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antimicrobial chemotherapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542412/low-rates-of-antibiotic-resistance-and-infectious-mortality-in-a-cohort-of-high-risk-hematology-patients-a-single-center-retrospective-analysis-of-blood-stream-infection
#1
Jason R Conn, Elizabeth M Catchpoole, Naomi Runnegar, Sally J Mapp, Kate A Markey
Febrile neutropenia (FN) is a medical emergency and can represent a life-threatening complication for hematology patients treated with intensive chemotherapy regimens. In clinical practice, the diagnostic yield of blood cultures and other investigations which aim to identify a causative organism or site of infection is low. We have retrospectively examined all blood cultures collected in a "real world" cohort of patients receiving chemotherapy for acute leukemia and patients with aggressive lymphoma treated with Hyper-CVAD/MTX-cytarabine, at a single tertiary center over a five-year period...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539477/bacterial-colonization-and-succession-in-a-newly-opened-hospital
#2
Simon Lax, Naseer Sangwan, Daniel Smith, Peter Larsen, Kim M Handley, Miles Richardson, Kristina Guyton, Monika Krezalek, Benjamin D Shogan, Jennifer Defazio, Irma Flemming, Baddr Shakhsheer, Stephen Weber, Emily Landon, Sylvia Garcia-Houchins, Jeffrey Siegel, John Alverdy, Rob Knight, Brent Stephens, Jack A Gilbert
The microorganisms that inhabit hospitals may influence patient recovery and outcome, although the complexity and diversity of these bacterial communities can confound our ability to focus on potential pathogens in isolation. To develop a community-level understanding of how microorganisms colonize and move through the hospital environment, we characterized the bacterial dynamics among hospital surfaces, patients, and staff over the course of 1 year as a new hospital became operational. The bacteria in patient rooms, particularly on bedrails, consistently resembled the skin microbiota of the patient occupying the room...
May 24, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538389/antimicrobial-resistance-patterns-clinical-features-and-risk-factors-for-septic-shock-and-death-of-nosocomial-e-coli-bacteremia-in-adult-patients-with-hematological-disease-a-monocenter-retrospective-study-in-china
#3
Jie Ma, Ning Li, Yajie Liu, Chong Wang, Xiaoyan Liu, Shengmei Chen, Xinsheng Xie, Silin Gan, Meng Wang, Weijie Cao, Fang Wang, Yanfan Liu, Dingming Wan, Ling Sun, Hui Sun
The aim of this retrospective analysis was to evaluate the antimicrobial resistance, clinical features, and risk factors for septic shock and death of nosocomial E coli bacteremia in adult patients in a single hematological center in China. A retrospective case-control study of 157 adult hematological patients with 168 episodes of E coli bacteremia was initiated from April 2012 to July 2015. Antimicrobial susceptibility as well as antimicrobial co-resistance rates were analyzed. Clinical features and outcomes were also studied...
May 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533857/antibiogram-profile-of-uropathogens-isolated-at-bahir-dar-regional-health-research-laboratory-centre-northwest-ethiopia
#4
Awoke Derbie, Derese Hailu, Daniel Mekonnen, Bayeh Abera, Gashaw Yitayew
INTRODUCTION: Antimicrobial resistance among bacteria that cause urinary tract infection (UTI) has been increasing since the introduction of chemotherapy. This study was aimed to assess the types of isolates from patients with UTI and to determine their current antimicrobial susceptibility profile. METHODS: A record based retrospective analysis of bacterial uropathogens processed in the period of January 2012 to December 2014 at Bahir Dar Health Research Laboratory Center (BRHRLC) was determined...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529506/roles-of-regulatory-rnas-for-antibiotic-resistance-in-bacteria-and-their-potential-value-as-novel-drug-targets
#5
REVIEW
Petra Dersch, Muna A Khan, Sabrina Mühlen, Boris Görke
The emergence of antibiotic resistance mechanisms among bacterial pathogens increases the demand for novel treatment strategies. Lately, the contribution of non-coding RNAs to antibiotic resistance and their potential value as drug targets became evident. RNA attenuator elements in mRNA leader regions couple expression of resistance genes to the presence of the cognate antibiotic. Trans-encoded small RNAs (sRNAs) modulate antibiotic tolerance by base-pairing with mRNAs encoding functions important for resistance such as metabolic enzymes, drug efflux pumps, or transport proteins...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526548/at-the-nexus-of-antibiotics-and-metals-the-impact-of-cu-and-zn-on-antibiotic-activity-and-resistance
#6
REVIEW
Keith Poole
Environmental influences on antibiotic activity and resistance can wreak havoc with in vivo antibiotic efficacy and, ultimately, antimicrobial chemotherapy. In nature, bacteria encounter a variety of metal ions, particularly copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn), as contaminants in soil and water, as feed additives in agriculture, as clinically-used antimicrobials, and as components of human antibacterial responses. Importantly, there is a growing body of evidence for Cu/Zn driving antibiotic resistance development in metal-exposed bacteria, owing to metal selection of genetic elements harbouring both metal and antibiotic resistance genes, and metal recruitment of antibiotic resistance mechanisms...
May 16, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524273/synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-of-novel-peptides-based-on-antimicrobial-peptides-as-potential-agents-with-anti-tumor-and-multidrug-resistance-reversing-activities
#7
Bo Zhang, Wei Shi, Jieming Li, Chen Liao, Limei Yang, Wenlong Huang, Hai Qian
Tumor chemotherapy, which plays an important role in the clinical treatment of metastatic cancer, is limited by low selectivity and drug resistance in clinical application. In our study, we selected antimicrobial peptide BP100 as a lead peptide, designed and synthesized a series of novel antineoplastic peptides through solid-phase synthesis. Amongst them, B4 and B8 showed excellent anti-cancer activity. As revealed by further investigations, these peptides could disrupt the cell membrane, trigger the cytochrome C release into cytoplasm and ultimately lead to apoptosis...
May 19, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516003/mode-of-action-of-the-2-phenylquinoline-efflux-inhibitor-pqq4r-against-escherichia-coli
#8
Diana Machado, Laura Fernandes, Sofia S Costa, Rolando Cannalire, Giuseppe Manfroni, Oriana Tabarrini, Isabel Couto, Stefano Sabatini, Miguel Viveiros
Efflux pump inhibitors are of great interest since their use as adjuvants of bacterial chemotherapy can increase the intracellular concentrations of the antibiotics and assist in the battle against the rising of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. In this work, we have described the mode of action of the 2-phenylquinoline efflux inhibitor (4-(2-(piperazin-1-yl)ethoxy)-2-(4-propoxyphenyl) quinolone - PQQ4R), against Escherichia coli, by studding its efflux inhibitory ability, its synergistic activity in combination with antibiotics, and compared its effects with the inhibitors phenyl-arginine-β-naphthylamide (PAβN) and chlorpromazine (CPZ)...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511780/anti-mycobacterium-avium-complex-activity-of-clarithromycin-rifampin-rifabutin-and-ethambutol-in-combination-with-adenosine-5-triphosphate
#9
Yutaka Tatano, Seiko Yamabe, Chiaki Sano, Haruaki Tomioka
We previously reported that adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) inhibited the growth of various bacteria, including mycobacteria, Staphylococcus, and Pseudomonas, without damaging bacterial surface structures. Notably, ATP's antibacterial activity was found to be attributable to its iron-chelating ability. ATP exhibited combined effects with some antimicrobials against Mycobacterium intracellulare and methicillin-resistant S. aureus, suggesting its usefulness as an adjunctive drug in the chemotherapy against certain intractable infections...
May 2, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493985/photodynamic-antimicrobial-chemotherapy-with-the-novel-amino-acid-porphyrin-conjugate-4i-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-studies
#10
Yao Yuan, Zi-Quan Liu, Heng Jin, Shi Sun, Tian-Jun Liu, Xue Wang, Hao-Jun Fan, Shi-Ke Hou, Hui Ding
Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT), as a novel and effective therapeutic modality to eradicate drug resistant bacteria without provoking multidrug resistance, has attracted increasing attention. This study examined the antimicrobial efficacy of the novel cationic amino acid-porphyrin conjugate 4I with four lysine groups against two different clinical isolated strains (drug sensitive and multidrug resistant) of the Acinetobacter baumannii species and its toxicity on murine dermal fibroblasts in vitro, as well as the therapeutic effect of PACT on acute, potentially lethal multidrug resistant strain excisional wound infections in vivo...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488051/low-level-laser-and-antimicrobial-photodynamic-therapy-on-experimental-periodontitis-in-rats-submitted-to-chemotherapy-by-5-fluorouracil
#11
Leticia Helena Theodoro, Mariéllen Longo, Vivian Cristina Noronha Novaes, Daniela Maria Janjacomo Miessi, Marcio Luiz Ferro-Alves, Edilson Ervolino, Juliano Milanezi de Almeida, Valdir Gouveia Garcia
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) as adjuvant to mechanical treatment of experimental periodontitis (EP) in adult rats submitted to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) chemotherapy. METHODS: EP was induced through ligature around the left mandibular first molar for 7 days. The ligature was removed and the animals separated into groups: EP, no treatment; 5FU, systemic administration of 5-FU (80 and 40 mg/kg); 5FU/scaling and root planing (SRP), systemic application of 5-FU and SRP; 5FU/SRP/LLLT, systemic application of 5-FU, SRP, and LLLT (660 nm, 0...
May 9, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476331/antimicrobial-susceptibilities-of-chlamydia-trachomatis-isolated-from-the-urethra-and-pharynx-of-japanese-males
#12
Seiji Kai, Koichiro Wada, Takuya Sadahira, Motoo Araki, Ayano Ishii, Toyohiko Watanabe, Koichi Monden, Satoshi Uno, Tohru Araki, Yasutomo Nasu
OBJECTIVES: Sexually transmitted infections due to Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) are a worldwide public health problem. The aim of this study was to investigate the drug susceptibilities of C. trachomatis strains isolated from the urethra and pharynx of Japanese males. METHODS: Urethral and pharyngeal swabs were collected between 2013 and 2014 from Japanese males with urethritis. Using a McCoy cell line, 18 chlamydial strains were isolated from urethra in 18 patients and 7 from the pharynx in 7 of the 18 patients...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474125/design-synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-of-novel-peptides-as-potential-agents-with-anti-tumor-and-multidrug-resistance-reversing-activities
#13
Bo Zhang, Wei Shi, Jieming Li, Chen Liao, Mingxue Li, Wenlong Huang, Hai Qian
Tumor chemotherapy is an important mean in the clinical treatment of metastatic cancer,but low selectivity and drug resistance restrict its clinical application. BP100 is a multifunctional membrane-active peptide with high antimicrobial activity. We selected BP100 as a lead peptide, designed and synthesized a series of BP100 analogs through solid-phase synthesis. Amongst them, peptides with the Tyr10 residue substituted by leucine and histidine showed the highest anti-cancer activity. Further experiments revealed that BP100 and its analogs could disrupt the cell membrane and trigger the cytochrome C release into cytoplasm, which ultimately resulted in apoptosis...
May 4, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462860/emergence-of-mycoplasma-genitalium-with-clinically-significant-fluoroquinolone-resistance-conferred-by-amino-acid-changes-both-in-gyra-and-parc-in-japan
#14
Takashi Deguchi, Shin Ito, Mitsuru Yasuda, Hiromi Kondo, Yoshiteru Yamada, Keita Nakane, Kosuke Mizutani, Tomohiro Tsuchiya, Shigeaki Yokoi, Masahiro Nakano
We observed fluoroquinolone treatment failures in 2 men with Mycoplasma genitalium-positive non-gonococcal urethritis in Japan. A fluoroquinolone regimen of sitafloxacin 100 mg twice daily for 7 days failed to eradicate M. genitalium. In both cases, M. genitalium had fluoroquinolone resistance-associated amino acid changes both in GyrA and ParC and a macrolide resistance-associated mutation in the 23S rRNA gene. The emergence of such multi-drug resistant strains can threaten antimicrobial chemotherapy for M...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461263/interactions-of-the-antimicrobial-peptide-nisin-z-with-conventional-antibiotics-and-the-use-of-nanostructured-lipid-carriers-to-enhance-antimicrobial-activity
#15
Angélique Lewies, Johannes Frederik Wentzel, Anine Jordaan, Carlos Bezuidenhout, Lissinda Hester Du Plessis
Antimicrobial resistance is an imminent threat to the effective prevention and treatment of bacterial infections and alternative antimicrobial strategies are desperately needed. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) may be promising alternatives to current antibiotics or act as adjuvants to enhance antibiotic potency. Additionally, the use of biodegradable lipid nanoparticles can enhance the antibacterial activity of antibiotics and antimicrobial peptides. In this study, the interaction of the AMPs, nisin Z and melittin, with conventional antibiotics was investigated on Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia coli...
April 29, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456908/use-of-prophylactic-growth-factors-and-antimicrobials-in-elderly-patients-with-cancer-a-review-of-the-medicare-database
#16
Romina Sosa, Shuling Li, Julia T Molony, Jiannong Liu, Scott Stryker, Allan J Collins
PURPOSE: Growth factors and antimicrobials can reduce complications of chemotherapy-induced myelosuppression. Their prophylactic use in elderly patients is important given the associated comorbidity in this age group. There is a developing trend by payers to include supportive care agents in chemotherapy care bundles, which could affect clinical practice. We examined whether the febrile neutropenia (FN) risk categories can be used to describe utilization in the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid fee-for-service system in older adults...
April 29, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429163/antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-bacterial-isolates-from-patients-presenting-with-ear-nose-and-throat-ent-infections-in-the-german-community-healthcare-setting
#17
B Olzowy, M Kresken, M Havel, D Hafner, B Körber-Irrgang
Empiric initial antibiotic therapy of bacterial infections is based primarily upon the susceptibility of the most common causative pathogens. The purpose of this study was to provide susceptibility data on six bacterial species known to cause ear, nose and throat (ENT) infections. A total of 1066 isolates collected during a nationwide laboratory-based surveillance study were analysed. All Streptococcus pyogenes isolates were penicillin (PEN)-susceptible, indicating that natural penicillins can still be recommended as the first-line treatment for group A streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis...
April 20, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428184/clinical-and-cost-effectiveness-safety-and-acceptability-of-community-intravenous-antibiotic-service-models-civas-systematic-review
#18
E D Mitchell, C Czoski Murray, D Meads, J Minton, J Wright, M Twiddy
OBJECTIVE: Evaluate evidence of the efficacy, safety, acceptability and cost-effectiveness of outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) models. DESIGN: A systematic review. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, National Health Service (NHS) Economic Evaluation Database (EED), Research Papers in Economics (RePEc), Tufts Cost-Effectiveness Analysis (CEA) Registry, Health Business Elite, Health Information Management Consortium (HMIC), Web of Science Proceedings, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy website...
April 20, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424327/rig-i-mavs-and-sting-signaling-promote-gut-integrity-during-irradiation-and-immune-mediated-tissue-injury
#19
Julius C Fischer, Michael Bscheider, Gabriel Eisenkolb, Chia-Ching Lin, Alexander Wintges, Vera Otten, Caroline A Lindemans, Simon Heidegger, Martina Rudelius, Sébastien Monette, Kori A Porosnicu Rodriguez, Marco Calafiore, Sophie Liebermann, Chen Liu, Stefan Lienenklaus, Siegfried Weiss, Ulrich Kalinke, Jürgen Ruland, Christian Peschel, Yusuke Shono, Melissa Docampo, Enrico Velardi, Robert R Jenq, Alan M Hanash, Jarrod A Dudakov, Tobias Haas, Marcel R M van den Brink, Hendrik Poeck
The molecular pathways that regulate the tissue repair function of type I interferon (IFN-I) during acute tissue damage are poorly understood. We describe a protective role for IFN-I and the RIG-I/MAVS signaling pathway during acute tissue damage in mice. Mice lacking mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS) were more sensitive to total body irradiation- and chemotherapy-induced intestinal barrier damage. These mice developed worse graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in a preclinical model of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) than did wild-type mice...
April 19, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417069/clostridium-difficile-bacteremia-report-of-two-cases-in-french-hospitals-and-comprehensive-review-of-the-literature
#20
Mouna Doufair, Catherine Eckert, Laurence Drieux, Come Amani-Moibeni, Liliane Bodin, Michel Denis, Jean Didier Grange, Guillaume Arlet, Frédéric Barbut
We report two cases of bacteremia due to Clostridium difficile from two French hospitals. The first patient with previously diagnosed rectal carcinoma underwent courses of chemotherapy, and antimicrobial treatment, and survived the C. difficile bacteremia. The second patient with colon perforation and newly diagnosed lung cancer underwent antimicrobial treatment in an ICU but died shortly after the episode of C. difficile bacteremia. A review of the literature allowed the identification of 137 cases of bacteremia between July 1962 and November 2016...
2017: IDCases
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