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Cancer Mucositis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910140/side-effects-of-irinotecan-cpt-11-the-clinically-used-drug-for-colon-cancer-therapy-are-eliminated-in-experimental-animals-treated-with-latex-proteins-from-calotropis-procera-apocynaceae
#1
Nylane Maria Nunes de Alencar, Flávio da Silveira Bitencourt, Ingrid Samantha Tavares de Figueiredo, Patrícia Bastos Luz, Roberto César P Lima-Júnior, Karoline Sabóia Aragão, Pedro Jorge Caldas Magalhães, Gerly Anne de Castro Brito, Ronaldo Albuquerque Ribeiro, Ana Paula Fragoso de Freitas, Marcio Viana Ramos
Intestinal mucositis (IM) is the critical side effect of irinotecan (CPT-11), which is the front-line drug used for the treatment of colorectal cancer. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of latex proteins (LP) from Calotropis procera to prevent IM and diarrhea in animals. Swiss mice were treated daily with saline or LP (1, 5, or 50 mg/kg, i.v.) 24 h prior to CTP-11 (75 mg/kg/4 days, i.p) and for additional 6 days. Animal survival, body weight variation, and diarrhea were registered. After animal sacrifice (day 7 post first injection of CPT-11), intestinal samples were collected to study morphology and inflammatory parameters...
December 2, 2016: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904859/endoscopic-approach-for-superficial-colorectal-neoplasms
#2
REVIEW
Jun-Feng Xu, Lang Yang, Peng Jin, Jian-Qiu Sheng
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer in males and the second in females, with an estimated 1.4 million cases and 693,900 deaths in 2012. Colonoscopy is the cornerstone for the detection and prevention of CRC. In addition, endoscopic treatment for CRC at an early stage can effectively improve patients' quality of life and cure rate. SUMMARY: This review focuses on endoscopic approaches, including white light endoscopy, chromoendoscopy, magnifying endoscopy and therapeutic endoscopy, for the evaluation and treatment of superficial colorectal neoplasms...
October 2016: Gastrointestinal Tumors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904774/the-g-protein-coupled-chemoattractant-receptor-fpr2-promotes-malignant-phenotype-of-human-colon-cancer-cells
#3
Yi Xiang, Xiaohong Yao, Keqiang Chen, Xiafei Wang, Jiamin Zhou, Wanghua Gong, Teizo Yoshimura, Jiaqiang Huang, Rongquan Wang, Yuzhang Wu, Guochao Shi, Xiuwu Bian, Jiming Wang
The G-protein coupled chemoattractant receptor formylpeptide receptor-2 (FPR2 in human, Fpr2 in mice) is expressed by mouse colon epithelial cells and plays a critical role in mediating mucosal homeostasis and inflammatory responses. However, the biological role of FPR2 in human colon is unclear. Our investigation revealed that a considerable number of human colon cancer cell lines expressed FPR2 and its ligands promoted cell migration and proliferation. Human colon cancer cell lines expressing high levels of FPR2 also formed more rapidly growing tumors in immunocompromised mice as compared with cell lines expressing lower levels of FPR2...
2016: American Journal of Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902470/phase-i-study-of-qlnc120-a-novel-egfr-and-her2-kinase-inhibitor-in-pre-treated-patients-with-her2-overexpressing-advanced-breast-cancer
#4
Tongtong Zhang, Qing Li, Shanshan Chen, Yang Luo, Ying Fan, Binghe Xu
This study evaluated the dose-limiting toxicities (DLT), maximum tolerated dose (MTD), pharmacokinetic profile, and preliminary antitumor activity of QLNC120, an inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), in HER2 overexpressing advanced breast cancer patients. In addition, the prognostic biomarkers of QLNC120 were investigated. QLNC120 was administered as a single dose, followed by 7 days observation, and then once daily consecutively. Scheduled dose escalation was 450mg, 750mg, 1000mg and 1250mg...
November 25, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900728/distant-lymph-node-metastases-caused-by-esophageal-cancer-invasion-to-the-lamina-propria-a-case-report
#5
Satoshi Tsutsumi, Hiroshi Saeki, Yuichiro Nakashima, Yu Nakaji, Kensuke Kudou, Ryosuke Tsutsumi, Sho Nishimura, Shingo Akiyama, Hirotada Tajiri, Takafumi Yukaya, Kimihiro Tanaka, Ryota Nakanishi, Masahiko Sugiyama, Kippei Ohgaki, Hideto Sonoda, Minako Hirahashi, Eiji Oki, Masaru Morita, Yoshinao Oda, Yoshihiko Maehara
BACKGROUND: Pathological examination after endoscopic submucosal dissection revealed that a 62-year-old male had esophageal squamous cell carcinoma with lamina propria mucosal invasion and lymphatic permeation. CASE PRESENTATION: The patient underwent subtotal esophagectomy and reconstruction as an additional therapy. At 3 years and 4 months after esophagectomy, enlargement of abdominal para-aortic lymph nodes metastases was detected by computed tomography scanning...
December 2016: Surgical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899981/the-effect-and-clinical-efficacy-of-lienal-polypeptide-injection-combined-with-folfox-chemotherapy-regimen-in-colon-cancer-patients
#6
Juan Zhou, Guoping Niu, Yunfeng Pei, Chunping Cao, Chen Ding, Guangming Sun, Jing Guo, Yong Liu, Yang Yu
The aim was to investigate the clinical efficacy and immunomodulatory effect of lienal polypeptide injection combined with postoperative FOLFOX chemotherapy regimen in colon cancer patients. A total of 84 colon cancer patients were selected between January, 2014 and December, 2015. The selected patients were randomly divided into the observation (42 patients) and control (42 patients) groups. The observation group patients were treated with FOLFOX chemotherapy regimen combined with lienal polypeptide, whereas, the control group patients were treated with FOLFOX chemotherapeutic regimen only...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899960/genetics-and-epigenetics-of-melanoma
#7
Xiao-Ying Zhang, Pei-Ying Zhang
Cancer affects multiple organs in the body Malignant melanoma involves the invasion of skin and occasionally mucosal membrane or eye choroidal tissues. The incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma is on the increase worldwide and is a major concern in current research. The increase is associated with UV irradiation-induced genetic aberrations that stimulate skin melanocytes to develop unlimited growth. This eventually leads to cell immortality, which in turn causes metastases. The present review examines the genetics and epigenetics of this pathological state together with recent perspectives of the therapeutic management of disease...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895420/clinical-relevance-of-endoscopic-assessment-of-inflammation-in-ulcerative-colitis-can-endoscopic-evaluation-predict-outcomes
#8
REVIEW
Noor Mohammed, Venkataraman Subramanian
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel condition characterised by a relapsing and remitting course. Symptom control has been the traditional mainstay of medical treatment. It is well known that histological inflammatory activity persists despite adequate symptom control and absence of endoscopic inflammation. Current evidence suggests that presence of histological inflammation poses a greater risk of disease relapse and subsequent colorectal cancer risk. New endoscopic technologies hold promise for developing endoscopic markers of mucosal inflammation...
November 14, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891756/motility-patterns-in-mouse-colon-gastrointestinal-dysfunction-induced-by-anticancer-chemotherapy
#9
REVIEW
N J Spencer
Colon cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death in humans. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU), a major chemotherapy treatment, has been used for decades to fight numerous types of cancers, including breast, colon, and head and neck carcinomas. Unfortunately, a large proportion of patients treated with 5-FU develop toxicities that include diarrhea, mucositis, neutropenia, and vomiting. While the side effects of 5-FU are well known, the mechanisms underlying the induction of these unpleasant symptoms are poorly understood...
December 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891443/a-randomized-prospective-study-of-concurrent-chemo-radiotherapy-vs-accelerated-hyperfractionation-in-advanced-cancer-of-head-and-neck
#10
Himanshu Mishra, Ritusha Mishra, Uday Prataap Shahi, Abhijit Mandal
INTRODUCTION: Locally advanced unresectable squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck has poor locoregional control when treated with conventionally fractionated Radiation Therapy (RT) alone. However, Concurrent Chemo-Radiotherapy (CRT) and altered fractionated RT schedules like Accelerated Hyperfractionation (AHF) are two different treatment strategies that have shown to be associated with better efficacy as compared to conventional RT alone in such cases. AIM: Aim of the study was to compare these two treatment strategies i...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889943/a-clinicopathological-study-of-the-oral-lesions-of-cowden-disease
#11
Mariana Hammerschmidt, Silvia Vanessa Lourenço, Marcello Menta Simonsen Nico
BACKGROUND: Cowden disease is a multisystemic cancer predisposition disorder, inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern. Cutaneous and visceral lesions are either malignant tumours or are believed to represent hamartomatous growths. Mucocutaneous lesions are present on almost 100% of affected individuals. Nonetheless, some authors consider that the mucocutaneous manifestations of Cowden disease are, in reality, viral warts at distinct steps of evolution. There are only a few studies regarding the oral manifestations of Cowden disease...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889616/developments-in-l2-based-human-papillomavirus-hpv-vaccines
#12
REVIEW
Christina Schellenbacher, Richard B S Roden, Reinhard Kirnbauer
Infections with sexually transmitted high-risk Human Papillomavirus (hrHPV), of which there are at least 15 genotypes, are responsible for a tremendous disease burden by causing cervical, and subsets of other ano-genital and oro-pharyngeal carcinomas, together representing 5% of all cancer cases worldwide. HPV subunit vaccines consisting of virus-like particles (VLP) self-assembled from major capsid protein L1 plus adjuvant have been licensed. Prophylactic vaccinations with the 2-valent (HPV16/18), 4-valent (HPV6/11/16/18), or 9-valent (HPV6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58) vaccine induce high-titer neutralizing antibodies restricted to the vaccine types that cause up to 90% of cervical carcinomas, a subset of other ano-genital and oro-pharyngeal cancers and 90% of benign ano-genital warts (condylomata)...
November 23, 2016: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889544/the-role-of-eus-in-patients-with-suspected-barrett-s-esophagus-with-high-grade-dysplasia-or-early-esophageal-adenocarcinoma-impact-on-endoscopic-therapy
#13
Michael J Bartel, Timothy Wallace, Rene Gomez, Massimo Raimondo, Herbert C Wolfsen, Timothy A Woodward, Michael B Wallace
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Endoscopic therapy is the standard treatment for high-grade dysplasia and some cases of T1a esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), but it is not appropriate for deeply invasive disease. Data on the value of EUS for patient selection for endoscopic or surgical resection are conflicting. We investigated the outcome of esophageal EUS for the staging and treatment selection of patients with treatment-naïve, premalignant Barrett's esophagus (BE) and suspected superficial EAC...
November 23, 2016: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884202/extending-colonic-mucosal-microbiome-analysis-assessment-of-colonic-lavage-as-a-proxy-for-endoscopic-colonic-biopsies
#14
Euan Watt, Matthew R Gemmell, Susan Berry, Mark Glaire, Freda Farquharson, Petra Louis, Graeme I Murray, Emad El-Omar, Georgina L Hold
BACKGROUND: Sequencing-based analysis has become a well-established approach to deciphering the composition of the gut microbiota. However, due to the complexity of accessing sufficient material from colonoscopic biopsy samples, most studies have focused on faecal microbiota analysis, even though it is recognised that differences exist between the microbial composition of colonic biopsies and faecal samples. We determined the suitability of colonic lavage samples to see if it had comparable microbial diversity composition to colonic biopsies as they are without the limitations associated with sample size...
November 25, 2016: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878499/therapeutic-potential-of-adam17-modulation-in-gastric-cancer-through-regulation-of-the-egfr-and-tnf-%C3%AE-signalling-pathways
#15
Jinbing Sun, Jianlong Jiang, Kuangyi Lu, Qiao Chen, Danhao Tao, Zhong Chen
A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17) is highly expressed in various tumours and affects tumour progression. In this study, ADAM17 expression in 60 gastric cancer and 20 normal gastric mucosal tissues was assessed using immunohistochemistry. ADAM17 expression was higher in gastric cancer tissues than in normal gastric mucosal tissues (P < 0.0005). A significant relationship was identified between ADAM17 expression and the depth of tumour invasion, metastasis, and carcinoma stage. Furthermore, the effects of ADAM17 knockdown on the proliferation, cell invasion, and apoptosis of human gastric carcinoma cells (SGC-7901) were determined...
November 22, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875526/caphosol-for-prevention-of-oral-mucositis-in-pediatric-myeloablative-haematopoietic-cell-transplantation
#16
Nathaniel Treister, Michael Nieder, Christina Baggott, Ellen Olson, Lu Chen, Ha Dang, Mark Krailo, Amanda August, Lillian Sung
BACKGROUND: The primary objective was to determine whether topically administered Caphosol, rinsed orally four times daily at the initiation of conditioning, reduces the duration of severe oral mucositis (OM) compared with placebo among children and adolescents undergoing haematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). METHODS: This was a Children's Oncology Group multicentre randomised double-blinded placebo-controlled clinical trial. Patients between the ages of 4 and 21 years who were scheduled to undergo myeloablative HCT for any indication were randomised to Caphosol or placebo saline rinses four times daily from initiation of conditioning through day +20...
November 22, 2016: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873235/breakthrough-cancer-pain-preliminary-data-of-the-italian-oncologic-pain-multisetting-multicentric-survey-iops-ms
#17
Sebastiano Mercadante, Paolo Marchetti, Arturo Cuomo, Augusto Caraceni, Rocco Domenico Mediati, Massimo Mammucari, Silvia Natoli, Marzia Lazzari, Mario Dauri, Mario Airoldi, Giuseppe Azzarello, Mauro Bandera, Livio Blasi, Giacomo Cartenì, Bruno Chiurazzi, Benedetta Veruska Pierpaola Costanzo, Daniela Degiovanni, Flavio Fusco, Vittorio Guardamagna, Vincenzo Iaffaioli, Simeone Liguori, Vito Lorusso, Sergio Mameli, Rodolfo Mattioli, Teresita Mazzei, Rita Maria Melotti, Valentino Menardo, Danilo Miotti, Stefano Moroso, Stefano De Santis, Remo Orsetti, Alfonso Papa, Sergio Ricci, Alessandro Fabrizio Sabato, Elvira Scelzi, Michele Sofia, Giuseppe Tonini, Federica Aielli, Alessandro Valle
INTRODUCTION: An ongoing national multicenter survey [Italian Oncologic Pain multiSetting Multicentric Survey (IOPS-MS)] is evaluating the characteristics of breakthrough cancer pain (BTP) in different clinical settings. Preliminary data from the first 1500 cancer patients with BTP enrolled in this study are presented here. METHODS: Thirty-two clinical centers are involved in the survey. A diagnosis of BTP was performed by a standard algorithm. Epidemiological data, Karnofsky index, stage of disease, presence and sites of metastases, ongoing oncologic treatment, and characteristics of background pain and BTP and their treatments were recorded...
November 21, 2016: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871804/additional-surgical-resection-after-endoscopic-mucosal-dissection-for-early-gastric-cancer-a-medium-sized-hospital-s-experience
#18
Bunzo Nakata, Masashige Tendo, Masatsugu Okuyama, Kenichi Nakahara, Hirotaka Ishizu, Go Masuda, Tomohiro Lee, Takeshi Hori, Masahiko Ohsawa, Hiroshi Sato, Tetsuro Ishikawa
PURPOSE: In Japan, the majority of early gastric cancers (EGCs) are now treated with endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). Patients with non-curative lesions treated by ESD are advised to undergo additional surgical resection (ASR) based on guidelines from the Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society (JGES) and Japanese Gastric Cancer Association (JGCA). However, many studies have demonstrated that residual cancer and lymph node metastasis are only rarely found in ASR specimens. Here we retrospectively analyzed the conditions that could enable the avoidance of unnecessary ASR...
November 15, 2016: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868411/-efficacy-of-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy-combined-with-bevacizumab-versus-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy-alone-for-her2-negative-breast-cancer-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-clinical-trials
#19
Rui Han, Guanying Wang, Yujiao Zhang, Xinhan Zhao
Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of neoadjuvant chemotherapy combined with bevacizumab versus neoadjuvant chemotherapy alone for Her2-negative breast cancer.Methods: We searched PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, CNKI, Wanfang Database and the abstracts of major international conferences in recent 5 years to identify prospective randomized controlled clinical trials that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Study selection and analyses were undertaken according to the Cochrane Handbook...
May 25, 2016: Zhejiang da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867747/early-diagnosis-of-genital-mucosal-melanoma-how-good-are-our-dermoscopic-criteria
#20
Tova Rogers, Melissa Pulitzer, Maria L Marino, Ashfaq A Marghoob, Oliver Zivanovic, Michael A Marchetti
BACKGROUND: There are limited studies on the dermoscopic features of mucosal melanoma, particularly early-stage lesions. Described criteria include the presence of blue, gray, or white colors, with a reported sensitivity of 100%. It is unclear if these features will aid in the detection of early mucosal melanoma or improve diagnostic accuracy compared to naked-eye examination alone. CASE: An Asian female in her fifties was referred for evaluation of an asymptomatic, irregularly pigmented patch of the clitoral hood and labia minora of unknown duration...
October 2016: Dermatology Practical & Conceptual
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