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Bronchial obstruction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220305/homeobox-wnt-and-fibroblast-growth-factor-signaling-is-augmented-during-alveogenesis-in-mice-lacking-superoxide-dismutase-3-extracellular
#1
Tania A Thimraj, Rahel L Birru, Ankita Mitra, Holger Schulz, George D Leikauf, Koustav Ganguly
Superoxide dismutase 3, extracellular (SOD3) polymorphisms have been implicated in reduced pulmonary function development and altered risk for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We previously reported that gene-targeted Sod3-/- mice have impaired lung function and human SOD3 variants are associated with reduced pulmonary function in children. Reduced lung SOD3 levels were reported in mice with lower lung function with the greatest difference occurring during alveogenesis phase [postnatal (P) days 14-28]...
February 20, 2017: Lung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205598/lyn-regulates-mucus-secretion-and-muc5ac-via-the-stat6-signaling-pathway-during-allergic-airway-inflammation
#2
Xiaoyun Wang, Yin Li, Deyu Luo, Xing Wang, Yun Zhang, Zhigang Liu, Nanshan Zhong, Min Wu, Guoping Li
Hypersecretion of mucus is an important component of airway remodeling and contributes to the mucus plugs and airflow obstruction associated with severe asthma phenotypes. Lyn has been shown to down-regulate allergen-induced airway inflammation. However, the role of Lyn in mucin gene expression remains unresolved. In this study, we first demonstrate that Lyn overexpression decreased the mucus hypersecretion and levels of the muc5ac transcript in mice exposed to ovalbumin (OVA). Lyn overexpression also decreased the infiltration of inflammatory cells and the levels of IL-13 and IL-4 in OVA-challenged airways...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203395/the-bronchial-obstruction-as-a-complication-of-endovascular-repair-of-aortic-pseudoaneurysm-in-beh%C3%A3-et-s-disease
#3
REVIEW
Mahmut Yesin, Cüneyt Toprak, Emrah Acar, Macit Kalçık, Ahmet Erdal Taşçı, Selçuk Pala
Behçet's disease (BD) is an autoimmune disorder affecting multiple organs. Aortic pseudoaneurysm is the most catastrophic lesion in BD. This lesion type is considered as a complicated and challenging pathology by surgeons because of the technical operative difficulties and frequent recurrence. So, the endovascular repair of inflammatory aortic pseudoaneurysm has been used as an alternative to open surgical repair. It is particularly important in patients who are high-risk surgical candidates because of comorbidities...
September 2016: Interventional Medicine & Applied Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198987/the-content-of-mucin-muc-2-3-and-4-antigens-in-the-bronchial-mucosa-membrane-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-patients-during-acute-exacerbation-initial-report
#4
Svetlana Kovalenko, Andrey Dorofieiev
INTRODUCTION: Changes in mucin production and dyscrinia are common features of inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Immunohistochemical assessment of MUC-2, MUC-3, MUC-4 expression in the integumentary epithelium, goblet cells, the epithelium of mucous glands and stroma fusiform cells of the bronchial mucosa of COPD patients during an infectious and noninfectious exacerbation was performed. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 30 patients with stage III COPD were enrolled to the study...
2017: Adv Respir Med
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196638/japanese-guidelines-for-adult-asthma-2017
#5
REVIEW
Masakazu Ichinose, Hisatoshi Sugiura, Hiroyuki Nagase, Masao Yamaguchi, Hiromasa Inoue, Hironori Sagara, Jun Tamaoki, Yuji Tohda, Mitsuru Munakata, Kohei Yamauchi, Ken Ohta
Adult bronchial asthma is characterized by chronic airway inflammation, and presents clinically with variable airway narrowing (wheezes and dyspnea) and cough. Long-standing asthma induces airway remodeling, leading to intractable asthma. The number of patients with asthma has increased; however, the number of patients who die of asthma has decreased (1.2 per 100,000 patients in 2015). The goal of asthma treatment is to enable patients with asthma to attain normal pulmonary function and lead a normal life, without any symptoms...
February 11, 2017: Allergology International: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191362/the-anti-inflammatory-effect-of-alpha-1-antitrypsin-in-rhinovirus-infected-human-airway-epithelial-cells
#6
Di Jiang, Reena Berman, Qun Wu, Connor Stevenson, Hong Wei Chu
OBJECTIVE: Excessive airway inflammation is seen in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients experiencing acute exacerbations, which are often associated with human rhinovirus (HRV) infection. Alpha-1 antitrypsin (A1AT) has anti-inflammatory function in endothelial cells and monocytes, but its anti-inflammatory effect has not been investigated in COPD airway epithelial cells. We determined A1AT's anti-inflammatory function in COPD airway epithelial cells and the underlying mechanisms such as the role of caspase-1...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186975/amp-activated-protein-kinase-reduces-inflammatory-responses-and-cellular-senescence-in-pulmonary-emphysema
#7
Xiao-Yu Cheng, Yang-Yang Li, Cheng Huang, Jun Li, Hong-Wei Yao
Current drug therapy fails to reduce lung destruction of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has emerged as an important integrator of signals that control energy balance and lipid metabolism. However, there are no studies regarding the role of AMPK in reducing inflammatory responses and cellular senescence during the development of emphysema. Therefore, we hypothesize that AMPK reduces inflammatroy responses, senescence, and lung injury. To test this hypothesis, human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) and small airway epithelial cells (SAECs) were treated with cigarette smoke extract (CSE) in the presence of a specific AMPK activator (AICAR, 1 mM) and inhibitor (Compound C, 5 μM)...
February 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185985/activating-transcription-factor-3-represses-cigarette-smoke-induced-il6-and-il8-expression-via-suppressing-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation
#8
Yan-Ping Wu, Chao Cao, Yin-Fang Wu, Miao Li, Tian-Wen Lai, Chen Zhu, Yong Wang, Song-Min Ying, Zhi-Hua Chen, Hua-Hao Shen, Wen Li
Airway and lung inflammation is a fundamental hallmark of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) has been reported to negatively regulate many pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. However, little is known about the impact of ATF3 on the inflammatory response of COPD. Since cigarette smoke (CS) is considered to be the most important risk factor in the etiology of COPD, we attempted to investigate the effects and molecular mechanisms of ATF3 in CS-induced inflammation...
February 6, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178715/infectious-causes-of-right-middle-lobe-syndrome
#9
Aatif Rashid, Sowmya Nanjappa, John N Greene
Right middle lobe (RML) syndrome is defined as recurrent or chronic obstruction or infection of the middle lobe of the right lung. Nonobstructive causes of middle lobe syndrome include inflammatory processes and defects in the bronchial anatomy and collateral ventilation. We report on 2 case patients with RML syndrome, one due to infection with Mycobacterium avium complex followed by M asiaticum infection and the other due to allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. A history of atopy, asthma, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease has been reported in up to one-half of those with RML...
January 2017: Cancer Control: Journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178581/inflammatory-myofibroblastic-tumor-of-mediastinum-with-esophageal-and-bronchial-invasion-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#10
Vineet Gorolay, Bronwyn Jones
We report a case of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the posterior mediastinum and describe radiological features demonstrated on fluoro-esophagogram, computed tomography and positron-emission tomography. Fluoroscopic video-esophagogram was remarkable for an unusual polypoid lesion associated with partial esophageal obstruction and features of secondary achalasia. Computed tomography (CT) examination demonstrated coarse calcifications and air pockets, while unusual clinical features included an intraluminal esophageal lesion and local recurrence with endobronchial lesion...
September 28, 2016: Clinical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176948/theophylline-action-on-primary-human-bronchial-epithelial-cells-under-proinflammatory-stimuli-and-steroidal-drugs-a-therapeutic-rationale-approach
#11
Luca Gallelli, Daniela Falcone, Roberto Cannataro, Mariarita Perri, Raffaele Serra, Girolamo Pelaia, Rosario Maselli, Rocco Savino, Giuseppe Spaziano, Bruno D'Agostino
Theophylline is a natural compound present in tea. Because of its property to relax smooth muscle it is used in pharmacology for the treatment of airway diseases (ie, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma). However, this effect on smooth muscle is dose dependent and it is related to the development of side effects. Recently, an increasing body of evidence suggests that theophylline, at low concentrations, also has anti-inflammatory effects related to the activation of histone deacetylases. In this study, we evaluated the effects of theophylline alone and in combination with corticosteroids on human bronchial epithelial cells under inflammatory stimuli...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171878/antibacterial-defense-of-human-airway-epithelial-cells-from-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-patients-induced-by-acute-exposure-to-nontypeable-haemophilus-influenzae-modulation-by-cigarette-smoke
#12
Gimano D Amatngalim, Jasmijn A Schrumpf, Almira Henic, Esther Dronkers, Renate M Verhoosel, Soledad R Ordonez, Henk P Haagsman, Maria E Fuentes, Sriram Sridhar, Jamil Aarbiou, Richard A J Janssen, Annemarie N Lekkerkerker, Pieter S Hiemstra
Antimicrobial proteins and peptides (AMPs) are a central component of the antibacterial activity of airway epithelial cells. It has been proposed that a decrease in antibacterial lung defense contributes to an increased susceptibility to microbial infection in smokers and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, whether reduced AMP expression in the epithelium contributes to this lower defense is largely unknown. We investigated the bacterial killing activity and expression of AMPs by air-liquid interface-cultured primary bronchial epithelial cells from COPD patients and non-COPD (ex-)smokers that were stimulated with nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi)...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166070/prevalence-of-respiratory-diseases-according-to-spirometry-findings-among-patients-attending-the-spirometry-department-of-dhulikhel-hospital
#13
B K Prajapati, S Pradhan
Background Spirometry is a standard test for screening and evaluation of patients with symptoms of cough and shortness of breath. Despite its easy availability, low cost and ease of performance it has not been widely used in clinical practice in Nepal. Objective To assess the prevalence of respiratory diseases in a regional referral centre in patients referred for spirometry. Method This is a descriptive cross-sectional study including patients referred for spirometry to the spirometry unit of Dhulikhel Hospital, Kathmandu University Hospital from 2014 July to 2015 October...
April 2016: Kathmandu University Medical Journal (KUMJ)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164255/late-onset-asthma-a-diagnostic-and-management-challenge
#14
Charlotte Suppli Ulrik
Late-onset asthma is common, associated with poor outcome, underdiagnosed and undertreated, possibly due to the modifying effect of ageing on disease expression. Although the diagnostic work-up in elderly individuals suspected of having asthma follows the same steps as in younger individuals (case history and spirometry), it is important to acknowledge that elderly individuals are likely to have diminished bronchodilator reversibility and some degree of fixed airflow obstruction. Elderly individuals, therefore, often require further objective tests, including bronchial challenge testing, to objectively confirm asthma...
February 6, 2017: Drugs & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163029/airway-hyperresponsiveness-in-asthma-measurement-and-clinical-relevance
#15
REVIEW
Parameswaran Nair, James G Martin, Donald C Cockcroft, Myrna Dolovich, Catherine Lemiere, Louis-Philippe Boulet, Paul M O'Byrne
Airway hyperresponsiveness is a characteristic feature of asthma, and its measurement is an important tool in its diagnosis. With a few caveats, methacholine bronchial provocation by a 2-minute tidal breathing method is highly sensitive; a negative test result (PC20 > 16 mg/mL, PD20 > 400 μg) rules out current asthma with reasonable certainty. A PC20 value of less than 1 mg/mL/PD20 value of less than 25 μg is highly specific (ie, diagnostic) but quite insensitive for asthma. For accurate interpretation of the test results, it is important to control and standardize technical factors that have an impact on nebulizer performance...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160713/a-case-of-bronchial-granular-cell-tumor-in-a-pediatric-patient
#16
Yonah B Esterson, Morris C Edelman, Aaron M Lipskar, Lawrence R Glassman, Peter Assaad
Only nine cases of bronchial granular cell tumor have previously been reported in pediatric patients. We present a 15-year-old girl with acute-onset right shoulder pain, discovered to have a granular cell tumor causing bronchial stenosis and a cavitating post-obstructive right upper lobe pneumonia. The patient was treated with lobectomy. Bronchial granular cell tumors are benign neoplasms that typically present with recurrent pneumonia. Imaging may demonstrate an endobronchial lesion or an associated post-obstructive opacity, but diagnosis requires tissue sampling...
January 25, 2017: Clinical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149577/tracheal-and-bronchial-tumors
#17
REVIEW
Patricio Varela, Luca Pio, Elisa Brandigi, Irene Paraboschi, Nazhia Khen-Dunlop, Erik Hervieux, Cecile Muller, Girolamo Mattioli, Sabine Sarnacki, Michele Torre
Although primary tracheobronchial tumors are extremely rare in children, recurrent respiratory symptoms resistant to conventional therapy require further investigations to exclude possible malignant obstructive causes. As the matter of fact, early diagnosis may allow minimally invasive surgeries, improving the standard of living and the globally survival rate. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of diagnosis and management of tracheobronchial tumors in the early age, since only few reports are reported in the worldwide literature...
December 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149545/segmental-bronchi-collapsibility-computed-tomography-based-quantification-in-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-and-correlation-with-emphysema-phenotype-corresponding-lung-volume-changes-and-clinical-parameters
#18
Christopher Kloth, Wolfgang Maximilian Thaiss, Hendrik Ditt, Jürgen Hetzel, Eva Schülen, Konstantin Nikolaou, Marius Horger
BACKGROUND: Global pulmonary function tests lack region specific differentiation that might influence therapy in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. Therefore, the aim of this work was to assess the degree of expiratory 3(rd) generation bronchial lumen collapsibility in patients with severe COPD using chest-computed tomography (CT), to evaluate emphysema-phenotype, lobar volumes and correlate results with pulmonary function tests. METHODS: Thin-slice chest-CTs acquired at end-inspiration & end-expiration in 42 COPD GOLD IV patients (19 females, median-age: 65...
December 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145442/elevated-gdf-15-contributes-to-pulmonary-inflammation-upon-cigarette-smoke-exposure
#19
F M Verhamme, L J M Seys, E G De Smet, S Provoost, W Janssens, D Elewaut, G F Joos, G G Brusselle, K R Bracke
The molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are still unclear, however signaling pathways associated with lung development, such as the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β superfamily, could be implicated in COPD. Growth differentiation factor (GDF)-15, a member of the TGF-β superfamily, is involved in inflammation, mucus secretion, and cachexia. We analyzed the pulmonary expression of GDF-15 in smokers and patients with COPD, in cigarette smoke (CS)-exposed cultures of primary human bronchial epithelial cells (pHBECs), and in CS-exposed mice...
February 1, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144054/current-trends-of-management-of-respiratory-diseases-by-pulmonologists-results-of-national-conference-of-pulmonary-disease-2015-survey
#20
Sheetu Singh, Nishtha Singh
CONTEXT: Respiratory diseases are a common problem in our country and these are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. AIMS: The aim of the paper was to analyze the pattern of diagnostic tests used and treatment prescribed for common respiratory diseases. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A total of 1028 pulmonologists, either member of Indian Chest Society or delegate attending the National Conference of Pulmonary Diseases (NAPCON) 2015, participated in the online survey...
January 2017: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
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