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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890353/anxiety-and-nicotine-dependence-emerging-role-of-the-habenulo-interpeduncular-axis
#1
REVIEW
Susanna Molas, Steven R DeGroot, Rubing Zhao-Shea, Andrew R Tapper
While innovative modern neuroscience approaches have aided in discerning brain circuitry underlying negative emotional behaviors including fear and anxiety responses, how these circuits are recruited in normal and pathological conditions remains poorly understood. Recently, genetic tools that selectively manipulate single neuronal populations have uncovered an understudied circuit, the medial habenula (mHb)-interpeduncular (IPN) axis, that modulates basal negative emotional responses. Interestingly, the mHb-IPN pathway also represents an essential circuit that signals heightened anxiety induced by nicotine withdrawal...
November 24, 2016: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865957/starch-functionalized-biodegradable-semi-ipn-as-a-ph-tunable-controlled-release-platform-for-memantine
#2
Sayan Ganguly, Tushar Maity, Subhadip Mondal, Poushali Das, Narayan C Das
Sequentially prepared semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN) has been developed here via Michael type addition of acrylic acid (AA) and 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid (AMPS) on to starch. The semi-IPN hydrogel have proficiency in fast water imbibition towards gel network and swelling tunable character with pH alteration in ambient condition. The synthesized gel has been characterized by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to confirm Michael type grafting of monomers on to starch...
November 16, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858313/complete-genomic-sequence-of-an-infectious-pancreatic-necrosis-virus-isolated-from-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-in-china
#3
Feng Ji, Jing-Zhuang Zhao, Miao Liu, Tong-Yan Lu, Hong-Bai Liu, Jiasheng Yin, Li-Ming Xu
Infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) is a significant disease of farmed salmonids resulting in direct economic losses due to high mortality in China. However, no gene sequence of any Chinese infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) isolates was available. In the study, moribund rainbow trout fry samples were collected during an outbreak of IPN in Yunnan province of southwest China in 2013. An IPNV was isolated and tentatively named ChRtm213. We determined the full genome sequence of the IPNV ChRtm213 and compared it with previously identified IPNV sequences worldwide...
November 18, 2016: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847559/impaired-norepinephrine-regulation-of-monocyte-inflammatory-cytokine-balance-in-heart-failure
#4
Tien Mh Ng, Myron L Toews
AIM: To evaluate the effect of norepinephrine on inflammatory cytokine expression in ex vivo human monocytes and monocytic THP-1 cells. METHODS: For human monocyte studies, cells were isolated from 12 chronic heart failure (HF) (66 ± 12 years, New York Heart Association functional class III-IV, left ventricular ejection fraction 22% ± 9%) and 14 healthy subjects (66 ± 12 years). Monocytes (1 × 10(6)/mL) were incubated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) 100 ng/mL, LPS + norepinephrine (NE) 10(-6) mol/L or neither (control) for 4 h...
October 26, 2016: World Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842806/synthesis-of-dual-responsive-carbohydrate-polymer-based-ipn-microbeads-for-controlled-release-of-anti-hiv-drug
#5
S Eswaramma, K S V Krishna Rao
The present study aims at preparation of dual responsive interpenetrating polymer network hydrogel microbeads from sodium alginate and functionally modified guar gum. Guar gum was modified by graft copolymerization using N-vinylcaprolactam, the maximum % grafting 123.2, obtained at different optimized conditions. The graft copolymer was blended with sodium alginate to form hydrogel microbeads by emulsion crosslinking method using glutaraldehyde as crosslinker. Zidovudine, an anti-HIV drug was encapsulated with 68% encapsulation efficiency...
January 20, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832819/negative-pressure-irrigation-and-endoscopic-necrosectomy-through-man-made-sinus-tract-in-infected-necrotizing-pancreatitis-a-technical-report
#6
Zhihui Tong, Lu Ke, Baiqiang Li, Gang Li, Jing Zhou, Xiao Shen, Weiqin Li, Ning Li, Jieshou Li
BACKGROUND: In recent years, a step-up approach based on minimally invasive techniques was recommended by latest guidelines as initial invasive treatment for infected pancreatic necrosis (IPN). In this study, we aimed to describe a novel step-up approach for treating IPN consisting of four steps including negative pressure irrigation (NPI) and endoscopic necrosectomy (ED) as a bridge between percutaneous catheter drainage (PCD) and open necrosectomy METHODS: A retrospective review of a prospectively collected internal database of patients with a diagnosis of IPN between Jan, 2012 to Dec, 2012 at a single institution was performed...
November 10, 2016: BMC Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818845/rate-dependent-stiffness-and-recovery-in-interpenetrating-network-hydrogels-through-sacrificial-metal-coordination-bonds
#7
Matthew S Menyo, Craig J Hawker, J Herbert Waite
Four-arm poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) star polymers modified with 3-hydroxy-4-pyridinone (HOPO) end groups were shown to form transient, coordination networks upon addition of trivalent cations In(3+), Fe(3+), and Al(3+). These coordination-based hydrogels exhibited high activation energies of viscoelasticity (34 kT) and characteristic bond lifetimes tunable over 2 orders of magnitude and could be incorporated into poly(hydroxyethylacrylamide)-based covalent scaffolds to create interpenetrating network hydrogels...
November 17, 2015: ACS Macro Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809475/elastomeric-light-emitting-polymer-enhanced-by-interpenetrating-networks
#8
Huier Gao, Si Chen, Jiajie Liang, Qibing Pei
Conjugated polymers containing long-chain alkyl side groups for solubility are generally unstretchable: large strain induces crack formation, fracture, or plastic deformation. When the polymers are stretched to re-orient the conjugated chains along the stretching direction high dichroic ratio is observed both for absorption of the ground state and radiative decay of the excited state. Here an interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) approach is reported to impart elastomeric deformability to a conjugated polymer...
November 4, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806778/-experience-of-minimal-access-video-assisted-retroperitoneal-debridement-in-treatment-of-infected-pancreatic-necrosis
#9
J Feng, Z W Liu, S W Cai, H H Jiao, J D Du, X L Xin, J Y Chen, P F Wang, L He, S C Lu, Y Y Xiao, M Q Wang
Objective: To explore the experience of minimal-access video-assisted retroperitoneal debridement in treatment of infected pancreatic necrosis(IPN). Methods: A retrospective review was performed on 12 patients with IPN who underwent minimal-access video-assisted retroperitoneal debridement between June 2008 and June 2013 in People's Liberation Army General Hospital and First Affiliated Hospital of People's Liberation Army General Hospital, respectively.There were 10 male patients and 2 female patients aging from 33 to 55 years with mean age of(43±8)years...
November 1, 2016: Zhonghua Wai Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Surgery]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793697/development-and-experience-dependent-plasticity-in-the-dorsomedial-habenula
#10
Peter Koppensteiner, Christopher Galvin, Ipe Ninan
Of the two major subdivisions of the habenula, the medial and lateral nuclei, the medial habenula is the least understood in terms of synaptic transmission, intrinsic properties and plasticity. The medial habenula (MHb) is composed of glutamatergic neurons which receive the majority of their inputs from the septal region and project predominantly to the interpeduncular nucleus (IPN). To understand the synaptic transmission, we studied both glutamatergic and GABAergic synaptic transmission in the dorsal region of the medial habenula (dMHb)...
December 2016: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774684/pcl-plla-semi-ipn-shape-memory-polymers-smps-degradation-and-mechanical-properties
#11
Lindsay N Woodard, Vanessa M Page, Kevin T Kmetz, Melissa A Grunlan
Thermoresponsive shape memory polymers (SMPs) based on poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) whose shape may be actuated by a transition temperature (T trans ) have shown utility for a variety of biomedical applications. Important to their utility is the ability to modulate mechanical and degradation properties. Thus, in this work, SMPs are formed as semi-interpenetrating networks (semi-IPNs) comprised of a cross-linked PCL diacrylate (PCL-DA) network and thermoplastic poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA). The semi-IPN uniquely allows for requisite crystallization of both PCL and PLLA...
December 2016: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770962/mechanical-properties-of-pnipam-based-hydrogels-a-review
#12
Muhammad Abdul Haq, Yunlan Su, Dujin Wang
Materials which adjust their properties in response to environmental factors such as temperature, pH and ionic strength are rapidly evolving and known as smart materials. Hydrogels formed by smart polymers have various applications. Among the smart polymers, thermoresponsive polymer poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)(PNIPAM) is very important because of its well defined structure and property specially its temperature response is closed to human body and can be finetuned as well. Mechanical properties are critical for the performance of stimuli responsive hydrogels in diverse applications...
January 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743797/enhanced-plasmid-loss-in-bacterial-populations-exposed-to-the-antimicrobial-compound-irgasan-delivered-from-interpenetrating-polymer-network-silicone-hydrogels
#13
Leise Riber, Mette Burmølle, Martin Alm, Stefan M Milani, Peter Thomsen, Lars H Hansen, Søren J Sørensen
The spread of antimicrobial resistance, usually mediated by horizontal transfer of plasmids, limits the options of treating bacterial infections and thereby poses a crucial human health problem. The disturbance of plasmid stability within bacterial species in clinical environments serves as a novel strategy to reduce the development and dissemination of antibiotic resistance. We tested the ability of irgasan to destabilize plasmids from Escherichia coli K-12 cells when added directly into liquid growth medium at concentrations below levels of marked bacterial growth inhibition, or when released into liquid growth medium from irgasan-impregnated Interpenetrating Polymer Network (IPN) silicone hydrogel objects, a novel technology developed as drug-delivery platform...
October 12, 2016: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27727097/ileus-is-a-predictor-of-local-infection-in-patients-with-acute-necrotizing-pancreatitis
#14
Robert A Moran, Niloofar Y Jalaly, Ayesha Kamal, Sandesh Rao, Robert Klapheke, Theodore W James, Swetha Kambhampati, Martin A Makary, Kenzo Hirose, Vivek Kumbhari, Ellen M Stein, Mouen A Khashab, Anne Marie Lennon, Anthony N Kalloo, Atif Zaheer, Ruben Hernaez, Vikesh K Singh
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Infected pancreatic necrosis (IPN) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Gut barrier dysfunction has been shown to increase the risk of bacterial translocation from the gut into the pancreatic bed. The primary aim of the study is to evaluate if ileus, a clinical marker of gut barrier dysfunction, can predict the development of IPN. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of patients with necrotizing pancreatitis (NP) was conducted from 2000 to 2014...
November 2016: Pancreatology: Official Journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726351/nanocellulose-based-interpenetrating-polymer-network-ipn-hydrogels-for-cartilage-applications
#15
Narges Naseri, Deepa Bhanumathyamma, Aji P Mathew, Kristiina Oksman, Lenart Girandon
Double crosslinked interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) hydrogels of sodium alginate and gelatin (SA/G) reinforced with 50 wt% cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) have been prepared via freeze-drying process. The IPNs were designed to incorporate CNC with carboxyl surface groups as a part of the network contribute to the structural integrity and mechanical stability of the hydrogel. Structural morphology studies of the hydrogels showed a 3-dimensional (3D) network of interconnected pores with diameters in the range of 10-192 μm and hierarchical pores with a nanostructured pore wall roughness, which has potential benefits for cell adhesion...
October 11, 2016: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27700024/gel-polymer-electrolytes-containing-anion-trapping-boron-moieties-for-lithium-ion-battery-applications
#16
Jimin Shim, Ji Su Lee, Jin Hong Lee, Hee Joong Kim, Jong-Chan Lee
Gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs) based on semi-interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) structure for lithium-ion batteries were prepared by mixing boron-containing crosslinker (BC) composed of ion-conducting ethylene oxide (EO) chains, crosslinkable methacrylate group, and anion-trapping boron moiety with poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) followed by ultraviolet light-induced curing process. Various physical and electrochemical properties of the GPEs were systematically investigated by varying the EO chain length and boron content...
October 4, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685480/standardised-versus-individualised-parenteral-nutrition-further-food-for-thought
#17
R McCarthy, R Segurado, M Crealey, A Twomey
Parenteral Nutrition may be prescribed as a standard PN (SPN) formulation or as an individualised PN (IPN) formulation. SPN may have advantages in terms of rapid availability, less prescription errors, decreased risk of infection and cost savings but IPN, specifically tailored to an infants needs, may achieve better outcomes in terms of nutrient intake and weight gain. The aim of our study was to determine if VLBW infants in our NICU benefited from receiving IPN over currently available SPN solutions. Our findings were that VLBW infants prescribed IPN received significantly more amino acid (28%), glucose (6%), energy (11%) and calcium (8%) from the aqueous phase of PN than had they received a similar volume of SPN...
2016: Irish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676070/thermal-decomposition-of-isopropyl-nitrate-kinetics-and-products
#18
Julien Morin, Yuri Bedjanian
Kinetics and products of the thermal decomposition of isopropyl nitrate (IPN, C3H7NO3) have been studied using a low pressure flow reactor combined with a quadrupole mass spectrometer. The rate constant of IPN decomposition was measured as a function of pressure (1-12.5 Torr of helium) and temperature in the range 473-658 K using two methods: from kinetics of nitrate loss and those of reaction product (CH3 radical) formation. The fit of the observed falloff curves with two parameter expression [Formula: see text] provided the following low and high pressure limits for the rate constant of IPN decomposition: k0 = 6...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665428/angle-selective-backscattered-electron-contrast-in-the-low-voltage-scanning-electron-microscope-simulation-and-experiment-for-polymers
#19
Q Wan, R C Masters, D Lidzey, K J Abrams, M Dapor, R A Plenderleith, S Rimmer, F Claeyssens, C Rodenburg
Recently developed detectors can deliver high resolution and high contrast images of nanostructured carbon based materials in low voltage scanning electron microscopes (LVSEM) with beam deceleration. Monte Carlo Simulations are also used to predict under which exact imaging conditions purely compositional contrast can be obtained and optimised. This allows the prediction of the electron signal intensity in angle selective conditions for back-scattered electron (BSE) imaging in LVSEM and compares it to experimental signals...
September 15, 2016: Ultramicroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663229/co-release-of-dicloxacillin-and-thioridazine-from-catheter-material-containing-an-interpenetrating-polymer-network-for-inhibiting-device-associated-staphylococcus-aureus-infection
#20
Michael Stenger, Kasper Klein, Rasmus B Grønnemose, Janne K Klitgaard, Hans J Kolmos, Jes S Lindholt, Martin Alm, Peter Thomsen, Thomas E Andersen
Approximately half of all nosocomial bloodstream infections are caused by bacterial colonization of vascular catheters. Attempts have been made to improve devices using anti-adhesive or antimicrobial coatings; however, it is often difficult to bind coatings stably to catheter materials, and the low amounts of drug in thin-film coatings limit effective long-term release. Interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) are polymer hybrid materials with unique drug release properties. While IPNs have been extensively investigated for use in tablet- or capsule-based drug delivery systems, the potential for use of IPNs in drug release medical devices remains largely unexplored...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
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