griffin, Tara E Galovski
Sleep disturbance may be the most often endorsed symptom of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Much of this research is based on subjective reports from trauma survivors; however, objective measures of sleep-related impairment have yielded findings inconsistent with self-report data. More studies investigating subjective and objective assessments concordantly are needed to understand sleep impairment in PTSD. The current study examined PTSD-related sleep disturbance in a female interpersonal violence cohort with full PTSD diagnoses (N=51) assessing subjective (global and daily diary measures) and objective (actigraphy) sleep measures concurrently...
June 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Habibolah Khazaie, Mohammad Rasoul Ghadami, Maryam Masoudi
Post-traumatic stress disorder is related to a wide range of medical problems, with a majority of neurological, psychological, cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal disorders, diabetes, as well as sleep disorders. Although the majority of studies reveal the association between PTSD and sleep disturbances, there are few studies on the assessment of sleep disruption among veterans with PTSD. In this review, we attempt to study the sleep disorders including insomnia, nightmare, sleep-related breathing disorders, sleep-related movement disorders and parasomnias among veterans with chronic war-induced PTSD...
July 2016: Journal of Injury & Violence Research
Masahide Usami, Yoshitaka Iwadare, Kyota Watanabe, Masaki Kodaira, Hirokage Ushijima, Tetsuya Tanaka, Kazuhiko Saito
On March 11, 2011, Japan was struck by a massive earthquake and tsunami. The tsunami caused tremendous damage and traumatized children. We aimed to evaluate and compare the changes in the traumatic symptoms of high school girls 8, 20, 30, and 42 months after the 2011 tsunami. The Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms for Children 15 items (PTSSC-15), a self-rating questionnaire on traumatic symptoms, was administered to 811 high school girls at the above-mentioned intervals. We calculated the total score, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) subscale, and depression subscale of PTSSC-15...
February 16, 2016: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Teletia R Taylor, Kendra Van Kirk, Denia Tapscott, Monet Bernard, Juliana Llano, Thomas A Mellman
OBJECTIVE: African-Americans have been found to experience increased rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), obesity, and flatter diurnal cortisol slopes compared to other demographic groups. Further exploration, however, is needed to understand how PTSD impacts diurnal cortisol activity in obese African-American women. The purpose of the current study is to examine the relationship between salivary cortisol levels and PTSD in a sample of obese young adult African-American women and to examine how depression and insomnia influence the relationship...
June 2015: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Rick Wassing, Jeroen S Benjamins, Kim Dekker, Sarah Moens, Kai Spiegelhalder, Bernd Feige, Dieter Riemann, Sophie van der Sluis, Ysbrand D Van Der Werf, Lucia M Talamini, Matthew P Walker, Frans Schalkwijk, Eus J W Van Someren
The mechanisms underlying hyperarousal, the key symptom of insomnia, have remained elusive, hampering cause-targeted treatment. Recently, restless rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep emerged as a robust signature of sleep in insomnia. Given the role of REM sleep in emotion regulation, we hypothesized that restless REM sleep could interfere with the overnight resolution of emotional distress, thus contributing to accumulation of arousal. Participants (n = 1,199) completed questionnaires on insomnia severity, hyperarousal, self-conscious emotional distress, and thought-like nocturnal mentation that was validated to be a specific proxy for restless REM sleep (selective fragmentation: R = 0...
March 1, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Gosia Lipinska, David S Baldwin, Kevin G F Thomas
Symptoms of sleep disturbance, particularly nightmares and insomnia, are a central feature of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Emerging evidence suggests that specific treatment of PTSD-related sleep disturbance improves other symptoms of the disorder, which in turn suggests that such disturbance may be fundamental to development and maintenance of the disorder. This mini-review focuses on pharmacological treatment of sleep disturbance in adult PTSD (specifically, studies testing the efficacy of antidepressants, adrenergic inhibiting agents, antipsychotics and benzodiazepine and non-benzodiazepine hypnotics)...
March 2016: Human Psychopharmacology
Yu-Jin G Lee, Jin Yong Jun, Yu Jin Lee, Juhyun Park, Soohyun Kim, So Hee Lee, So Young Yu, Seog Ju Kim
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the prevalence of insomnia and its clinical characteristics in North Korean refugees. METHODS: North Korean refugees living in South Korea (48 males, 129 females; mean age 38.22±12.24 years) and South Koreans (112 males, 203 females; mean age 39.48±10.32 years) completed the following questionnaires: the Self-reported Questionnaire on Insomnia, Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D), Trauma Exposure Check List for North Korean Refugees, and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R)...
January 2016: Psychiatry Investigation
Sam Kosari, Mark Naunton
Prazosin is increasingly being used off-label to treat nightmares in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder. The literature about the psychiatric adverse effects of prazosin is very limited. We present a case in which low-dose prazosin was associated with nightmares and sleep disturbances in an elderly patient without previously diagnosed mental illness or coexisting environmental risk factors for nightmares. Insomnia and hallucinations are listed as some of the rare side effects of prazosin by the manufacturer...
April 2016: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
Carlos A Jaramillo, Blessen C Eapen, Cindy A McGeary, Donald D McGeary, Jedediah Robinson, Megan Amuan, Mary Jo Pugh
OBJECTIVES: To describe the prevalence and persistence of headache and associated conditions in an inception cohort of U.S. veterans of Iraq and Afghanistan wars. BACKGROUND: Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans (IAV) suffer from persistent and difficult-to-treat headaches that have been found to co-occur with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and other deployment related comorbidities. METHODS: This longitudinal retrospective cohort study used data from the national Veterans Health Administration (VA) data repository for IAV who first received VA care in 2008 (baseline) and also received care each year in 2009, 2010, and 2011...
March 2016: Headache
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