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antimicrobial chemotherapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612456/day-14-bone-marrow-examination-in-the-management-of-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#1
REVIEW
Christopher M Terry, Rory M Shallis, Elihu Estey, Seah H Lim
The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) recommends that a repeat bone marrow evaluation is carried out seven to ten days following completion of induction therapy so that if a patient's day 14 bone marrow shows residual blast cell counts of >10%, the patient would proceed early to a second cycle of induction therapy. Although blast cell counts of <5% on day 14 bone marrow is sensitive in predicting remission on day 28, various studies have found that day 14 bone marrow is highly nonspecific because a large proportion of patients with blast cell counts of >5% on day 14 bone marrow would still attain a complete remission of the disease without any further chemotherapy...
June 13, 2017: American Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584934/management-of-infection-during-chemotherapy-for-acute-leukemia-in-japan-a-nationwide-questionnaire-based-survey-by-the-japan-adult-leukemia-study-group
#2
Shun-Ichi Kimura, Hiroyuki Fujita, Hideaki Kato, Nobuhiro Hiramoto, Naoko Hosono, Tsutomu Takahashi, Kazuyuki Shigeno, Naoko Hatsumi, Hitoshi Minamiguchi, Junichi Miyatake, Hiroshi Handa, Nobu Akiyama, Yoshinobu Kanda, Minoru Yoshida, Hitoshi Kiyoi, Yasushi Miyazaki, Tomoki Naoe
PURPOSE: We performed a nationwide questionnaire-based survey to evaluate the current clinical practices of infectious complications during chemotherapy for acute leukemia in Japan. METHODS: We e-mailed a questionnaire to member institutions of the Japan Adult Leukemia Study Group in September, 2013. The questionnaire consisted of 50 multiple-choice questions covering therapeutic environment, antimicrobial prophylaxis, screening test during neutropenia, empirical therapy for febrile neutropenia, and the use of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor...
June 6, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567316/spontaneous-nosocomial-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-meningitis-presenting-as-trismus
#3
C J Parr, J Wheeler, A Sharma, C Smith
We describe the case of a 78-year-old female receiving adjuvant postsurgical chemotherapy for colon adenocarcinoma who spontaneously developed nosocomial Pseudomonas meningitis causing severe trismus. The patient was initially admitted for ileus, developing neck stiffness and trismus on the thirteenth day of admission. Cerebrospinal fluid grew pansensitive Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain was consistent with bilateral subacute infarcts secondary to meningitis. The patient responded well to 21 days of broad spectrum antimicrobial therapy modified to ceftazidime alone following speciation and sensitivity...
2017: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558641/high-incidence-of-infections-in-hiv-positive-patients-treated-for-lymphoproliferative-disorders
#4
A Calcagno, A Lucchini, D Caracciolo, R Balbiano, M Bracchi, F Sordella, G Gregori, F Lipani, S Audagnotto, M Chiriotto, G Cavaglià, V Ghisetti, G Di Perri, S Bonora
BACKGROUND: Lymphoproliferative disorders are frequently diagnosed in HIV-positive patients and severe infections may occur during antineoplastic treatments: the incidence and impact of such events are not well-characterized. OBJECTIVE: To describe the occurrence and mortality of incident infections in HIV-positive individuals treated for lymphoproliferative disorders. METHODS: A retrospective study in HIV-positive adults with lymphoproliferative disorders (2000-2012) who were hospitalised to receive antineoplastic chemotherapy; as well as antimicrobial prophylaxis with alternate day co-trimoxazole (800/160 mg)...
May 30, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556623/ultrasonography-driven-combination-antibiotic-therapy-with-tigecycline-significantly-increases-survival-among-patients-with-neutropenic-enterocolitis-following-cytarabine-containing-chemotherapy-for-the-remission-induction-of-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#5
Novella Pugliese, Paola Salvatore, Dora Vita Iula, Maria Rosaria Catania, Federico Chiurazzi, Roberta Della Pepa, Claudio Cerchione, Marta Raimondo, Claudia Giordano, Luigia Simeone, Simona Caruso, Fabrizio Pane, Marco Picardi
Neutropenic enterocolitis (NEC) is an abdominal infection reported primarily in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) following chemotherapy, especially cytarabine, a notable efficacious cytotoxic agent for AML remission. Specific data regarding the impact of different cytarabine schedules and/or antibacterial regimens for NEC are sparse. The aim of the study was to identify the predictors of outcome within 30 days of NEC onset. NEC episodes were retrospectively pinpointed among 440 patients with newly diagnosed AML hospitalized in our Institution, over a 10-year period, for receiving chemotherapy protocols with 100-6000 mg/m(2) daily of cytarabine...
May 26, 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556195/use-of-nystatin-and-chlorhexidine-in-oral-medicine-properties-indications-and-pitfalls-with-focus-on-geriatric-patients
#6
REVIEW
Elusa Scheibler, Maria Claudia Rosa Garcia, Renata Medina da Silva, Maria Antonia Figueiredo, Fernanda Gonçalves Salum, Karen Cherubini
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this work was to review the scientific literature on the properties, indications and pitfalls related to nystatin and chlorhexidine in oral medicine and also to compare these to other topical antifungal agents, considering the elderly population. BACKGROUND: Nystatin is a polyene antifungal widely used as a topical formulation to treat candidiasis, whereas chlorhexidine is a wide-spectrum antimicrobial, especially used against bacteria, but also effective in treating some fungal infections including those caused by Candida spp...
May 29, 2017: Gerodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553123/the-hiv-protease-inhibitor-nelfinavir-as-a-novel-therapeutic-approach-for-the-treatment-of-refractory-pediatric-leukemia
#7
Vanessa Meier-Stephenson, Justin Riemer, Aru Narendran
PURPOSE: Refractory pediatric leukemia remains one of the leading causes of death in children. Intensification of current chemotherapy regimens to improve the outcome in these children is often limited by the effects of drug resistance and cumulative toxicity. Hence, the search for newer agents and novel therapeutic approaches are urgently needed to formulate the next-generation early-phase clinical trials for these patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A comprehensive library of antimicrobials, including eight HIV protease inhibitors (nelfinavir [NFV], saquinavir, indinavir, ritonavir, amprenavir, atazanavir, lopinavir, and darunavir), was tested against a panel of pediatric leukemia cells by in vitro growth inhibition studies...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542412/low-rates-of-antibiotic-resistance-and-infectious-mortality-in-a-cohort-of-high-risk-hematology-patients-a-single-center-retrospective-analysis-of-blood-stream-infection
#8
Jason R Conn, Elizabeth M Catchpoole, Naomi Runnegar, Sally J Mapp, Kate A Markey
Febrile neutropenia (FN) is a medical emergency and can represent a life-threatening complication for hematology patients treated with intensive chemotherapy regimens. In clinical practice, the diagnostic yield of blood cultures and other investigations which aim to identify a causative organism or site of infection is low. We have retrospectively examined all blood cultures collected in a "real world" cohort of patients receiving chemotherapy for acute leukemia and patients with aggressive lymphoma treated with Hyper-CVAD/MTX-cytarabine, at a single tertiary center over a five-year period...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539477/bacterial-colonization-and-succession-in-a-newly-opened-hospital
#9
Simon Lax, Naseer Sangwan, Daniel Smith, Peter Larsen, Kim M Handley, Miles Richardson, Kristina Guyton, Monika Krezalek, Benjamin D Shogan, Jennifer Defazio, Irma Flemming, Baddr Shakhsheer, Stephen Weber, Emily Landon, Sylvia Garcia-Houchins, Jeffrey Siegel, John Alverdy, Rob Knight, Brent Stephens, Jack A Gilbert
The microorganisms that inhabit hospitals may influence patient recovery and outcome, although the complexity and diversity of these bacterial communities can confound our ability to focus on potential pathogens in isolation. To develop a community-level understanding of how microorganisms colonize and move through the hospital environment, we characterized the bacterial dynamics among hospital surfaces, patients, and staff over the course of 1 year as a new hospital became operational. The bacteria in patient rooms, particularly on bedrails, consistently resembled the skin microbiota of the patient occupying the room...
May 24, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538389/antimicrobial-resistance-patterns-clinical-features-and-risk-factors-for-septic-shock-and-death-of-nosocomial-e-coli-bacteremia-in-adult-patients-with-hematological-disease-a-monocenter-retrospective-study-in-china
#10
Jie Ma, Ning Li, Yajie Liu, Chong Wang, Xiaoyan Liu, Shengmei Chen, Xinsheng Xie, Silin Gan, Meng Wang, Weijie Cao, Fang Wang, Yanfan Liu, Dingming Wan, Ling Sun, Hui Sun
The aim of this retrospective analysis was to evaluate the antimicrobial resistance, clinical features, and risk factors for septic shock and death of nosocomial E coli bacteremia in adult patients in a single hematological center in China. A retrospective case-control study of 157 adult hematological patients with 168 episodes of E coli bacteremia was initiated from April 2012 to July 2015. Antimicrobial susceptibility as well as antimicrobial co-resistance rates were analyzed. Clinical features and outcomes were also studied...
May 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533857/antibiogram-profile-of-uropathogens-isolated-at-bahir-dar-regional-health-research-laboratory-centre-northwest-ethiopia
#11
Awoke Derbie, Derese Hailu, Daniel Mekonnen, Bayeh Abera, Gashaw Yitayew
INTRODUCTION: Antimicrobial resistance among bacteria that cause urinary tract infection (UTI) has been increasing since the introduction of chemotherapy. This study was aimed to assess the types of isolates from patients with UTI and to determine their current antimicrobial susceptibility profile. METHODS: A record based retrospective analysis of bacterial uropathogens processed in the period of January 2012 to December 2014 at Bahir Dar Health Research Laboratory Center (BRHRLC) was determined...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529506/roles-of-regulatory-rnas-for-antibiotic-resistance-in-bacteria-and-their-potential-value-as-novel-drug-targets
#12
REVIEW
Petra Dersch, Muna A Khan, Sabrina Mühlen, Boris Görke
The emergence of antibiotic resistance mechanisms among bacterial pathogens increases the demand for novel treatment strategies. Lately, the contribution of non-coding RNAs to antibiotic resistance and their potential value as drug targets became evident. RNA attenuator elements in mRNA leader regions couple expression of resistance genes to the presence of the cognate antibiotic. Trans-encoded small RNAs (sRNAs) modulate antibiotic tolerance by base-pairing with mRNAs encoding functions important for resistance such as metabolic enzymes, drug efflux pumps, or transport proteins...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526548/at-the-nexus-of-antibiotics-and-metals-the-impact-of-cu-and-zn-on-antibiotic-activity-and-resistance
#13
REVIEW
Keith Poole
Environmental influences on antibiotic activity and resistance can wreak havoc with in vivo antibiotic efficacy and, ultimately, antimicrobial chemotherapy. In nature, bacteria encounter a variety of metal ions, particularly copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn), as contaminants in soil and water, as feed additives in agriculture, as clinically-used antimicrobials, and as components of human antibacterial responses. Importantly, there is a growing body of evidence for Cu/Zn driving antibiotic resistance development in metal-exposed bacteria, owing to metal selection of genetic elements harbouring both metal and antibiotic resistance genes, and metal recruitment of antibiotic resistance mechanisms...
May 16, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524273/synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-of-novel-peptides-based-on-antimicrobial-peptides-as-potential-agents-with-anti-tumor-and-multidrug-resistance-reversing-activities
#14
Bo Zhang, Wei Shi, Jieming Li, Chen Liao, Limei Yang, Wenlong Huang, Hai Qian
Tumor chemotherapy, which plays an important role in the clinical treatment of metastatic cancer, is limited by low selectivity and drug resistance in clinical application. In our study, we selected antimicrobial peptide BP100 as a lead peptide, designed and synthesized a series of novel antineoplastic peptides through solid-phase synthesis. Amongst them, B4 and B8 showed excellent anti-cancer activity. As revealed by further investigations, these peptides could disrupt the cell membrane, trigger the cytochrome C release into cytoplasm and ultimately lead to apoptosis...
May 19, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516003/mode-of-action-of-the-2-phenylquinoline-efflux-inhibitor-pqq4r-against-escherichia-coli
#15
Diana Machado, Laura Fernandes, Sofia S Costa, Rolando Cannalire, Giuseppe Manfroni, Oriana Tabarrini, Isabel Couto, Stefano Sabatini, Miguel Viveiros
Efflux pump inhibitors are of great interest since their use as adjuvants of bacterial chemotherapy can increase the intracellular concentrations of the antibiotics and assist in the battle against the rising of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. In this work, we have described the mode of action of the 2-phenylquinoline efflux inhibitor (4-(2-(piperazin-1-yl)ethoxy)-2-(4-propoxyphenyl) quinolone - PQQ4R), against Escherichia coli, by studding its efflux inhibitory ability, its synergistic activity in combination with antibiotics, and compared its effects with the inhibitors phenyl-arginine-β-naphthylamide (PAβN) and chlorpromazine (CPZ)...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511780/anti-mycobacterium-avium-complex-activity-of-clarithromycin-rifampin-rifabutin-and-ethambutol-in-combination-with-adenosine-5-triphosphate
#16
Yutaka Tatano, Seiko Yamabe, Chiaki Sano, Haruaki Tomioka
We previously reported that adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) inhibited the growth of various bacteria, including mycobacteria, Staphylococcus, and Pseudomonas, without damaging bacterial surface structures. Notably, ATP's antibacterial activity was found to be attributable to its iron-chelating ability. ATP exhibited combined effects with some antimicrobials against Mycobacterium intracellulare and methicillin-resistant S. aureus, suggesting its usefulness as an adjunctive drug in the chemotherapy against certain intractable infections...
May 2, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493985/photodynamic-antimicrobial-chemotherapy-with-the-novel-amino-acid-porphyrin-conjugate-4i-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-studies
#17
Yao Yuan, Zi-Quan Liu, Heng Jin, Shi Sun, Tian-Jun Liu, Xue Wang, Hao-Jun Fan, Shi-Ke Hou, Hui Ding
Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT), as a novel and effective therapeutic modality to eradicate drug resistant bacteria without provoking multidrug resistance, has attracted increasing attention. This study examined the antimicrobial efficacy of the novel cationic amino acid-porphyrin conjugate 4I with four lysine groups against two different clinical isolated strains (drug sensitive and multidrug resistant) of the Acinetobacter baumannii species and its toxicity on murine dermal fibroblasts in vitro, as well as the therapeutic effect of PACT on acute, potentially lethal multidrug resistant strain excisional wound infections in vivo...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488051/low-level-laser-and-antimicrobial-photodynamic-therapy-on-experimental-periodontitis-in-rats-submitted-to-chemotherapy-by-5-fluorouracil
#18
Leticia Helena Theodoro, Mariéllen Longo, Vivian Cristina Noronha Novaes, Daniela Maria Janjacomo Miessi, Marcio Luiz Ferro-Alves, Edilson Ervolino, Juliano Milanezi de Almeida, Valdir Gouveia Garcia
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) as adjuvant to mechanical treatment of experimental periodontitis (EP) in adult rats submitted to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) chemotherapy. METHODS: EP was induced through ligature around the left mandibular first molar for 7 days. The ligature was removed and the animals separated into groups: EP, no treatment; 5FU, systemic administration of 5-FU (80 and 40 mg/kg); 5FU/scaling and root planing (SRP), systemic application of 5-FU and SRP; 5FU/SRP/LLLT, systemic application of 5-FU, SRP, and LLLT (660 nm, 0...
May 9, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476331/antimicrobial-susceptibilities-of-chlamydia-trachomatis-isolated-from-the-urethra-and-pharynx-of-japanese-males
#19
Seiji Kai, Koichiro Wada, Takuya Sadahira, Motoo Araki, Ayano Ishii, Toyohiko Watanabe, Koichi Monden, Satoshi Uno, Tohru Araki, Yasutomo Nasu
OBJECTIVES: Sexually transmitted infections due to Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) are a worldwide public health problem. The aim of this study was to investigate the drug susceptibilities of C. trachomatis strains isolated from the urethra and pharynx of Japanese males. METHODS: Urethral and pharyngeal swabs were collected between 2013 and 2014 from Japanese males with urethritis. Using a McCoy cell line, 18 chlamydial strains were isolated from urethra in 18 patients and 7 from the pharynx in 7 of the 18 patients...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474125/design-synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-of-novel-peptides-as-potential-agents-with-anti-tumor-and-multidrug-resistance-reversing-activities
#20
Bo Zhang, Wei Shi, Jieming Li, Chen Liao, Mingxue Li, Wenlong Huang, Hai Qian
Tumor chemotherapy is an important mean in the clinical treatment of metastatic cancer,but low selectivity and drug resistance restrict its clinical application. BP100 is a multifunctional membrane-active peptide with high antimicrobial activity. We selected BP100 as a lead peptide, designed and synthesized a series of BP100 analogs through solid-phase synthesis. Amongst them, peptides with the Tyr10 residue substituted by leucine and histidine showed the highest anti-cancer activity. Further experiments revealed that BP100 and its analogs could disrupt the cell membrane and trigger the cytochrome C release into cytoplasm, which ultimately resulted in apoptosis...
May 4, 2017: Amino Acids
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