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Cancer Mucositis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147446/evaluation-of-acute-toxicity-and-early-clinical-outcome-in-head-and-neck-cancers-treated-with-conventional-radiotherapy-and-simultaneous-integrated-boost-arc-radiotherapy
#1
Amit Bahl, Arun S Oinam, Satinder Kaur, Roshan Verma, Arun Elangovan, Sudhir Bhandari, Jaimanti Bakshi, Naresh Panda, Sushmita Ghoshal
Background: Chemoradiotherapy plays an important role in management of locally advanced head and neck cancers. This retrospective analysis was done to evaluate and compare acute toxicity profiles and early clinical outcomes in patients treated with conventional and arc techniques. Methods: Fifty-five patients of head and neck cancers were evaluated. Thirty patients received conventional radiotherapy with 6 MV or cobalt 60 and 25 patients were treated with simultaneous integrated boost-volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy (SIB-VMAT) with dose prescription of 66 - 70 Gy...
August 2017: World Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147133/allopurinol-in-combination-with-thiopurine-induces-mucosal-healing-and-improves-clinical-and-metabolic-outcomes-in-ibd
#2
Brigitte Moreau, Pierre Clement, Yves Theoret, Ernest G Seidman
Background: Thiopurines, azathioprine (AZA) and 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) are common maintenance medications for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Excessive methylation via thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) frequently causes therapeutic failure. Allopurinol reduces excessive 6-methyl-mercaptopurine (6-MMP) while enhancing 6-thioguanine (6-TGN) levels. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical, metabolic and endoscopic impact of allopurinol in combination with low-dose thiopurine in IBD...
November 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146179/soft-palate-reconstruction-after-radionecrosis-combined-anterolateral-thigh-adipofascial-and-nasoseptal-flaps
#3
Joseph Zenga, Jeffrey D Sharon, Jennifer Gross, Jay Gantz, Patrik Pipkorn
Although radiation-based treatment for nasopharyngeal cancer may achieve excellent long term oncologic results, late effects of therapy may lead to soft tissue radionecrosis and velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI). Repair of these oro- and nasopharyngeal defects presents a complex reconstructive challenge. We present a case of a long-term survivor treated with chemoradiotherapy for nasopharyngeal cancer who developed progressive dysphagia, velopharyngeal insufficiency, and radionecrosis of the nasopharynx and soft palate, leading to tracheostomy and gastrostomy tube dependence...
November 13, 2017: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142805/role-of-adjuvant-treatment-in-sinonasal-mucosal-melanoma
#4
Moran Amit, Samantha Tam, Ahmed S Abdelmeguid, Michael E Kupferman, Shirley Y Su, Shaan M Raza, Franco DeMonte, Ehab Y Hanna
Purpose  Sinonasal mucosal melanoma (SNMM) is a locally aggressive tumor. This study aimed to define the role of adjuvant treatment and its association with survival outcomes of SNMM. Methods  This retrospective study investigated 152 patients with SNMM treated between 1991 and 2016 in MD Anderson Cancer Center. Patients were divided into the following treatment groups: surgery alone, surgery with postoperative radiotherapy (PORT), surgery with postoperative chemoradiation (POCRT), and induction chemotherapy followed by surgery and PORT...
December 2017: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part B, Skull Base
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141225/a-comprehensive-patient-derived-xenograft-collection-representing-the-heterogeneity-of-melanoma
#5
Clemens Krepler, Katrin Sproesser, Patricia Brafford, Marilda Beqiri, Bradley Garman, Min Xiao, Batool Shannan, Andrea Watters, Michela Perego, Gao Zhang, Adina Vultur, Xiangfan Yin, Qin Liu, Ioannis N Anastopoulos, Bradley Wubbenhorst, Melissa A Wilson, Wei Xu, Giorgos Karakousis, Michael Feldman, Xiaowei Xu, Ravi Amaravadi, Tara C Gangadhar, David E Elder, Lauren E Haydu, Jennifer A Wargo, Michael A Davies, Yiling Lu, Gordon B Mills, Dennie T Frederick, Michal Barzily-Rokni, Keith T Flaherty, Dave S Hoon, Michael Guarino, Joseph J Bennett, Randall W Ryan, Nicholas J Petrelli, Carol L Shields, Mizue Terai, Takami Sato, Andrew E Aplin, Alexander Roesch, David Darr, Steve Angus, Rakesh Kumar, Ensar Halilovic, Giordano Caponigro, Sebastien Jeay, Jens Wuerthner, Annette Walter, Matthias Ocker, Matthew B Boxer, Lynn Schuchter, Katherine L Nathanson, Meenhard Herlyn
Therapy of advanced melanoma is changing dramatically. Following mutational and biological subclassification of this heterogeneous cancer, several targeted and immune therapies were approved and increased survival significantly. To facilitate further advancements through pre-clinical in vivo modeling, we have established 459 patient-derived xenografts (PDX) and live tissue samples from 384 patients representing the full spectrum of clinical, therapeutic, mutational, and biological heterogeneity of melanoma...
November 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140150/radiotherapy-for-cervical-cancer-impact-on-the-vaginal-epithelium-and-sexual-function
#6
Alexandra Hofsjö, Karin Bergmark, Bo Blomgren, Helen Jahren, Nina Bohm-Starke
BACKGROUND: Women who have been treated for cervical cancer have persistent changes in their sexual function, which result in considerable distress. The aim of this study was to investigate the morphology of the vaginal epithelium in cervical cancer survivors treated with radiotherapy and its correlation to serum levels of sex steroid hormones and sexual function. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We included 34 patients treated for cervical cancer with radiotherapy and 37 healthy age-matched control women scheduled for benign gynecological surgery...
November 15, 2017: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138340/phase-i-study-of-chimeric-antigen-receptor-modified-t-cells-in-patients-with-egfr-positive-advanced-biliary-tract-cancers
#7
Yelei Guo, Kai-Chao Feng, Yang Liu, Zhiqiang Wu, Hanren Dai, Qing-Ming Yang, Yao Wang, Hejin Jia, Weidong Han
PURPOSE: This study is an expanded and parallel clinical trial of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-specific chimeric antigen receptor-engineered autologous T (CART) cell immunotherapy (NCT01869166) to assess the safety and activity of CART-EGFR cell therapy in EGFR-positive advanced unresectable, relapsed/metastatic biliary tract cancers (BTCs). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with EGFR-positive (>50%) advanced unresectable, relapsed/metastatic BTCs were enrolled...
November 14, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137858/human-papillomavirus-e6-and-e7-oncoproteins-affect-the-cell-microenvironment-by-classical-secretion-and-extracellular-vesicles-delivery-of-inflammatory-mediators
#8
Marco Iuliano, Giorgio Mangino, Maria Vincenza Chiantore, Maria Simona Zangrillo, Rosita Accardi, Massimo Tommasino, Gianna Fiorucci, Giovanna Romeo
The connection between chronic inflammation and risk of cancer has been supported by several studies. The development of cancer might be a process driven by the presence of a specific combination of inflammatory mediators, including cytokines, chemokines and enzymes, in the tumor microenvironment. Virus-induced tumors, like HPV-induced Squamous Cell Carcinomas, represent a paradigmatic example of the interplay between inflammation, as integral part of the innate antiviral response, and malignant transformation...
November 11, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137377/an-evaluation-of-nutrition-intervention-during-radiation-therapy-in-patients-with-locoregionally-advanced-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma
#9
Ting Jin, Kai-Xin Li, Pei-Jing Li, Shuang Huang, Xiao-Zhong Chen, Ming Chen, Qiao-Ying Hu, Lei Shi, Yuan-Yuan Chen
Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of nutrition intervention during radiation for patients with locoregionally advanced (III-IVa) nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 117 patients with locoregionally advanced (III-IVa) NPC treated between December 2015 and March 2016 in Zhejiang Cancer Hospital. All the patients underwent radical chemo-radiotherapy. First, all the patients were divided into the nutrition intervention group and the control group, depending on whether they accepted nutrition intervention...
October 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135114/expression-and-role-of-p53-in-oral-lichen-planus-patients
#10
Milos Hadzi-Mihailovic, Renata Petrovic, Helene Raybaud, Dragan Stanimirovic, Meltem Ozar Koray
PURPOSE: Oral lichen planus (OLP) is an autoimmune skin and mucosal disorder. The range of malignant transformation in OLP varies between 0.1-3%. p53 is a tumor suppressor protein. Defective p53 could allow abnormal cells to proliferate, resulting in cancer. p53 plays an important role in cell cycle control and apoptosis and loss of p53 function has been demonstrated in about half of all human cancers. The purpose of the study was to investigate the malignant potential of OLP on the basis of p53 expression and to correlate p53 expression with clinical and histopathological features of OLP...
September 2017: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134491/dpyd-2a-and-mthfr-c677t-predict-toxicity-and-efficacy-respectively-in-patients-on-chemotherapy-with-5-fluorouracil-for-colorectal-cancer
#11
Noor Ahmed Nahid, Mohd Nazmul Hasan Apu, Md Reazul Islam, Samia Shabnaz, Surid Mohammad Chowdhury, Maizbha Uddin Ahmed, Zabun Nahar, Md Siddiqul Islam, Mohammad Safiqul Islam, Abul Hasnat
BACKGROUND: Significant inter-individual variation in the sensitivity to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) represents a major therapeutic hindrance either by impairing drug response or inducing adverse drug reactions (ADRs). This study aimed at exploring the cause behind this inter-individual alterations in consequences of 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy by investigating the effects of DPYD*2A and MTHFR C677T polymorphisms on toxicity and response of 5-FU in Bangladeshi colorectal cancer patients...
November 13, 2017: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133307/the-anti-inflammatory-effect-of-personalized-omega-3-fatty-acid-dosing-for-reducing-prostaglandin-e2-in-the-colonic-mucosa-is-attenuated-in-obesity
#12
Zora Djuric, D Kim Turgeon, Ananda Sen, Jianwei Ren, Kirk Herman, Devon Ramaswamy, Lili Zhao, Mack T Ruffin, Daniel P Normolle, William L Smith, Dean E Brenner
This clinical trial developed a personalized dosing model for reducing prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in colonic mucosa using ω-3 fatty acid supplementation. The model utilized serum eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, ω-3):arachidonic acid (AA, ω-6) ratios as biomarkers of colonic mucosal PGE2 concentration. Normal human volunteers were given low and high ω-3 fatty acid test doses for 2 weeks. This established a slope and intercept of the line for dose versus serum EPA:AA ratio in each individual. The slope and intercept was utilized to calculate a personalized target dose that was given for 12 weeks...
November 13, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130527/the-utility-of-oral-brush-cytology-in-the-early-detection-of-oral-cancer-and-oral-potentially-malignant-disorders-a-systematic-review
#13
REVIEW
Abdulhameed Husain, Omar Kujan, Camile S Farah
OBJECTIVES: This systematic review aimed to analyze the published evidence for the use of oral brush cytology for the early detection of oral cancer and oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs). METHODS: Literature was systematically searched through several databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, SCOPUS, Cochrane Library and Web of Science. Additional review was performed through cross checks on the bibliographies of selected articles. The inclusion criteria involved studies assessing the utility of oral brush cytology on human tissues and its applications in the diagnosis, screening or surveillance of oral cancer or OPMDs...
November 12, 2017: Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129090/screening-and-prevention-strategies-and-endoscopic-management-of-early-esophageal-cancer
#14
James A Kim, Pari M Shah
Esophageal cancer is the 8th most common cancer worldwide and the 6th most common cause of cancer-related death. Its two main subtypes, esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), have varying incidences globally, but recent decades have seen a demonstrated rise of EAC in Western countries whereas ESCC remains highly prevalent in Eastern Africa, Central Asia, and China. Screening interventions have focused on using endoscopy to identify Barrett's esophagus (BE) as a precursor to EAC, and squamous cell dysplasia prior to onset of ESCC...
October 2017: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128883/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-the-effect-of-low-level-laser-therapy-lllt-on-chemotherapy-induced-oral-mucositis-in-pediatric-and-young-patients
#15
REVIEW
Mengxue He, Binghua Zhang, Nanping Shen, Na Wu, Jiwen Sun
Oral mucositis is one of the most frequent complications after chemotherapy, occurring in approximately 52 to 80% of children receiving treatment for cancer. Recently, it has been suggested that the use of low-energy laser could reduce the grade of oral mucositis and alleviate the symptoms. In 2014, Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer/International Society of Oral Oncology has recommended low-level laser therapy in prevention of mucositis for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation patients because of its beneficial effects in majority of recent studies...
November 11, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127201/loss-of-the-mucosal-barrier-alters-the-progenitor-cell-niche-via-jak-stat-signaling
#16
Liping Zhang, Katharina Ribbeck, Bradley Turner, Kelly G Ten Hagen
The mucous barrier of our digestive tract is the first line of defense against pathogens and damage. Disruptions in this barrier are associated with diseases such as Crohn's disease, colitis and colon cancer, but mechanistic insights into these processes and diseases are limited. We have previously shown that loss of a conserved O-glycosyltransferase (PGANT4) in Drosophila results in aberrant secretion of components of the peritrophic/mucous membrane in the larval digestive tract. Here, we show that loss of pgant4 disrupts the mucosal barrier, resulting in epithelial expression of the IL-6-like cytokine Upd3, leading to activation of JAK/STAT signaling, differentiation of cells that form the progenitor cell niche and abnormal proliferation of progenitor cells...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127037/exosome-function-in-aerodigestive-mucosa
#17
REVIEW
Sarina K Mueller, Angela L Nocera, Benjamin S Bleier
Exosomes are 30-150nm membrane-bound vesicles which are secreted by virtually all cell types. Exosomes have been studied in a wide range of both normal and pathologic human tissues, most notably cancer. The role of exosomes in immune surveillance, non-invasive biomarker sampling, and their potential to act as therapeutic carriers lends particular importance to mucosal barrier derived exosomes. This review focuses specifically on current knowledge regarding exosomes derived from aerodigestive membranes. Specific topics covered include: isolation and characterization techniques, physiological function, protein expression, function as biomarkers of disease, and potential therapeutic uses...
November 7, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126490/dental-management-of-patients-who-have-undergone-oral-cancer-therapy
#18
REVIEW
Alessandro Villa, Sunday O Akintoye
Oral cancer therapies are associated with orofacial complications that could result in dose-limiting cancer treatment and consequent suboptimal tumor control. Oral cancer treatment complications include oral mucositis, salivary gland hypofunction, odontogenic infections, pain, dermatitis, neurotoxicity, soft tissue fibrosis, trismus, osteoradionecrosis, and potential cancer recurrence. These complications significantly affect cancer survivorship, quality of life, and psychosocial status. Effective dental management of patients with oral cancer involves the coordination of care among several health care professionals before, during, and after cancer therapy...
January 2018: Dental Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126489/dental-treatment-planning-for-the-patient-with-oral-cancer
#19
REVIEW
Lauren E Levi, Rajesh V Lalla
Oral cancer therapy is associated with a multitude of head and neck sequelae that includes, but is not limited to, hyposalivation, increased risk for dental caries, osteoradionecrosis of the jaw, radiation fibrosis syndrome, mucositis, chemotherapy-induced neuropathy, dysgeusia, dysphagia, mucosal lesions, trismus, and infections. Preparing a comprehensive treatment plan for patients undergoing cancer therapy is essential to help minimize their risks for developing these oral and dental complications. In addition, dentists must take into account a patient's ongoing oncologic therapy for those patients who present to the dentist while concurrently receiving cancer treatment...
January 2018: Dental Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123409/preventive-effect-of-kampo-medicine-hangeshashin-to-tj-14-plus-minocycline-against-afatinib-induced-diarrhea-and-skin-rash-in-patients-with-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#20
Masao Ichiki, Hiroshi Wataya, Kazuhiko Yamada, Nobuko Tsuruta, Hiroaki Takeoka, Yusuke Okayama, Jun Sasaki, Tomoaki Hoshino
Purpose: Diarrhea and oral mucositis induced by afatinib can cause devastating quality of life issues for patients undergoing afatinib treatment. Several studies have shown that hangeshashin-to (TJ-14) might be useful for chemotherapy-induced diarrhea and oral mucositis. In this study, we investigated the prophylactic effects of TJ-14 for afatinib-induced diarrhea and oral mucositis and minocycline for afatinib-induced skin rash. Patients and methods: First- and second-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitors have become the standard first-line treatment in patients with EGFR-mutated non-small cell lung cancer...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
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