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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343358/expression-of-the-cyanobacterial-enzyme-cyanase-increases-cyanate-metabolism-and-cyanate-tolerance-in-arabidopsis
#1
Rashad Kebeish, Omar Al-Zoubi
Cyanate and its derivatives are considered as environmental hazardous materials. Cyanate is released to the environment through many chemical industries and mining wastewater. Cyanase enzyme converts cyanate into CO2 and NH3 in a bicarbonate-dependent reaction. At low cyanate concentrations, the endogenous plant cyanases play a vital role in cyanate detoxification. However, such cyanate biodegradation system is probably insufficient due to the excess cyanate concentrations at contaminated sites. In this study, we have transferred the activity of the cyanobacterial cyanase into Arabidopsis thaliana plants in order to enhance plant resistance against cyanate toxicity...
March 25, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342416/joint-carbon-footprint-assessment-and-data-envelopment-analysis-for-the-reduction-of-greenhouse-gas-emissions-in-agriculture-production
#2
Ricardo Rebolledo-Leiva, Lidia Angulo-Meza, Alfredo Iriarte, Marcela C González-Araya
Operations management tools are critical in the process of evaluating and implementing action towards a low carbon production. Currently, a sustainable production implies both an efficient resource use and the obligation to meet targets for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The carbon footprint (CF) tool allows estimating the overall amount of GHG emissions associated with a product or activity throughout its life cycle. In this paper, we propose a four-step method for a joint use of CF assessment and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA)...
March 22, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340455/toxicological-and-behavioral-responses-as-a-tool-to-assess-the-effects-of-natural-and-synthetic-dyes-on-zebrafish-early-life
#3
Flavia R Abe, Jacqueline N Mendonça, Luiz A B Moraes, Gisele A R de Oliveira, Carlos Gravato, Amadeu M V M Soares, Danielle P de Oliveira
Organic dyes extracted from natural sources have been widely used to develop safety and eco-friendly dyes as an alternative to synthetic ones, since the latter are usually precursors of mutagenic compounds. Thereby, toxicity tests to non-target organisms are critical step to develop harmless dyes to environment and in this context, zebrafish early life stages are becoming an important alternative model. We aimed to assess the toxic effects of the synthetic dye Basic Red 51 (BR51, used in cosmetic industry), the natural dye erythrostominone (ERY, a potential commercial dye extracted from fungi) and its photodegradation product (DERY), using zebrafish early life assays...
March 9, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335565/an-eco-safety-assessment-of-glyoxal-containing-cellulose-ether-on-freeze-dried-microbial-strain-cyanobacteria-daphnia-and-zebrafish
#4
Chang-Beom Park, Min Ju Song, Nak Woon Choi, Sunghoon Kim, Hyun Pyo Jeon, Sanghun Kim, Youngjun Kim
The objective of this study was to investigate the aquatic-toxic effects of glyoxal-containing cellulose ether with four different glyoxal concentrations (0%, 1.4%, 2.3%, and 6.3%) in response to global chemical regulations, e.g., European Union Classification, Labeling and Packaging (EU CLP). Toxicity tests of glyoxal-containing cellulose ether on 11 different microbial strains, Microcystis aeruginosa, Daphnia magna, and zebrafish embryos were designed as an initial stage of toxicity screening and performed in accordance with standardized toxicity test guidelines...
March 21, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335363/antimicrobial-antioxidant-and-anticancer-activities-of-biosynthesized-silver-nanoparticles-using-marine-algae-ecklonia-cava
#5
Jayachandran Venkatesan, Se-Kwon Kim, Min Suk Shim
Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has gained great interest as a simple and eco-friendly alternative to conventional chemical methods. In this study, AgNPs were synthesized by using extracts of marine algae Ecklonia cava as reducing and capping agents. The formation of AgNPs using aqueous extract of Ecklonia cava was confirmed visually by color change and their surface plasmon resonance peak at 418 nm, measured by UV-visible spectroscopy. The size, shape, and morphology of the biosynthesized AgNPs were observed by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering analysis...
December 6, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335348/electrochemical-synthesis-of-polypyrrole-reduced-graphene-oxide-and-gold-nanoparticles-composite-and-its-application-to-hydrogen-peroxide-biosensor
#6
Baoyan Wu, Na Zhao, Shihua Hou, Cong Zhang
Here we report a facile eco-friendly one-step electrochemical approach for the fabrication of a polypyrrole (PPy), reduced graphene oxide (RGO), and gold nanoparticles (nanoAu) biocomposite on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The electrochemical behaviors of PPy-RGO-nanoAu and its application to electrochemical detection of hydrogen peroxide were investigated by cyclic voltammetry. Graphene oxide and pyrrole monomer were first mixed and casted on the surface of a cleaned GCE. After an electrochemical processing consisting of the electrooxidation of pyrrole monomer and simultaneous electroreduction of graphene oxide and auric ions (Au(3+)) in aqueous solution, a PPy-RGO-nanoAu biocomposite was synthesized on GCE...
November 21, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335246/quaternized-carboxymethyl-chitosan-based-silver-nanoparticles-hybrid-microwave-assisted-synthesis-characterization-and-antibacterial-activity
#7
Siqi Huang, Jing Wang, Yang Zhang, Zhiming Yu, Chusheng Qi
A facile, efficient, and eco-friendly approach for the preparation of uniform silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) was developed. The synthesis was conducted in an aqueous medium exposed to microwave irradiation for 8 min, using laboratory-prepared, water-soluble quaternized carboxymethyl chitosan (QCMC) as a chemical reducer and stabilizer and silver nitrate as the silver source. The structure of the prepared QCMC was characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and ¹H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)...
June 17, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334619/investigation-on-metal-tolerance-and-phytoremoval-activity-in-the-poplar-hybrid-clone-monviso-under-cu-spiked-water-potential-use-for-wastewater-treatment
#8
Fabrizio Pietrini, Daniela Di Baccio, Valentina Iori, Sofia Veliksar, Natalia Lemanova, Liudvika Juškaitė, Audrius Maruška, Massimo Zacchini
A serious concern for the environmental and human health is represented by the increasing copper (Cu) occurrence in agricultural soils and waters, because of the possible food contamination and bioaugmentation along the trophic chain. The request for the decontamination of different matrices with an environmentally sustainable technology as the phytoremediation should be addressed by selecting plant materials with improved pollutant tolerance and removal capability. With this purpose, plants of the hybrid poplar clone "Monviso" (Populus×generosa A...
March 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334192/insecticidal-properties-of-essential-oils-and-some-of-their-constituents-on-the-turkestan-cockroach-blattodea-blattidae
#9
Sudip Gaire, Mary O'Connell, Francisco O Holguin, Anup Amatya, Scott Bundy, Alvaro Romero
The Turkestan cockroach, Blatta lateralis (Walker), has become the most important peridomestic species in urban areas of the Southwestern United States. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of botanical compounds to control this urban pest. We tested the acute toxicity and repellency of six botanical constituents and three essential oils on Turkestan cockroach nymphs. Chemical composition of the essential oils was also determined. Topical and fumigant assays with nymphs showed that thymol was the most toxic essential oil constituent, with a LD50 of 0...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334161/elevated-co2-and-warming-effects-on-grassland-plant-mortality-are-determined-by-the-timing-of-rainfall
#10
Mark J Hovenden, Paul C D Newton, Meagan Porter
Background and aims: Global warming is expected to increase the mortality rate of established plants in water-limited systems because of its effect on evapotranspiration. The rising CO 2 concentration ([CO 2 ]), however, should have the opposite effect because it reduces plant transpiration, delaying the onset of drought. This potential for elevated [CO 2 ] (eCO 2 ) to modify the warming effect on mortality should be related to prevailing moisture conditions. This study aimed to determine the impacts of warming by 2 °C and eCO 2 (550 μmol mol -1 ) on plant mortality in an Australian temperate grassland over a 6-year period and to test how interannual variation in rainfall influenced treatment effects...
February 28, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333307/formation-physiology-ecology-evolution-and-clinical-importance-of-bacterial-persisters
#11
Bram Van den Bergh, Maarten Fauvart, Jan Michiels
Persisters are transiently tolerant variants that allow populations to avoid eradication by antibiotic treatment. Their antibiotic tolerance is non-genetic, not inheritable and results from a phenotypic switch from the normal, sensitive cell type to the tolerant, persister state. Here we give a comprehensive overview on bacterial persistence. We first define persistence, summarize the various aspects of persister physiology and show their heterogeneous nature. We then focus on the role of key cellular processes and mechanisms controlling the formation of a subpopulation of tolerant cells...
February 15, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332651/serosurveillance-and-factors-associated-with-the-presence-of-antibodies-against-bluetongue-virus-in-dairy-cattle-in-two-eco-zones-of-nepal
#12
T N Gaire, S Karki, I P Dhakal, D R Khanal, R A Bowen
Cattle play an important role in the epidemiology of bluetongue (BT) by acting as reservoir hosts. However, the status of BT virus (BTV) in dairy cattle in Nepal is unknown. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of BTV antibodies in dairy cattle in two eco-zones of Nepal, and to identify the factors associated with virus exposure. The authors conducted a cross-sectional serosurvey from March 2012 through February 2013 by sampling 131 dairy cattle from seven clusters (villages) in the Chitwan district in the Terai region (southern lowlands) and the Lamjung district in the Hills region (the middle part of Nepal)...
December 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332478/addressed-immobilization-of-biofunctionalized-diatoms-on-electrodes-by-gold-electrodeposition
#13
S Leonardo, D Garibo, M Fernández-Tejedor, C K O'Sullivan, M Campàs
Diatoms are single cell microalgae with a silica shell (frustule), which possess a micro/nanoporous pattern of unparalleled diversity far beyond the possibilities of current micro- and nanofabrication techniques. To explore diatoms as natural three-dimensional nanostructured supports in sensing and biosensing devices, a simple, rapid and stable method to immobilize diatoms via gold electrodeposition is described. In this process, gold microstructures are formed, immobilizing diatoms by entrapment or crossing their nanopores...
March 23, 2017: Biofabrication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332087/boswellia-ovalifoliolata-burseraceae-essential-oil-as-an-eco-friendly-larvicide-toxicity-against-six-mosquito-vectors-of-public-health-importance-non-target-mosquito-fishes-backswimmers-and-water-bugs
#14
Giovanni Benelli, Mohan Rajeswary, Periasamy Vijayan, Sengamalai Senthilmurugan, Naiyf S Alharbi, Shine Kadaikunnan, Jamal M Khaled, Marimuthu Govindarajan
The use of synthetic pesticides to control vector populations is detrimental to human health and the environment and may lead to the development of resistant strains. Plants can be alternative sources of safer compounds effective on mosquito vectors. In this study, the mosquito larvicidal activity of Boswellia ovalifoliolata leaf essential oil (EO) was evaluated against Anopheles stephensi, Anopheles subpictus, Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Culex tritaeniorhynchus. GC-MS revealed that the B...
March 22, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331956/enzyme-assisted-supercritical-fluid-extraction-an-alternative-and-green-technology-for-non-extractable-polyphenols
#15
Muhammad Mushtaq, Bushra Sultana, Sumia Akram, Farooq Anwar, Ahmad Adnan, Syed S H Rizvi
This contribution proposes an enzyme-assisted eco-friendly process for the extraction of non-extractable polyphenols (NEPPs) from black tea leftover (BTLO), an underutilized tea waste. BTLO hydrolyzed with various enzyme formulations was extracted using supercritical carbon dioxide and ethanol as co-solvent (SC-CO2 + EtOH). A conventional solvent extraction (CSE) was performed using EtOH + H2O (80:20, v/v) for comparison purposes. The results revealed that hydrolysis of BTLO with 2.9% (w/w) kemzyme at 45 °C and pH 5...
March 22, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331178/habitat-filtering-and-exclusion-of-weak-competitors-jointly-explain-fern-species-assemblage-along-a-light-and-water-gradient
#16
Hui Zhang, Shidan Zhu, Robert John, Ronghua Li, Hui Liu, Qing Ye
Fern species are an important component of the diversity of forest plant communities, but very little is known about how fern communities assemble in different environments. In this study, we use multiple trait-based tests to examine the relationships between several key eco-physiological traits which are direct indicators of shade and drought tolerance, and the abundance of fern species in pine forest (PF), pine and mixed broad leaf forest (PMBF) and matured broad leaf forest (MBF) in southern China. These forests are characterized by decreasing light but increasing water availability during succession, and the fern communities correspondingly differ in species composition...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330500/larvicidal-activity-of-phytosteroid-compounds-from-leaf-extract-of-solanum-nigrum-against-culex-vishnui-group-and-anopheles-subpictus
#17
Anjali Rawani, Anushree Singha Ray, Anupam Ghosh, Mary Sakar, Goutam Chandra
BACKGROUND: Vector control is facing a menace due to the appearance of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of plant origin may provide appropriate substitute biocontrol techniques in the future. The present study was carried out to investigate the bio control potentiality of active ingredient isolated from chloroform: methanol (1:1 v/v) extract of mature leaves of Solanum nigrum L. (Solanaceae) against early 3rd instar larvae of Culex vishnui group (comprising of Cx. vishnui Theobald, Cx...
March 23, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330268/antimicrobial-activity-of-pvp-coated-silver-nanoparticles-synthesized-by-lysinibacillus-varians
#18
Divya Bhatia, Ashwani Mittal, Deepak Kumar Malik
Emergence of resistant microbes to conventional antibiotics and increased emphasis on health-care costs has raised the concern for the development of new effective antimicrobial reagents. Silver nanoparticles being an excellent broad-spectrum antibacterial agent could be considered as a suitable alternative for existing antibiotic. This study demonstrates the extra-cellular synthesis of stable silver nanoparticles using supernatant of Lysinibacillus varians. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by using UV-visible spectrum analysis, X-ray diffraction, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and FT-IR analysis...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330246/microbial-enzymes-industrial-progress-in-21st-century
#19
REVIEW
Rajendra Singh, Manoj Kumar, Anshumali Mittal, Praveen Kumar Mehta
Biocatalytic potential of microorganisms have been employed for centuries to produce bread, wine, vinegar and other common products without understanding the biochemical basis of their ingredients. Microbial enzymes have gained interest for their widespread uses in industries and medicine owing to their stability, catalytic activity, and ease of production and optimization than plant and animal enzymes. The use of enzymes in various industries (e.g., food, agriculture, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals) is increasing rapidly due to reduced processing time, low energy input, cost effectiveness, nontoxic and eco-friendly characteristics...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330190/phyto-synthesis-and-structural-characterization-of-catalytically-active-gold-nanoparticles-biosynthesized-using-delonix-regia-leaf-extract
#20
Preeti Dauthal, Mausumi Mukhopadhyay
Biological methods of nanoparticles synthesis are ecologically sound and sustainable alternative to the conventional methods. On the basis of aforesaid premise, the present study deals with the optimization and fabrication of gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) using easily available bio-resource, Delonix regia leaf extract. The use of practically nontoxic natural extracts and water allows the synthesis pathways presented to be considered as ''green'' and so permitting the synthesized Au-NPs to be used in sensitive areas, such as bioremediation...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
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