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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326062/functional-effects-of-an-interpenetrating-polymer-network-on-articular-cartilage-mechanical-properties
#1
Janne Ta Mäkelä, Benjamin G Cooper, Rami K Korhonen, Mark W Grinstaff, Brian D Snyder
OBJECTIVE: Depletion of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and degradation of collagen network are early hallmarks of osteoarthritis. Currently, there are no chondroprotective therapies that mitigate the loss of GAGs or effectively restore the collagen network. Recently, a novel polymeric cartilage supplement was described that forms a charged interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) reconstituting the hydrophilic properties of the extracellular matrix. To investigate the mechanism by which this hydrophilic IPN improves articular cartilage material properties, a finite element (FE) model is used to evaluate the IPN's effect on the fibrillar collagen network, nonfibrillar matrix, and interstitial fluid flow...
January 8, 2018: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318871/facile-synthesis-of-diamino-modified-graphene-polyaniline-semi-interpenetrating-networks-with-practical-high-thermoelectric-performance
#2
Yen-Hao Lin, Tsung-Chi Lee, Yu-Sheng Hsiao, Wei-Keng Lin, Wha-Tzong Whang, Chun-Hua Chen
P-phenediamino-modified graphene (PDG) has been newly synthesized via a facile green one-step chemical route as a functionalized graphene-based additive to copolymerize with aniline for fabricating innovative PDG/polyaniline conducting polymer composites (PDG/PANI) containing very special semi-interpenetrating networks (S-IPNs). The S-IPNs which not only provide additional pathways by creating chemically-bonded PDG and PANI for smoothly transporting carriers, but greatly reduce the amount of graphene required to less than a few percent could effectively improve the overall electric conductivity and thus the thermoelectric performance...
January 10, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285989/synthesis-and-functionalization-of-chitosan-built-hydrogel-with-induced-hydrophilicity-for-extended-release-of-sparingly-soluble-drugs
#3
Faheem Ullah, Fatima Javed, Mbh Othman, Abbas Khan, Rukhsana Gul, Zulkifli Ahmad, Hazizan Md Akil
Addressing the functional biomaterials as next-generation therapeutics, chitosan and alginic acid were copolymerized in the form of chemically crosslinked interpenetrating networks (IPNs). The native hydrogel was functionalized via carbodiimide (EDC), catalyzed coupling of soft ligand (1,2-Ethylenediamine) and hard ligand (4-aminophenol) to replace -OH groups in alginic acid units for extended hydrogel- interfaces with the aqueous and sparingly soluble drug solutions. The chemical structure, Lower solution critical temperature (LCST ≈ 37...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Science. Polymer Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261826/communication-about-the-probability-of-cancer-in-indeterminate-pulmonary-nodules
#4
Amelia W Maiga, Stephen A Deppen, Pierre P Massion, Carol Callaway-Lane, Rhonda Pinkerman, Robert S Dittus, Eric S Lambright, Jonathan C Nesbitt, Eric L Grogan
Importance: Clinical guidelines recommend that clinicians estimate the probability of malignancy for patients with indeterminate pulmonary nodules (IPNs) larger than 8 mm. Adherence to these guidelines is unknown. Objectives: To determine whether clinicians document the probability of malignancy in high-risk IPNs and to compare these quantitative or qualitative predictions with the validated Mayo Clinic Model. Design, Setting, and Participants: Single-institution, retrospective cohort study of patients from a tertiary care Department of Veterans Affairs hospital from January 1, 2003, through December 31, 2015...
December 20, 2017: JAMA Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243588/dynamic-modulation-of-activity-in-cerebellar-nuclei-neurons-during-pavlovian-eyeblink-conditioning-in-mice
#5
Michiel Manuel Ten Brinke, Shane Heiney, Xiaolu Wang, Martina Proietti-Onori, Henk-Jan Boele, Jacob Bakermans, Javier F Medina, Zhenyu Gao, Chris I De Zeeuw
While research on the cerebellar cortex is crystallizing our understanding of its function in learning behavior, many questions surrounding its downstream targets remain. Here, we evaluate the dynamics of cerebellar interpositus nucleus (IpN) neurons over the course of Pavlovian eyeblink conditioning. A diverse range of learning-induced neuronal responses was observed, including increases and decreases in activity during the generation of conditioned blinks. Trial-by-trial correlational analysis and optogenetic manipulation demonstrate that facilitation in the IpN drives the eyelid movements...
December 15, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235851/semi-interpenetrating-polymer-network-composite-gel-electrolytes-employing-vinyl-functionalized-silica-for-lithium-oxygen-batteries-with-enhanced-cycling-stability
#6
Hyun-Sik Woo, Yong-Bok Moon, Samuel Seo, Ho-Taek Lee, Dong-Won Kim
A major challenge of lithium-oxygen batteries is to develop a stable electrolyte not only to suppress solvent evaporation and lithium dendrite growth, but also to resist against the attack by superoxide anion radical formed at the positive electrode. The present study demonstrates the enhancement of cycling stability by addressing the above challenges through the use of three-dimensional semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN) composite gel polymer electrolyte when fabricating the lithium-oxygen cell...
December 13, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232876/evaluation-of-fibrin-based-interpenetrating-polymer-networks-as-potential-biomaterials-for-tissue-engineering
#7
Olfat Gsib, Jean-Luc Duval, Mathieu Goczkowski, Marie Deneufchatel, Odile Fichet, Véronique Larreta-Garde, Sidi Ahmed Bencherif, Christophe Egles
Interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) have gained great attention for a number of biomedical applications due to their improved properties compared to individual components alone. In this study, we investigated the capacity of newly-developed naturally-derived IPNs as potential biomaterials for tissue engineering. These IPNs combine the biologic properties of a fibrous fibrin network polymerized at the nanoscale and the mechanical stability of polyethylene oxide (PEO). First, we assessed their cytotoxicity in vitro on L929 fibroblasts...
December 10, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226931/development-of-visible-light-responsive-and-mechanically-enhanced-smart-ucst-interpenetrating-network-hydrogels
#8
Yifei Xu, Onkar Ghag, Morgan Reimann, Philip Sitterle, Prithwish Chatterjee, Elizabeth Nofen, Hongyu Yu, Hanqing Jiang, Lenore L Dai
An interpenetrating polymer network (IPN), chlorophyllin-incorporated environmentally responsive hydrogel was synthesized and exhibited the following features: enhanced mechanical properties, upper critical solution temperature (UCST) swelling behavior, and promising visible-light responsiveness. Poor mechanical properties are known challenges for hydrogel-based materials. By forming an interpenetrating network between polyacrylamide (PAAm) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAAc) polymer networks, the mechanical properties of the synthesized IPN hydrogels were significantly improved compared to hydrogels made of a single network of each polymer...
December 11, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223038/polymer-matrix-of-fiber-reinforced-composites-changes-in-the-semi-interpenetrating-polymer-network-during-the-shelf-life
#9
Aftab A Khan, Abdulaziz A Al-Kheraif, Abdullah M Al-Shehri, Eija Säilynoja, Pekka K Vallittu
This laboratory study was aimed to characterize semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN) of fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) prepregs that had been stored for up to two years before curing. Resin impregnated prepregs of everStick C&B (StickTech-GC, Turku, Finland) glass FRC were stored at 4°C for various lengths of time, i.e., two-weeks, 6-months and 2-years. Five samples from each time group were prepared with a light initiated free radical polymerization method, which were embedded to its long axis in self-curing acrylic...
November 26, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221438/double-catheter-lavage-combined-with-percutaneous-flexible-endoscopic-debridement-for-infected-pancreatic-necrosis-failed-to-percutaneous-catheter-drainage
#10
Pi Liu, Jun Song, Hua-Jing Ke, Nong-Hua Lv, Yin Zhu, Hao Zeng, Yong Zhu, Liang Xia, Wen-Hua He, Ji Li, Xin Huang, Yu-Peng Lei
BACKGROUND: Infected pancreatic necrosis (IPN) is a serious local complication of acute pancreatitis, with high mortality. Minimally invasive therapy including percutaneous catheter drainage (PCD) has become the preferred method for IPN instead of traditional open necrosectomy. However, the efficacy of double-catheter lavage in combination with percutaneous flexible endoscopic debridement after PCD failure is unknown compared with surgical necrosectomy. METHODS: A total of 27 cases of IPN patients with failure PCD between Jan 2014 and Dec 2015 were enrolled in this retrospective cohort study...
December 8, 2017: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172492/preparation-and-properties-of-a-novel-semi-ipns-slow-release-fertilizer-with-the-function-of-water-retention
#11
Yang Xiang, Xudong Ru, Jinguo Shi, Jiang Song, Haidong Zhao, Yaqing Liu, Dongdong Guo, Xin Lu
A new semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (semi-IPNs) slow-release fertilizer (SISRF) with water absorbency, based on kaolin-g-poly (acrylic acid-co-acrylic amide) (kaolin-g-P(AA-co-AM)) network and linear urea-formaldehyde oligomers (UF), was prepared by solution polymerization. Nutrients phosphorus and potassium were supplied by adding dipotassium hydrogen phosphate during the preparation process. The structure and properties of SISRF were characterized by various characterization methods. SISRF showed excellent water absorbency of 68 g/g in tap water...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161913/development-and-optimization-of-locust-bean-gum-and-sodium-alginate-interpenetrating-polymeric-network-of-capecitabine
#12
Mansi Upadhyay, Sandeep Kumar Reddy Adena, Harsh Vardhan, Sureshwar Pandey, Brahmeshwar Mishra
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to develop interpenetrating polymeric network (IPN) of capecitabine (CAP) using natural polymers locust bean gum (LBG) and sodium alginate (NaAlg). SIGNIFICANCE: The IPN microbeads were optimized by Box-Behnken Design (BBD) to provide anticipated particle size with good drug entrapment efficiency. The comparative dissolution profile of IPN microbeads of CAP with the marketed preparation proved an excellent sustained drug delivery vehicle...
November 21, 2017: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158387/retrograde-inhibition-by-a-specific-subset-of-interpeduncular-%C3%AE-5-nicotinic-neurons-regulates-nicotine-preference
#13
Jessica L Ables, Andreas Görlich, Beatriz Antolin-Fontes, Cuidong Wang, Sylvia M Lipford, Michael H Riad, Jing Ren, Fei Hu, Minmin Luo, Paul J Kenny, Nathaniel Heintz, Ines Ibañez-Tallon
Repeated exposure to drugs of abuse can produce adaptive changes that lead to the establishment of dependence. It has been shown that allelic variation in the α5 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) gene CHRNA5 is associated with higher risk of tobacco dependence. In the brain, α5-containing nAChRs are expressed at very high levels in the interpeduncular nucleus (IPN). Here we identified two nonoverlapping α5 (+) cell populations (α5- (Amigo1) and α5- (Epyc) ) in mouse IPN that respond differentially to nicotine...
November 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156613/synthesis-and-swelling-behavior-of-ph-sensitive-semi-ipn-superabsorbent-hydrogels-based-on-poly-acrylic-acid-reinforced-with-cellulose-nanocrystals
#14
Lim Sze Lim, Noor Afizah Rosli, Ishak Ahmad, Azwan Mat Lazim, Mohd Cairul Iqbal Mohd Amin
pH-sensitive poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) hydrogel reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) was prepared. Acrylic acid (AA) was subjected to chemical cross-linking using the cross-linking agent MBA (N,N-methylenebisacrylamide) with CNC entrapped in the PAA matrix. The quantity of CNC was varied between 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 wt %. X-ray diffraction (XRD) data showed an increase in crystallinity with the addition of CNC, while rheology tests demonstrated a significant increase in the storage modulus of the hydrogel with an increase in CNC content...
November 20, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140278/development-of-gallic-acid-modified-hydrogels-using-interpenetrating-chitosan-network-and-evaluation-of-their-antioxidant-activity
#15
Byungman Kang, Temmy Pegarro Vales, Byoung-Ki Cho, Jong-Ki Kim, Ho-Joong Kim
In this work, antioxidant hydrogels were prepared by the construction of an interpenetrating chitosan network and functionalization with gallic acid. The poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) p(HEMA)-based hydrogels were first synthesized and subsequently surface-modified with an interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) structure prepared with methacrylamide chitosan via free radical polymerization. The resulting chitosan-IPN hydrogels were surface-functionalized with gallic acid through an amide coupling reaction, which afforded the antioxidant hydrogels...
November 15, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132046/stress-relaxing-hyaluronic-acid-collagen-hydrogels-promote-cell-spreading-fiber-remodeling-and-focal-adhesion-formation-in-3d-cell-culture
#16
Junzhe Lou, Ryan Stowers, Sungmin Nam, Yan Xia, Ovijit Chaudhuri
The physical and architectural cues of the extracellular matrix (ECM) play a critical role in regulating important cellular functions such as spreading, migration, proliferation, and differentiation. Natural ECM is a complex viscoelastic scaffold composed of various distinct components that are often organized into a fibrillar microstructure. Hydrogels are frequently used as synthetic ECMs for 3D cell culture, but are typically elastic, due to covalent crosslinking, and non-fibrillar. Recent work has revealed the importance of stress relaxation in viscoelastic hydrogels in regulating biological processes such as spreading and differentiation, but these studies all utilize synthetic ECM hydrogels that are non-fibrillar...
November 6, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131571/nanostructure-of-fully-injectable-hydrazone-thiosuccinimide-interpenetrating-polymer-network-hydrogels-assessed-by-small-angle-neutron-scattering-and-dstorm-single-molecule-fluorescence-microscopy
#17
Trevor Gilbert, Richard J Alsop, Mouhanad Babi, Jose Moran-Mirabal, Maikel C Rheinstadter, Todd Hoare
Herein, we comprehensively investigate the internal morphology of fully injectable IPNs prepared via co-extrusion of functionalized precursor polymer solutions based on thermoresponsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) and non-thermoresponsive poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) by reactive mixing using kinetically orthogonal hydrazone and thiosuccinimide cross-linking mechanisms. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS), probing both the full IPN as well as the individual constituent networks of the IPN using index matching, suggests a partially mixed internal structure characterized by PNIPAM-rich domains entrapped in a clustered PVP-rich phase...
November 13, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130952/efferent-axonal-projections-of-the-habenular-complex-in-the-fire-bellied-toad-bombina-orientalis
#18
Frédéric Laberge, Allison Smith
The habenular complex and its associated axonal pathways are often thought of as phylogenetically conserved features of the brain among vertebrates despite the fact that detailed studies of this brain region are limited to a few species. Here, the gross morphology and axonal projection pattern of the habenular complex of an anuran amphibian, the fire-bellied toad Bombina orientalis, was studied to allow comparison with the situation in other vertebrates. Axonal pathways were traced using biocytin applications in dissected brain preparations...
November 2, 2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128532/laponite-nanoparticle-associated-silated-hydroxypropylmethyl-cellulose-as-an-injectable-reinforced-interpenetrating-network-hydrogel-for-cartilage-tissue-engineering
#19
Cécile Boyer, Lara Figueiredo, Richard Pace, Julie Lesoeur, Thierry Rouillon, Catherine Le Visage, Jean-François Tassin, Pierre Weiss, Jérôme Guicheux, Gildas Rethore
Articular cartilage is a connective tissue which does not spontaneously heal. To address this issue, biomaterial-assisted cell therapy has been researched with promising advances. The lack of strong mechanical properties is still a concern despite significant progress in three-dimensional scaffolds. This article's objective was to develop a composite hydrogel using a small amount of nano-reinforcement clay known as laponites. These laponites were capable of self-setting within the gel structure of the silated hydroxylpropylmethyl cellulose (Si-HPMC) hydrogel...
November 8, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102629/use-of-salmon-cardiac-primary-cultures-scpcs-of-different-genotypes-for-comparative-kinetics-of-mx-expression-viral-load-and-ultrastructure-pathology-after-infection-with-salmon-pancreas-disease-virus-spdv
#20
Patricia Noguera, Bertrand Collet, Matthias Klinger, Hristo Örün, Jorge Del Pozo
In vitro fish based models have been extensively applied in human biomedical research but, paradoxically, less frequently in the research of fish health issues. Farmed Atlantic salmon can suffer from several viral conditions affecting the heart. Therefore, species-specific, cardiac in vitro models may represent a useful tool to help further understanding and management of these diseases. The mechanisms underlying genotype based resistance are complex and usually rely on a combined effect of elements from both the innate and adaptive immune response, which are further complicated by external environmental factors...
November 2, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
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