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Satoshi Murao, Yasunori Takata, Mitsugi Yasuda, Haruhiko Osawa, Fumikazu Kohi
Background: Considering sex differences, salt sensitivity and insulin resistance (IR), the effect of sodium restriction and increased potassium intake on blood pressure remains unclear in normotensive Asian individuals, compared to that in hypertensive patients. Methods: To assess the influence of sodium and potassium intake in normotensive individuals, we evaluated the estimated 24-hour urinary sodium and potassium excretion rate in 3,392 drug-naïve normotensive Japanese individuals (average age: 48...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Hypertension
Kristel Ehala-Aleksejev, Margus Punab
This study aimed to determine the effect of metabolic syndrome (MS) on the reproductive function in fertile (FM) and male partners of infertile couples (MPIC). We performed a cross-sectional study formatting two study groups: partners of pregnant women (n = 238; mean age 32.0) as FM and male partners of infertile couples (n = 2642; mean age 32.6) as MPIC. A standard semen analysis was performed and clinical, laboratory and lifestyle data were analysed. The adapted NCEP-ATPIII criteria were used to define MS...
2018: PloS One
Sergio Polakof, Didier Rémond, Jérémie David, Dominique Dardevet, Isabelle Savary-Auzeloux
OBJECTIVES: High-fat high-sucrose diet (HFHS) overfeeding is one of the main factors responsible for the increased prevalence of metabolic disorders. Elevated levels of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) have been associated with metabolic dysfunctions, including insulin resistance (IR). The aim of this study was to elucidate whether elevated BCAA levels are the cause or the consequence of IR and to determine the mechanisms and tissues involved in such a phenotype. METHODS: We performed a 2-mo follow-up on minipigs overfed an HFHS diet and focused on kinetics fasting and postprandial (PP) BCAA levels and BCAA catabolism in key tissues...
November 27, 2017: Nutrition
Alexandra M V Wennberg, Clinton E Hagen, Mary M Machulda, John H Hollman, Rosebud O Roberts, David S Knopman, Ronald C Petersen, Michelle M Mielke
Levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, IGF-binding protein (IGFBP)-3, and their ratio in the blood may be useful for monitoring those at risk of cognitive and functional decline. However, the association between IGF measures and functional and cognitive outcomes has been mixed, and the associations may vary by sex. The present study investigated the cross-sectional, sex-specific associations between serum measures total IGF-1, IGFBP-3, and the IGF-1/IGFBP-3 ratio, gait speed, and cognition in 1320 cognitively unimpaired participants aged 50-95 years enrolled in the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging...
February 19, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Charrise M Ramkissoon, Pau Herrero, Jorge Bondia, Josep Vehi
The artificial pancreas (AP) system is designed to regulate blood glucose in subjects with type 1 diabetes using a continuous glucose monitor informed controller that adjusts insulin infusion via an insulin pump. However, current AP developments are mainly hybrid closed-loop systems that include feed-forward actions triggered by the announcement of meals or exercise. The first step to fully closing the loop in the AP requires removing meal announcement, which is currently the most effective way to alleviate postprandial hyperglycemia due to the delay in insulin action...
March 16, 2018: Sensors
Hiroshi Chadani, Soichiro Usui, Oto Inoue, Takashi Kusayama, Shin-Ichiro Takashima, Takeshi Kato, Hisayoshi Murai, Hiroshi Furusho, Ayano Nomura, Hirofumi Misu, Toshinari Takamura, Shuichi Kaneko, Masayuki Takamura
Selenoprotein P (SeP), a liver-derived secretory protein, functions as a selenium supply protein in the body. SeP has been reported to be associated with insulin resistance in humans through serial analysis of gene expression. Recently, SeP has been found to inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor-stimulated cell proliferation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells, and impair angiogenesis in a mouse hind limb model. In this study, the role of SeP in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury has been investigated...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Gary J Hausman
Adipose tissue exists in many locations or depots that differ from one another based on numerous and various characteristics. The unique "layered" anatomical feature of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) in man and the pig is reviewed and discussed. The origin of fetal pig adipose tissue subcutaneous layers is reviewed before the onset of adipogenesis and after the overt adipogenesis. Furthermore, the distinguishing characteristics of developing outer SAT layer (OSQ) and middle SAT layer (MSQ) in pigs are reviewed...
March 16, 2018: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
María José Garcés Hernández, Miguel Klünder, Nayely Garibay Nieto, Juan Carlos López Alvarenga, Jenny Vilchis Gil, Samuel Flores Huerta, Rosa Quispe Siccha, Joselin Hernandez
OBJECTIVE: Visceral adiposity index (VAI) is a mathematical model associated with cardiometabolic risk in adults, but studies on children failed to support this association. Our group has proposed a pediatric VAI model using pediatric ranges, but it has not yet been evaluated and needs further adjustments. The objective of this study was to further adjust the proposed pediatric VAI by age, creating a new pediatric metabolic index (PMI), and assess the correlation of the PMI with insulin resistance indexes and hepatic enzymes...
March 2018: Endocrine Practice
George Grunberger, Yehuda Handelsman, Zachary T Bloomgarden, Vivian A Fonseca, Alan J Garber, Richard A Haas, Victor L Roberts, Guillermo E Umpierrez
This document represents the official position of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and American College of Endocrinology. Where there are no randomized controlled trials or specific U.S. FDA labeling for issues in clinical practice, the participating clinical experts utilized their judgment and experience. Every effort was made to achieve consensus among the committee members. Position statements are meant to provide guidance, but they are not to be considered prescriptive for any individual patient and cannot replace the judgment of a clinician...
March 2018: Endocrine Practice
Martin M Grajower
Hypoglycemia is the major side effect of insulin therapy. The elderly are especially vulnerable to episodes of hypoglycemia, and with greater risks of complications such as falls. Two new long-acting basal insulins, glargine-300 (Gla-300) and degludec, are associated with lower incidences of hypoglycemia than previously available basal insulins. One of them, Gla-300, was studied in the elderly and has a lower incidence of hypoglycemia in patients over 65 years old. These new data should be incorporated into decision making when treating the elderly patient with insulin, whether they have type 1 or 2 diabetes...
March 2018: Endocrine Practice
Galia Spectre, Fariborz Mobarrez, Ragnhild Stålesen, Claes-Göran Östenson, David Varon, Håkan Wallen, Paul Hjemdahl
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with prothrombotic alterations, and postprandial hyperglycemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular complications. We therefore investigated whether a standardized mixed meal alters circulating microparticles (MPs) and their procoagulant activity in DM patients. Patients with DM type 1 (T1DM, n = 11) and type 2 (T2DM; n = 9) were studied before and 90 min after a standardized meal (without premeal insulin). MPs in plasma derived from platelets (PMPs), endothelial cells (EMPs), or monocytes (MMPs) were measured by flow cytometry...
March 16, 2018: Platelets
Michael B Ranke, Jan M Wit
Growth hormone (GH) research and its clinical application for the treatment of growth disorders span more than a century. During the first half of the 20th century, clinical observations and anatomical and biochemical studies formed the basis of the understanding of the structure of GH and its various metabolic effects in animals. The following period (1958-1985), during which pituitary-derived human GH was used, generated a wealth of information on the regulation and physiological role of GH - in conjunction with insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) - and its use in children with GH deficiency (GHD)...
March 16, 2018: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
Ioana Miruna Balmus, Radu Lefter, Alin Ciobica, Iulia Antioch, Daniela Ababei, Romeo Dobrin
INTRODUCTION: Oxytocin (OT) is a well-known neuropeptides which together with vasopressin, melatonin, insulin and other hormones can alter both behavior and physiological or neuronal functions. This growing interest on OT roles is also based on the demonstrated beneficial effects as a stress reliever and a social bonding agent. The association between old age and OT was only vaguely studied. Little or few is known on the effect of the OT hormone on the old body. Hereby, we present our preliminary results in the research on behavioral changes regarding the intraperitoneal administration of OT in aged rats...
March 2018: Psychiatria Danubina
Katarzyna Skrzypek, Yazmin Brito Barrera, Thomas Groth, Dimitrios Stamatialis
INTRODUCTION: Encapsulation of pancreatic islets or beta cells is a promising strategy for treatment of type 1 diabetes by providing an immune isolated environment and allowing for transplantation in a different location than the liver. However, islets used for encapsulation often show lower functionality due to the damaging of islet endothelial cells during the isolation procedure. Factors produced by endothelial cells have great impact on beta cell insulin secretion. Therefore, mutual signaling between endothelial cells and beta cells should be considered for the development of encapsulation systems to achieve high insulin secretion and maintain beta cell viability...
March 2018: International Journal of Artificial Organs
(no author information available yet)
Honkala SM, Johansson J, Motiani KK, et al. Short-term interval training alters brain glucose metabolism in subjects with insulin resistance. J Cereb Blood Flow. Epub ahead of print 29 September 2017. DOI: 10.1177/0271678X17734998. The figures in this article appear in the wrong position. Figure 1 should appear where Figure 2 currently appears, and vice versa. The figure captions are correctly placed.
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Matthew P Petersen, Irl B Hirsch, Jay S Skyler, Richard E Ostlund, William T Cefalu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
Ye Seul Yang, Min Hyuk Lim, Seong Ok Lee, Eun Roh, Chang Ho Ahn, Soo Heon Kwak, Young Min Cho, Sungwan Kim, Andrea Mari, Kyong Soo Park, Hye Seung Jung
AIMS: Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) are anti-hypertensive drugs with renal protective effect. Additionally, they have been associated with the delayed onset of type 2 diabetes in high-risk populations, and some ARB were reported to increase insulin secretion and sensitivity in patients with prediabetes. Therefore, we studied the effects of ARB on insulin secretion in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-one patients were enrolled in this open-labeled, active comparator-controlled and crossover study...
March 15, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Lisa Menegazzo, Valentina Scattolini, Roberta Cappellari, Benedetta Maria Bonora, Mattia Albiero, Mario Bortolozzi, Filippo Romanato, Giulio Ceolotto, Saula Vigili de Kreutzeberg, Angelo Avogaro, Gian Paolo Fadini
AIMS: Diabetes is associated with an excess release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and an enhanced NETosis, a neutrophil cell death programme instrumental to anti-microbial defences, but also involved in tissue damage. We herein investigated whether the antidiabetic drug metformin protects against NETosis. METHODS: We measured NET components in the plasma of patients with pre-diabetes who were randomized to receive metformin or placebo for 2 months. To control for the effect on glucose, we also measured NET components in the plasma of patients with type 2 diabetes before and after treatment with insulin or dapagliflozin...
March 15, 2018: Acta Diabetologica
Michael Mendler, Stefan Kopf, Jan B Groener, Christin Riedinger, Thomas H Fleming, Peter P Nawroth, Jürgen G Okun
AIMS: 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside (AICAR) is an endogenous activator of AMPK, a central regulator of energy homeostasis. Loss and/or reduction of AMPK signaling plays an important role in the development of insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. The loss of AMPK in diabetes could be due to a loss of AICAR. The aim of this study was to characterize urine levels of AICAR in diabetes and determine whether an association exists with respect to late complications, e.g., retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy...
March 15, 2018: Acta Diabetologica
Mika Hilvo, Tuire Salonurmi, Aki S Havulinna, Dimple Kauhanen, Eva Ringdal Pedersen, Grethe S Tell, Klaus Meyer, Anna-Maria Teeriniemi, Tiina Laatikainen, Pekka Jousilahti, Markku J Savolainen, Ottar Nygård, Veikko Salomaa, Reijo Laaksonen
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Ceramide lipids have a role in the development of insulin resistance, diabetes and risk of cardiovascular disease. Here we investigated four ceramides and their ratios to find the best predictors of incident diabetes. METHODS: A validated mass-spectrometric method was applied to measure Cer(d18:1/16:0), Cer(d18:1/18:0), Cer(d18:1/24:0) and Cer(d18:1/24:1) from serum or plasma samples. These ceramides were analysed in a population-based risk factor study (FINRISK 2002, n = 8045), in a cohort of participants undergoing elective coronary angiography for suspected stable angina pectoris (Western Norway Coronary Angiography Cohort [WECAC], n = 3344) and in an intervention trial investigating improved methods of lifestyle modification for individuals at high risk of the metabolic syndrome (Prevent Metabolic Syndrome [PrevMetSyn], n = 371)...
March 15, 2018: Diabetologia
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