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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158387/retrograde-inhibition-by-a-specific-subset-of-interpeduncular-%C3%AE-5-nicotinic-neurons-regulates-nicotine-preference
#1
Jessica L Ables, Andreas Görlich, Beatriz Antolin-Fontes, Cuidong Wang, Sylvia M Lipford, Michael H Riad, Jing Ren, Fei Hu, Minmin Luo, Paul J Kenny, Nathaniel Heintz, Ines Ibañez-Tallon
Repeated exposure to drugs of abuse can produce adaptive changes that lead to the establishment of dependence. It has been shown that allelic variation in the α5 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) gene CHRNA5 is associated with higher risk of tobacco dependence. In the brain, α5-containing nAChRs are expressed at very high levels in the interpeduncular nucleus (IPN). Here we identified two nonoverlapping α5 (+) cell populations (α5- (Amigo1) and α5- (Epyc) ) in mouse IPN that respond differentially to nicotine...
November 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156613/synthesis-and-swelling-behavior-of-ph-sensitive-semi-ipn-superabsorbent-hydrogels-based-on-poly-acrylic-acid-reinforced-with-cellulose-nanocrystals
#2
Lim Sze Lim, Noor Afizah Rosli, Ishak Ahmad, Azwan Mat Lazim, Mohd Cairul Iqbal Mohd Amin
pH-sensitive poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) hydrogel reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) was prepared. Acrylic acid (AA) was subjected to chemical cross-linking using the cross-linking agent MBA (N,N-methylenebisacrylamide) with CNC entrapped in the PAA matrix. The quantity of CNC was varied between 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 wt %. X-ray diffraction (XRD) data showed an increase in crystallinity with the addition of CNC, while rheology tests demonstrated a significant increase in the storage modulus of the hydrogel with an increase in CNC content...
November 20, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140278/development-of-gallic-acid-modified-hydrogels-using-interpenetrating-chitosan-network-and-evaluation-of-their-antioxidant-activity
#3
Byungman Kang, Temmy Pegarro Vales, Byoung-Ki Cho, Jong-Ki Kim, Ho-Joong Kim
In this work, antioxidant hydrogels were prepared by the construction of an interpenetrating chitosan network and functionalization with gallic acid. The poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) p(HEMA)-based hydrogels were first synthesized and subsequently surface-modified with an interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) structure prepared with methacrylamide chitosan via free radical polymerization. The resulting chitosan-IPN hydrogels were surface-functionalized with gallic acid through an amide coupling reaction, which afforded the antioxidant hydrogels...
November 15, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132046/stress-relaxing-hyaluronic-acid-collagen-hydrogels-promote-cell-spreading-fiber-remodeling-and-focal-adhesion-formation-in-3d-cell-culture
#4
Junzhe Lou, Ryan Stowers, Sungmin Nam, Yan Xia, Ovijit Chaudhuri
The physical and architectural cues of the extracellular matrix (ECM) play a critical role in regulating important cellular functions such as spreading, migration, proliferation, and differentiation. Natural ECM is a complex viscoelastic scaffold composed of various distinct components that are often organized into a fibrillar microstructure. Hydrogels are frequently used as synthetic ECMs for 3D cell culture, but are typically elastic, due to covalent crosslinking, and non-fibrillar. Recent work has revealed the importance of stress relaxation in viscoelastic hydrogels in regulating biological processes such as spreading and differentiation, but these studies all utilize synthetic ECM hydrogels that are non-fibrillar...
November 6, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131571/nanostructure-of-fully-injectable-hydrazone-thiosuccinimide-interpenetrating-polymer-network-hydrogels-assessed-by-small-angle-neutron-scattering-and-dstorm-single-molecule-fluorescence-microscopy
#5
Trevor Gilbert, Richard J Alsop, Mouhanad Babi, Jose Moran-Mirabal, Maikel C Rheinstadter, Todd Hoare
Herein, we comprehensively investigate the internal morphology of fully injectable IPNs prepared via co-extrusion of functionalized precursor polymer solutions based on thermoresponsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) and non-thermoresponsive poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) by reactive mixing using kinetically orthogonal hydrazone and thiosuccinimide cross-linking mechanisms. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS), probing both the full IPN as well as the individual constituent networks of the IPN using index matching, suggests a partially mixed internal structure characterized by PNIPAM-rich domains entrapped in a clustered PVP-rich phase...
November 13, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130952/efferent-axonal-projections-of-the-habenular-complex-in-the-fire-bellied-toad-bombina-orientalis
#6
Frédéric Laberge, Allison Smith
The habenular complex and its associated axonal pathways are often thought of as phylogenetically conserved features of the brain among vertebrates despite the fact that detailed studies of this brain region are limited to a few species. Here, the gross morphology and axonal projection pattern of the habenular complex of an anuran amphibian, the fire-bellied toad Bombina orientalis, was studied to allow comparison with the situation in other vertebrates. Axonal pathways were traced using biocytin applications in dissected brain preparations...
November 2, 2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128532/laponite-nanoparticle-associated-silated-hydroxypropylmethyl-cellulose-as-an-injectable-reinforced-interpenetrating-network-hydrogel-for-cartilage-tissue-engineering
#7
Cécile Boyer, Lara Figueiredo, Richard Pace, Julie Lesoeur, Thierry Rouillon, Catherine Le Visage, Jean-François Tassin, Pierre Weiss, Jérôme Guicheux, Gildas Rethore
Articular cartilage is a connective tissue which does not spontaneously heal. To address this issue, biomaterial-assisted cell therapy has been researched with promising advances. The lack of strong mechanical properties is still a concern despite significant progress in three-dimensional scaffolds. This article's objective was to develop a composite hydrogel using a small amount of nano-reinforcement clay known as laponites. These laponites were capable of self-setting within the gel structure of the silated hydroxylpropylmethyl cellulose (Si-HPMC) hydrogel...
November 8, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102629/use-of-salmon-cardiac-primary-cultures-scpcs-of-different-genotypes-for-comparative-kinetics-of-mx-expression-viral-load-and-ultrastructure-pathology-after-infection-with-salmon-pancreas-disease-virus-spdv
#8
Patricia Noguera, Bertrand Collet, Matthias Klinger, Hristo Örün, Jorge Del Pozo
In vitro fish based models have been extensively applied in human biomedical research but, paradoxically, less frequently in the research of fish health issues. Farmed Atlantic salmon can suffer from several viral conditions affecting the heart. Therefore, species-specific, cardiac in vitro models may represent a useful tool to help further understanding and management of these diseases. The mechanisms underlying genotype based resistance are complex and usually rely on a combined effect of elements from both the innate and adaptive immune response, which are further complicated by external environmental factors...
November 2, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080144/association-of-systemic-inflammatory-and-anti-inflammatory-responses-with-adverse-outcomes-in-acute-pancreatitis-preliminary-results-of-an-ongoing-study
#9
Deepesh Sharma, Aparna Jakkampudi, Ratnakar Reddy, Panyala Balakumar Reddy, Aasish Patil, H V V Murthy, G Venkat Rao, D Nageshwar Reddy, Rupjyoti Talukdar
INTRODUCTION: This paper reports preliminary data of an ongoing study that evaluates the association of systemic inflammatory response (SIRS) with early severe acute pancreatitis (ESAP) and compensatory anti-inflammatory response syndrome (characterized by HLA-DR down-regulation) with infected pancreatic necrosis (IPN). METHODS: Consecutive patients presenting within 72 h of symptom onset with organ dysfunction and/or local complications were included. Following parameters were recorded: demographics, etiology, SIRS, APACHE II, creatinine, BUN...
December 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057012/one-pot-blue-light-triggered-tough-interpenetrating-polymeric-network-ipn-using-cuaac-and-methacrylate-reactions
#10
Abhishek U Shete, Christopher J Kloxin
An interpenetrating polymeric network (IPN) is formed in a one-pot blue-light activated scheme, where the step- and chain- growth polymerizations of the CuAAC and methacrylate reactions, respectively, are simultaneously triggered but proceed sequentially. The glassy IPN is polymerized under ambient conditions and is able to withstand high strain before failure owing to its significantly enhanced toughness. Additionally, this material exhibits shape memory attributes with readily tunable mechanical properties at high temperature...
June 28, 2017: Polymer Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050574/superparamagnetic-ipn-gels-of-carrageenan-phema-excelling-in-shape-retention
#11
Takahiro Tsuru, Kazuki Sugimura, Yoshiyuki Nishio
Iron oxide nanoparticles-incorporated carrageenan (CAR)/PHEMA composites of interpenetrating network (IPN) type were successfully prepared by in situ ferrite synthesis in the polymer network. The IPN structure was constructed at CAR/PHEMA compositions of 15/85 and 40/60 (wt/wt) by polymerization and cross-linking of 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate as an impregnating solvent of CAR gels. As a result of this IPN construction, the composites were firm and showed a good shape-retentivity in their gelatinous state. SQUID magnetometry and X-ray diffractometry were conducted for evaluation of the magnetic property of the inorganic-hybridized IPN composites...
December 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037044/porous-poly-%C3%AE%C2%B5-caprolactone-poly-l-lactic-acid-semi-interpenetrating-networks-as-superior-defect-specific-scaffolds-with-potential-for-cranial-bone-defect-repair
#12
Lindsay N Woodard, Kevin T Kmetz, Abigail A Roth, Vanessa M Page, Melissa A Grunlan
The treatment of irregular cranial bone defects is currently limited due to the graft resorption that can occur when an ill-fitting interface exists between an autograft and the surrounding tissue. A tissue engineering scaffold able to achieve defect-specific geometries could improve healing. This work reports a macroporous, shape memory polymer (SMP) scaffold composed of a semi-interpenetrating network (semi-IPN) of thermoplastic poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) within cross-linked poly(ε-caprolactone) diacrylate (PCL-DA) that is capable of conformal fit within a defect...
October 26, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972356/-in-search-for-the-grave-of-100-poles-executed-on-march-20-1942-in-zgierz-poland-research-by-sigo-network-for-genetic-identification-of-victims
#13
Renata Jacewicz, Andrzej Ossowski, Olgierd Ławrynowicz, Maciej Jędrzejczyk, Adam Prośniak, Katarzyna Bąbol-Pokora, Marta Diepenbroek, Maria Szargut, Grażyna Zielińska, Jarosław Berent
It can be reasonably assumed that remains exhumed in 2012 and 2013 during archaeological explorations conducted in the Lućmierz Forest, an important area on the map of the German Nazi terror in the region of Lodz (Poland), are in fact the remains of a hundred Poles murdered by the Nazis in Zgierz on March 20, 1942. By virtue of a decision of the Polish Institute of National Remembrance's Commission for the Prosecution of Crimes Against the Polish Nation, the verification of this research hypothesis was entrusted to SIGO (Network for Genetic Identification of Victims) Consortium appointed by virtue of an agreement of December 11, 2015...
2017: Archiwum Medycyny Sa̧dowej i Kryminologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963863/hemocompatibility-of-hyaluronan-enhanced-linear-low-density-polyethylene-for-blood-contacting-applications
#14
Rachael Simon-Walker, John Cavicchia, David A Prawel, Lakshmi Prasad Dasi, Susan P James, Ketul C Popat
Despite their overall success, different blood-contacting medical devices such as heart valves, stents, and so forth, are still plagued with hemocompatibility issues which often result in the need for subsequent replacement and/or life-long anticoagulation therapy. Consequently, there is a significant interest in developing biomaterials that can address these issues. Polymeric-based materials have been proposed for use in many applications due to their ability to be finely tuned through manufacturing and surface modification to enhance hemocompatibility...
September 30, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962769/synthesis-and-characterization-of-a-multi-sensitive-polysaccharide-hydrogel-for-drug-delivery
#15
Wei Wei, Junjian Li, Xiaoliang Qi, Yin Zhong, Gancheng Zuo, Xihao Pan, Ting Su, Jianfa Zhang, Wei Dong
Salecan is a novel water soluble polysaccharide produced by a salt-tolerant strain Agrobacterium sp. ZX09. Poly(dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) is a pH, thermo, and ionic strength multi-sensitive polymer with anti-bacterial property. Here, we report a semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN) hydrogel based on salecan and PDMAEMA. The obtained hydrogel is simultaneous sensitive to pH, ionic strength and temperature: the swelling ratio maximizes at pH 1.2 and shrinks at pH value greater than 3; besides, water content of the hydrogel decreases as the ionic strength increases; in terms of temperature, the hydrogel swells/deswells at temperatures below/above 40°C...
December 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946477/ultrasonic-assisted-microwave-synthesis-of-poly-chitosan-co-gelatin-polyvinyl-pyrrolidone-ipn-hydrogel
#16
Yajuan Wang, Xin Zhang, Dan Qiu, Ya Li, Lihui Yao, Jingkuan Duan
The hydrogels based on gelatin cross-linked with chitosan (CS) and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) were synthesized using microwave and ultrasonic coupling technique in this study. This interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) hydrogels were cross-linked by glutaraldehyde and 1,2-Epoxy-4-vinylcyclohexane. The presence of function groups in the structure of hydrogel films were confirmed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermal stability was measured by DSC, and the swelling behaviors were measured gravimetrically in distilled water at the temperature of 27°C...
January 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903873/validation-of-a-model-for-ranking-aquaculture-facilities-for-risk-based-disease-surveillance
#17
Nicolas Diserens, Laura Cristina Falzon, Beat von Siebenthal, Gertraud Schüpbach-Regula, Thomas Wahli
A semi-quantitative model for risk ranking of aquaculture facilities in Switzerland with regard to the introduction and spread of Viral Haemorrhagic Septicaemia (VHS) and Infectious Haematopoietic Necrosis (IHN) was developed in a previous study (Diserens et al., 2013). The objective of the present study was to validate this model using data collected during field visits on aquaculture sites in four Swiss cantons compared to data collected through a questionnaire in the previous study. A discrepancy between the values obtained with the two different methods was found in 32...
September 15, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888548/a-novel-approach-for-the-morphology-controlled-synthesis-of-rod-shaped-nano-hydroxyapatite-using-semi-ipn-and-ipn-as-a-template
#18
Preeti Mehta, Balbir Singh Kaith
Present work offers use of semi-interpenetrating network (semi-IPN) and interpenetrating network (IPN) as the template for the synthesis of nano-hydroxyapatites. Semi-IPN and IPN of agar-gelatin were prepared and successfully used to synthesize nano-hydroxyapatite. Graft copolymerization technique was used to alter the properties of the hybrid backbone using ammonium persulphate as an initiator and N,N'methylene-bisacrylamide (MBA) as a crosslinker. The first step was to synthesize cross-linked semi-IPN of agar-gelatin blend which was converted to a cross-linked interpenetrating polymer...
September 6, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887976/nanoclay-cross-linked-semi-ipn-silk-sericin-poly-nipam-lmsh-nanocomposite-hydrogel-an-outstanding-antibacterial-wound-dressing
#19
Chaochao Yang, Rui Xue, Qingsong Zhang, Shulin Yang, Pengfei Liu, Li Chen, Ke Wang, Xiaoyong Zhang, Yen Wei
High antibacterial and skin-like hydrogels have always been the perfect wound dressing for human to protect wound from infection. Here, based on silk sericin, we design a series of nanoclay lithium magnesium silicate hydrate (LMSH) cross-linked semi-IPN sericin/poly(NIPAm/LMSH) (HSP) nanocomposite hydrogels and demonstrate advantages in serving as antibacterial wound dressing in comparison with gauze. Firstly, the effect of mass ratios of sericin/(sericin+NIPAm) upon pore structure, feasibility of mechanics and gas permeability of HSP nanocomposite hydrogels were evaluated...
December 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866188/interpenetrating-network-hydrogels-with-high-strength-and-transparency-for-potential-use-as-external-dressings
#20
Jingjing Wang, Jun Wei
Interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) hydrogels composed of gelatin and hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) were prepared by successive enzymatic and chemical crosslinking approaches. The hydrogels displayed porous structure and the pore size decreased with the increase of HPC content. Due to the entanglement and interpenetrating between the two crosslinked networks, the IPN hydrogels exhibited excellent mechanical strength and light transmittance. The maximum tensile and tear strengths of the IPN hydrogels reached 3...
November 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
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