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antimicrobial chemotherapy

Lauren E Arthur, Russell S Kizor, Adrian G Selim, Mieke L van Driel, Leonardo Seoane
BACKGROUND: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, complicating the medical course of approximately 10% of mechanically-ventilated patients, with an estimated attributable mortality of 13%. To treat VAP empirically, the American Thoracic Society currently recommends antibiotic therapy based on the patients' risk of colonisation by an organism with multidrug resistance. The selection of initial antibiotic therapy in VAP is important, as inappropriate initial antimicrobial treatment is associated with higher mortality and longer hospital stay in intensive care unit (ICU) patients...
October 20, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Claire E Weston, Andreas Kraemer, Felix Colin, Özkan Yildiz, Matthias G J Baud, Franz-Josef Meyer-Almes, Matthew J Fuchter
Photopharmacological agents exhibit light-dependent biological activity and may have potential in the development of new antimicrobial agents/modalities. Amidohydrolase enzymes homologous to the well known human histone deacetylases (HDACs) are present in bacteria, including resistant organisms responsible for a significant number of hospital acquired infections and deaths. We report photopharmacological inhibitors of these enzymes, using two classes of photoswitch embedded in the inhibitor pharmacophore: azobenzenes and arylazopyrazoles...
October 18, 2016: ACS Infectious Diseases
Mine Düzgöl, Gülcihan Özek, Nuri Bayram, Yeşim Oymak, Ahu Kara, Bengü Demirağ, Tuba Hilkay Karapınar, Yılmaz Ay, Canan Vergin, İlker Devrim
Primary Varicella Zoster Virus infection is a benign self-limited disease. In this study, we aimed to review our experience with focusing on the outcome and treatment of the varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection in pediatric malignancy patients. During the study period; a total of 41 patients with pediatric malignancy had been hospitalized with the diagnosis of VZV infection. All the patients were treated with intravenous acyclovir for a median of 7 days (ranging from 5 to 21 days). The calculated attributable delay of chemotherapy due to VZV infections was 8 days (ranging from 2 to 60 days)...
October 18, 2016: Turkish Journal of Haematology: Official Journal of Turkish Society of Haematology
Emma Suggett, John Marriott
BACKGROUND: A number of methods exist for the risk assessment of hospital inpatients to determine the likelihood of patients experiencing drug-related problems (DRPs), including manual review of a patient's medication (medication reviews) and more complex electronic assessment using decision support alerts in electronic prescribing systems. A systematic review was conducted to determine the evidence base for potential risks associated with adult hospital inpatients that could not only lead to medication-related issues but might also be directly associated with pharmacist intervention...
September 2016: Drugs—Real World Outcomes
C Liu, M Hu, B Zhang, X Zeng
BACKGROUND: The use of photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) to treat localized Candida infections is an emerging and promising therapeutic approach. AIM: To assess the photodynamic inactivation (PDI) efficacy of haematoporphyrin monomethyl ether (HMME) on the biofilms produced by standard (ATCC 10231) and fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans strains. METHODS: The PDI efficacy was evaluated by incubating C. albicans biofilms with 0...
October 13, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
Patricia Moran Losada, Philippe Chouvarine, Marie Dorda, Silke Hedtfeld, Samira Mielke, Angela Schulz, Lutz Wiehlmann, Burkhard Tümmler
Chronic airway infections determine most morbidity in people with cystic fibrosis (CF). Herein, we present unbiased quantitative data about the frequency and abundance of DNA viruses, archaea, bacteria, moulds and fungi in CF lower airways. Induced sputa were collected on several occasions from children, adolescents and adults with CF. Deep sputum metagenome sequencing identified, on average, approximately 10 DNA viruses or fungi and several hundred bacterial taxa. The metagenome of a CF patient was typically found to be made up of an individual signature of multiple, lowly abundant species superimposed by few disease-associated pathogens, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, as major components...
April 2016: ERJ Open Research
Zahra Abdossamadi, Negar Seyed, Sima Rafati
Infection with parasites of the genus Leishmania is a health problem in many countries around the world. No effective vaccine is available against leishmaniasis, so chemotherapy is the only alternative for treatment of all forms of the disease. However, drawbacks including toxicity and severe adverse reactions restrain the use of currently available chemotherapeutics. Therefore development of new drugs and therapeutic approaches is highly demanded. Mammalian host defense peptides (mHDP) and/or mammalian antimicrobial peptides (mAMP) are among promising compounds considered effective to control the infectious diseases...
October 4, 2016: Cellular Immunology
Pushpa Bhawan Mal, Kauser Jabeen, Joveria Farooqi, Magnus Unemo, Erum Khan
BACKGROUND: Accurate detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae antimicrobial resistance is essential for appropriate management and prevention of spread of infection in the community. In this study Calibrated Dichotomous Sensitivity (CDS) and Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) disc diffusion methods were compared with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) by Etest in Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from Karachi, Pakistan. CDS and CLSI disc diffusion techniques, and Etest for ceftriaxone, penicillin G, spectinomycin and ciprofloxacin against 100 isolates from years 2012-2014 were performed...
October 10, 2016: BMC Microbiology
Brahma N Singh, Prateeksha, Dalip K Upreti, Braj Raj Singh, Tom Defoirdt, Vijai K Gupta, Ana Olivia De Souza, Harikesh Bahadur Singh, João C M Barreira, Isabel C F R Ferreira, Khabat Vahabi
Despite several conventional potent antibacterial therapies, bacterial infections pose a significant threat to human health because they are emerging as the leading cause of death worldwide. Due to the development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria, there is a pressing demand to discover novel approaches for developing more effective therapies to treat multidrug-resistant bacterial strains and biofilm-associated infections. Therefore, attention has been especially devoted to a new and emerging branch of science "nanotechnology" to design non-conventional antimicrobial chemotherapies...
August 10, 2016: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Kirika Ishiyama, Keisuke Nakamura, Taro Kanno, Yoshimi Niwano
Our previous study revealed that the photo-irradiation of rose bengal, erythrosine, and phloxine, xanthene photosensitizers, used as dental plaque disclosing agents, could exert bactericidal action on planktonic Streptococcus mutans via the singlet oxygen. In the present study, the photo-irradiation induced bactericidal activity of the three xanthene compounds against the experimental biofilm of S. mutans was investigated in combination with acid electrolyzed water (AcEW) and alkaline electrolyzed water (AlEW)...
2016: Biocontrol Science
Waleed M Sweileh, Naser Y Shraim, Samah W Al-Jabi, Ansam F Sawalha, Adham S AbuTaha, Sa'ed H Zyoud
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance is a global public health challenge and carbapenem resistance, in particular, is considered an urgent global health threat. This study was carried out to give a bibliometric overview of literature on carbapenem resistance. In specific, number of publications, top productive countries and institutes, highly cited articles, citation analysis, co-authorships, international collaboration, top active authors, and journals publishing articles on carbapenem resistance were analyzed and discussed...
2016: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Stefan Schwarz, Virve I Enne, Engeline van Duijkeren
This review, for the occasion of the 40th anniversary of the Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (JAC), gives an overview of the manuscripts related to veterinary bacteriology published in the journal in the past 40 years with a focus on 'One Health' aspects. From 1975 to 2000 the number of manuscripts related to veterinary medicine was limited, but thereafter, the number steadily increased. Most manuscripts published were related to food-producing animals, but companion animals and minor species were also covered...
October 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Kazuko Ino, Kazunori Nakase, Kei Suzuki, Akiko Nakamura, Atsushi Fujieda, Naoyuki Katayama
Leuconostoc species are vancomycin-resistant Gram-positive cocci. Infections due to Leuconostoc species have been reported in various immunocompromised patients, but little is known about such infection in patients with hematologic malignancies. We report a case of Leuconostoc infection in a 44-year-old woman with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The patient developed a high fever despite antimicrobial therapy with doripenem after induction chemotherapy. After an isolate from blood cultures was identified as L...
2016: Case Reports in Hematology
Chung-Lin Hung, Po-Lan Su, Chih-Ying Ou
Occupational lung diseases are well recognized risk factors for tuberculosis (TB). However, little research investigated the effect of TB on the clinical course and outcome of occupational lung diseases.We conducted a 13-year observational study of a nationwide cohort to evaluate the risk and prognosis of TB among patients with occupational lung diseases in Taiwan.By using the Taiwan National Health Insurance database, occupational lung diseases cohort was identified according to diagnosis codes from 1998 to 2008 and prospectively monitored until the end of 2010, loss to follow-up, or death...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Silvia Franchini, Umberto M Battisti, Claudia Sorbi, Annalisa Tait, Andrea Cornia, Lak Shin Jeong, Sang Kook Lee, Jayoung Song, Roberta Loddo, Silvia Madeddu, Giuseppina Sanna, Livio Brasili
Nucleoside analogues play an important role in antiviral, antibacterial and antineoplastic chemotherapy. Herein we report the synthesis, structural characterization and biological activity of some 4'-C -methyl- and -phenyl dioxolane-based nucleosides. In particular, α and β anomers of all natural nucleosides were obtained and characterized by NMR, HR-MS and X-ray crystallography. The compounds were tested for antimicrobial activity against some representative human pathogenic fungi, bacteria and viruses. Antitumor activity was evaluated in a large variety of human cancer cell-lines...
September 11, 2016: Archives of Pharmacal Research
Stephan Kemmner, Mareike Verbeek, Uwe Heemann
Acute kidney injury and long-term renal dysfunction are common problems following bone morrow transplantation (BMT) and highly related to mortality. The frequency and risk of renal dysfunction are directly related to the method of BMT, with myeloablative allogeneic BMT being associated to the highest risk followed by non-myeloablative allogeneic and myeloablative autologous BMT. The type of BMT is, thus, more important than co-factors such as advanced age, comorbidities, or high baseline serum creatinine. The causes for renal failure are multiple and include chemotherapy and high-dose radiation with fluid loss by diarrhea or vomiting, sepsis or nephrotoxic drugs such as calcineurin inhibitors and antimicrobials...
September 2, 2016: Journal of Nephrology
Andrea Piccioli, Fabrizio Donati, Giulio Di Giacomo, Antonio Ziranu, Silvia Careri, Maria Silvia Spinelli, Silvana Giannini, Giuseppe Giannicola, Carlo Perisano, Giulio Maccauro
INTRODUCTION: Pathological fractures represent an adverse prognostic factor in primary and metastatic bone tumours. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of tumour silver-coated prosthesis implanted after pathological fractures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted on 30 patients with pathological limb fracture after primary or metastatic bone tumours treated by the same surgeon with wide margin resection and tumour prosthesis implant between 2005 and 2015...
August 25, 2016: Injury
Kelly L Singel, Brahm H Segal
Neutrophils are the first responders to infection and injury and are critical for antimicrobial host defense. Through the generation of reactive oxidants, activation of granular constituents and neutrophil extracellular traps, neutrophils target microbes and prevent their dissemination. While these pathways are beneficial in the context of trauma and infection, their off-target effects in the context of tumor are variable. Tumor-derived factors have been shown to reprogram the marrow, skewing toward the expansion of myelopoiesis...
September 2016: Immunological Reviews
John E McGowan
Antimicrobial chemotherapy now spans 80 years and four generations. The healthcare epidemiologist has an important role to play in this field. Efforts focus in three areas: (i) minimizing the transmission of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in healthcare settings (infection control); (ii) optimizing use of currently available antibacterial drugs (antibiotic stewardship); and (iii) recognizing and responding to opportunities for new drug development. For each area, the epidemiologist provides data that address four practical questions-'What is the problem?', 'What should be done?', 'Is it being done?' and 'Is it working?'...
September 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Ping Tang, Wei Shi, Hai-Ling Zeng, Wei Ding, Cheng Wang, Kai-Hu Yao, De-Nian Wen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of Moraxella catarrhalis in the nasopharyngeal region of children with respiratory infection and the sensitivity of Moraxella catarrhalis isolates to common antimicrobial drugs. METHODS: Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from 1 082 children with respiratory infection, and Moraxella catarrhalis strains were isolated. The E-test method and disc diffusion test were used to determine the sensitivity of these strains to 11 common antimicrobial drugs...
August 2016: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
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