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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649750/vasopressin-physiology-assessment-and-osmosentation
#1
Lise Bankir, Daniel G Bichet, Nils G Morgenthaler
Vasopressin (AVP) plays a major role in the regulation of water and sodium homeostasis by its antidiuretic action on the kidney, mediated by V2 receptors. AVP secretion is stimulated by a rise in plasma osmolality, a decline in blood volume, or stress. V1a receptors are expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells but the role of vasopressin in blood pressure regulation is still a matter of debate. AVP may also play a role in some metabolic pathways, including gluconeogenesis, through its action on V1a receptors expressed in the liver...
June 25, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649105/-aging-and-homeostasis-age-associated-diseases-and-clinical-application-of-nmn-nicotinamide-mononucleotide
#2
Junichiro Irie, Hiroshi Itoh
Sirtuins are NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase and have drawn much attention as important regulators of aging and longevity. Because NAD(+) decline during the aging process, the approach to regulating aging using NAD(+) precursor such as nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) to replenish cellular NAD(+) through the activation of sirtuins have been investigated. In various animal models, NMN has been shown to mitigate age-associated physiological changes in liver, adipose tissue, muscle, pancreas, kidney, retina, and central nerve system...
2017: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648944/tubulin-beta-3-and-4-are-involved-in-the-generation-of-early-fibrotic-stages
#3
Marta E Wawro, Katarzyna Sobierajska, Wojciech M Ciszewski, Waldemar Wagner, Marta Frontczak, Katarzyna Wieczorek, Jolanta Niewiarowska
The endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) is a fundamental cellular mechanism that occurs under both physiological and pathological conditions and includes the fibrotic stages of numerous organs, namely, the skin, kidneys, heart, lungs and liver. Endothelial cells that undergo EndMT are one of the main source of (myo)fibroblasts in fibrotic tissues. A critical step in cellular transdifferentiation is morphological change, which is engineered by the reorganization of cytoskeletal elements such as microtubules...
June 22, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648509/pendred-syndrome
#4
REVIEW
Jean-Louis Wémeau, Peter Kopp
Pendred syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder that is classically defined by the combination of sensorineural deafness/hearing impairment, goiter, and an abnormal organification of iodide with or without hypothyroidism. The hallmark of the syndrome is the impaired hearing, which is associated with inner ear malformations such as an enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA). The thyroid phenotype is variable and may be modified by the nutritional iodine intake. Pendred syndrome is caused by biallelic mutations in the SLC26A4/PDS gene, which encodes the multifunctional anion exchanger pendrin...
March 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647853/are-podocytes-motile
#5
REVIEW
Nicole Endlich, Florian Siegerist, Karlhans Endlich
Podocytes, the postmitotic and highly branched epithelial cells of the glomerulus, play a pivotal role for the function of the glomerular filtration barrier and the development of chronic kidney disease. It has long been discussed whether podocytes in vivo are motile and can laterally migrate in a coordinated way along the capillaries until they reach the position of naked glomerular basement membrane often found in podocytopathies. Such motility would also be the prerequisite for the replacement of lost podocytes by progenitor cells...
June 24, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646037/early-exposure-to-chronic-hypoxia-induces-short-and-long-term-regulation-of-hemoglobin-gene-expression-in-european-sea-bass-dicentrarchus-labrax
#6
Laura Cadiz, Arianna Servili, Patrick Quazuguel, Lauriane Madec, José-Luis Zambonino-Infante, David Mazurais
European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) inhabits coastal waters and may be exposed to hypoxia at different life stages, requiring physiological and behavioral adaptation. In the present study, we attempted to determine whether regulation of hemoglobin (Hb) gene expression plays a role in the physiological response to chronic moderate hypoxia in whole larvae and hematopoietic tissues (head kidney and spleen) of juveniles. We also tested the hypothesis that hypoxia exposure at the larval stage could induce a long-term effect on the regulation of Hb gene expression...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643936/phenotypic-analysis-of-organoids-by-proteomics
#7
REVIEW
Alexis Gonneaud, Claude Asselin, François Boudreau, François-Michel Boisvert
The development of 3D cell cultures into self-organizing organ-like structures named organoids provides a model that better reflects in vivo organ physiology and their functional properties. Organoids have been established from several organs, such as the intestine, prostate, brain, liver, kidney and pancreas. With recent advances in high-throughput and -omics profiling technologies, it is now possible to study the mechanisms of cellular organisation at the systems level. It is therefore not surprising that these methods are now used to characterize organoids at the transcriptomic, proteomic, chromatin state and transcription factor DNA-binding levels...
June 23, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643350/habitual-sleep-and-kidney-function-in-chronic-kidney-disease-the-chronic-renal-insufficiency-cohort-study
#8
Kristen L Knutson, James Lash, Ana C Ricardo, James Herdegen, J D Thornton, Mahboob Rahman, Nicolas Turek, Janet Cohan, Lawrence J Appel, Lydia A Bazzano, Manjula K Tamura, Susan P Steigerwalt, Matthew R Weir, Eve Van Cauter
Physiological evidence suggests that sleep modulates kidney function. Our objective was to examine the cross-sectional association between kidney function and objectively-estimated habitual sleep duration, quality and timing in a cohort of patients with mild to moderate chronic kidney disease. This study involved two US clinical centers of the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study, including 432 participants in a CRIC ancillary sleep study. Habitual sleep duration, quality and timing were measured using wrist actigraphy for 5-7 days...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642099/developmental-cardiovascular-physiology-of-the-olive-ridley-sea-turtle-lepidochelys-olivacea
#9
Dane Alan Crossley, Janna Lee Crossley, Camilla Smith, Martha Harfush, Hermilo Sánchez-Sánchez, Mónica Vanessa Garduño-Paz, José Fernando Méndez-Sánchez
Our understanding of reptilian cardiovascular development and regulation has increased substantially for two species the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) and the common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) during the past two decades. However, what we know about cardiovascular maturation in many other species remains poorly understood or unknown. Embryonic sea turtles have been studied to understand the maturation of metabolic function, but these studies have not addressed the cardiovascular system...
June 19, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640449/polycystic-kidney-disease
#10
Joseph Ghata, Benjamin D Cowley
Renal cysts, which arise from renal tubules, can be seen in a variety of hereditary and nonhereditary entities. Common mechanisms associated with renal cyst formation include increased cell proliferation, epithelial fluid secretion, and extracellular matrix remodeling. Hereditary polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is seen as a component of numerous diseases. Autosomal dominant (AD) PKD is the most common potentially fatal hereditary disease in humans, causes renal failure in approximately 50% of affected individuals, and accounts for approximately 5% of end stage renal disease cases in the United States...
June 18, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639626/circulating-mirnas-as-biomarkers-of-kidney-disease
#11
EDITORIAL
Alexander Hüttenhofer, Gert Mayer
Interest in microRNAs (miRNAs) has dramatically increased in recent years not only because they regulate mRNA expression, and thus many physiological or pathophysiological processes, but also because they could serve as biomarkers. Next to analysis of tissue miRNA expression, measurement in body fluids such as blood or urine is attractive because miRNA in microvesicles or bound to protein is very stable. Currently it is unclear whether these circulating miRNAs are tissue and disease specific or represent more general pathologies like inflammation...
February 2017: Clinical Kidney Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639365/vascular-calcification-vitamin-k-and-warfarin-therapy-possible-or-plausible-connection
#12
Aino Siltari, Heikki Vapaatalo
Atherosclerosis is a pathological process underpinning many cardiovascular diseases; it is the main cause of global mortality. Atherosclerosis is characterized by an invasion of inflammatory cells, accumulation of lipids and the formation of fatty streaks (plaques) which subsequently allow accumulation of calcium and other minerals leading to a disturbance in the vascular endothelium and its regulatory role in arterial function. Vascular calcification is a different process, stringently regulated mainly by local factors, in which osteoblast-like cells accumulate in the muscular layer of arteries ultimately taking on the physiological appearance of bone...
June 21, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638822/extracellular-vesicles-in-renal-pathophysiology
#13
REVIEW
Margherita A C Pomatto, Chiara Gai, Benedetta Bussolati, Giovanni Camussi
Extracellular vesicles are a heterogeneous population of microparticles released by virtually all living cells which have been recently widely investigated in different biological fields. They are typically composed of two primary types (exosomes and microvesicles) and are recently commanding increasing attention as mediators of cellular signaling. Indeed, these vesicles can affect recipient cells by carrying and delivering complex cargos of biomolecules (including proteins, lipids and nucleic acids), protected from enzymatic degradation in the environment...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636801/water-channels-and-barriers-formed-by-claudins
#14
REVIEW
Rita Rosenthal, Dorothee Günzel, Dian Theune, Carolina Czichos, Jörg-Dieter Schulzke, Michael Fromm
Physiological studies in leaky epithelia, like kidney proximal tubules and the small intestine, have documented water transport via both transcellular and paracellular pathways. The discovery of aquaporin water channels provided a molecular basis for transcellular water movement. In contrast, the contribution, or even existence, of a specific paracellular water pathway has been disputed for a long time, until the cation channel-forming tight junction protein claudin-2 was shown to also permit the paracellular passage of water through its pore...
June 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634082/cytokine-modulation-by-stress-hormones-and-antagonist-specific-hormonal-inhibition-in-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-and-gilthead-sea-bream-sparus-aurata-head-kidney-primary-cell-culture
#15
Ali Reza Khansari, David Parra, Felipe E Reyes-López, Lluís Tort
A tight interaction between endocrine and immune systems takes place mainly due to the key role of head kidney in both hormone and cytokine secretion, particularly under stress situations in which the physiological response promotes the synthesis and release of stress hormones which may lead into immunomodulation as side effect. Although such interaction has been previously investigated, this study evaluated for the first time the effect of stress-associated hormones together with their receptor antagonists on the expression of cytokine genes in head kidney primary cell culture (HKPCC) of the freshwater rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and the seawater gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata)...
June 17, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629959/glycemic-control-and-muscle-damage-in-3-athletes-with-type-1-diabetes-during-a-successful-performance-in-a-relay-ultramarathon-a-case-report
#16
Taisa Belli, Denise V de Macedo, Pedro P M Scariot, Gustavo G de Araújo, Ivan G M Dos Reis, Fernanda L Lazarim, Lázaro A S Nunes, René Brenzikofer, Claudio A Gobatto
Ultramarathon races are fairly demanding and impose substantial physiological stress on healthy athletes. These competitions may thus be considerably more challenging for individuals with diabetes. This case study aims to describe glycemic control, muscle damage, inflammation, and renal function in 3 athletes with type 1 diabetes during a successful performance in a relay ultramarathon. The team completed the race in 29 hours and 28 minutes, earning third place. The total distance covered by each athlete was 68...
June 16, 2017: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629513/erythropoietin-and-hypothalamic-pituitary-axis
#17
Soumyadeep Dey, Constance T Noguchi
Erythropoietin (EPO), known primarily for its erythropoietic activity, is commonly used clinically to treat anemia of chronic kidney disease. However, the expression of EPO receptor (EpoR) beyond erythroid tissue provides for potential extrahematopoietic effects of EPO, including EPO regulation of metabolic homeostasis (Zhang et al., 2014). Small clinical studies have shown that EPO treatment in patients with end-stage renal disease improved glycemic control and insulin sensitivity. Studies in animal models have shown that EPO regulation of metabolism is mainly attributed to its response in fat, and the hypothalamus-pituitary axis (Dey et al...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628970/a-randomized-double-blind-clinical-study-on-blood-pressure-reduction-and-blood-lipid-profile-amelioration-on-treatment-with-ankascin-568
#18
Chien-Li Chen, Jen-Ho Tseng, Tzu-Ming Pan, Sheng-Huang Hsiao
Hypertension and cardiovascular complications are the leading causes of death worldwide. Antihypertensive drugs often cause various side effects, and improper use of antihypertensive medications can result in irreparable damage. Edible fungi of the Monascus species have been used as traditional Chinese medicines in Southeast Asia for several centuries. The fermented products of Monascus purpureus NTU 568 (ANKASCIN 568) possess a number of functional secondary metabolites including the anti-inflammatory pigments monascin and ankaflavin...
June 30, 2017: Chinese Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627373/development-and-application-of-a-population-physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-model-for-penicillin-g-in-swine-and-cattle-for-food-safety-assessment
#19
Miao Li, Ronette Gehring, Jim E Riviere, Zhoumeng Lin
Penicillin G is a widely used antimicrobial in food-producing animals, and one of the most predominant drug residues in animal-derived food products. Due to reduced sensitivity of bacteria to penicillin, extralabel use of penicillin G is common, which may lead to violative residues in edible tissues and cause adverse reactions in consumers. This study aimed to develop a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model to predict drug residues in edible tissues and estimate extended withdrawal intervals for penicillin G in swine and cattle...
June 13, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625255/-effect-of-vitamin-d3-on-the-severity-and-prognosis-of-patients-with-sepsis-a-prospective-randomized-double-blind-placebo-study
#20
Fulai Ding, Bin Zang, Jiahong Fu, Kaiqiang Ji
OBJECTIVE: To observe the relationship between vitamin D3 and the severity as well as prognosis in patients with sepsis, and to explore whether exogenous vitamin D3 can improve the prognosis in patients with sepsis. METHODS: A prospective randomized double-blind placebo study was conducted. Fifty-seven patients with sepsis admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) of Shengjing Hospital Affiliated to China Medical University from March to November in 2015 were enrolled...
February 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
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