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antimicrobial chemotherapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153975/optimisation-of-empirical-antimicrobial-therapy-in-patients-with-haematological-malignancies-and-febrile-neutropenia-how-long-study-an-open-label-randomised-controlled-phase-4-trial
#1
Manuela Aguilar-Guisado, Ildefonso Espigado, Almudena Martín-Peña, Carlota Gudiol, Cristina Royo-Cebrecos, José Falantes, Lourdes Vázquez-López, María Isabel Montero, Clara Rosso-Fernández, María de la Luz Martino, Rocío Parody, José González-Campos, Sebastián Garzón-López, Cristina Calderón-Cabrera, Pere Barba, Nancy Rodríguez, Montserrat Rovira, Enrique Montero-Mateos, Jordi Carratalá, José Antonio Pérez-Simón, José Miguel Cisneros
BACKGROUND: Continuation of empirical antimicrobial therapy (EAT) for febrile neutropenia in patients with haematological malignancies until neutrophil recovery could prolong the therapy unnecessarily. We aimed to establish whether EAT discontinuation driven by a clinical approach regardless of neutrophil recovery would optimise the duration of therapy. METHODS: We did an investigator-driven, superiority, open-label, randomised, controlled phase 4 clinical trial in six academic hospitals in Spain...
November 15, 2017: Lancet Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146383/not-just-antibiotics-is-cancer-chemotherapy-driving-antimicrobial-resistance
#2
REVIEW
Lito E Papanicolas, David L Gordon, Steve L Wesselingh, Geraint B Rogers
The global spread of antibiotic-resistant pathogens threatens to increase the mortality of cancer patients significantly. We propose that chemotherapy contributes to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria within the gut and, in combination with antibiotics, drives pathogen overgrowth and translocation into the bloodstream. In our model, these processes are mediated by the effects of chemotherapy on bacterial mutagenesis and horizontal gene transfer, the disruption of commensal gut microbiology, and alterations to host physiology...
November 13, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138308/sex-reporting-in-preclinical-microbiological-and-immunological-research
#3
EDITORIAL
Tanvi Potluri, Kyrra Engle, Ashley L Fink, Landon G Vom Steeg, Sabra L Klein
Both sex (i.e., biological construct of male and female) and gender (i.e., social construct of masculine and feminine) impact the pathogenesis of diseases, including those caused by microbial infections. Following the 2015 NIH policy for consideration of sex as a biological variable in preclinical research, in 2018, authors of papers published in primary-research American Society for Microbiology (ASM) journals will be asked to report the sex of the research subjects and animals and of materials derived directly from them...
November 14, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116143/risk-factors-and-molecular-features-of-sequence-type-st-131-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-escherichia-coli-in-community-onset-bacteremia
#4
Hyunsoo Kim, Young Ah Kim, Yoon Soo Park, Min Hyuk Choi, Gyeong In Lee, Kyungwon Lee
Due to the spread of a single CTX-M-type extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) clone of sequence type (ST) 131, community-onset bacteremia caused by ESBL-producing Escherichia coli has increased dramatically. We evaluated the risk factors and molecular features of ESBL-producing E. coli ST131 clones isolated from Korean patients with community-onset bacteremia. We collected a total of 124 ESBL-producing E. coli isolates from blood in patients with community-onset bacteremia over a 2 year-period. Among 124 patients, the number of community-associated bacteremia cases was 57 (46%)...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109421/high-level-heterologous-production-and-functional-secretion-by-recombinant-pichia-pastoris-of-the-shortest-proline-rich-antibacterial-honeybee-peptide-apidaecin
#5
Ximing Chen, Juan Li, Haili Sun, Shiweng Li, Tuo Chen, Guangxiu Liu, Paul Dyson
Drug resistance is a major problem in antibacterial chemotherapy. Apidaecins, which refer to a series of small, proline-rich antimicrobial peptides, are predominantly active against many drug-resistant bacteria. The apidaecins have special antibacterial mechanisms, and are non-toxic for human cells, a prerequisite for using them as novel antibiotic drugs. However, no efficient non-tagged apidaecin expression system has been reported, which is the limiting factor for their application. Here we successfully generated a Pichia pastoris transformant expressing and secreting apidaecin...
November 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104260/antimicrobial-and-anti-proliferative-effects-of-skin-mucus-derived-from-dasyatis-pastinaca-linnaeus-1758
#6
Virginia Fuochi, Giovanni Li Volti, Giuseppina Camiolo, Francesco Tiralongo, Cesarina Giallongo, Alfio Distefano, Giulio Petronio Petronio, Ignazio Barbagallo, Maria Viola, Pio Maria Furneri, Michelino Di Rosa, Roberto Avola, Daniele Tibullo
Resistance to chemotherapy occurs in various diseases (i.e., cancer and infection), and for this reason, both are very difficult to treat. Therefore, novel antimicrobial and chemotherapic drugs are needed for effective antibiotic therapy. The aim of the present study was to assess the antimicrobial and anti-proliferative effects of skin mucus derived from Dasyatis pastinaca (Linnaeus, 1758). Our results showed that skin mucus exhibited a significant and specific antibacterial activity against Gram-negative bacteria but not against Gram-positive bacteria...
November 1, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099410/congenital-infantile-fibrosarcoma-in-the-premature-infant
#7
Taryn M Edwards, Melissa S Duran, Tamara M Meeker
BACKGROUND: Congenital infantile fibrosarcoma (CIF) is rare and represents less than 1% of all childhood cancers. It is a tumor that originates in the connective fibrous tissue found at the ends of long bones and then spreads to other surrounding soft tissues. These lesions are typically large, grow rapidly, and can often be mistaken for teratomas. Diagnosis is confirmed by pathology, where cellular proliferation of fibroblasts occurs. Imaging is an important part of the diagnosis, which includes the use of magnetic resonance imaging and/or computed tomography scan...
November 2, 2017: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067203/prospective-study-evaluating-the-incidence-of-bacteraemia-and-bacteruria-in-afebrile-and-febrile-neutropaenic-dogs-undergoing-chemotherapy
#8
Kimberly Shaffer, Jonathan Bach, Ruthanne Chun
The purpose of this prospective study was to determine the incidence and character of bacteraemia and bacteruria in afebrile and febrile neutropaenic dogs undergoing cytotoxic chemotherapy. Fifty-five neutropaenic dogs presenting to the University of Wisconsin Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital were enrolled for a total of 57 neutropaenic episodes. The overall incidence of bacteraemia was 12.3% (n = 7/57). Three afebrile dogs and four febrile dogs were bacteraemic; this difference was not significant (P = 0...
November 2016: Veterinary Medicine and Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061777/possible-biological-and-clinical-applications-of-phenothiazines
#9
REVIEW
Borisz Varga, Ákos Csonka, Andrea Csonka, Joseph Molnár, Leonard Amaral, Gabriella Spengler
Phenothiazines have been used in many areas of medicine, mainly in psychopharmacology. These compounds are able to effectively inhibit dopamine, histamine, serotonin, acetylcholine, and α-adrenergic receptors; thus, their effect and side-effect profiles are extremely diverse. Besides their antipsychotic activity, phenothiazines have a significant antimicrobial effect as well, since they can enhance the bactericidal function of macrophages and inhibit efflux pumps. They are also able to eliminate bacterial resistance plasmids and destroy bacteria by their membrane-destabilizing effect...
November 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040595/a-comparison-of-levofloxacin-and-oral-third-generation-cephalosporins-as-antibacterial-prophylaxis-in-acute-leukaemia-patients-during-chemotherapy-induced-neutropenia
#10
Kristyn E Yemm, Jason N Barreto, Kristin C Mara, Ross A Dierkhising, Naseema Gangat, Pritish K Tosh
Background: There is demonstrated benefit with fluoroquinolones as infection prophylaxis in neutropenic patients; however, side effects, drug interactions and increasing resistance necessitate investigation of alternative therapies. Objectives: To compare the incidence of febrile neutropenia in high-risk patients with haematological malignancy receiving a fluoroquinolone with those receiving an oral third-generation cephalosporin (OTGC) as antibacterial prophylaxis during chemotherapy-induced neutropenia...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038277/dilution-factor-of-quantitative-bacterial-cultures-obtained-by-bronchoalveolar-lavage-in-patients-with-ventilator-associated-bacterial-pneumonia-implications-for-optimal-antimicrobial-therapy-ventilator-associated-bacterial-pneumonia-study-group
#11
George L Drusano, Michael L Corrado, Gino Girardi, Evelyn J Ellis-Grosse, Richard G Wunderink, Helen Donnelly, Kenneth V Leeper, Mona Brown, Tasnova Malek, Robert Duncan Hite, Michelle Ferrari, Danijela Djureinovic, Marin H Kollef, Lisa Mayfield, Ann Doyle, Jean Chastre, Alain Combes, Thomas J Walsh, Krisztina Dorizas, Hassan Alnuaimat, Brooks Edward Morgan, Jordi Rello, Cristopher Alan Mazo Torre, Ronald N Jones, Robert K Flamm, Leah Woosley, Paul G Ambrose, Sujata Bhavnani, Christopher M Rubino, Catharine C Bulik, Arnold Louie, Michael Vicchiarelli, Colleen Berman
Ventilator-Associated Bacterial Pneumonia (VABP) is a difficult therapeutic problem. Considerable controversy exists regarding the optimal chemotherapy for this entity. The recent IDSA/ATS guidelines recommended a 7-day therapeutic course for VABP based on the balance of no negative impact on all-cause mortality, less resistance emergence and fewer antibiotic days counterbalanced with a higher relapse rate for patients whose pathogen is a non-fermenter. The bacterial burden causing an infection will have a substantial impact on treatment outcome and resistance selection...
October 16, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033302/the-antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-helicobacter-pylori-in-strains-isolated-from-children-in-israel
#12
Nina Pastukh, Avi Peretz, Diana Brodsky, Natlya Isakovich, Maya Azrad, Avi On
BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori is a pathogen that causes inflammation in the gastric mucosa, and may lead to a peptic ulcer, perforation, or malignancy. Children are at risk of contracting H. pylori and developing subsequent morbidity. In children, diagnosis and management are difficult and merit a different approach than with adults. OBJECTIVE: To describe resistance rates of H. pylori to antibiotics such as amoxicillin, tetracycline, clarithromycin, metronidazole, levofloxacin, and Rifampicin...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032739/live-leishmania-tarentolae-secreting-hnp1-as-an-immunotherapeutic-tool-against-leishmania-infection-in-balb-c-mice
#13
Zahra Abdossamadi, Tahereh Taheri, Negar Seyed, Hossein Montakhab-Yeganeh, Farnaz Zahedifard, Yasaman Taslimi, Sima Habibzadeh, Elham Gholami, Safoora Gharibzadeh, Sima Rafati
AIM: Several disadvantages about chemotherapy for leishmaniasis has reinforced discovery of novel therapeutic agents especially immunotherapeutics. HNP1, as a member of the mammalian antimicrobial peptides family, is an attractive molecule due to its broad functional spectrum. Here, the in vivo potency of HNP1 in transgenic Leishmania tarentolae as an immunotherapy tool against Leishmania major-infected BALB/c mice was examined. METHODS & RESULTS: 3 weeks after infection with L...
October 2017: Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019106/antimicrobial-properties-of-perfusate-fluid-after-cytoreductive-surgery-and-hyperthermic-intraperitoneal-chemotherapy-cs-hipec-with-mitomycin-c
#14
Krystle N Lange, Danielle McKay, Brian G Gentry, Jan Franko
BACKGROUND: Infectious postoperative complications often delay systemic chemotherapy after cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (CS-HIPEC). Because the authors have empirically observed fewer incisional infectious complications than expected after CS-HIPEC with mitomycin C (MMC), they investigated the antimicrobial properties of HIPEC perfusate fluid. METHODS: This study prospectively measured in vitro bacterial growth inhibition by HIPEC perfusate (n = 18)...
December 2017: Annals of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990144/biofilm-formation-by-candida-albicans-is-inhibited-by-photodynamic-antimicrobial-chemotherapy-pact-using-chlorin-e6-increase-in-both-ros-production-and-membrane-permeability
#15
Moisés Lopes Carvalho, Ana Paula Pinto, Leandro José Raniero, Maricilia Silva Costa
Candida albicans is an opportunistic fungal producing both superficial and systemic infections in immunocompromised patients. Furthermore, it has been described an increase in the frequency of infections which have become refractory to standard antifungal therapy. Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) is a potential antimicrobial therapy that combines visible light and a nontoxic dye, known as a photosensitizer, producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can kill the treated cells. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of PACT, using chlorin e6, as a photosensitizer on C...
October 9, 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988065/heterogeneity-of-salmonella-host-interactions-in-infected-host-tissues
#16
REVIEW
Dirk Bumann, Olivier Cunrath
Infected host tissues have complex anatomy, diverse cell types, and dynamic inflammation. Traditional infection biology approaches largely ignore this complex host environment and its impact on pathogens, but recent single-cell technologies unravel extensively heterogeneous host-pathogen interactions in vivo. Salmonella are major model pathogens in this field due to the availability of excellent mouse disease models and facile molecular biology. The results show how Salmonella stochastically vary their virulence, exploit differential nutrient availability, experience and respond to widely varying stresses, and have disparate fates ranging from vigorous proliferation to eradication within the same host tissue...
October 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959742/the-biofilm-inhibitor-carolacton-enters-gram-negative-cells-studies-using-a-tolc-deficient-strain-of-escherichia-coli
#17
Jannik Donner, Michael Reck, Boyke Bunk, Michael Jarek, Constantin Benjamin App, Jan P Meier-Kolthoff, Jörg Overmann, Rolf Müller, Andreas Kirschning, Irene Wagner-Döbler
The myxobacterial secondary metabolite carolacton inhibits growth of Streptococcus pneumoniae and kills biofilm cells of the caries- and endocarditis-associated pathogen Streptococcus mutans at nanomolar concentrations. Here, we studied the response to carolacton of an Escherichia coli strain that lacked the outer membrane protein TolC. Whole-genome sequencing of the laboratory E. coli strain TolC revealed the integration of an insertion element, IS5, at the tolC locus and a close phylogenetic relationship to the ancient E...
September 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947757/adjunctive-antimicrobial-chemotherapy-based-on-hydrogen-peroxide-photolysis-for-non-surgical-treatment-of-moderate-to-severe-periodontitis-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
Taro Kanno, Keisuke Nakamura, Kirika Ishiyama, Yasutomo Yamada, Midori Shirato, Yoshimi Niwano, Chie Kayaba, Koji Ikeda, Airi Takagi, Takuhiro Yamaguchi, Keiichi Sasaki
Treatment of severe periodontitis with non-surgical therapy remains challenging in dentistry. The present study aimed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) photolysis-based antimicrobial chemotherapy adjunctively performed with root debridement (RD) for moderate to severe periodontitis. A randomized controlled trial was conducted that included 53 patients with 142 test teeth. The test teeth were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups: Group 1, RD + H2O2 photolysis; Group 2, RD followed by administration of a local drug delivery system (minocycline chloride gel); or Group 3, RD alone...
September 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933530/future-priorities-in-tackling-infections-due-to-brain-eating-amoebae
#19
Naveed Ahmed Khan, Ayaz Anwar, Ruqaiyyah Siddiqui
Brain-eating amoebae (Acanthamoeba spp., Balamuthia mandrillaris, and Naegleria fowleri) can cause opportunistic infections involving the central nervous system. It is troubling that the mortality rate is more than 90% despite advances in antimicrobial chemotherapy over the last few decades. Here, we describe urgent key priorities for improving outcomes from infections due to brain-eating amoebae.
September 21, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930264/essential-oil-from-piper-aduncum-chemical-analysis-antimicrobial-assessment-and-literature-review
#20
Lianet Monzote, Ramón Scull, Paul Cos, William N Setzer
Background: The challenge in antimicrobial chemotherapy is to find safe and selective agents with potency that will not be compromised by previously developed resistance. Terrestrial plants could provide new leads to antibacterial, antifungal, or antiprotozoal activity. Methods: The essential oil (EO) of Piper aduncum L. (Piperaceae) from Cuba was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A cluster analysis of P. aduncum EO compositions reported in the literature was carried out. The EO was screened against a panel of microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, parasitic protozoa) as well as for cytotoxicity against human cells...
July 2, 2017: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
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