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Miguel José Francisco, Antonio Rahal, Fabio Augusto Cardillo Vieira, Paulo Savoia Dias da Silva, Marcelo Buarque de Gusmão Funari
Ultrasound examination of the chest has advanced in recent decades. This imaging modality is currently used to diagnose several pathological conditions and provides qualitative and quantitative information. Acoustic barriers represented by the aerated lungs and the bony framework of the chest generate well-described sonographic artifacts that can be used as diagnostic aids. The normal pleural line and A, B, C, E and Z lines (also known as false B lines) are artifacts with specific characteristics. Lung consolidation and pneumothorax sonographic patterns are also well established...
July 2016: Einstein
Hui Zhou, Xin Zhao Deng, Ai Hua Zhang, Ren Xiang Tan
An isocyanide insertion reaction promoted by the combination of an amide and a photoredox is now presented. By using visible light, 6-amidophenanthridine derivatives can be prepared in good chemical yields under mild and eco-friendly reaction conditions. The reaction was shown to proceed through an electron transfer sequence by mechanistic experiments, and thus enabled the efficient production of 24 compounds, each with one new intramolecular aromatic ring obtained. The synthesized compounds were tested to embody good antitumor, antimicrobial and neuraminidase inhibitory activities...
October 18, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
A Krigel, M Berdugo, E Picard, R Levy-Boukris, I Jaadane, L Jonet, M Dernigoghossian, C Andrieu-Soler, A Torriglia, F Behar-Cohen
To save energy, the European directives from the Eco-design of Energy Using Products (2005/32/CE) has recommended the replacement of incandescent lamps by more economic devices such as Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs). However, the emission spectrum of these devices is enriched in blue radiations, known to be potentially dangerous to the retina. Recent studies showed that light exposure contribute to the onset of early stages of Age related macular degeneration (AMD). Here, we investigate, in albinos and pigmented rats, the effects of different exposure protocols...
October 14, 2016: Neuroscience
Seyed Hossein Hoseinifar, Fazel Zoheiri, Carlo C Lazado
Immunostimulation through the use of sustainable and eco-friendly dietary additives is one of the current prophylactic strategies in fish husbandry. Plant-based immunostimulants are highly considered for this intent, both for their scientific and practical advantages. Persian hogweed (Heracleum persicum) is a flower-bearing herb that possesses interesting pharmacological importance due to its bioactive compounds. It is commonly used as a spice, food additive, dietary supplement and traditional remedy. The present study evaluated the potential of H...
October 14, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Mingfei Xing, Zegang Fu, Yaping Wang, Jingyu Wang, Zhiyuan Zhang
In this study, a novel process for the removal of toxic lead from the CRT funnel glass and synchronous preparation of high silica glass powder was developed by a carbon-thermal reduction enhanced glass phase separation process. CRT funnel glass was remelted with B2O3 in reducing atmosphere. In the thermal process, a part of PbO contained in the funnel glass was reduced into metallic Pb and detached from the glass phase. The rest of PbO and other metal oxides (including Na2O, K2O, Al2O3, BaO and CaO) were mainly concentrated in the boric oxide phase...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
C Kourmentza, M Kornaros
Mixed microbial cultures that undergo successful enrichment, following eco-biotechnological approaches, to form a community dominant in polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) forming bacteria, represent an attractive economic alternative towards the production of those biopolymers. In the present study, an enriched mixed culture was investigated for the production of PHA at different initial pH values under non-controlled conditions in order to minimize process control and operational costs. Short-chain fatty acids were provided as PHA precursors and they were tested as sole carbon sources and as mixtures under nitrogen deficiency...
October 6, 2016: Bioresource Technology
Elizabeth C Wittenborn, Marco Jost, Yifeng Wei, JoAnne Stubbe, Catherine L Drennan
Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) synthase (PhaC) catalyzes the polymerization of 3-(R)-hydroxybutyryl-coenzyme A as a means of carbon storage in many bacteria. The resulting polymers can be used to make biodegradable materials with properties similar to those of thermoplastics and are an environmentally-friendly alternative to traditional petroleum-based plastics. A full biochemical and mechanistic understanding of this process has been hindered in part by a lack of structural information on PhaC. Here we present the first structure of the catalytic domain (residues 201-589) of the class I PhaC from Cupriavidus necator (formerly Ralstonia eutropha) to 1...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Bjarki Stefansson, Gunnar B Sandholt, Ágústa Gudmundsdottir
Trypsins from Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), consisting of several isoenzymes, are highly active cold-adapted serine proteases. These trypsins are isolated for biomedical use in an eco-friendly manner from underutilized seafood by-products. Our group has explored the biochemical properties of trypsins and their high potential in biomedicine. For broader utilization of cod trypsins, further characterization of biochemical properties of the individual cod trypsin isoenzymes is of importance. For that purpose, a benzamidine purified trypsin isolate from Atlantic cod was analyzed...
October 12, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Han Lu, Li Xiang, Xin Cui, Jing Liu, Yinan Wang, Ravin Narain, Hongbo Zeng
In this study, poly(2-lactobionamidoethyl methacrylamide) (PLAEMA) with various molecular weights (MW) were synthesized by conventional free-radical polymerization. The effect of molecular weight and polymer dosage on the settling rate of kaolin particles, the turbidity of supernatant, mud-line position, and solid content were investigated to determine the flocculation performance. The interaction forces, polymer conformation, particle sizes and molecular weights were determined by several techniques, including surface forces apparatus (SFA), atomic force microscopy (AFM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and gel permeation chromatography (GPC)...
October 14, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
L Sivarama Krishna, A Yuzir, G Yuvaraja, V Ashok Kumar
The feasibility for the removal of Acid blue25 (AB25) by Bengal gram fruit shell (BGFS), an agricultural by-product, has been investigated as an alternative for high-cost adsorbents. The effect of various experimental parameters such as dose, different dye concentration, solution pH and temperature on the removal of Acid blue25 (AB25) has been studied under the batch mode of operation. pH is a significant impact on the sorption of AB25 onto BGFS. The maximum removal of AB25 was achieved at a pH 2 (83.84%). The optimum dose of biosorbent was selected as 200 mg for the removal of AB25 onto BGFS...
October 14, 2016: International Journal of Phytoremediation
Paula Villa Martín, Jorge Hidalgo, Rafael Rubio de Casas, Miguel A Muñoz
Evolutionary and ecosystem dynamics are often treated as different processes -operating at separate timescales- even if evidence reveals that rapid evolutionary changes can feed back into ecological interactions. A recent long-term field experiment has explicitly shown that communities of competing plant species can experience very fast phenotypic diversification, and that this gives rise to enhanced complementarity in resource exploitation and to enlarged ecosystem-level productivity. Here, we build on progress made in recent years in the integration of eco-evolutionary dynamics, and present a computational approach aimed at describing these empirical findings in detail...
October 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
Marta O Barbosa, Ana R Ribeiro, Manuel F R Pereira, Adrián M T Silva
Organic micropollutants present in drinking water (DW) may cause adverse effects for public health, and so reliable analytical methods are required to detect these pollutants at trace levels in DW. This work describes the first green analytical methodology for multi-class determination of 21 pollutants in DW: seven pesticides, an industrial compound, 12 pharmaceuticals, and a metabolite (some included in Directive 2013/39/EU or Decision 2015/495/EU). A solid-phase extraction procedure followed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (offline SPE-UHPLC-MS/MS) method was optimized using eco-friendly solvents, achieving detection limits below 0...
October 12, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Alicja Puścian, Szymon Łęski, Grzegorz Kasprowicz, Maciej Winiarski, Joanna Borowska, Tomasz Nikolaev, Paweł M Boguszewski, Hans-Peter Lipp, Ewelina Knapska
Eco-HAB is an open source, RFID-based system for automated measurement and analysis of social preference and in-cohort sociability in mice. The system closely follows murine ethology. It requires no contact between a human experimenter and tested animals, overcoming the confounding factors that lead to irreproducible assessment of murine social behavior between laboratories. In Eco-HAB, group-housed animals live in a spacious, four-compartment apparatus with shadowed areas and narrow tunnels, resembling natural burrows...
October 12, 2016: ELife
T Portella, J Lobón-Cerviá, L R Manna, H G Bergallo, R Mazzoni
The head morphology and feeding habits of pairs of characin species (family Characidae) that coexist in four different coastal rainforest streams were analysed. Coexisting species differed in size, but were very similar in eco-morphological attributes. Gut analyses revealed differences in feeding preferences for each coexisting species, indicating resource partitioning. A pattern of organization in species pairs that was repeated in the four studied streams was noticed. The pattern consisted of one slightly larger species with a feeding preference for items of allochthonous origin and another smaller species with a preference for autochthonous items...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Fish Biology
Theodore L Wagener, Evan L Floyd, Irina Stepanov, Leslie M Driskill, Summer G Frank, Ellen Meier, Eleanor L Leavens, Alayna P Tackett, Neil Molina, Lurdes Queimado
INTRODUCTION: Electronic cigarettes' (e-cigarettes) viability as a public health strategy to end smoking will likely be determined by their ability to mimic the pharmacokinetic profile of a cigarette while also exposing users to significantly lower levels of harmful/potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs). The present study examined the nicotine delivery profile of third- (G3) versus second-generation (G2) e-cigarette devices and their users' exposure to nicotine and select HPHCs compared with cigarette smokers...
October 11, 2016: Tobacco Control
Sabolč Pap, Jelena Radonić, Snežana Trifunović, Dragan Adamović, Ivana Mihajlović, Mirjana Vojinović Miloradov, Maja Turk Sekulić
Development, characterization and evaluation of the efficiency of cost-effective medium for the removal of Pb(2+), Cd(2+) and Ni(2+) from aqueous systems, as a novel, eco-friendly solution for wastewater remediation were done. The precursors for low-cost adsorbent were lignocellulosic raw materials (sweet/sour cherry kernels), as industrial byproducts and components of organic solid waste. Activated carbon synthesis was carried out by thermochemical conversion (H3PO4, 500 °C) in the complete absence of inert atmosphere...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Hafiz Azhar Ali Khan, Waseem Akram
Developing resistance management strategies for eco-friendly insecticides is essential for the management of insect pests without harming the environment. Cyromazine is a biorational insecticide with very low mammalian toxicity. Resistance to cyromazine has recently been reported in house flies from Punjab, Pakistan. In order to propose a resistance management strategy for cyromazine, experiments were planned to study risk for resistance development, possibility of cross-resistance and bio-chemical mechanisms...
October 8, 2016: Chemosphere
Zhengqing Cai, Jie Fu, Wen Liu, Kunming Fu, S E O'Reilly, Dongye Zhao
This work investigated effects of three model oil dispersants (Corexit EC9527A, Corexit EC9500A and SPC1000) on settling of fine sediment particles and particle-facilitated distribution and transport of oil components in sediment-seawater systems. All three dispersants enhanced settling of sediment particles. The nonionic surfactants (Tween 80 and Tween 85) play key roles in promoting particle aggregation. Yet, the effects varied with environmental factors (pH, salinity, DOM, and temperature). Strongest dispersant effect was observed at neutral or alkaline pH and in salinity range of 0-3...
October 7, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Jordi Serra-Cobo, Marc López-Roig
More than 200 viruses have been detected in bats. Some unique bat characteristics can explain the roles played in the maintenance and transmission of viruses: long phylogenetic history can have originated coevolution processes, great number of species are adapted to live in different environments, big mobility, long lifespan and gregarious behaviour of many species.To analyse zoonoses long longitudinal studies are needed with a multidisciplinary approximation to obtain the following eco-epidemiological data: colony size, number of bats per species, population structure, behaviour of each species, degree of contact between bats, social structure, remaining time of bats in the colony, colony type, foraging area, turnover rate of individuals, shelter temperature, relationship with other colonies and co-infection processes...
October 9, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Samson Afewerki, Armando Córdova
The cooperation and interplay between organic and metal catalyst systems is of utmost importance in nature and chemical synthesis. Here innovative and selective cooperative catalyst systems can be designed by combining two catalysts that complement rather than inhibit one another. This refined strategy can permit chemical transformations unmanageable by either of the catalysts alone. This review summarizes innovations and developments in selective organic synthesis that have used cooperative dual catalysis by combining simple aminocatalysts with metal catalysts...
October 10, 2016: Chemical Reviews
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