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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363448/trauma-associated-sleep-disorder-a-parasomnia-induced-by-trauma
#1
REVIEW
Vincent Mysliwiec, Matthew S Brock, Jennifer L Creamer, Brian M O'Reilly, Anne Germain, Bernard J Roth
Nightmares and disruptive nocturnal behaviors that develop after traumatic experiences have long been recognized as having different clinical characteristics that overlap with other established parasomnia diagnoses. The inciting experience is typically in the setting of extreme traumatic stress coupled with periods of sleep disruption and/or deprivation. The limited number of laboratory documented cases and symptomatic overlap with rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have contributed to difficulties in identifying what is a unique parasomnia...
January 30, 2017: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349316/cannabis-cannabinoids-and-sleep-a-review-of-the-literature
#2
REVIEW
Kimberly A Babson, James Sottile, Danielle Morabito
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review aims to summarize the state of research on cannabis and sleep up to 2014 and to review in detail the literature on cannabis and specific sleep disorders from 2014 to the time of publication. RECENT FINDINGS: Preliminary research into cannabis and insomnia suggests that cannabidiol (CBD) may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of insomnia. Delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) may decrease sleep latency but could impair sleep quality long-term...
April 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341617/internet-delivered-health-interventions-that-work-systematic-review-of-meta-analyses-and-evaluation-of-website-availability
#3
Mary Am Rogers, Kelsey Lemmen, Rachel Kramer, Jason Mann, Vineet Chopra
BACKGROUND: Due to easy access and low cost, Internet-delivered therapies offer an attractive alternative to improving health. Although numerous websites contain health-related information, finding evidence-based programs (as demonstrated through randomized controlled trials, RCTs) can be challenging. We sought to bridge the divide between the knowledge gained from RCTs and communication of the results by conducting a global systematic review and analyzing the availability of evidence-based Internet health programs...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323566/racial-differences-in-the-associations-of-posttraumatic-stress-and-insomnia-with-body-mass-index-among-trauma-exposed-veterans
#4
Aaron A Lee, Jeanne M Gabriele
Posttraumatic stress is associated with increased body mass index (BMI) and rates of obesity. Black adults are at greater risk for obesity, trauma exposure, development of posttraumatic stress disorder, and comorbid sleep problems compared to White adults. Accordingly, Black adults with a history of trauma exposure may be at greater risk for elevated BMI associated with posttraumatic stress and insomnia. Multiple linear regression was used to examine race as a moderator of the relationship between posttraumatic symptoms and insomnia with BMI in a sample of Black and White trauma-exposed Veterans (N = 171), controlling for age and sex...
March 21, 2017: Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218249/complexity-variability-assessment-of-nonlinear-time-varying-cardiovascular-control
#5
Gaetano Valenza, Luca Citi, Ronald G Garcia, Jessica Noggle Taylor, Nicola Toschi, Riccardo Barbieri
The application of complex systems theory to physiology and medicine has provided meaningful information about the nonlinear aspects underlying the dynamics of a wide range of biological processes and their disease-related aberrations. However, no studies have investigated whether meaningful information can be extracted by quantifying second-order moments of time-varying cardiovascular complexity. To this extent, we introduce a novel mathematical framework termed complexity variability, in which the variance of instantaneous Lyapunov spectra estimated over time serves as a reference quantifier...
February 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164355/analysis-of-the-appropriateness-of-off-label-antipsychotic-use-for-mental-health-indications-in-a-veteran-population
#6
Jacob T Painter, Richard Owen, Kathy L Henderson, Mark S Bauer, Dinesh Mittal, Teresa J Hudson
STUDY OBJECTIVE: A substantial proportion of antipsychotic (AP) use in veterans is for nonapproved indications (i.e., off-label prescribing). Not all off-label use is necessarily detrimental to patients, however, and in certain situations, off-label prescribing could be considered justifiable. The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which off-label AP prescribing in a veteran population was potentially appropriate. DESIGN: Expert panel and retrospective analysis...
February 5, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161453/rhythms-dysregulation-a-new-perspective-for-understanding-ptsd
#7
Jacques Dayan, Géraldine Rauchs, Bérengère Guillery-Girard
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a complex syndrome that may occur after exposure to one or more traumatic events. It associates physiological, emotional, and cognitive changes Brain and hormonal modifications contribute to some impairments in learning, memory, and emotion regulation. Some of these biological dysfunctions may be analyzed in terms of rhythms dysregulation that would be expressed through endocrine rhythmicity, sleep organization, and temporal synchrony in brain activity. In the first part of this article, we report studies on endocrine rhythmicity revealing that some rhythms abnormalities are frequently observed, although not constantly, for both cortisol and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Physiology, Paris
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110112/verbal-memory-functioning-moderates-psychotherapy-treatment-response-for-ptsd-related-nightmares
#8
J Cobb Scott, Gerlinde Harb, Janeese A Brownlow, Jennifer Greene, Ruben C Gur, Richard J Ross
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with cognitive deficits in attention, executive control, and memory, although few studies have investigated the relevance of cognitive difficulties for treatment outcomes. We examined whether cognitive functioning and history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) were associated with response to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for PTSD-related sleep problems. In a randomized controlled trial of Imagery Rehearsal (IR) added to components of CBT for Insomnia (IR + cCBT-I) compared to cCBT-I alone for PTSD-related recurrent nightmares, 94 U...
April 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106623/symptom-presentation-and-prescription-of-sleep-medications-for-veterans-with-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#9
Mark A Greenbaum, Thomas C Neylan, Craig S Rosen
This study tested whether sleep medications prescribed to veterans diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are being targeted to patients who report more severe insomnia or nightmares. Secondary analysis of survey and pharmacy data was conducted in samples of veterans from two periods: from 2006 to 2008 and from 2009 to 2013. Logistic regression tested associations between self-reported insomnia and nightmare severity, and being prescribed trazodone, prazosin, zolpidem, and benzodiazepines, controlling for PTSD severity and other covariates...
February 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098495/psychometric-characteristics-of-the-insomnia-severity-index-in-veterans-with-history-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#10
Christopher N Kaufmann, Henry J Orff, Raeanne C Moore, Lisa Delano-Wood, Colin A Depp, Dawn M Schiehser
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: The Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) is a widely used self-report measure of insomnia symptoms. However, to date this measure has not been validated or well-characterized in veterans who have experienced traumatic brain injury (TBI). This study assessed the psychometric properties and convergent, divergent, construct, and discriminate validity of the ISI in veterans with a history of TBI. PARTICIPANTS: Eighty-three veterans with history of TBI were seen in the VA San Diego Healthcare System as part of a research protocol...
January 18, 2017: Behavioral Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077744/neuropsychiatric-outcomes-after-mefloquine-exposure-among-u-s-military-service-members
#11
Angelia A Eick-Cost, Zheng Hu, Patricia Rohrbeck, Leslie L Clark
Mefloquine was widely prescribed to U.S. military service members until 2009 when use was limited to personnel with contraindications to doxycycline and no contraindications to mefloquine. The need to estimate the occurrence of neuropsychiatric outcomes (NPOs) in service members prescribed mefloquine warranted a comprehensive evaluation of this issue. Active component service members filling a prescription for mefloquine, doxycycline, or atovaquone/proguanil (A/P) between January 1, 2008 and June 30, 2013, were included in the analysis...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051971/what-are-effective-psychological-interventions-for-veterans-with-sleep-disturbances-a-rapid-evidence-assessment
#12
Andrea J Phelps, Tracey Varker, Olivia Metcalf, Lisa Dell
BACKGROUND: Insomnia and related sleep disturbances commonly occur in veterans, with prevalence rates as high as 90% reported in some studies. Military-specific factors such as sleep disturbances during military training and deployment, as well as a higher prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which is known to poorly impact sleep, may contribute to higher insomnia rates in veterans. Although evidence-based guidelines for the treatment of insomnia exist, the unique nature of veterans sleep problems means they may differ in their response to treatment...
January 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019122/sedative-hypnotic-use-among-older-adults-participating-in-anxiety-research
#13
Elizabeth C Conti, Melinda A Stanley, Amber B Amspoker, Mark E Kunik
Older adults are prescribed sedative-hypnotic medications at higher rates than younger adults. These are not recommended for older adults due to risk of sedation, cognitive impairment, and falls. Severe generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a possibly appropriate use of these medications in older people, but little is available on use of sedative-hypnotic medications among older adults with GAD. This study examined the frequency and predictors of sedative-hypnotic medication use among older adults screening positive for anxiety...
January 1, 2016: International Journal of Aging & Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006039/longitudinal-examination-of-frequency-of-and-risk-factors-for-severe-dry-eye-symptoms-in-us-veterans
#14
Erin S Ong, Yousef A Alghamdi, Roy C Levitt, Allison L McClellan, Gail Lewis, Constantine D Sarantopoulos, Elizabeth R Felix, Anat Galor
Importance: Dry eye syndrome is a common condition that affects millions of individuals. Many cross-sectional studies have evaluated risk factors for dry eye severity, but few have assessed risk factors or symptom progression over time. Objectives: To assess symptom progression in dry eye syndrome and determine risk factors associated with severe symptoms at 1 year. Design, Setting, and Participants: A longitudinal study was conducted from October 1, 2013, to April 30, 2015, among patients at the Miami Veterans Affairs Hospital with a wide variety of dry eye symptoms and signs (ranging from none to severe)...
December 22, 2016: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983759/relative-impact-of-risk-factors-thwarted-belongingness-and-perceived-burdensomeness-on-suicidal-ideation-in-veteran-service-members
#15
Stephen S O'Connor, Erin Carney, Keith W Jennings, Lora L Johnson, Peter M Gutierrez, David A Jobes
OBJECTIVE: We tested the associations between individualized risk factors, empirically validated constructs specific to suicide risk (i.e., thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness, and two methods for conceptualizing suicidal ideation based on Suicide Index Score (SIS) and overall severity score of the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation [BSS]). METHOD: The current study included a sample of 134 suicidal Veterans who were recruited from an inpatient psychiatry unit of a Veterans Affairs Medical Center...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977293/development-of-a-sleep-telementorship-program-for-rural-department-of-veterans-affairs-primary-care-providers-sleep-veterans-affairs-extension-for-community-healthcare-outcomes
#16
Elizabeth C Parsons, Elizabeth A Mattox, Lauren A Beste, David H Au, Bessie A Young, Michael F Chang, Brian N Palen
RATIONALE: Primary care providers (PCPs) frequently encounter sleep complaints, especially in regions with limited specialty care access. OBJECTIVES: The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs Extension for Community Healthcare Outcomes (VA-ECHO) program (based on Project ECHO) has successfully provided rural PCP education in subspecialty areas, including hepatitis C. We describe the feasibility of an ECHO program for sleep medicine. METHODS: ECHO creates a virtual learning community through video-teleconferencing, combining didactics with individualized clinical case review...
February 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977223/randomized-controlled-trial-to-dismantle-exposure-relaxation-and-rescripting-therapy-errt-for-trauma-related-nightmares
#17
Kristi E Pruiksma, Christopher C Cranston, Jamie L Rhudy, Rachel L Micol, Joanne L Davis
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to conduct a preliminary dismantling study of exposure, relaxation, and rescripting therapy (ERRT) for nightmares. METHOD: Participants (N = 70) were randomized to 1 of 2 conditions: ERRT with nightmare exposure and rescripting (full protocol; EX) or ERRT without nightmare exposure and rescripting (NEX). Participants completed follow-ups at 1 week, 3 months, and 6 months posttreatment. RESULTS: Both conditions yielded statistically significant improvements with medium to large effect sizes on primary outcomes related to nightmares (i...
December 15, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902944/psychiatric-disorders-suicidal-ideation-and-sexually-transmitted-infections-among-post-deployment-veterans-who-utilize-digital-social-media-for-sexual-partner-seeking
#18
Jack L Turban, Marc N Potenza, Rani A Hoff, Steve Martino, Shane W Kraus
INTRODUCTION: Digital social media platforms represent outlets through which individuals may find partners for sexual encounters. Using a sample of US post-deployment military veterans, the current study evaluated the prevalence of digital sex seeking as well as clinical correlates of psychopathology, suicidal ideation, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). METHODS: Using data from a baseline telephone interview and follow-up internet-based survey, we examined the prevalence of sexual partnering via digital social media platforms in a national sample of 283 US combat veterans...
March 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867101/regulation-of-fear-extinction-by-long-term-depression-the-roles-of-endocannabinoids-and-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor
#19
REVIEW
Maxwell R Bennett, Jonathon Arnold, Sean N Hatton, Jim Lagopoulos
The extinction of a conditioned fear response is of great interest in the search for a means of ameliorating adverse neurobiological changes resulting from stress. The discovery that endocannibinoid (EC) levels are inversely related to the extent of such stress, and that the amygdala is a primary site mediating stress, suggests that ECs in this brain region might play a major role in extinction. Supporting this are the observations that the basolateral complex of the amygdala shows an increase in ECs only during extinction and that early clinical trials indicate that cannabinoid-like agents, when taken orally by patients suffering from post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), reduce insomnia and nightmares...
February 15, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863313/an-examination-of-sleep-quality-in-veterans-with-a-dual-diagnosis-of-ptsd-and-severe-mental-illness
#20
Wilson J Brown, Allison K Wilkerson, Melissa E Milanak, Peter W Tuerk, Thomas W Uhde, Bernadette M Cortese, Anouk L Grubaugh
Poor sleep quality is one of the most frequently reported symptoms by veterans with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and by veterans with severe mental illness (SMI; i.e., schizophrenia spectrum disorders, bipolar disorder, major depression with or without psychotic features). However, little is known about the compounding effects of co-occurring PTSD/SMI on sleep quality in this population. Given the high rates of comorbidity and poor functional outcomes associated with sleep dysfunction, there is a need to better understand patterns of poor sleep quality in this population...
January 2017: Psychiatry Research
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