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Satoru Emori, Di Yi, Sam Crossley, Jacob J Wisser, Purnima P Balakrishnan, Behrouz Khodadadi, Padraic Shafer, Christoph Klewe, Alpha T N'Diaye, Brittany T Urwin, Krishnamurthy Mahalingam, Brandon Howe, Harold Y Hwang, Elke Arenholz, Yuri Suzuki
Pure spin currents, unaccompanied by dissipative charge flow, are essential for realizing energy-efficient nanomagnetic information and communications devices. Thin-film magnetic insulators have been identified as promising materials for spin-current technology, since they are thought to exhibit lower damping compared to their metallic counterparts. However, insulating behavior is not a sufficient requirement for low damping, as evidenced by the very limited options for low-damping insulators. Here, we demonstrate a new class of nanometer-thick ultralow-damping insulating thin films, based on design criteria that minimize orbital angular momentum and structural disorder...
May 24, 2018: Nano Letters
Chitranjan Sah, Ajit Kumar Yadav, Sugumar Venkataramani
Computational studies on five membered heterocycles with single heteroatom and their isomeric dehydro-borole 1a-c, cyclopentadiene 2a-c, pyrrole 3a-c, furan 4b-c, phosphole 5a-c and thiophene 6b-c radicals have been carried out. Geometrical aspects through ground state electronic structures and stability aspects using bond dissociation energies (BDE) and radical stabilization energies (RSE) have been envisaged in this regard. Spin densities, electrostatic potentials (ESP) and natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis unveiled the extent of spin delocalization...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Łukasz Kłopotowski, Nikodem Czechowski, Anatolie Mitioglu, Claudia Backes, Duncan K Maude, Paulina Plochocka
Monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) constitute a family of materials, in which coupled spin-valley physics can be explored and which could find applications in novel optoelectronic devices. However, before applications can be designed, a scalable method of monolayer extraction is required. Liquid phase exfoliation is a technique providing large quantities of the monolayer material, but the spin-valley properties of thus obtained TMDs are unknown. In this work, we employ steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) to investigate the relaxation dynamics of localized excitons in liquid exfoliated WS<sub>2</sub>...
May 23, 2018: Nanotechnology
Stefan Schünemann, Maurice van Gastel, Harun Tüysüz
Halide perovskites have attracted great attention in the fields of photovoltaics, LEDs, lasers, and most recently photocatalysis due to their unique optoelectronic properties. Here, we present an all-inorganic halide perovskites CsPbBr3/TiO2 composite material for the selective benzyl alcohol oxidation to benzaldehyde under visible light illumination. The catalyst, which is prepared via a facile wet-impregnation method, shows very good selectivities towards benzaldehyde (90 % at 50 % conversion). Action spectra and electron spin resonance (ESR) studies reveal that photo-excited electrons formed within the CsPbBr3 upon visible light illumination take part in the reaction via the reduction of oxygen to form superoxide radicals...
May 23, 2018: ChemSusChem
Matteo Di Giosia, Paul H H Bomans, Andrea Bottoni, Andrea Cantelli, Giuseppe Falini, Paola Franchi, Giuseppe Guarracino, Heiner Friedrich, Marco Lucarini, Francesco Paolucci, Stefania Rapino, Nico A J M Sommerdijk, Alice Soldà, Francesco Valle, Francesco Zerbetto, Matteo Calvaresi
Hybrid systems have great potential for a wide range of applications in chemistry, physics and materials science. Conjugation of a biosystem to a molecular material can tune the properties of the components or give rise to new properties. As a workhorse, here we take a C60@lysozyme hybrid. We show that lysozyme recognizes and disperses fullerene in water. AFM, cryo-TEM and high resolution X-ray powder diffraction show that the C60 dispersion is monomolecular. The adduct is biocompatible, stable in physiological and technologically-relevant environments, and easy to store...
May 23, 2018: Nanoscale
Meenakshi Joshi, Aditi Chandrasekar, Tapan K Ghanty
The positions of lawrencium (Lr), lutetium (Lu), actinium (Ac) and lanthanum (La) in the periodic table have been a controversial topic for quite some time. According to studies carried out by different groups with their justifications, these elements may potentially be placed in the d-block, p-block or all four in a 15 element f-block. The present work looks into this issue from a new perspective, which involves encapsulation of these four elements into Zintl ion clusters, Pb122- and Sn122-, followed by the determination of the structural, thermodynamic and electronic properties of these endohedral M@Pb122- and M@Sn122- clusters (M = Lrn+, Lun+ with n = 0, 1, 2, 3) using first principles based density functional theory (DFT)...
May 23, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Amy C Bendell, Nicholas Anderson, Daniel Blumenthal, Edward K Williamson, Christopher S Chen, Janis K Burkhardt, Daniel A Hammer
Dendritic cell (DC) migration is required for efficient presentation of antigen to T cells and the initiation of an adaptive immune response. In spite of its importance, many aspects of DC migration have not been characterized. DCs encounter a variety of environments with different stiffness and geometry, but the effect of these parameters on DC migration has not yet been determined. We addressed this question by comparing DC motility on standard migration surfaces (polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-coated coverslips) and micropost array detectors (mPADs)...
May 22, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Bingshan Tao, Philippe Barate, Xavier Devaux, Pierre Renucci, Julien Frougier, Abdelhak Djeffal, Shiheng Liang, Bo Xu, Michel Hehn, Henri Jaffrès, Jean-Marie George, Xavier Marie, Stéphane Mangin, Xiufeng Han, Zhanguo Wang, Yuan Lu
Remanent spin injection into a spin light emitting diode (spin-LED) at zero magnetic field is a prerequisite for future application of spin optoelectronics. Here, we demonstrate the remanent spin injection into GaAs based LEDs with a thermally stable Mo/CoFeB/MgO spin injector. A systematic study of magnetic properties, polarization-resolved electroluminescence (EL) and atomic-scale interfacial structures has been performed in comparison with the Ta/CoFeB/MgO spin injector. The perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) of the Mo/CoFeB/MgO injector shows more advanced thermal stability than that of the Ta/CoFeB/MgO injector and robust PMA can be maintained up to 400 °C annealing...
May 23, 2018: Nanoscale
Maria Del Carmen Giménez-López, Miguel Clemente-León, Carlos Giménez-Saiz
This paper reports firstly the syntheses, crystal structures, and thermal and magnetic properties of spin crossover salts of formulae [Fe(bpp)2]3[Cr(CN)6]2·13H2O (1) and [Fe(bpp)2][N(CN)2]2·H2O (2) (bpp = 2,6-bis(pyrazol-3-yl)pyridine) exhibiting hydrogen-bonded networks of low-spin [Fe(bpp)2]2+ complexes and [Cr(CN)6]3- or [N(CN)2]- anions, with solvent molecules located in the voids. Desolvation of 1 is accompanied by a complete low-spin (LS) to a high-spin (HS) transformation that becomes reversible after rehydration by exposing the sample to the humidity of air...
May 23, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Young-Ik Sohn, Srujan Meesala, Benjamin Pingault, Haig A Atikian, Jeffrey Holzgrafe, Mustafa Gündoğan, Camille Stavrakas, Megan J Stanley, Alp Sipahigil, Joonhee Choi, Mian Zhang, Jose L Pacheco, John Abraham, Edward Bielejec, Mikhail D Lukin, Mete Atatüre, Marko Lončar
The uncontrolled interaction of a quantum system with its environment is detrimental for quantum coherence. For quantum bits in the solid state, decoherence from thermal vibrations of the surrounding lattice can typically only be suppressed by lowering the temperature of operation. Here, we use a nano-electro-mechanical system to mitigate the effect of thermal phonons on a spin qubit - the silicon-vacancy colour centre in diamond - without changing the system temperature. By controlling the strain environment of the colour centre, we tune its electronic levels to probe, control, and eventually suppress the interaction of its spin with the thermal bath...
May 22, 2018: Nature Communications
Michal Juríček
Molecules that contain one or more unpaired electrons delocalized within a π-conjugated backbone are promising candidates for applications in spin electronics or simply 'spintronics'. Our group develops functional organic materials based on π-conjugated hydrocarbon molecules, where the electrons are unpaired either in the ground state or in the excited state that is low in energy and can be populated thermally. We aim to learn how to introduce and control a multitude of properties, namely, optical, chiroptical, magnetic, and conductive, in a bulk material made of these molecules, by manipulating spin interactions between the unpaired electrons...
May 30, 2018: Chimia
Duangkamol Dechojarassri, Sahori Omote, Kensuke Nishida, Takehisa Omura, Hisashi Yamaguchi, Tetsuya Furuike, Hiroshi Tamura
The adsorption behavior of Sr2+ over alginate (Alg) fibers prepared by wet spinning was investigated. Different grades of sodium alginate (Alg-Na) were chosen. The Alg fibers were obtained by coagulation of 1% H2 SO4 (Alg-acid) or 5% CaCl2 (Alg-Ca) solutions. In addition, the Sr2+ adsorption percentages of the spherical Alg-Ca beads with a 0.672-mm-diameter was 70.64% which was significantly lower than that Alg-Ca fibers (79.49%). These results suggested that the fibrous shape is more suitable than the spheres as an adsorbent from sea water...
May 19, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Hyunjung Lim, Seung Min Back, Jeonghun Nam, Hyuk Choi
Measuring red blood cell (RBC) deformability has become important for clinical disease diagnostics. Various methods for measuring RBC deformability have been developed; however, they require costly and large instruments, long measuring time, and skilled personnel. In this study, we present a three-dimensional-printed mini-disk (3D-PMD) for measuring RBC deformability to overcome the previous limitations. For a miniaturized and low-cost setup, the 3D-PMD was fabricated by a 3D printing technique, which had not yet been used for fabricating a lab-on-a-compact disk (LOCD)...
2018: PloS One
Yue Zhu, Yuheng Gao, Shane Rodocker, Igor Savukov, Christian Hilty
We describe the multi-nuclear detection of nuclear spin optical rotation (NSOR), an effect dependent on the hyperfine interaction between nuclear spins and electrons. Signals of 1 H and 19 F are discriminated by frequency in a single spectrum acquired at sub-mili Tesla field. The simultaneously acquired optical signal along with the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signal allows the calculation of the relative magnitude of the NSOR constants corresponding to different nuclei within the sample molecules. This is illustrated by a larger NSOR signal measured at the 19 F frequency despite a smaller corresponding spin concentration...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Haoxuan Sun, Kaimo Deng, Yayun Zhu, Min Liao, Jie Xiong, Yanrong Li, Liang Li
Lead halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) with the high power conversion efficiency (PCE) typically use mesoporous metal oxide nanoparticles as the scaffold and electron-transport layers. However, the traditional mesoporous layer suffers from low electron conductivity and severe carrier recombination. Here, antimony-doped tin oxide nanorod arrays are proposed as novel transparent conductive mesoporous layers in PSCs. Such a mesoporous layer improves the electron transport as well as light utilization. To resolve the common problem of uneven growth of perovskite on rough surface, the dynamic two-step spin coating strategy is proposed to prepare highly smooth, dense, and crystallized perovskite films with micrometer-scale grains, largely reducing the carrier recombination ratio...
May 22, 2018: Advanced Materials
Jun Ma, Jean-Louis Marignier, Pascal Pernot, Chantal Houée-Levin, Anil Kumar, Michael D Sevilla, Amitava Adhikary, Mehran Mostafavi
In irradiated DNA, by the base-to-base and backbone-to-base hole transfer processes, the hole (i.e., the unpaired spin) localizes on the most electropositive base, guanine. Phosphate radicals formed via ionization events in the DNA-backbone must play an important role in the backbone-to-base hole transfer process. However, earlier studies on irradiated hydrated DNA, on irradiated DNA-models in frozen aqueous solution and in neat dimethyl phosphate showed the formation of carbon-centered radicals and not phosphate radicals...
May 22, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
F Heydarinasab, J Abouie
We study the ground state phase diagram of a two dimensional mixed-spin system of coupled alternating spin-1 and 1/2 chains with a stripe supersolid phase. Utilizing different analytical and numerical approaches such as mean field approximation, cluster mean field theory and linear spin wave theory, we demonstrate that our system displays a rich ground state phase diagram including novel stripe supersolid, solids with different fillings and super-counterfluid phases, in addition to a stripe solid with half filling, superfluid and Mott insulating phases...
May 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Lin Zhu, Bowen Li, Kailun Yao
Thermoelectric transport properties of Ti doped or adsorbed monolayer blue phosphorene are investigated by density functional theory calculations combined with the nonequilibrium Green's function formalism. The thermal giant magnetoresistance and a nearly 100% spin polarization which solely relies on the temperature gradient of electrodes without bias or gate voltage are observed. Moreover, the spin Seebeck effect is also found. Furthermore, taking into account the electronic and phonon dispersion, the thermoelectric merit for Ti doping in the monolayer blue phosphorene at room temperature is also studied, the maximum value of thermoelectric merit can reach 1...
May 22, 2018: Nanotechnology
Vivek Kumar, Manfred Reehuis, Andreas Hoser, Peter Adler, Claudia Felser
We have investigated the crystal and magnetic structure of Mn<sub>2</sub>PtPd alloy using powder X-ray and neutron diffraction experiments. This compound is believed to belong to the Heusler family having crystal symmetry I4/mmm (TiAl<sub>3</sub>-type). However, in this work we found that the Pd and Pt atoms are disordered and thus Mn<sub>2</sub>PtPd crystallizes in the L1<sub>0</sub> structure having P4/mmm symmetry (CuAu-I type) like MnPt and MnPd binary alloys...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Jong-Won Yun, Farman Ullah, Se-Jeong Jang, Do Hui Kim, Tri Khoa Nguyen, Ki Yeon Ryu, Shinuk Cho, Joon I Jang, Dooyong Lee, Sungkyun Park, Yong Soo Kim
Over the last decades, the spin coating (SC) technique has been widely used to prepare thin films of various materials in liquid phase on arbitrary substrates. The technique simply relies on centrifugal force to spread a coating solution radially outwards over the substrate. This mechanism works fairly well for solutions with low surface tension to form thin films of reasonable junctions on smooth substrates. Here, we present a modified SC technique, namely ultrasonic-assisted spin-coating (UASC), to form thin films of coating solution having high surface tension on rough substrates with excellent junctions...
May 22, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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