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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797809/the-role-of-titanium-dioxide-on-the-morphology-microstructure-and-bioactivity-of-grafted-cellulose-hydroxyapatite-nanocomposites-for-a-potential-application-in-bone-repair
#1
Saeed Saber-Samandari, Hamed Yekta, Sara Ahmadi, Kadhim Alamara
Fabrication and characterization of a novel 3D nanocomposite scaffold have been reported in this research. The purpose of developing this new 3D nanocomposite scaffolds is introducing an alternative treatment for bone tissue replacement. Outcomes confirmed that the morphology, microstructure and mechanical properties of synthesized 3D nanocomposite scaffolds closely mimics the properties of real bone tissue. The 3D nanocomposite scaffolds compose of nanoparticle hydroxyapatite which is embedded in the semi-IPN of polyacrylamide-grafted cellulose by free radical polymerization...
August 7, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791703/the-medial-habenula-and-interpeduncular-nucleus-circuitry-is-critical-in-addiction-anxiety-and-mood-regulation
#2
REVIEW
Ian McLaughlin, John A Dani, Mariella De Biasi
Abstinence from chronic use of addictive drugs triggers an aversive withdrawal syndrome that compels relapse and deters abstinence. Many features of this syndrome are common across multiple drugs, involving both affective and physical symptoms. Some of the network signaling underlying withdrawal symptoms overlaps with activity that is associated with aversive mood states, including anxiety and depression. Given these shared features, it is not surprising that a particular circuit, the dorsal diencephalic conduction system, and the medial habenula (MHb) and interpeduncular nucleus (IPN), in particular, have been identified as critical to the emergence of aversive states that arise both as a result and, independently, of drug addiction...
August 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768196/a-cooperative-mechanism-involving-ca-2-permeable-ampa-receptors-and-retrograde-activation-of-gabab-receptors-in-interpeduncular-nucleus-plasticity
#3
Peter Koppensteiner, Riccardo Melani, Ipe Ninan
The medial habenula-interpeduncular nucleus (MHb-IPN) pathway, which connects the limbic forebrain to the midbrain, has recently been implicated in aversive behaviors. The MHb-IPN circuit is characterized by a unique topographical organization, an excitatory role of GABA, and a prominent co-release of neurotransmitters and neuropeptides. However, little is known about synaptic plasticity in this pathway. An application of a high-frequency stimulation resulted in a long-lasting potentiation of glutamate release in IPN neurons...
August 1, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746189/early-prediction-of-infected-pancreatic-necrosis-secondary-to-necrotizing-pancreatitis
#4
Hong-Ze Chen, Liang Ji, Le Li, Gang Wang, Xue-Wei Bai, Chun-Dong Cheng, Bei Sun
To assess the association between the clinical parameters within 48 hours of admission and the occurrence of infected pancreatic necrosis (IPN) during the late phase of necrotizing pancreatitis (NP).All patients were divided into 2 groups, the IPN and non-IPN groups. The clinical data were retrospectively analyzed. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the relationship between clinical parameters and IPN secondary to NP. The performance of each independent variable was plotted by the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve...
July 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726576/recent-developments-in-thiolated-polymeric-hydrogels-for-tissue-engineering-applications
#5
Mani Gajendiran, Jae-Sung Rhee, Kyobum Kim
This review focuses on the recent strategy in the preparation of thiolated polymers and fabrication of their hydrogel matrices. The mechanism involved in the synthesis of thiolated polymers and fabrication of thiolated polymer hydrogels is exemplified with suitable schematic representations reported in the recent literature. The 2-iminothiolane namely "Traut's reagent" has been widely employed for effectively thiolating the natural polymers such as collagen and gelatin which contain free amino group in their back bone...
July 20, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719186/elastomer-reinforced-with-regenerated-chitin-from-alkaline-urea-aqueous-system
#6
Peng Yu, Hui He, Yuanfang Luo, Demin Jia, Alain Dufresne
Novel hybrid elastomer/regenerated chitin (R-chitin) composites were developed, for the first time, by introducing chitin solution (dissolved in alkaline/urea aqueous solution at low temperature) into rubber latex, and then cocoagulating using ethanol as the cocoagulant. During the rapid coprecipitation process, the chitin solution showed rapid coagulant-induced gelation and a porous chitin phase was generated, and the rubber latex particles were synchronously demulsificated to form the rubbery phase. The two phases interlaced and interpenetrated simultaneously to form an interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) structure, which was evidenced by SEM observation...
August 9, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718925/a-historical-review-of-the-key-bacterial-and-viral-pathogens-of-scottish-wild-fish
#7
REVIEW
I S Wallace, P McKay, A G Murray
Thousands of Scottish wild fish were screened for pathogens by Marine Scotland Science. A systematic review of published and unpublished data on six key pathogens (Renibacterium salmoninarum, Aeromonas salmonicida, IPNV, ISAV, SAV and VHSV) found in Scottish wild and farmed fish was undertaken. Despite many reported cases in farmed fish, there was a limited number of positive samples from Scottish wild fish, however, there was evidence for interactions between wild and farmed fish. A slightly elevated IPNV prevalence was reported in wild marine fish caught close to Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714952/a-circuit-based-mechanism-underlying-familiarity-signaling-and-the-preference-for-novelty
#8
Susanna Molas, Rubing Zhao-Shea, Liwang Liu, Steven R DeGroot, Paul D Gardner, Andrew R Tapper
Novelty preference (NP) is an evolutionarily conserved, essential survival mechanism often dysregulated in neuropsychiatric disorders. NP is mediated by a motivational dopamine signal that increases in response to novel stimuli, thereby driving exploration. However, the mechanism by which once-novel stimuli transition to familiar stimuli is unknown. Here we describe a neuroanatomical substrate for familiarity signaling, the interpeduncular nucleus (IPN) of the midbrain, which is activated as novel stimuli become familiar with multiple exposures...
July 17, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712566/left-habenular-activity-attenuates-fear-responses-in-larval-zebrafish
#9
Erik R Duboué, Elim Hong, Kiara C Eldred, Marnie E Halpern
Fear responses are defensive states that ensure survival of an organism in the presence of a threat. Perception of an aversive cue causes changes in behavior and physiology, such as freezing and elevated cortisol, followed by a return to the baseline state when the threat is evaded [1]. Neural systems that elicit fear behaviors include the amygdala, hippocampus, and medial prefrontal cortex. However, aside from a few examples, little is known about brain regions that promote recovery from an aversive event [2]...
July 24, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708278/whole-exome-sequencing-is-a-valuable-diagnostic-tool-for-inherited-peripheral-neuropathies-outcomes-from-a-cohort-of-50-families
#10
Taila Hartley, Justin D Wagner, Jodi Warman-Chardon, Martine Tétreault, Lauren Brady, Steven Baker, Mark Tarnopolsky, Pierre R Bourque, Jillian S Parboosingh, Christopher Smith, Brenda McInnes, A Micheil Innes, Francois Bernier, Cynthia J Curry, Grace Yoon, Gabriella A Horvath, Eric Bareke, Jacek Majewski, Dennis E Bulman, David A Dyment, Kym M Boycott
The inherited peripheral neuropathies (IPNs) are characterized by marked clinical and genetic heterogeneity and include relatively frequent presentations such as Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease and hereditary motor neuropathy, as well as more rare conditions where peripheral neuropathy is associated with additional features. There are over 250 genes known to cause IPN-related disorders but it is estimated that in ~50% of affected individuals a molecular diagnosis is not achieved. In this study, we examine the diagnostic utility of whole-exome sequencing (WES) in a cohort of 50 families with one or more affected individuals with a molecularly undiagnosed IPN with or without additional features...
July 14, 2017: Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703303/terminally-truncated-isopenicillin-n-synthase-generates-a-dithioester-product-evidence-for-a-thioaldehyde-intermediate-and-a-new-mode-of-reaction-for-non-heme-iron-oxidases
#11
Luke McNeill, Toby Brown, Malkit Sami, Ian Clifton, Nicolai Burzlaff, Timothy Claridge, Robert Adlington, Jack Baldwin, Peter J Rutledge, Christopher Schofield
Isopenicillin N synthase (IPNS) catalyses the oxidation of a tripeptide, L-δ-(α-aminoadipoyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine (ACV), to isopenicillin N (IPN), the first-formed β-lactam in penicillin biosynthesis. IPNS catalysis is dependent upon an iron(II) cofactor and oxygen as co-substrate. In the absence of substrate, the carbonyl oxygen of the side-chain amide of the penultimate residue, Gln330, co-ordinates to the active site metal. Substrate binding ablates this interaction, triggering rearrangement of seven C-terminal residues which move to take up a conformation that extends the final α-helix and encloses the active site...
July 12, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683337/decoupling-the-effects-of-stiffness-and-fiber-density-on-cellular-behaviors-via-an-interpenetrating-network-of-gelatin-methacrylate-and-collagen
#12
Anthony J Berger, Kelsey M Linsmeier, Pamela K Kreeger, Kristyn S Masters
The extracellular microenvironment provides critical cues that guide tissue development, homeostasis, and pathology. Deciphering the individual roles of these cues in tissue function necessitates the development of physically tunable culture platforms, but current approaches to create such materials have produced scaffolds that either exhibit a limited mechanical range or are unable to recapitulate the fibrous nature of in vivo tissues. Here we report a novel interpenetrating network (IPN) of gelatin-methacrylate (gelMA) and collagen I that enables independent tuning of fiber density and scaffold stiffness across a physiologically-relevant range of shear moduli (2-12 kPa), while maintaining constant extracellular matrix content...
October 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678803/ph-responsive-n-succinyl-chitosan-poly-acrylamide-co-acrylic-acid-hydrogels-and-in-vitro-release-of-5-fluorouracil
#13
Shahid Bashir, Yin Yin Teo, Sumaira Naeem, S Ramesh, K Ramesh
There has been significant progress in the last few decades in addressing the biomedical applications of polymer hydrogels. Particularly, stimuli responsive hydrogels have been inspected as elegant drug delivery systems capable to deliver at the appropriate site of action within the specific time. The present work describes the synthesis of pH responsive semi-interpenetrating network (semi-IPN) hydrogels of N-succinyl-chitosan (NSC) via Schiff base mechanism using glutaraldehyde as a crosslinking agent and Poly (acrylamide-co-acrylic acid)(Poly (AAm-co-AA)) was embedded within the N-succinyl chitosan network...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664963/dynamical-behavior-of-microgels-of-interpenetrated-polymer-networks
#14
Valentina Nigro, Roberta Angelini, Monica Bertoldo, Fabio Bruni, Maria Antonietta Ricci, Barbara Ruzicka
Microgel suspensions of an interpenetrated Polymer Network (IPN) of PNIPAM and PAAc in D2O have been investigated through dynamic light scattering as a function of temperature, pH and concentration across the Volume Phase Transition (VPT). The dynamics of the system is slowed down under H/D isotopic substitution due to different balance states between polymer/polymer and polymer/solvent interactions suggesting the crucial role played by H-bonding. The swelling behavior, reduced with respect to PNIPAM and water, has been described by the Flory-Rehner theory, tested for PNIPAM microgel and successfully expanded to higher order for IPN microgels...
August 2, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657101/cross-linking-of-cooh-containing-polymers-using-ag-i-catalyzed-oxidative-decarboxylation-in-aqueous-solution
#15
Gengsheng Weng, Yu Huang, Srinivas Thanneeru, Hongqiang Li, Abdullah Alamri, Jie He
Cross-linking that defines the three-dimensional networks in hydrogels has a significant impact on their physiochemical properties. The cross-linking of hydrophilic polymers via post-polymerization reactions is an ideal way to manufacture hydrogels with high reproducibility and without monomer residuals. We herein report the use of Ag(i)-catalyzed oxidative decarboxylation to cross-link poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and a family of COOH-containing hydrophilic polymers. Our method is based on the radical-mediated elimination reaction to remove COOH group(s) and generate alkyl radical(s) simultaneously, in the presence of AgNO3 and persulfates...
July 26, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634933/3d-cell-culture-in-interpenetrating-networks-of-alginate-and-rbm-matrix
#16
Katrina Wisdom, Ovijit Chaudhuri
Altered tissue mechanical properties have been implicated in many key physiological and pathological processes. Hydrogel-based materials systems, made with native extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, nonnative biopolymers, or synthetic polymers are often used to study these processes in vitro in 3D cell culture experiments. However, each of these materials systems present major limitations when used in mechanobiological studies. While native ECM-based hydrogels may enable good recapitulation of physiological behavior, the mechanics of these hydrogels are often manipulated by increasing or decreasing the protein concentration...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619821/convergence-of-signaling-pathways-underlying-habenular-formation-and-axonal-outgrowth-in-zebrafish
#17
Sara Roberson, Marnie E Halpern
The habenular nuclei are a conserved integrating center in the vertebrate epithalamus, where they modulate diverse behaviors. Despite their importance, our understanding of habenular development is incomplete. Time-lapse imaging and fate mapping demonstrate that the dorsal habenulae (dHb) of zebrafish are derived from dbx1b-expressing (dbx1b(+) ) progenitors, which transition into cxcr4b-expressing neuronal precursors. The precursors give rise to differentiated neurons, the axons of which innervate the midbrain interpeduncular nucleus (IPN)...
July 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576510/the-role-of-the-habenula-in-the-transition-from-reward-to-misery-in-substance-use-and-mood-disorders
#18
REVIEW
Albert Batalla, Judith R Homberg, Tatiana V Lipina, Guillaume Sescousse, Maartje Luijten, Svetlana A Ivanova, Arnt F A Schellekens, Anton J M Loonen
The habenula (Hb) is an evolutionary well-conserved structure located in the epithalamus. The Hb receives inputs from the septum, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, anterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortex, and projects to several midbrain centers, most importantly the inhibitory rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg) and the excitatory interpeduncular nucleus (IPN), which regulate the activity of midbrain monoaminergic nuclei. The Hb is postulated to play a key role in reward and aversion processing across species, including humans, and to be implicated in the different stages of transition from recreational drug intake to addiction and co-morbid mood disorders...
May 30, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553203/autophagy-as-an-emerging-common-pathomechanism-in-inherited-peripheral-neuropathies
#19
REVIEW
Mansour Haidar, Vincent Timmerman
The inherited peripheral neuropathies (IPNs) comprise a growing list of genetically heterogeneous diseases. With mutations in more than 80 genes being reported to cause IPNs, a wide spectrum of functional consequences is expected to follow this genotypic diversity. Hence, the search for a common pathomechanism among the different phenotypes has become the holy grail of functional research into IPNs. During the last decade, studies on several affected genes have shown a direct and/or indirect correlation with autophagy...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552601/habenula-and-interpeduncular-nucleus-differentially-modulate-predator-odor-induced-innate-fear-behavior-in-rats
#20
Daniel Vincenz, Kerstin E A Wernecke, Markus Fendt, Jürgen Goldschmidt
Fear is an important behavioral system helping humans and animals to survive potentially dangerous situations. Fear can be innate or learned. Whereas the neural circuits underlying learned fear are already well investigated, the knowledge about the circuits mediating innate fear is still limited. We here used a novel, unbiased approach to image in vivo the spatial patterns of neural activity in odor-induced innate fear behavior in rats. We intravenously injected awake unrestrained rats with a 99m-technetium labeled blood flow tracer (99mTc-HMPAO) during ongoing exposure to fox urine or water as control, and mapped the brain distribution of the trapped tracer using single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)...
May 26, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
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