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Jim J Miller, Bruce W Beasley, Paul Hazendonk, Craig F Drury, David S Chanasyk
Long-term application of feedlot manure to cropland may increase the quantity of soil organic carbon (C) and change its quality, which may influence soil water repellency. The objective was to determine the influence of feedlot manure type (stockpiled vs. composted), bedding material (straw [ST] vs. woodchips [WD]), and application rate (13, 39, or 77 Mg ha) on repellency of a clay loam soil after 17 annual applications. The repellency was determined on all 14 treatments using the water repellency index ( index), the water drop penetration time (WDPT) method, and molarity of ethanol (MED) test...
May 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
Hamed Ahmadi, Parviz Sharifi Daramadi, Majid Asadi-Samani, Hamed Givtaj, Mohammad Reza Mahmoudian Sani
The present study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of assertiveness group training on social anxiety (SAD) between deaf and hearing impaired adolescents. Forty eight (24 deaf and 24 hearing impaired) people participated in this study. First, participants with SAD, i.e. attaining the scores above 40 for Connor's Social Inventory Scale 2000 (SPIN), were selected according to convenience sampling and randomly assigned to two groups, i.e. intervention and control. Then, assertiveness group training was conducted for intervention group within 10 sessions, and immediately after completion of the training sessions, SPIN was re-administered to the two groups...
June 1, 2017: International Tinnitus Journal
Xiaofeng Tang, Gustavo A Garcia, Laurent Nahon
The vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization and dissociative photoionization of methyl fluoride (CH3F) in the 12.2-19.8 eV energy range were investigated by using synchrotron radiation coupled to a double imaging photoelectron photoion coincidence (i(2)PEPICO) spectrometer. The production of several fragment ions including CH2F(+), CHF(+), CH3(+) and CH2(+) as a function of state and internal energy of CH3F(+) ions was identified and analyzed, with their individual appearance energies measured through threshold photoelectron spectroscopy...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Shinya Kano, Kwangsoo Kim, Minoru Fujii
We develop a fast-response and flexible nanocrystal-based humidity sensor for real-time monitoring of human activity: respiration and water evaporation on skin. A silicon-nanocrystal film is formed on a polyimide film by spin-coating the colloidal solution and is used as a flexible and humidity-sensitive material in a humidity sensor. The flexible nanocrystal-based humidity sensor shows a high sensitivity; current through the nanocrystal film changes by 5 orders of magnitude in the relative humidity range of 8-83%...
June 23, 2017: ACS Sensors
Benhu Zhou, Benliang Zhou, Yagang Yao, Guanghui Zhou, Ming Hu
We theoretically calculate spin-dependent transmission probability and spin Seebeck coefficient for a zigzagedge graphene nanoribbon (ZGNR) p-n junction with periodically attached stubs under a perpendicular magnetic field and a ferromagnetic insulator. By using the nonequilibrium Green's function (NEGF) method combining with the tight-binding Hamiltonian, it is demonstrated that, the spin-dependent transmission probability and spin Seebeck coefficient for two types of superlattices can be modulated by the potential drop, the magnetization strength, the number of periods of the superlattice, the strength of the perpendicular magnetic field, and the Anderson disorder strength...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
QingPing Wu, Zhengfang Liu, Aixi Chen, Xian-Bo Xiao, Heng Zhang, Guo-Xing Miao
We theoretically investigate the valley precession and valley polarization in graphene under inter-valley coupling. Our results show that the inter-valley coupling can induce valley polarization in graphene and also precess valleys in real space in a manner similar to the Rashba spin-orbit interaction rotating spins. Moreover, using strain modulation, we can achieve high valley polarization with large valley-polarized currents. These findings provide a new way to create and manipulate valley polarization in graphene...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Isabel D Coutinho, Tiago Bueno Moraes, Liliane Marcia Mertz-Henning, Alexandre Lima Nepomuceno, Willian Giordani, Juliana Marcolino-Gomes, Silvia Santagneli, Luiz Alberto Colnago
INTRODUCTION: Solid-state NMR (SSNMR) spectroscopy methods provide chemical environment and ultrastructural details that are not easily accessible by other non-destructive, high-resolution spectral techniques. High-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) has been widely used to obtain the metabolic profile of a heterogeneous sample, combining the resolution enhancement provided by MAS in SSNMR with the shimming and locking procedures in liquid-state NMR. OBJECTIVE: In this work, we explored the feasibility of using the HR-MAS and SSNMR techniques to identify metabolic changes in soybean leaves subjected to water-deficient conditions...
July 19, 2017: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
Katie L Davis-Anderson, Sebastian Berger, Emilie R Lunde-Young, Vishal D Naik, Heewon Seo, Greg A Johnson, Hanno Steen, Jayanth Ramadoss
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) describe many of the well-known neurodevelopmental deficits afflicting children exposed to alcohol in utero. The effects of alcohol on the maternal-fetal interface, especially the placenta, have been less explored. We herein hypothesized that chronic binge alcohol exposure during pregnancy significantly alters the placental protein profile in a rat FASD model METHODS: Pregnant rats were orogastrically treated daily with alcohol (4.5 g/kg, gestational day (GD) 5-10; 6...
July 19, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Ulyana Shimanovich, Francesco S Ruggeri, Erwin De Genst, Jozef Adamcik, Teresa P Barros, David Porter, Thomas Müller, Raffaele Mezzenga, Christopher M Dobson, Fritz Vollrath, Chris Holland, Tuomas P J Knowles
Naturally spun silks generate fibres with unique properties, including strength, elasticity and biocompatibility. Here we describe a microfluidics-based strategy to spin liquid native silk, obtained directly from the silk gland of Bombyx mori silkworms, into micron-scale capsules with controllable geometry and variable levels of intermolecular β-sheet content in their protein shells. We demonstrate that such micrococoons can store internally the otherwise highly unstable liquid native silk for several months and without apparent effect on its functionality...
July 19, 2017: Nature Communications
Ali Kandemir, Fadıl Iyikanat, Hasan Sahin
By performing first-principles calculations, we predict a novel, stable single layer phase of silicon ditelluride, 1T-SiTe<sub>2</sub>, and its possible vertical heterostructures with single layer β-SiTe. Structural optimization and phonon calculations reveal that 1T-SiTe<sub>2</sub> structure has a dynamically stable ground state. Further analysis of the vibrational spectrum at the Γ point shows that single layer 1T-SiTe<sub>2</sub> has characteristic phonon modes at 80, 149, 191 and 294 cm<sup>-1</sup>...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Kuppusamy Senthil Kumar, Ivan Šalitroš, Eufemio Moreno-Pineda, Mario Ruben
A simple "isomer-like" variation of the spacer group in a set of Fe(ii) spin crossover (SCO) complexes designed to probe spin state dependence of electrical conductivity in graphene-based molecular spintronic junctions led to the observation of remarkable variations in the thermal- and light-induced magnetic characteristics, paving a simple route for the design of functional SCO complexes with different temperature switching regimes based on a 2,6-bis(pyrazol-1-yl)pyridine ligand skeleton.
July 19, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
I V Savochkin, M Jäckl, V I Belotelov, I A Akimov, M A Kozhaev, D A Sylgacheva, A I Chernov, A N Shaposhnikov, A R Prokopov, V N Berzhansky, D R Yakovlev, A K Zvezdin, M Bayer
Currently spin waves are considered for computation and data processing as an alternative to charge currents. Generation of spin waves by ultrashort laser pulses provides several important advances with respect to conventional approaches using microwaves. In particular, focused laser spot works as a point source for spin waves and allows for directional control of spin waves and switching between their different types. For further progress in this direction it is important to manipulate with the spectrum of the optically generated spin waves...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
Jun-Ya Kaimori, Yoshitaka Isaka, Masaki Hatanaka, Satoko Yamamoto, Naotsugu Ichimaru, Akihiko Fujikawa, Hiroshi Shibata, Akira Fujimori, Sosuke Miyoshi, Takashi Yokawa, Kagayaki Kuroda, Toshiki Moriyama, Hiromi Rakugi, Shiro Takahara
Renal fibrosis (RF) is an indicator for progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Although diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the leading cause of CKD and end-stage renal disease in Western populations, the ability of MRI to evaluate RF in DN patients has not been determined. As a first step to identify possible MRI methods for RF evaluation, we examined the use of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) MRI to evaluate RF in a rat model of DN (SHR/NDmcr-cp(cp/cp): SHR/ND). The signal-to-noise ratio in DTI MRI was enhanced using a spin-echo sequence, and a special kidney attachment was developed for long-term stabilization...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
Liesbeth M C Janssen, Andreas Kaiser, Hartmut Löwen
The coupling of active, self-motile particles to topological constraints can give rise to novel non-equilibrium dynamical patterns that lack any passive counterpart. Here we study the behavior of self-propelled rods confined to a compact spherical manifold by means of Brownian dynamics simulations. We establish the state diagram and find that short active rods at sufficiently high density exhibit a glass transition toward a disordered state characterized by persistent self-spinning motion. By periodically melting and revitrifying the spherical spinning glass, we observe clear signatures of time-dependent aging and rejuvenation physics...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
Ilaria Sanzari, Mauro Callisti, Antonio De Grazia, Daniel J Evans, Tomas Polcar, Themistoklis Prodromakis
Parylene C is a well-known polymer and it has been mainly employed as a protective layer for implantable electronics. In this paper, we propose a new approach to use Parylene C as a versatile template for patterning soft materials potentially applicable as scaffolds in cardiac tissue engineering (TE). Parylene C substrates were anisotropically patterned through standard lithographic process with hydrophilic channels separating raised hydrophobic strips. Ridges and grooves of the template are 10 µm width and depth ranging from 1 to 17 µm...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
Jionghua Wu, Xin Xu, Yanhong Zhao, Jiangjian Shi, Yuzhuan Xu, Yanhong Luo, Dongmei Li, Huijue Wu, Qingbo Meng
DMF as additive has been employed in FAI/MAI/IPA (FA= CH2 (NH2)2, MA=CH3NH3, IPA is isopropanol) solution for two-step multi-cycle spin coating method in order to prepare high quality FAxMA1-xPbI2.55Br0.45 perovskite films. Further investigation reveals that the existence of DMF in the FAI/MAI/IPA solution can facilitate perovskite conversion, improve the film morphology and reduce crystal defects, thus enhance charge transfer efficiency. By optimization toward the DMF amount and spin coating cycles, compact, pinhole-free perovskite films are obtained...
July 19, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Arnab Pal, C Dhana Sekhar, Adyam Venimadhav, Pattukkannu Murugavel
The evolution of various magnetic ordering has been studied for orthorhombic perovskite GdMn<sub>1-<i>x</i></sub>Fe<sub><i>x</i></sub>O<sub>3</sub> (0 ≤ <i>x</i> ≤ 0.7) system to get its comprehensive magnetic phase diagram. We observed that the substitution of Fe in GdMnO<sub>3</sub> increases the antiferromagnetic Neel temperature (T<sub>N</sub>) from 40 K to above 400 K and importantly induces a spin-reorientation transition (T<sub>SR</sub>) for <i>x</i> ≥ 0...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Caroline R Kwawu, Richard Tia, Evans Adei, Nelson Y Dzade, C Richard A Catlow, Nora H de Leeuw
We have used spin polarized density functional theory calculations to perform extensive mechanistic studies of CO2 dissociation into CO and O on the clean Fe(100), (110) and (111) surfaces and on the same surfaces coated by a monolayer of nickel. CO2 chemisorbs on all three bare facets and binds more strongly to the stepped (111) surface than on the open flat (100) and close-packed (110) surfaces, with adsorption energies of -88.7 kJ mol(-1), -70.8 kJ mol(-1) and -116.8 kJ mol(-1) on the (100), (110) and (111) facets, respectively...
July 18, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Wenchuan Lai, Dazhou Xu, Xu Wang, Zaoming Wang, Yang Liu, Xiaojiao Zhang, Xiangyang Liu
Considering practical applications, the thermal/thermal oxidative stability of fluorinated graphene should be given sufficient attention. Herein, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were used to investigate in detail the differences in the thermal stabilities of two types of fluorinated samples, fluorinated graphene (FG) and fluorinated porous graphene (FPG) with various fluorine contents, respectively, as well as the reasons for these differences...
July 18, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Rui Huang, Jacob P Brady, Ashok Sekhar, Tairan Yuwen, Lewis E Kay
We present a pulse scheme that exploits methyl (1)H triple-quantum (TQ) coherences for the measurement of diffusion rates of slowly diffusing molecules in solution. It is based on the well-known stimulated echo experiment, with encoding and decoding of TQ coherences. The size of quantifiable diffusion coefficients is thus lowered by an order of magnitude with respect to single-quantum (SQ) approaches. Notably, the sensitivity of the scheme is high, approximately ¾ that of the corresponding single quantum experiment, neglecting relaxation losses, and on the order of a factor of 4 more sensitive than a previously published sequence for AX3 spin systems (Zheng et al...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular NMR
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