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Bronchial obstruction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921210/tight-junctions-in-pulmonary-epithelia-during-lung-inflammation
#1
REVIEW
Oliver H Wittekindt
Inflammatory lung diseases like asthma bronchiale, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and allergic airway inflammation are widespread public diseases that constitute an enormous burden to the health systems. Mainly classified as inflammatory diseases, the treatment focuses on strategies interfering with local inflammatory responses by the immune system. Inflammatory lung diseases predispose patients to severe lung failures like alveolar oedema, respiratory distress syndrome and acute lung injury. These life-threatening syndromes are caused by increased permeability of the alveolar and airway epithelium and exudate formation...
December 5, 2016: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912076/activating-transcription-factor-3-is-essential-for-cigarette-smoke-induced-mucin-expression-via-interaction-with-activator-protein-1
#2
Yan-Ping Wu, Yin-Fang Wu, Chao Zhang, Hong-Bin Zhou, Chao Cao, Miao Li, Chen Zhu, Song-Min Ying, Zhi-Hua Chen, Hua-Hao Shen, Wen Li
Mucus hypersecretion is an important pathologic feature of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) is an adaptive-response gene that participates in various cellular processes. However, little is known about its role in cigarette smoke (CS)-induced mucus hyperproduction. This study aimed to investigate the role and molecular mechanisms of ATF3 in CS-induced Mucin 5AC (MUC5AC) expression. ATF3 was elevated in lung tissues of mice exposed to CS for 12 weeks. Treatment with CS extract significantly induced ATF3 expression and MUC5AC production in human bronchial epithelial cells, NCI-H292, and mouse tracheal epithelial cells...
November 29, 2016: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893684/ct-findings-of-small-cell-lung-carcinoma-can-recognizable-features-be-found
#3
Dongjun Lee, Ji Young Rho, Seunghun Kang, Koun Joy Yoo, Hye Jeong Choi
The purpose of this study was to clarify the recognizable computed tomography (CT) features of small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC).Contrast enhanced CT scans were reviewed retrospectively for mass location, mediastinal extension, and other concomitant findings in 142 patients with pathologically proven SCLC. SCLC was classified into hilar mass only (type I), hilar mass with ipsilateral mediastinal extension (type II), hilar mass with bilateral mediastinal extension (type III), and peripheral mass (type IV). When mediastinal lymphadenopathy (m-LAP) was indistinguishable from a hilar mass, we defined it as a mediastinal conglomerate mass (m-CM)...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889361/adult-bronchiectasis-patients-a-first-look-at-the-united-states-bronchiectasis-research-registry
#4
Timothy R Aksamit, Anne E O'Donnell, Alan Barker, Kenneth N Olivier, Kevin L Winthrop, M Leigh Anne Daniels, Margaret Johnson, Edward Eden, David Griffith, Michael Knowles, Mark Metersky, Matthias Salathe, Byron Thomashow, Gregory Tino, Gerard Turino, Betsy Carretta, Charles L Daley
OBJECTIVE: We sought to describe the characteristics of adult bronchiectasis patients enrolled in the United States Bronchiectasis Research Registry (BRR). METHODS: The BRR is a database of non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis (NCFB) patients enrolled at 13 sites within the United States. Baseline demographic, spirometric, imaging, microbiologic, and therapeutic data were entered into a central web-based database. Patients were subsequently analyzed by the presence NTM...
November 23, 2016: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886850/cellular-senescence-and-autophagy-in-the-pathogenesis-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-copd-and-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-ipf
#5
REVIEW
Kazuyoshi Kuwano, Jun Araya, Hiromichi Hara, Shunsuke Minagawa, Naoki Takasaka, Saburo Ito, Kenji Kobayashi, Katsutoshi Nakayama
Aging is associated with impairments in homeostasis. Although aging and senescence are not equivalent, the number of senescent cells increases with aging. Cellular senescence plays important roles in tissue repair or remodeling, as well as embryonic development. Autophagy is a process of lysosomal self-degradation that maintains a homeostatic balance between the synthesis, degradation, and recycling of cellular proteins. Autophagy diminishes with aging; additionally, accelerated aging can be attributed to reduced autophagy...
November 2016: Respiratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875656/involvement-of-jnk-in-tnf%C3%AE-driven-remodelling
#6
Irene Mj Eurlings, Niki L Reynaert, Cheryl van de Wetering, Scott W Aesif, Evi M Mercken, Rafael de Cabo, Jos L van der Velden, Yvonne M Janssen-Heininger, Emiel F M Wouters, Mieke A Dentener
Lung tissue remodeling in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by airway wall thickening and/or emphysema. Although the bronchial and alveolar compartments are functionally independent entities, we recently showed comparable alterations in matrix composition comprised of decreased elastin content and increased collagen and hyaluronan contents of alveolar and small airway walls. Out of several animal models tested SPC-TNFα mice showed remodelling in alveolar and airway walls similar to what is observed in COPD patients...
November 22, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874084/silymarin-attenuates-cigarette-smoke-extract-induced-inflammation-via-simultaneous-inhibition-of-autophagy-and-erk-p38-mapk-pathway-in-human-bronchial-epithelial-cells
#7
Diandian Li, Jun Hu, Tao Wang, Xue Zhang, Lian Liu, Hao Wang, Yanqiu Wu, Dan Xu, Fuqiang Wen
Cigarette smoke (CS) is a major risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), contributing to airway inflammation. Our previous study revealed that silymarin had an anti-inflammatory effect in CS-exposed mice. In this study, we attempt to further elucidate the molecular mechanisms of silymarin in CS extract (CSE)-induced inflammation using human bronchial epithelial cells. Silymarin significantly suppressed autophagy activation and the activity of ERK/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in Beas-2B cells...
November 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867582/central-airway-tumors-interventional-bronchoscopy-in-diagnosis-and-management
#8
REVIEW
Chun-Yu Lin, Fu-Tsai Chung
The diagnosis of central airway tumors is usually challenging because of the vague presentations. Advances in visualization technology in bronchoscopy aid early detection of bronchial lesion. Cryotechnology has great impact on endobronchial lesion sampling and provides better diagnostic yield. Airway tumor involvements result in significant alteration in life quality and lead to poor life expectancy. Timely and efficiently use ablation techniques by heat or cold energy provide symptoms relief for central airway obstruction...
October 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865842/decreasing-smpd1-activity-in-beas-2b-bronchial-airway-epithelial-cells-results-in-increased-nrf2-activity-cytokine-synthesis-and-neutrophil-recruitment
#9
Elyse MacFadden-Murphy, Lucie Roussel, Guy Martel, Julie Bérubé, Simon Rousseau
Niemann-Pick disease (NPD) type B is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by variable levels of impairment in sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 1 (SMPD1) activity. Lung involvement is the most important prognostic factor in NPD-B, with recurrent respiratory infections starting in infancy being the major cause of morbidity and mortality. We hypothesized that decreased SMPD1 activity impaired airway epithelium host defense response. SMPD1 activity was reduced using inducible shRNA. Surprisingly, decreasing SMPD1 activity by 50%, resulted in increased neutrophil recruitment, both at baseline and in response to bacterial stimulation...
November 16, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861566/findings-on-thoracic-computed-tomography-scans-and-respiratory-outcomes-in-persons-with-and-without-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-a-population-based-cohort-study
#10
Wan C Tan, Cameron J Hague, Jonathon Leipsic, Jean Bourbeau, Liyun Zheng, Pei Z Li, Don D Sin, Harvey O Coxson, Miranda Kirby, James C Hogg, Rekha Raju, Jeremy Road, Denis E O'Donnell, Francois Maltais, Paul Hernandez, Robert Cowie, Kenneth R Chapman, Darcy D Marciniuk, J Mark FitzGerald, Shawn D Aaron
BACKGROUND: Thoracic computed tomography (CT) scans are widely performed in clinical practice, often leading to detection of airway or parenchymal abnormalities in asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic individuals. However, clinical relevance of CT abnormalities is uncertain in the general population. METHODS: We evaluated data from 1361 participants aged ≥40 years from a Canadian prospective cohort comprising 408 healthy never-smokers, 502 healthy ever-smokers, and 451 individuals with spirometric evidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who had thoracic CT scans...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855687/diagnostic-accuracy-of-methacholine-challenge-tests-assessing-airway-hyperreactivity-in-asthmatic-patients-a-multifunctional-approach
#11
Richard Kraemer, Hans-Jürgen Smith, Thomas Sigrist, Gabi Giger, Roland Keller, Martin Frey
BACKGROUND: There are few studies comparing diagnostic accuracy of different lung function parameters evaluating dose-response characteristics of methacholine (MCH) challenge tests (MCT) as quantitative outcome of airway hyperreactivity (AHR) in asthmatic patients. The aim of this retrospectively analysis of our database (Clinic Barmelweid, Switzerland) was, to assess diagnostic accuracy of several lung function parameters quantitating AHR by dose-response characteristics. METHODS: Changes in effective specific airway conductance (sGeff) as estimate of the degree of bronchial obstruction were compared with concomitantly measured forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and forced expiratory flows at 50% forced vital capacity (FEF50)...
November 17, 2016: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846662/-the-lymphoid-variant-of-hes-l-hes-as-differential-diagnose-of-severe-asthma-in-childhood
#12
T Leu, S Rauthe, C Wirth, H-U Simon, V Kunzmann, H Hebestreit, S Kunzmann
Based on a case report an overview on the differential diagnostic considerations with respect to blood hypereosinophilia (HE) and hypereosinophilic syndromes (HES) in childhood is given. A 13-year-old boy was admitted for the clarification of an asthma. In the blood count an increased HE with 3 500/µl (30%) was found along with elevated total serum IgE and IL-5 level (2 000 IU/ml and 17 pg/ml). Lung function showed an obstruction (FEV1 38%). Radiologically the picture of bronchiectasis and mucus pluggine appeared...
November 2016: Klinische Pädiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843852/prevalence-of-chronic-respiratory-disorders-in-a-rural-area-of-north-west-india-a-population-based-study
#13
Vinod Sharma, Rajiv Kumar Gupta, D S Jamwal, Sunil Kumar Raina, Bhavana Langer, Rashmi Kumari
INTRODUCTION: Chronic respiratory diseases are an important cause of disability across the globe. The global burden of these diseases is showing a discernible upward trend. It is estimated that 500 million people suffer from them. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted with the aim to estimate the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in a rural Indian population. For this, a population-based survey was conducted using modified British Medical Research Council questionnaire...
April 2016: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843310/platelet-lymphocyte-ratios-a-potential-marker-for-pulmonary-tuberculosis-diagnosis-in-copd-patients
#14
Guozhong Chen, Chunling Wu, Zhiying Luo, Yiming Teng, Suping Mao
BACKGROUND: In recent decades, morbidity and mortality have been found to be significantly increased in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) complicated with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). Platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) is an indicator for inflammatory diseases. This study aims to investigate whether PLR could act as a potential marker for patients with COPD complicated with PTB. METHODS: In this retrospective study, laboratory characteristics of 87 COPD patients complicated with PTB (determined by Mycobacterium tuberculosis positive culture from sputum or bronchial lavage fluid) and 83 COPD patients (as the control group, determined by M...
2016: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832774/spirometric-variability-in-smokers-transitions-in-copd-diagnosis-in-a-five-year-longitudinal-study
#15
Akshay Sood, Hans Petersen, Clifford Qualls, Paula M Meek, Rodrigo Vazquez-Guillamet, Bartolome R Celli, Yohannes Tesfaigzi
BACKGROUND: Spirometrically-defined chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is considered progressive but its natural history is inadequately studied. We hypothesized that spirometrically-defined COPD states could undergo beneficial transitions. METHODS: Participants in the Lovelace Smokers' Cohort (n = 1553), primarily women, were longitudinally studied over 5 years. Spirometric states included normal postbronchodilator spirometry, COPD Stage I, Unclassified state, and COPD Stage II+, as defined by GOLD guidelines...
November 10, 2016: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829448/the-bronchial-epithelial-cell-bacterial-microbiome-and-host-response-in-patients-infected-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus
#16
Marc A Sze, Stella Xu, Janice M Leung, Emily A Vucic, Tawimas Shaipanich, Aida Moghadam, Marianne Harris, Silvia Guillemi, Sunita Sinha, Corey Nislow, Darra Murphy, Cameron Hague, Jonathon Leipsic, Stephen Lam, Wan Lam, Julio S Montaner, Don D Sin, S F Paul Man
BACKGROUND: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is an important comorbidity in patients living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Previous bacterial microbiome studies have shown increased abundance of specific bacterium, like Tropheryma whipplei, and no overall community differences. However, the host response to the lung microbiome is unknown in patients infected with HIV. METHODS: Two bronchial brush samples were obtained from 21 HIV-infected patients...
November 9, 2016: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829065/cigarette-smoke-modulates-repair-and-innate-immunity-following-injury-to-airway-epithelial-cells
#17
Gimano D Amatngalim, Winifred Broekman, Nadia M Daniel, Luciën E P M van der Vlugt, Annemarie van Schadewijk, Christian Taube, Pieter S Hiemstra
Cigarette smoking is the main risk factor associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and contributes to COPD development and progression by causing epithelial injury and inflammation. Whereas it is known that cigarette smoke (CS) may affect the innate immune function of airway epithelial cells and epithelial repair, this has so far not been explored in an integrated design using mucociliary differentiated airway epithelial cells. In this study, we examined the effect of whole CS exposure on wound repair and the innate immune activity of mucociliary differentiated primary bronchial epithelial cells, upon injury induced by disruption of epithelial barrier integrity or by mechanical wounding...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817752/right-aortic-arch-with-isolation-of-the-left-subclavian-artery-a-rare-association-with-airway-obstruction
#18
Putri Yubbu, Haifa A Latiff, Abdel Moneim Adam Abbaker
We present two interesting cases of isolated left subclavian artery from the pulmonary artery with symptoms of upper airway obstruction. The first patient had tetralogy of Fallot, pulmonary artery sling, bilateral superior caval veins, and left bronchial isomerism, suggesting heterotaxy syndrome. The second patient had a right aortic arch, isolated left subclavian artery, and bilateral arterial ducts. These two cases are interesting because of their rarity and uncommon presentation.
November 7, 2016: Cardiology in the Young
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803849/effects-of-air-pollution-and-seasonality-on-the-respiratory-symptoms-and-health-related-quality-of-life-hr-qol-of-outpatients-with-chronic-respiratory-disease-in-ulaanbaatar-pilot-study-for-the-comparison-of-the-cold-and-warm-seasons
#19
Motoyuki Nakao, Keiko Yamauchi, Yoko Ishihara, Bandi Solongo, Dashtseren Ichinnorov
BACKGROUND: This study was performed to investigate the effects of air pollution and seasonality on the respiratory symptoms and health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) of outpatients with respiratory diseases in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. Subjects were outpatients who visited the hospital with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) or bronchial asthma (BA) in March. Their symptoms and HR-QoL were evaluated using a questionnaire including the SF-36v2 and COOP/WONCA charts in March, May and July...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803787/anti-inflammatory-effect-of-yu-ping-feng-san-via-tgf-%C3%AE-1-signaling-suppression-in-rat-model-of-copd
#20
Zhong-Shan Yang, Jin-Yuan Yan, Ni-Ping Han, Wei Zhou, Yu Cheng, Xiao-Mei Zhang, Ning Li, Jia-Li Yuan
OBJECTIVES: Yu-Ping-Feng-San (YPFS) is a classical traditional Chinese medicine that is widely used for treatment of the diseases in respiratory systems, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) recognized as chronic inflammatory disease. However, the molecular mechanism remains unclear. Here we detected the factors involved in transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1)/Smad2 signaling pathway and inflammatory cytokines, to clarify whether YPFS could attenuate inflammatory response dependent on TGF-β1/Smad2 signaling in COPD rats or cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-treated human bronchial epithelial (Beas-2B) cells...
September 2016: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
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