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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101752/the-impact-of-hydrocortisone-treatment-on-neutrophil-gelatinase-associated-lipocalin-release-in-porcine-endotoxemic-shock
#1
E Söderberg, M Eriksson, A Larsson, M Lipcsey
BACKGROUND: A key feature of sepsis is systemic inflammatory activation that could be counteracted by steroids. In this experimental model of systemic inflammation, we sought to investigate whether septic neutrophil activation, evaluated by the plasma levels of neutrophil gelatinase-associated protein (NGAL), is modulated by the timing of hydrocortisone treatment. METHODS: Sixteen anesthetized pigs were allocated to one of four equally sized groups. Three of these groups received endotoxin at 2 μg × kg(-1) × h(-1) for 6 h so as to induce endotoxemic shock...
December 2017: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100643/fluid-shear-stress-increases-transepithelial-transport-of-ca2-in-ciliated-distal-convoluted-and-connecting-tubule-cells
#2
Sami G Mohammed, Francisco J Arjona, Femke Latta, René J M Bindels, Ronald Roepman, Joost G J Hoenderop
In kidney, transcellular transport of Ca(2+) is mediated by transient receptor potential vanilloid 5 and Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchanger 1 proteins in distal convoluted and connecting tubules (DCT and CNT, respectively). It is not yet understood how DCT/CNT cells can adapt to differences in tubular flow rate and, consequently, Ca(2+) load. This study aims to elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which DCT/CNT cells sense fluid dynamics to control transepithelial Ca(2+) reabsorption and whether their primary cilia play an active role in this process...
January 18, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096308/-re-building-a-kidney
#3
Leif Oxburgh, Thomas J Carroll, Ondine Cleaver, Daniel R Gossett, Deborah K Hoshizaki, Jeffrey A Hubbell, Benjamin D Humphreys, Sanjay Jain, Jan Jensen, David L Kaplan, Carl Kesselman, Christian J Ketchum, Melissa H Little, Andrew P McMahon, Stuart J Shankland, Jason R Spence, M Todd Valerius, Jason A Wertheim, Oliver Wessely, Ying Zheng, Iain A Drummond
(Re)Building a Kidney is a National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases-led consortium to optimize approaches for the isolation, expansion, and differentiation of appropriate kidney cell types and the integration of these cells into complex structures that replicate human kidney function. The ultimate goals of the consortium are two-fold: to develop and implement strategies for in vitro engineering of replacement kidney tissue, and to devise strategies to stimulate regeneration of nephrons in situ to restore failing kidney function...
January 17, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094801/electronegative-ldl-mediated-cardiac-electrical-remodeling-in-a-rat-model-of-chronic-kidney-disease
#4
An-Sheng Lee, Wei-Yu Chen, Hua-Chen Chan, Ching-Hu Chung, Hsien-Yu Peng, Chia-Ming Chang, Ming-Jai Su, Chu-Huang Chen, Kuan-Cheng Chang
The mechanisms underlying chronic kidney disease (CKD)-associated higher risks for life-threatening ventricular tachyarrhythmias remain poorly understood. In rats subjected to unilateral nephrectomy (UNx), we examined cardiac electrophysiological remodeling and relevant mechanisms predisposing to ventricular arrhythmias. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent UNx (n = 6) or sham (n = 6) operations. Eight weeks later, the UNx group had higher serum blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels and a longer electrocardiographic QTc interval than did the sham group...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094512/a-combined-spectroscopic-molecular-dynamic-study-for-investigating-a-methyl-carboxylated-pei-as-a-potential-uranium-decorporation-agent
#5
Florian Lahrouch, Anne Christine Chamayou, Gaëlle Creff, Magali Duvail, Christoph Hennig, Marisol Janeth Lozano Rodriguez, Christophe Den Auwer, Christophe Di Giorgio
Natural uranium has a very limited radioactive dose impact, but its chemical toxicity due to chronic exposure is still a matter of debate. Once inside the human body, the soluble uranium, under its uranyl form (U(VI)), is quickly removed from the blood system, partially excreted from the body, and partially retained in targeted organs, that is, the kidneys and bone matrix essentially. It is then crucial to remove or prevent the incorporation of uranium in these organs to limit the long-term chronic exposure...
January 17, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091865/improving-the-diagnostic-workup-of-hyponatremia-in-the-setting-of-kidney-disease-a-continuing-medical-education-cme-initiative
#6
Ladan Golestaneh, Joel Neugarten, William Southern, Faraj Kargoli, Amanda Raff
PURPOSE: Hyponatremia is a common electrolyte disorder and is associated with mortality. We examined the frequency of appropriate testing in response to an episode of inpatient hyponatremia in a large urban hospital to better inform our educational intervention. We then evaluated the impact of a live CME activity with a focus on CKD- and ESRD-associated hyponatremia physiology, on diagnostic practices of audience hospitalist attendings. METHODS: We performed a retrospective database analysis of all patients admitted to Montefiore Medical Center in 2014 to examine the performance of hospital staff in response to hyponatremia across all CKD stages...
January 13, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090431/a-role-for-3d-printing-in-kidney-on-a-chip-platforms
#7
Ryan D Sochol, Navin R Gupta, Joseph V Bonventre
The advancement of "kidney-on-a-chip" platforms - submillimeter-scale fluidic systems designed to recapitulate renal functions in vitro - directly impacts a wide range of biomedical fields, including drug screening, cell and tissue engineering, toxicity testing, and disease modelling. To fabricate kidney-on-a-chip technologies, researchers have primarily adapted traditional micromachining techniques that are rooted in the integrated circuit industry; hence the term, "chip." A significant challenge, however, is that such methods are inherently monolithic, which limits one's ability to accurately recreate the geometric and architectural complexity of the kidney in vivo...
March 2016: Current Transplantation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087365/parasite-induced-increases-in-the-energy-costs-of-movement-of-host-freshwater-fish
#8
Ondřej Slavík, Pavel Horký, Karel Douda, Josef Velíšek, Jitka Kolářová, Pavel Lepič
Parasitization by the larvae (glochidia) of freshwater mussels can cause harm to a fish's gills, resulting in less effective respiration and/or reduced activity by the host fish. The impact of glochidia infections on the host's physiology remains poorly understood, and no information is available concerning energy consumption in parasitized fish. Hence, we obtained glochidia of the invasive unionid mussel Sinanodonta (Anodonta) woodiana and experimentally infected common carp, Cyprinus carpio, tagged with physiological sensors to measure energy consumption...
January 10, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087117/erythropoietin-attenuates-experimental-haemorrhagic-shock-induced-renal-damage-through-an-inos-dependent-mechanism-in-male-wistar-rats
#9
M Ranjbaran, M Kadkhodaee, B Seifi, M Adelipour, B Azarian
AIM: Erythropoietin (EPO) is shown to exert protective effects on different tissues in haemorrhagic shock (HS) states. Nitric oxide (NO), as a multifunctional signaling molecule, is implicated in diverse physiologic and pathologic processes. In order to understand the exact mechanism of EPO protection, in this study we evaluated the role of different NOS enzymes in the EPO signaling pathway in male rats. METHODS: Rats were randomized to five groups: 1) Sham, 2) HS 3) EPO 4) L-NAME, a non-specific NOS inhibitor 5) 1400W, a specific iNOS inhibitor...
January 4, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074615/a-database-of-optimized-proteomic-quantitative-methods-for-284-human-drug-disposition-related-proteins-for-applications-in-pbpk-modeling
#10
Marc Vrana, Dale Whittington, Vivek Nautiyal, Bhagwat Prasad
The aim of this study was to create an open access repository of validated LC-MS/MS (MRM) methods for quantifying 284 important proteins associated with drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME). Various in silico and experimental approaches were used to select surrogate peptides and optimize instrument parameters for LC-MS/MS quantification of the selected proteins. The final methods were uploaded to an online public database (ADME QPrOmics(TM); www.qpromics.uw.edu/qpromics/assay/) which provides essential information for facile method development in triple quadrupole MS instruments...
January 11, 2017: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073290/intra-and-interorgan-communication-in-the-cardiovascular-system-a-special-view-on-redox-regulation
#11
Axel Gödecke, Judith Haendeler
Intraorgan communication in the cardiovascular system is exerted by direct cell-cell contacts, but also by locally released factors, which modulate neighboring cells by paracrine signals (e.g. NO, vascular endothelial growth factor, adenosine, reactive oxygen species (ROS)). Moreover, cells in close proximity to the typical cardiovascular cells such as fibroblasts, red blood cells, as well as resident and invading immune cells must be considered in attempts to understand cardiovascular function in physiology and pathology...
January 10, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071894/noninvasive-monitoring-of-blood-glucose-with-raman-spectroscopy
#12
Rishikesh Pandey, Santosh Kumar Paidi, Tulio A Valdez, Chi Zhang, Nicolas Spegazzini, Ramachandra Rao Dasari, Ishan Barman
The successful development of a noninvasive blood glucose sensor that can operate reliably over sustained periods of time has been a much sought after but elusive goal in diabetes management. Since diabetes has no well-established cure, control of elevated glucose levels is critical for avoiding severe secondary health complications in multiple organs including the retina, kidney and vasculature. While fingerstick testing continues to be the mainstay of blood glucose detection, advances in electrochemical sensing-based minimally invasive approaches have opened the door for alternate methods that would considerably improve the quality of life for people with diabetes...
January 10, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069890/apobec1-complementation-factor-a1cf-is-not-required-for-c-to-u-rna-editing-in-vivo
#13
Elizabeth M Snyder, Christopher McCarty, Adrienne Mehalow, Karen Svenson, Stephen Murray, Ron Korstanje, Robert E Braun
Editing of the human and murine ApoB mRNA by APOBEC1, the catalytic enzyme of the protein complex that catalyzes C-to-U RNA editing, creates an internal stop codon within the APOB coding sequence, generating two protein isoforms. It has been long held that APOBEC1-mediated editing activity is dependent on the RNA binding protein A1CF. The importance of A1CF in adult tissues has been unclear as a previously reported null allele displays embryonic lethality. This work aimed to address the function of A1CF in adult mouse tissues using a conditional A1cf allele...
January 9, 2017: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069442/novel-signaling-of-dynorphin-at-%C3%AE%C2%BA-opioid-receptor-bradykinin-b2-receptor-heterodimers
#14
Bingyuan Ji, Haiqing Liu, Rumin Zhang, Yunlu Jiang, Chunmei Wang, Sheng Li, Jing Chen, Bo Bai
The κ-opioid receptor (KOR) and bradykinin B2 receptor (B2R) are involved in a variety of important physiological processes and share many similar characteristics in terms of their distribution and functions in the nervous system. We first demonstrated the endogenous expression of KOR and B2R in human SH-SY5Y cells and their co-localization on the membrane of human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells. Bioluminescence and fluorescence resonance energy transfer and the proximity ligation assay were exploited to demonstrate the formation of functional KOR and B2R heteromers in transfected cells...
January 7, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065164/plasma-proteome-and-metabolome-characterization-of-an-experimental-human-thyrotoxicosis-model
#15
Maik Pietzner, Beatrice Engelmann, Tim Kacprowski, Janine Golchert, Anna-Luise Dirk, Elke Hammer, K Alexander Iwen, Matthias Nauck, Henri Wallaschofski, Dagmar Führer, Thomas F Münte, Nele Friedrich, Uwe Völker, Georg Homuth, Georg Brabant
BACKGROUND: Determinations of thyrotropin (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4) represent the gold standard in evaluation of thyroid function. To screen for novel peripheral biomarkers of thyroid function and to characterize FT4-associated physiological signatures in human plasma we used an untargeted OMICS approach in a thyrotoxicosis model. METHODS: A sample of 16 healthy young men were treated with levothyroxine for 8 weeks and plasma was sampled before the intake was started as well as at two points during treatment and after its completion, respectively...
January 9, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063380/hydroxytyrosol-supplementation-increases-vitamin-c-levels-in-vivo-a-human-volunteer-trial
#16
Eduardo Lopez-Huertas, Juristo Fonolla
Hydroxytyrosol (HT) is a main phenolic component of olive oil. In this study, we investigated the safety and effects produced by HT purified (99.5%) from olive mill waste. HT was administered at a daily dosage of 45mg for 8 weeks to volunteers with mild hyperlipidemia (n=14). We measured markers of cardiovascular disease risk, enzyme markers of several clinical conditions, hematology, antioxidant parameters, vitamins and minerals at baseline (T0), 4 weeks (T4) and 8 weeks (T8). The values obtained at T4 and T8 were compared with baseline...
December 26, 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057840/delineating-the-role-of-various-factors-in-renal-disposition-of-digoxin-through-application-of-physiologically-based-kidney-model-to-renal-impairment-populations
#17
Daniel Scotcher, Christopher R Jones, Aleksandra Galetin, Amin Rostami-Hodjegan
Development of sub-models of organs within physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) principles and beyond simple perfusion limitations may be challenging because of underdeveloped in vitro-in vivo extrapolation approaches or lack of suitable clinical data for model refinement. However, the advantage of such models in predicting clinical observations in divergent patient groups is now commonly acknowledged. Mechanistic understanding of altered renal secretion in renal impairment is one area that may benefit from such models, despite knowledge gaps in renal pathophysiology (Rowland Yeo et al...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052936/klhl3-knockout-mice-reveal-the-physiological-role-of-klhl3-and-the-pathophysiology-of-phaii-caused-by-mutant-klhl3
#18
Emi Sasaki, Koichiro Susa, Takayasu Mori, Kiyoshi Isobe, Yuya Araki, Yuichi Inoue, Yuki Yoshizaki, Fumiaki Ando, Yutaro Mori, Shintaro Mandai, Moko Zeniya, Daiei Takahashi, Naohiro Nomura, Tatemitsu Rai, Shinichi Uchida, Eisei Sohara
Mutations in the with-no-lysine kinase 1 (WNK1), WNK4, kelch-like 3 (KLHL3), and cullin3 (CUL3) genes are known to cause the hereditary disease pseudohypoaldosteronism type II (PHAII). It was recently demonstrated that this results from the defective degradation of WNK1 and WNK4 by the KLHL3/CUL3 ubiquitin ligase complex. However, the other physiological in vivo roles of KLHL3 remain unclear. Therefore, here we generated KLHL3(-/-) mice that expressed β-galactosidase (β-gal) under the endogenous KLHL3 promoter...
January 4, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045915/alkalosis-in-critically-ill-patients-with-severe-sepsis-and-septic-shock
#19
Simon Kreü, Allan Jazrawi, Jan Miller, Amir Baigi, Michelle Chew
INTRODUCTION: Although metabolic alkalosis is a common occurrence in intensive care units (ICUs), no study has evaluated its prevalence or outcomes in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of critically ill patients suffering from severe sepsis and septic shock admitted to the ICUs of Halmstad and Varberg County hospitals. From 910 patient records, 627 patients met the inclusion criteria. We investigated the relationship between metabolic alkalosis and mortality...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042087/melatonin-as-a-promising-agent-of-regulating-stem-cell-biology-and-its-application-in-disease-therapy
#20
REVIEW
Shuo Zhang, Simon Chen, Yuan Li, Yu Liu
Stem cells have emerged as an important approach to repair and regenerate damaged tissues or organs and show great therapeutic potential in a variety of diseases. However, the low survival of engrafted stem cells still remains a major challenge for stem cell therapy. As a major hormone from the pineal gland, melatonin has been shown to play an important role in regulating the physiological and pathological functions of stem cells, such as promoting proliferation, migration and differentiation. Thus, melatonin combined with stem cell transplantation displayed promising application potential in neurodegenerative diseases, liver cirrhosis, wound healing, myocardial infarction, kidney ischemia injury, osteoporosis, etc...
December 30, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
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