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Bronchial obstruction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139187/pharmacokinetics-and-safety-of-paclitaxel-delivery-into-porcine-airway-walls-by-a-new-endobronchial-drug-delivery-catheter
#1
Hisashi Tsukada, Plamena Entcheva-Dimitrov, Armin Ernst, Samaan Rafeq, John H Keating, Kirk P Seward, Lonny Yarmus
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Intratumoral administration of chemotherapeutic agents is a treatment modality that has proven efficacious in reducing the recurrence of tumours and increases specificity of treatment while minimizing systemic side effects. Direct intratumoral injection of malignant airway obstruction has potential therapeutic benefits but tissue drug concentrations and side-effect profiles are poorly understood. METHODS: Bronchial wall injection of generic paclitaxel (PTX) (102 injections of 0...
November 14, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139062/tools-in-asthma-evaluation-and-management-when-and-how-to-use-them
#2
REVIEW
Anna Mulholland, Alana Ainsworth, Naveen Pillarisetti
The goals of asthma management are accurate diagnosis, prompt initiation of treatment and monitoring of disease progression to limit potential morbidity and mortality. While the diagnosis and management is largely based on history taking and clinical examination, there are an increasing number of tools available that could be used to aid diagnosis, define phenotypes, monitor progress and assess response to treatment. Tools such as the Asthma Predictive Index could help in making predictions about the possibility of asthma in childhood based on certain clinical parameters in pre-schoolers...
November 15, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138554/characteristics-of-copd-patients-according-to-gold-classification-and-clinical-phenotypes-in-the-russian-federation-the-support-trial
#3
Vladimir Arkhipov, Daria Arkhipova, Marc Miravitlles, Andrey Lazarev, Ekaterina Stukalina
Background: The high prevalence of COPD in the Russian Federation has been demonstrated in several epidemiological studies. However, there are still no data on the clinical characteristics of these patients according to Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) groups and phenotypes, which could provide additional understanding of the burden of COPD, routine clinical practice, and ways to improve the treatment of patients with COPD in Russia. Patients and methods: SUPPORT was an observational multicenter study designed to obtain data about the distribution of patients with previously diagnosed COPD according to the severity of bronchial obstruction, symptom severity, risk of exacerbation, COPD phenotypes, and treatment of COPD...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133224/feno-and-exercise-testing-in-children-at-risk-of-asthma
#4
Ann-Marie Malby Schoos, Christina Figgé Christiansen, Jakob Stokholm, Klaus Bønnelykke, Hans Bisgaard, Bo Lund Chawes
BACKGROUND: Exercise testing is the gold standard for diagnosing exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in children, but requires considerable cooperation and medical resources. Therefore, fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) has been proposed as a tool to predict the need for exercise testing. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between FeNO, exercise test results, and a history of respiratory symptoms during exercise in children at risk of asthma...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132465/-application-of-flexible-bronchoscopy-in-children-with-respiratory-diseases
#5
Li-Ping Wang, Shou-Ping Chen, Yu-Ying Huang, Fang-Fang Qin, Wen Ou, Hong-Dong Liu, Xiao-Fang Deng, Lei Lou, Jing Tao, Yu-Xia Cui
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the significance of flexible bronchoscopy in children with respiratory diseases. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 80 children who were hospitalized due to respiratory diseases (including severe pneumonia, Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia with atelectasis/lung consolidation/local emphysema, protracted pneumonia, coughing and wheezing of unknown cause, chronic cough of unknown cause, and laryngeal stridor) and who underwent flexible bronchoscopy/alveolar lavage...
November 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128130/spanish-guidelines-on-the-evaluation-and-diagnosis-of-bronchiectasis-in-adults
#6
Miguel Ángel Martínez-García, Luis Máiz, Casilda Olveira, Rosa María Girón, David de la Rosa, Marina Blanco, Rafael Cantón, Montserrat Vendrell, Eva Polverino, Javier de Gracia, Concepción Prados
In 2008, the Spanish Society of Pulmonology (SEPAR) published the first guidelines in the world on the diagnosis and treatment of bronchiectasis. Almost 10 years later, considerable scientific advances have been made in both the treatment and the evaluation and diagnosis of this disease, and the original guidelines have been updated to include the latest scientific knowledge on bronchiectasis. These new recommendations have been drafted following a strict methodological process designed to ensure the quality of content, and are linked to a large amount of online information that includes a wealth of references...
November 8, 2017: Archivos de Bronconeumología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128129/spanish-guidelines-on-treatment-of-bronchiectasis-in-adults
#7
Miguel Ángel Martínez-García, Luis Máiz, Casilda Olveira, Rosa Maria Girón, David de la Rosa, Marina Blanco, Rafael Cantón, Montserrat Vendrell, Eva Polverino, Javier de Gracia, Concepción Prados
In 2008, the Spanish Society of Pulmonology (SEPAR) published the first guidelines in the world on the diagnosis and treatment of bronchiectasis. Almost 10 years later, considerable scientific advances have been made in both the treatment and the evaluation and diagnosis of this disease, and the original guidelines have been updated to include the latest therapies available for bronchiectasis. These new recommendations have been drafted following a strict methodological process designed to ensure quality of content, and are linked to a large amount of online information that includes a wealth of references...
November 8, 2017: Archivos de Bronconeumología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117796/effects-of-varenicline-therapy-in-combination-with-advanced-behavioral-support-on-smoking-cessation-and-quality-of-life-in-inpatients-with-acute-exacerbation-of-copd-bronchial-asthma-or-community-acquired-pneumonia-a-prospective-open-label-preference-based
#8
Alexios Politis, Vasileios Ioannidis, Konstantinos I Gourgoulianis, Zoe Daniil, Chrissi Hatzoglou
Quitting smoking is the most important element in the therapeutic management of chronic respiratory diseases. Combining pharmacotherapy with behavioral support increases smoking cessation success rates. In addition, hospitalized smokers have increased motivation to quit. We investigated the efficacy on smoking cessation, of varenicline in combination with behavioral support, in smokers hospitalized due to (a) acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or (b) bronchial asthma attack, or (c) community-acquired pneumonia (CAP)...
January 1, 2017: Chronic Respiratory Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113816/hdac2-suppresses-il17a-mediated-airway-remodeling-in-human-and-experimental-modeling-of-copd
#9
Tianwen Lai, Baoping Tian, Chao Cao, Yue Hu, Jiesen Zhou, Yong Wang, Yanping Wu, Zhouyang Li, Xuchen Xu, Min Zhang, Feng Xu, Yuan Cao, Min Chen, Dong Wu, Bin Wu, Chen Dong, Wen Li, Songmin Ying, Zhihua Chen, Huahao Shen
BACKGROUND: Airway remodeling is a central feature of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but the mechanisms underlying its development have not been fully elucidated. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether histone deacetylase (HDAC) 2 protects against cigarette smoke (CS)-induced airway remodeling through IL17A-dependent mechanisms. METHODS: Sputum samples and lung tissues were obtained from control subjects and patients with COPD. The relationships between HDAC2, IL17A, and airway remodeling were investigated...
November 4, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110280/body-weight-and-mortality-in-copd-focus-on-the-obesity-paradox
#10
REVIEW
Francesco Spelta, A M Fratta Pasini, L Cazzoletti, M Ferrari
The positive association between overweight, obesity, and cardiovascular and all-cause mortality is well established, even though this relation is typically U shaped with an increased risk also in low-weight subjects. However, being overweight or obese has been associated with a better prognosis in subjects suffering from chronic diseases, id est the "obesity paradox". In both community-dwelling and hospitalized patients with COPD, several studies have reported a significant protective effect of obesity on all-cause mortality, indicating that also in obstructive pulmonary diseases, an obesity paradox may be present...
November 6, 2017: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106997/interferon-response-to-rsv-by-bronchial-epithelium-from-children-with-asthma-is-inversely-correlated-with-pulmonary-function
#11
M C Altman, S R Reeves, A R Parker, E Whalen, K M S Misura, K A Barrow, R G James, T S Hallstrand, S F Ziegler, J S Debley
BACKGROUND: Respiratory viral infection in early childhood, including that from respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), has been previously associated with the development of asthma. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine whether ex vivo RSV infection of bronchial epithelial cells (BECs) from children with asthma would induce specific gene expression patterns, and whether such patterns associate with lung function among BEC donors. METHODS: Primary BECs from carefully characterized children with asthma (n=18) and matched healthy children without asthma (n=8) were differentiated at an air-liquid interface (ALI) for 21 days...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104873/ginsenoside-rg1-attenuates-cigarette-smoke-induced-pulmonary-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-via-inhibition-of-the-tgf-%C3%AE-1-smad-pathway
#12
Sibin Guan, Weiguo Xu, Fengfeng Han, Wen Gu, Lin Song, Wenjing Ye, Qian Liu, Xuejun Guo
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process associated with airway remodeling in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which leads to progressive pulmonary destruction. Panax ginseng is a traditional herbal medicine that has been shown to improve pulmonary function and exercise capacity in patients with COPD. Ginsenoside Rg1 is one of the main active components and was shown to inhibit oxidative stress and inflammation. The present study investigated the hypothesis that ginsenoside Rg1 attenuates EMT in COPD rats induced by cigarette smoke (CS) and human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE)...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099608/mucin-production-and-hydration-responses-to-mucopurulent-materials-in-normal-vs-cf-airway-epithelia
#13
Lubna H Abdullah, Raymond Coakley, Megan J Webster, Yunxiang Zhu, Robert Tarran, Giorgia Radicioni, Mehmet Kesimer, Richard C Boucher, C William Davis, Carla M P Ribeiro
RATIONALE: Cystic fibrosis (CF) airways disease produces a muco-obstructive lung phenotype characterized by airways mucus plugging, epithelial mucous cell metaplasia/hyperplasia, chronic infection and inflammation. Simultaneous biochemical and functional in vivo studies of mucin synthesis and secretion from CF airways are not available. In vitro translational models may quantitate differential CF vs. normal mucin and fluid secretory responses to infectious/inflammatory stimuli. OBJECTIVES: We tested the hypothesis that CF airways exhibit defective epithelial fluid, but not mucin, secretory responses to bacterial/inflammatory host products...
November 3, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082668/breathomics-from-exhaled-volatile-organic-compounds-in-pediatric-asthma
#14
REVIEW
Anne H Neerincx, Susanne J H Vijverberg, Lieuwe D J Bos, Paul Brinkman, Marc P van der Schee, Rianne de Vries, Peter J Sterk, Anke-Hilse Maitland-van der Zee
Asthma is the most common chronic disease in children, and is characterized by airway inflammation, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and airflow obstruction. Asthma diagnosis, phenotyping, and monitoring are still challenging with currently available methods, such as spirometry, FE NO or sputum analysis. The analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath could be an interesting non-invasive approach, but has not yet reached clinical practice. This review describes the current status of breath analysis in the diagnosis and monitoring of pediatric asthma...
October 30, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081927/atelectasis-in-pediatrics-a-case-of-carcinoid-tumor
#15
Cláudia Vaz Guerreiro, Paula Ornelas, Luísa Pereira, Nuno Abecasis, Maria Teresa Almodovar
Carcinoid pulmonary tumors occur in the fourth to sixth decades of life. Usually, typical carcinoid arise a decade earlier when compared to atypical carcinoid (45 years and 55 years, respectively). Typical carcinoid tumors are the most common primary lung neoplasm in children and late adolescents, but there are less than 40 cases described in the literature. The clinical presentation is nonspecific and usually the symptoms are due to bronchial obstruction, sometimes with recurrent pneumonia. Its rarity may delay diagnosis but in most cases a favorable course after treatment is observed...
October 3, 2017: Rare Tumors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081662/novel-strategy-of-stents-in-thyroid-mass-a-case-series-report-of-managing-severely-dyspneic-patients
#16
Adheesh Bhandari, Ying-Hao Wang, Shi-Xu Lv, Er-Jie Xia, Ou-Chen Wang
BACKGROUND: Tracheal and bronchial stenosis is a life-threatening condition causing difficulty in breathing and even severe respiratory distress. The silicone tracheobronchial stents were placed using the rigid bronchoscopy into the trachea of severe dyspneic patients and they exhibited symptomatic improvement as well as a rise in the saturation of oxygen. The bronchial stents were applicable to many extensive malignant airway stenosis patients, such as those with esophageal cancer, lung cancer, and laryngeal cancer...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078687/endobronchial-thermoplasty-for-asthma
#17
REVIEW
Felix Zamora, Roy Cho, Madhuri Rao, Heidi Gibson, H Erhan Dincer
Asthma is an incurable chronic disease affecting approximately 24 million people in the United States. The hallmark features of asthma are reversible airflow obstruction, airway hyperresponsiveness, airway inflammation, bronchoconstriction, and excessive mucus secretion. Clinical symptoms include episodic or persistent breathlessness, wheezing, cough, or chest tightness/pressure. Forty-five percent of asthmatics continue to have yearly exacerbations and the disease is responsible for approximately 3,600 annual deaths...
2017: J Vis Surg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078374/taurine-ameliorates-particulate-matter-induced-emphysema-by-switching-on-mitochondrial-nadh-dehydrogenase-genes
#18
Xiaobo Li, Hongbao Yang, Hao Sun, Runze Lu, Chengcheng Zhang, Na Gao, Qingtao Meng, Shenshen Wu, Susanna Wang, Michael Aschner, Jiong Wu, Boping Tang, Aihua Gu, Steve A Kay, Rui Chen
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been linked to particulate matter (PM) exposure. Using transcriptomic analysis, we demonstrate that diesel exhaust particles, one of the major sources of particulate emission, down-regulated genes located in mitochondrial complexes I and V and induced experimental COPD in a mouse model. 1-Nitropyrene was identified as a major toxic component of PM-induced COPD. In the panel study, COPD patients were found to be more susceptible to PM than individuals with normal lung function due to an increased inflammatory response...
October 25, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075497/traumatic-left-main-bronchial-rupture-delayed-but-successful-outcome-of-robotic-assisted-reconstruction
#19
Hu-Lin C Wang, Cheng-Hung How, Heng-Fu Lin, Jang-Ming Lee
Tracheobronchial injuries are rare but life-threatening conditions in patients with blunt thoracic trauma. The diagnosis and management of such injury may often be delayed due to other concomitant severe injuries. No reported case of a robotic-assisted bronchial reconstruction has ever been performed for a traumatic bronchial injury. A 23-year-old male suffered from traumatic left main bronchial (LMB) rupture with an initial presentation of pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum that eventually progressed to left main bronchus fibrosis and total obstruction, which led to left lung atelectasis and consolidation...
January 2018: Respirology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074542/rv568-a-narrow-spectrum-kinase-inhibitor-with-p38-mapk-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-selectivity-suppresses-copd-inflammation
#20
Catherine E Charron, Paul Russell, Kazuhiro Ito, Simon Lea, Yasuo Kizawa, Charlie Brindley, Dave Singh
Novel anti-inflammatory approaches targeting chronically activated kinase pathways in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are needed. We evaluated RV568, a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-α and -γ and SRC family kinase inhibitor, in cellular and in vivo models relevant to COPD and examined its safety and efficacy in COPD patients.The anti-inflammatory activities of RV568 were tested in primary cultured monocytes, macrophages and bronchial epithelial cells and in vivo in lipopolysaccharide and cigarette smoke-exposed murine models...
October 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
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