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Bronchial obstruction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101900/bronchial-thermoplasty-in-severe-asthma-in-australia
#1
David Langton, Joy Sha, Alvin Ing, David Fielding, Erica Wood
BACKGROUND: Bronchial thermoplasty is an approved bronchoscopic intervention for the treatment of severe asthma. However, limited published experience exists outside of clinical trials regarding patient selection and outcomes achieved. Aims To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of bronchial thermoplasty in patients with severe asthma encountered in clinical practice. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of the first 'real world' data from Australia. The following outcomes were measured prior to, and 6 months following bronchial thermoplasty: Spirometry, Asthma Control Questionnaire-5 (ACQ-5) score, reliever and preventer medication use, and exacerbation history...
January 19, 2017: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101662/strategies-to-prevent-cast-formation-in-patients-with-plastic-bronchitis-undergoing-heart-transplantation
#2
John J Parent, Robert K Darragh, Jeffrey G Gossett, Thomas D Ryan, Chet R Villa, Angela Lorts, John L Jefferies, Jeffrey A Towbin, Clifford Chin
Plastic bronchitis, a rare complication after Fontan palliation, carries a high morbidity and mortality risk. Heart transplantation is an effective treatment option, but casts may occur in the early post-operative period. We present a case series detailing peri-operative management strategies to minimize morbidity and mortality related to plastic bronchitis in patients undergoing heart transplantation. Patient 1 received no treatment pre-, intra-, or post-transplant for prevention of bronchial casts and developed severe respiratory acidosis 18 h following transplant...
January 19, 2017: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100929/quantitative-computed-tomography-analysis-of-the-airways-in-patients-with-cystic-fibrosis-using-automated-software-correlation-with-spirometry-in-the-evaluation-of-severity
#3
Marcel Koenigkam Santos, Danilo Lemos Cruvinel, Marcelo Bezerra de Menezes, Sara Reis Teixeira, Elcio de Oliveira Vianna, Jorge Elias Júnior, José Antonio Baddini Martinez
OBJECTIVE: To perform a quantitative analysis of the airways using automated software, in computed tomography images of patients with cystic fibrosis, correlating the results with spirometric findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-four patients with cystic fibrosis were studied-20 males and 14 females; mean age 18 ± 9 years-divided into two groups according to the spirometry findings: group I (n = 21), without severe airflow obstruction (forced expiratory volume in first second [FEV1] > 50% predicted), and group II (n = 13), with severe obstruction (FEV1 ≤ 50% predicted)...
November 2016: Radiologia Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096997/bronchial-tree-shaped-mucous-plug-in-cystic-fibrosis-imaging-guided-management
#4
Ignazio Salamone, Baldassare Mondello, Maria Cristina Lucanto, Simona Cristadoro, Mariangela Lombardo, Mario Barone
We report the case of a 17-year-old boy with cystic fibrosis (CF) who presented with persistent cough; after starting intravenous antibiotics for Pseudomonas aeruginosa he underwent a computed tomography (CT) scan of the chest. CT revealed extensive consolidation in the right lower lobe with relative bronchus obstruction; the cause of bronchial obstruction was detected in the mediastinal window, corresponding to a bronchial tree-shaped, thick, tenacious mucous plug. This was extracted 48 h after unresponsive bronchial washing and endobronchial instillation of rhDNAse, using foreign-body forceps, with subsequent resolution of cough...
March 2017: Respirology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092612/evaluation-of-serum-cytokine-levels-in-recurrent-airway-obstruction
#5
A Niedźwiedź, H Borowicz, K Kubiak, J Nicpoń, P Skrzypczak, Z Jaworski, M Cegielski, J Nicpoń
Recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) represents a serious health problem and is traditionally classified as an allergic disease, where contact with an antigen can induce clinical airway inflammation, bronchial hyper-responsiveness and reversible airway obstruction. Previous studies have demonstrated the presence of the Th2 response in the lungs of human patients with asthma and horses with heaves. These cells are involved in the production of cytokines which regulate the synthesis of immunoglobulins. 40 horses were evaluated: 30 horses with RAO and 10 healthy animals...
December 1, 2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088955/-effect-of-kr%C3%A3-ppel-like-zinc-finger-transcription-factor-2-on-%C3%AE-glutamylcysteine-synthetase-in-bronchial-epithelial-cells-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#6
J Li, A G Dai, C Y Huang, R C Hu
Objective: To research the regulation effects of Krüppel like zinc finger transcription factor 2 (KLF2) on γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS) in airway epithelial cells of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods: (1) Human specimen experiment: lung tissue of pulmonary lobectomy patients with lung cancer with or without COPD was collected from Department of Thoracic Surgery of Hunan Cancer Hospital from December 2008 to December 2009. The patients were divided into COPD group and control group without COPD...
January 10, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066618/tracheal-and-bronchial-stenoses-and-other-obstructive-conditions
#7
REVIEW
Claudia Schweiger, Aliza P Cohen, Michael J Rutter
Although tracheal stenosis and bronchial stenosis are relatively rare in the pediatric population, they are both associated with significant morbidity and mortality. While most cases of congenital tracheal stenosis in children present as complete tracheal rings (CTRs), other congenital tracheal obstructions are also encountered in clinical practice. In addition, acquired obstructive tracheal conditions stemming from endotracheal trauma or previous surgical interventions may occur. Many affected children also have associated cardiovascular malformations, further complicating their management...
November 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066616/techniques-of-endoscopic-airway-tumor-treatment
#8
REVIEW
Nicolas Guibert, Laurent Mhanna, Sylvain Droneau, Gavin Plat, Alain Didier, Julien Mazieres, Christophe Hermant
Interventional bronchoscopy has a predominant role in the management of both early and advanced-stage airway tumors. Given the very poor prognosis of lung cancer, there is a need for new tools to improve early detection and bronchoscopic treatment of endo-bronchial precancerous lesions. In more advanced stages, interventional bronchoscopy plays an important role, as nearly a third of lung cancers lead to proximal airway obstruction. This will cause great discomfort or even life-threatening symptoms related to local extension, such as dyspnea, post-obstructive pneumonia, and hemoptysis...
November 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066610/the-application-of-autologous-pulmonary-artery-in-surgical-correction-of-complicated-aortic-arch-anomaly
#9
Shusheng Wen, Jianzheng Cen, Jimei Chen, Gang Xu, Biaochuan He, Yun Teng, Jian Zhuang
BACKGROUND: In the patients with longer-segment aortic arch hypoplasia or interruption with ventricular septal defect, surgery with homograft vessel or autologous pericardial patch to augment descending aortic arch will not result in adverse reactions caused by end-to-end anastomosis. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed primary experience of surgical correction of complicated aortic arch anomaly with autologous main pulmonary artery. METHODS: From July 2010 to March 2016, the twenty-one cases of aortic arch complex anomalies were reconstructed with autologous main pulmonary artery...
November 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066584/overexpression-of-farnesoid-x-receptor-in-small-airways-contributes-to-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-and-cox-2-expression-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#10
Bi Chen, Wen-Jie You, Shan Xue, Hui Qin, Xu-Ji Zhao, Miao Zhang, Xue-Qing Liu, Shu-Yang Zhu, Han-Dong Jiang
BACKGROUND: Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) contribute to airway remodelling and inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Recent data suggest that the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), a nuclear receptor traditionally considered as bile acid-activated receptor, is also expressed in non-classical bile acids target tissues with novel functions beyond regulating bile acid homeostasis. This study aimed to investigate the potential role of FXR in the development of COPD, as well as factors that affect FXR expression...
November 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064485/astragalin-inhibits-allergic-inflammation-and-airway-thickening-in-ovalbumin-challenged-mice
#11
Yun-Ho Kim, Yean-Jung Choi, Min-Kyung Kang, Sin-Hye Park, Lucia Dwi Antika, Eun-Jung Lee, Dong Yeon Kim, Young-Hee Kang
Lung inflammation and oxidative stress are the major contributors to the development of obstructive pulmonary diseases. Macrophages are involved in pulmonary inflammation and alveolar damage in emphysema. Astragalin is an anti-inflammatory flavonoid present in persimmon leaves and green tea seeds. This study elucidated that astragalin inhibited inflammatory cell infiltration induced by 20 μM H2O2 and blocked airway thickening and alveolar emphysema induced by 20 μg of ovalbumin (OVA) in mice. OVA induced mouse pulmonary MCP-1, and H2O2 enhanced the expression of MCP-1/ICAM-1/αv integrin in bronchial airway epithelial BEAS-2B cells...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063900/smoker-extracellular-vesicles-influence-status-of-human-bronchial-epithelial-cells
#12
Amélie Héliot, Yann Landkocz, Françoise Roy Saint-Georges, Pierre Gosset, Sylvain Billet, Pirouz Shirali, Dominique Courcot, Perrine J Martin
Cigarette smoking is a habit that has spread all over the world and is a significant risk factor for many diseases including cardiovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma and lung cancer. Evaluation and understanding of tobacco health effects are of major interest worldwide and answer to important societal concerns. Identification of new biomarkers of exposure to tobacco smoke potentially implicated in COPD or lung carcinogenesis would allow a better observation of tobacco exposed population, thanks to screening establishment at reversible stages of pathological processes...
December 30, 2016: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052294/comparison-of-three-screening-questionnaires-for-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-in-the-primary-care
#13
Dionisios Spyratos, Anna-Bettina Haidich, Diamantis Chloros, Dionisia Michalopoulou, Lazaros Sichletidis
BACKGROUND: Even though the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is easy and based mainly on spirometry and symptoms, the prevalence of underdiagnosis is extremely high. The use of simple screening tools (e.g., questionnaires, hand-held spirometers) has been proved to be a simple method for case finding of COPD. Nevertheless the most appropriate target group of the general population has not been specified yet. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to compare 3 screening questionnaires among smokers aged >40 years in the primary care setting...
January 5, 2017: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051241/effects-of-omalizumab-therapy-on-allergic-rhinitis-a-pilot-study
#14
S Masieri, C Cavaliere, E Begvarfaj, D Rosati, A Minni
OBJECTIVE: The use of omalizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody able to binding Ig-E, is currently authorized only for treatment of severe bronchial asthma. The use of omalizumab in other Ig-E related diseases is off-label, although some studies have provided promising results about it. The aim of this study was to evaluate if therapy with omalizumab in patients affected by asthma and allergic rhinitis has an impact also on allergic rhinitis-related symptoms. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A longitudinal study was conducted on 11 patients affected by severe asthma and a periodic allergic rhinitis...
December 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049170/airway-inflammation-in-copd-after-long-term-withdrawal-of-inhaled-corticosteroids
#15
Lisette I Z Kunz, Nick H T Ten Hacken, Thérèse S Lapperre, Wim Timens, Huib A M Kerstjens, Annemarie van Schadewijk, Judith M Vonk, Jacob K Sont, Jiska B Snoeck-Stroband, Dirkje S Postma, Peter J Sterk, Pieter S Hiemstra
Long-term treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) might attenuate lung function decline and decrease airway inflammation in a subset of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and discontinuing ICS treatment could result in further lung function decline. We hypothesised that airway inflammation increases after ICS withdrawal following long-term ICS treatment in COPD.In the GLUCOLD-1 study (GL1), 114 patients with moderate-severe COPD were randomised to 6-month or 30-month treatment with fluticasone propionate (500 µg twice daily), 30-month treatment with fluticasone/salmeterol (500/50 µg twice daily) or placebo...
January 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046097/glucocorticoid-insensitivity-in-virally-infected-airway-epithelial-cells-is-dependent-on-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-activity
#16
Yuxiu C Xia, Asmaa Radwan, Christine R Keenan, Shenna Y Langenbach, Meina Li, Danica Radojicic, Sarah L Londrigan, Rosa C Gualano, Alastair G Stewart
Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations are commonly associated with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), rhinovirus (RV) and influenza A virus (IAV) infection. The ensuing airway inflammation is resistant to the anti-inflammatory actions of glucocorticoids (GCs). Viral infection elicits transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) activity, a growth factor we have previously shown to impair GC action in human airway epithelial cells through the activation of activin-like kinase 5 (ALK5), the type 1 receptor of TGF-β...
January 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033257/incidental-left-main-bronchus-obstruction-during-left-sided-double-lumen-tube-intubation-of-a-patient-with-an-unrecognized-tracheal-bronchus-a-case-report
#17
Ho Bum Cho, Hyoung June Kim, Hyung Youn Gong, Mun Gyu Kim, Sang Ho Kim
INTRODUCTION: Tracheal bronchus is a right-sided anomalous bronchus arising from the trachea above the main carina and occurs in 0.1% to 2% of the general population. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of left main bronchus obstruction during a left-sided double-lumen tube intubation in a patient with an unrecognized tracheal bronchus. After the intubation, to confirm the position of the tube, we observed what we believed was the carina with a fiberoptic bronchoscope, but it was a site between the tracheal bronchus and the right main bronchus...
December 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026993/connective-tissue-growth-factor-promotes-pulmonary-epithelial-cell-senescence-and-is-associated-with-copd-severity
#18
Jun-Ho Jang, Hitendra S Chand, Shannon Bruse, Melanie Doyle-Eisele, Christopher Royer, Jacob McDonald, Clifford Qualls, Aloysius J Klingelhutz, Yong Lin, Rama Mallampalli, Yohannes Tesfaigzi, Toru Nyunoya
The purpose of this study was to determine whether expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) protein in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is consistent in humans and animal models of COPD and to investigate the role of this protein in lung epithelial cells. CTGF in lung epithelial cells of ex-smokers with COPD was compared with ex-smokers without COPD by immunofluorescence. A total of twenty C57Bl/6 mice and sixteen non-human primates (NHPs) were exposed to cigarette smoke (CS) for 4 weeks...
December 27, 2016: COPD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005431/lung-development-and-aging
#19
Andrew Bush
The onset of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) can arise either from failure to attain the normal spirometric plateau or from an accelerated decline in lung function. Despite reports from numerous big cohorts, no single adult life factor, including smoking, accounts for this accelerated decline. By contrast, five childhood risk factors (maternal and paternal asthma, maternal smoking, childhood asthma and respiratory infections) are strongly associated with an accelerated rate of lung function decline and COPD...
December 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995436/obstructive-sleep-apnea-is-the-triggering-factor-for-massive-hemoptysis-obstructive-sleep-apnea-and-hemoptysis
#20
Meral Uyar, Selim Kervancioglu, Nazan Bayram, Berna Taskin-Dogan, Ayten Filiz
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in patients with hemoptysis. METHODS: Files of patients who had undergone bronchial arterial embolization due to hemoptysis between 1 December 2009 and 2015 were evaluated and interviews of patients were conducted until 1 June 2016. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), STOP and STOP-BANG surveys were administered. OSA risk was determined with Berlin Questionnaire...
December 19, 2016: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
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