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antimicrobial chemotherapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807757/strategies-to-counter-transmission-of-superbugs-by-targeting-free-living-amoebae
#1
Ruqaiyyah Siddiqui, Naveed Ahmed Khan
Bacterial infections have remained significant despite our advances in the development of a plethora of disinfectants as well as antimicrobial chemotherapy. This is in part due to our incomplete understanding of the prevalence of bacterial pathogens in the environmental and clinical settings. Several lines of evidence suggest that Acanthamoeba is one of the most ubiquitous/resilient protists that also acts as a host/reservoir for pathogenic microbes. Thus targeting the hardy host, which harbour microbial pathogens, offer a potential avenue to counter infection transmission, particularly hospital/community-acquired infections...
August 11, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802152/comparison-and-analysis-of-the-structures-and-binding-modes-of-antifungal-se-and-cyp51-inhibitors
#2
Bin Sun, Wanxu Huang, Min Liu, Kang Lei
With the abuse of clinical broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents, immunosuppressive agents, chemotherapy drugs, the emergence of pathogenic fungi resistance is more and more frequent. However, there is still no effective treatment for the fungal resistance. Squalenee epoxidase (SE) and 14 α-demethylase (CYP51) are important antifungal drug targets. In order to achieve a deeper insight into the structural characteristics and the action modes of SE and CYP51inhibitors, the homology model of SE (Candida albicans) was constructed using monooxygenase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa as template, and the reliability of model was confirmed by Ramachandran plots and Verify 3D...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781126/targeting-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-sensitivity-to-thiol-stress-at-acidic-ph-kills-the-bacterium-and-potentiates-antibiotics
#3
Garry B Coulson, Benjamin K Johnson, Huiqing Zheng, Christopher J Colvin, Robert J Fillinger, Elizabeth R Haiderer, Neal D Hammer, Robert B Abramovitch
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) must sense and adapt to immune pressures such as acidic pH during pathogenesis. The goal of this study was to isolate compounds that inhibit acidic pH resistance, thus defining virulence pathways that are vulnerable to chemotherapy. Here, we report that the compound AC2P36 selectively kills Mtb at acidic pH and potentiates the bactericidal activity of isoniazid, clofazimine, and diamide. We show that AC2P36 activity is associated with thiol stress and causes an enhanced accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species at acidic pH...
July 17, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759701/pharmacological-interventions-for-preventing-dry-mouth-and-salivary-gland-dysfunction-following-radiotherapy
#4
REVIEW
Philip Riley, Anne-Marie Glenny, Fang Hua, Helen V Worthington
BACKGROUND: Salivary gland dysfunction is an 'umbrella' term for the presence of either xerostomia (subjective sensation of dryness), or salivary gland hypofunction (reduction in saliva production). It is a predictable side effect of radiotherapy to the head and neck region, and is associated with a significant impairment of quality of life. A wide range of pharmacological interventions, with varying mechanisms of action, have been used for the prevention of radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction...
July 31, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758300/nonsurgical-and-surgical-treatment-of-periodontitis-how-many-options-for-one-disease
#5
REVIEW
Filippo Graziani, Dimitra Karapetsa, Bettina Alonso, David Herrera
Treatment of periodontitis aims at preventing further disease progression with the intentions to reduce the risk of tooth loss, minimize symptoms and perception of the disease, possibly restore lost periodontal tissue and provide information on maintaining a healthy periodontium. Therapeutic intervention includes introduction of techniques to change behavior, such as: individually tailored oral-hygiene instructions; a smoking-cessation program; dietary adjustment; subgingival instrumentation to remove plaque and calculus; local and systemic pharmacotherapy; and various types of surgery...
October 2017: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758221/biological-medicinal-and-toxicological-significance-of-eucalyptus-leaf-essential-oil-a-review
#6
REVIEW
Ashok K Dhakad, Vijay V Pandey, Sobia Beg, Janhvi M Rawat
The genus Eucalyptus L'Heritier comprises about 900 species, of which more than 300 species contain volatile essential oil in their leaves. About 20 species, within these, have a high content of 1,8-cineole (more than 70 %), commercially used for the production of essential oils in pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. However, Eucalyptus is extensively planted for pulp, plywood, solid wood production but its leaf aromatic oil has astounding widespread biological activities including antimicrobial, antiseptic, antioxidant, chemotherapy agent, respiratory and gastrointestinal disorders treatment, wound healing, and insecticidal/insect repellent, herbicidal, acaricidal, nematicidal, and perfumes, soap making and grease remover...
July 31, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746781/human-herpesvirus-6-encephalitis-following-chemotherapy-induction-for-acute-myelogenous-leukemia
#7
John W Frey, Joseph N Cherabie, Maha A Assi
We report a case of human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) encephalitis in a neutropenic patient who had undergone chemotherapy induction for acute myelogenous leukemia while on broad-spectrum antimicrobial therapy. The patient displayed symptoms of confusion, amnesia, and lethargy. Diagnosis was made via polymerase chain reaction analysis of cerebrospinal fluid. Electroencephalogram and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain were unremarkable. Following diagnosis, the patient was successfully treated with ganciclovir...
July 26, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743937/photo-irradiated-caffeic-acid-exhibits-antimicrobial-activity-against-streptococcus-mutans-biofilms-via-hydroxyl-radical-formation
#8
Keisuke Nakamura, Midori Shirato, Taro Kanno, Peter Lingström, Ulf Örtengren, Yoshimi Niwano
An antimicrobial technique based on photo-oxidation of caffeic acid (CA) has recently been developed, but its effect on biofilm-forming bacteria is unknown. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of photo-irradiated CA against Streptococcus mutans (cariogenic bacteria) biofilm as it relates to hydroxyl radical formation. S. mutans biofilms grown on hydroxyapatite disks were immersed in CA solution (0-2 mg/mL) and irradiated with LED light at wavelengths of 365, 385, and 400 nm and at irradiances of 500, 1000, and 2000 mW/cm(2) for 4 min...
July 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743428/a-therapeutic-benefit-of-daptomycin-against-glycopeptide-resistant-gram-positive-cocci-bloodstream-infections-under-neutropenia
#9
Kensuke Matsuda, Junji Koya, Kazuhiro Toyama, Mahoko Ikeda, Shunya Arai, Fumihiko Nakamura, Shu Okugawa, Kyoji Moriya, Mineo Kurokawa
Antibiotic-resistant infections remain to be a major issue for all over the world. Although appropriate diagnosis and rapid treatment initiation are crucially important particularly in immunocompromised patients, selection of antibiotics without identification of causative bacteria is often challenging. A 44-year-old woman with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) under myelosuppression suffered from teicoplanin-resistant gram-positive cocci bacteremia. Taking severe neutropenia due to chemotherapy and glycopeptide-resistance into account, teicoplanin was empirically substituted with daptomycin, which led to prompt defervescence...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720578/systematic-longitudinal-survey-of-invasive-escherichia-coli-in-england-demonstrates-a-stable-population-structure-only-transiently-disturbed-by-the-emergence-of-st131
#10
Teemu Kallonen, Hayley J Brodrick, Simon R Harris, Jukka Corander, Nicholas M Brown, Veronique Martin, Sharon J Peacock, Julian Parkhill
Escherichia coli associated with urinary tract infections and bacteremia has been intensively investigated, including recent work focusing on the virulent, globally disseminated, multidrug-resistant lineage ST131. To contextualize ST131 within the broader E. coli population associated with disease, we used genomics to analyze a systematic 11-yr hospital-based survey of E. coli associated with bacteremia using isolates collected from across England by the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy and from the Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust...
July 18, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687693/adrenal-crisis-in-metastatic-breast-cancer
#11
Bernhard Doleschal, Andreas Petzer, Karl J Aichberger
A female patient with oestrogen receptor-positive and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive invasive lobular breast cancer presented with progressive disease on CT scan. Some days after initiation of antineoplastic chemotherapy and anti-HER2 targeted antibody therapy, the patient presented with profuse diarrhoea, neutropaenia, nausea and weakness. Although Clostridium difficile was rapidly tackled as a causative agent of gastrointestinal complaints, clinical situation did not markedly improve despite proper antimicrobial treatment...
July 6, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674308/improved-clinical-outcomes-in-patients-with-positive-blood-culture-by-proactive-intervention-of-antimicrobial-use-impact-of-antimicrobial-stewardship-program-implementation-on-clinical-practice
#12
Takehiro Yamada, Keisuke Kagami, Shungo Imai, Koji Akizawa, Sumio Iwasaki, Tatsuya Fukumoto, Nobuhisa Ishiguro, Ken Iseki
 Bacteremia is one of the most serious infectious illness resulting from nosocomial infection. Therefore, appropriate antimicrobial chemotherapy should be provided as soon as possible to patients exhibiting symptoms of infectious disease and having positive blood culture results. Antimicrobial stewardship (AS) guidelines were recently released by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. The guidelines recommend "proactive intervention and feedback" as one of the core strategies for implementing optimal antimicrobial drug use to improve patient outcomes in clinical settings...
2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669567/nationwide-surveillance-of-bacterial-respiratory-pathogens-conducted-by-the-surveillance-committee-of-japanese-society-of-chemotherapy-the-japanese-association-for-infectious-diseases-and-the-japanese-society-for-clinical-microbiology-in-2012-general-view-of
#13
Katsunori Yanagihara, Akira Watanabe, Nobuki Aoki, Tetsuya Matsumoto, Masaki Yoshida, Junko Sato, Tomotaro Wakamura, Keisuke Sunakawa, Junichi Kadota, Hiroshi Kiyota, Satoshi Iwata, Mitsuo Kaku, Hideaki Hanaki, Yoshinobu Ohsaki, Satoru Fujiuchi, Manabu Takahashi, Kenichi Takeuchi, Hiroaki Takeda, Hideki Ikeda, Makoto Miki, Susumu Nakanowatari, Hiroshi Takahashi, Mutsuko Utagawa, Hajime Nishiya, Sayoko Kawakami, Eriko Morino, Jin Takasaki, Kazuhisa Mezaki, Naohiko Chonabayashi, Chie Tanaka, Hideko Sugiura, Hajime Goto, Takeshi Saraya, Daisuke Kurai, Yasuhiro Katono, Rika Inose, Yoshihito Niki, Takahiro Takuma, Makoto Kudo, Shigeru Ehara, Yoshimi Sato, Hiroki Tsukada, Nobuei Watabe, Yasuo Honma, Hiroshige Mikamo, Yuka Yamagishi, Atsushi Nakamura, Minoru Ohashi, Masafumi Seki, Shigeto Hamaguchi, Masahiro Toyokawa, Yasunori Fujikawa, Noriko Mitsuno, Akira Ukimura, Takayuki Miyara, Takahito Nakamura, Keiichi Mikasa, Kei Kasahara, Koji Ui, Saori Fukuda, Akihiro Nakamura, Mika Morimura, Mikio Yamashita, Yoshio Takesue, Yasunao Wada, Keisuke Sugimoto, Nobuchika Kusano, Motoko Nose, Eiichirou Mihara, Masao Kuwabara, Masao Doi, Yaeko Watanabe, Hirokazu Tokuyasu, Satoshi Hino, Kiyoshi Negayama, Hiroshi Mukae, Toshinori Kawanami, Toshiyuki Ota, Masaki Fujita, Junichi Honda, Kazufumi Hiramatsu, Yosuke Aoki, Mami Fukuoka, Hiroki Magarifuchi, Zenzo Nagasawa, Norihito Kaku, Jiro Fujita, Futoshi Higa, Masao Tateyama
The nationwide surveillance on antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial respiratory pathogens from the patients in Japan was conducted by Japanese Society of Chemotherapy, Japanese association for infectious diseases and Japanese society for Clinical Microbiology in 2012. The isolates were collected from clinical specimens obtained from well-diagnosed adult patients with respiratory tract infections during the period between January and December in 2012 by three societies. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted at the central reference laboratory according to the method recommended by Clinical Laboratory Standard Institutes...
September 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666212/time-kill-kinetic-analysis-of-antimicrobial-chemotherapy-based-on-hydrogen-peroxide-photolysis-against-streptococcus-mutans-biofilm
#14
Midori Shirato, Keisuke Nakamura, Taro Kanno, Peter Lingström, Yoshimi Niwano, Ulf Örtengren
A recently developed antimicrobial technique utilizing hydroxyl radicals generated by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) photolysis represents a promising new therapy for preventing and treating dental caries. The present study compared the antimicrobial time-kill kinetics of H2O2 photolysis, conventional antiseptics, and antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) against biofilm-forming Streptococcus mutans (cariogenic bacteria) grown on hydroxyapatite disks. H2O2 photolysis was performed by irradiating the biofilm immersed in 3% H2O2 with 365-nm light-emitting diode (LED) light at an irradiance of 1000mW/cm(2) for up to 1...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662432/cathelicidin-augments-vdr-dependent-anti-leishmanial-immune-response-in-indian-post-kala-azar-dermal-leishmaniasis
#15
Sushmita Das, Abul Hasan Sardar, Kumar Abhishek, Ajay Kumar, Vidya Nand Rabidas, Pradeep Das
OBJECTIVES: Indian Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is the cutaneous aftermath of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by L. donovani. Vitamin D-regulated cationic antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin (hCAP-18/LL-37) has microbicidal and immunomodulatory role against cutaneous infections, but its role in PKDL remains elusive. METHODS: Skin snips and blood-derived monocytes of PKDL patients (n=46), before (BT) and after (AT) chemotherapy, were used for this study...
June 26, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612456/day-14-bone-marrow-examination-in-the-management-of-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#16
REVIEW
Christopher M Terry, Rory M Shallis, Elihu Estey, Seah H Lim
The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) recommends that a repeat bone marrow evaluation is carried out seven to ten days following completion of induction therapy so that if a patient's day 14 bone marrow shows residual blast cell counts of >10%, the patient would proceed early to a second cycle of induction therapy. Although blast cell counts of <5% on day 14 bone marrow is sensitive in predicting remission on day 28, various studies have found that day 14 bone marrow is highly nonspecific because a large proportion of patients with blast cell counts of >5% on day 14 bone marrow would still attain a complete remission of the disease without any further chemotherapy...
June 13, 2017: American Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584934/management-of-infection-during-chemotherapy-for-acute-leukemia-in-japan-a-nationwide-questionnaire-based-survey-by-the-japan-adult-leukemia-study-group
#17
Shun-Ichi Kimura, Hiroyuki Fujita, Hideaki Kato, Nobuhiro Hiramoto, Naoko Hosono, Tsutomu Takahashi, Kazuyuki Shigeno, Naoko Hatsumi, Hitoshi Minamiguchi, Junichi Miyatake, Hiroshi Handa, Nobu Akiyama, Yoshinobu Kanda, Minoru Yoshida, Hitoshi Kiyoi, Yasushi Miyazaki, Tomoki Naoe
PURPOSE: We performed a nationwide questionnaire-based survey to evaluate the current clinical practices of infectious complications during chemotherapy for acute leukemia in Japan. METHODS: We e-mailed a questionnaire to member institutions of the Japan Adult Leukemia Study Group in September, 2013. The questionnaire consisted of 50 multiple-choice questions covering therapeutic environment, antimicrobial prophylaxis, screening test during neutropenia, empirical therapy for febrile neutropenia, and the use of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor...
June 6, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567316/spontaneous-nosocomial-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-meningitis-presenting-as-trismus
#18
C J Parr, J Wheeler, A Sharma, C Smith
We describe the case of a 78-year-old female receiving adjuvant postsurgical chemotherapy for colon adenocarcinoma who spontaneously developed nosocomial Pseudomonas meningitis causing severe trismus. The patient was initially admitted for ileus, developing neck stiffness and trismus on the thirteenth day of admission. Cerebrospinal fluid grew pansensitive Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain was consistent with bilateral subacute infarcts secondary to meningitis. The patient responded well to 21 days of broad spectrum antimicrobial therapy modified to ceftazidime alone following speciation and sensitivity...
2017: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558641/high-incidence-of-infections-in-hiv-positive-patients-treated-for-lymphoproliferative-disorders
#19
A Calcagno, A Lucchini, D Caracciolo, R Balbiano, M Bracchi, F Sordella, G Gregori, F Lipani, S Audagnotto, M Chiriotto, G Cavaglià, V Ghisetti, G Di Perri, S Bonora
BACKGROUND: Lymphoproliferative disorders are frequently diagnosed in HIV-positive patients and severe infections may occur during antineoplastic treatments: the incidence and impact of such events are not well-characterized. OBJECTIVE: To describe the occurrence and mortality of incident infections in HIV-positive individuals treated for lymphoproliferative disorders. METHODS: A retrospective study in HIV-positive adults with lymphoproliferative disorders (2000-2012) who were hospitalised to receive antineoplastic chemotherapy; as well as antimicrobial prophylaxis with alternate day co-trimoxazole (800/160 mg)...
May 30, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556623/ultrasonography-driven-combination-antibiotic-therapy-with-tigecycline-significantly-increases-survival-among-patients-with-neutropenic-enterocolitis-following-cytarabine-containing-chemotherapy-for-the-remission-induction-of-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#20
Novella Pugliese, Paola Salvatore, Dora Vita Iula, Maria Rosaria Catania, Federico Chiurazzi, Roberta Della Pepa, Claudio Cerchione, Marta Raimondo, Claudia Giordano, Luigia Simeone, Simona Caruso, Fabrizio Pane, Marco Picardi
Neutropenic enterocolitis (NEC) is an abdominal infection reported primarily in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) following chemotherapy, especially cytarabine, a notable efficacious cytotoxic agent for AML remission. Specific data regarding the impact of different cytarabine schedules and/or antibacterial regimens for NEC are sparse. The aim of the study was to identify the predictors of outcome within 30 days of NEC onset. NEC episodes were retrospectively pinpointed among 440 patients with newly diagnosed AML hospitalized in our Institution, over a 10-year period, for receiving chemotherapy protocols with 100-6000 mg/m(2) daily of cytarabine...
July 2017: Cancer Medicine
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