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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567127/poor-yield-of-clostridium-difficile-testing-algorithms-using-glutamate-dehydrogenase-antigen-and-c-difficile-toxin-enzyme-immunoassays-in-a-pediatric-population-with-declining-prevalence-of-clostridium-difficile-strain-bi-nap1-027
#1
Emily J Gomez, Sandra Montgomery, Kevin Alby, Diana P Robinson, Sylvester S Roundtree, Deborah Blecker-Shelly, Kaede V Sullivan
We compared the performance of algorithmic Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) diagnosis with four molecular tests in children. Stool samples in patients 1-18 years old were tested with an algorithm (C. Diff Quik Chek Complete (QCC) reflexed to illumigene C. difficile); AmpliVue C. difficile (ACD); Lyra Direct C. difficile (Lyra); BD MAX C diff (BDM); and Xpert C. difficile (XCD). The gold standard was positivity by two tests. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 85%, 99%, 93%, 97% for the algorithm; 21%, 99%, 78%, 87% for QCC's toxin component; 94%, 99%, 94%, 99% for ACD; 88%, 99%, 94%, 98% for Lyra; 94%, 100%, 100%, 99% for BDM, and 94%, 99%, 94% and 99% for XCD...
February 25, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529094/multiple-origins-of-downy-mildews-and-mito-nuclear-discordance-within-the-paraphyletic-genus-phytophthora
#2
Tyler B Bourret, Robin A Choudhury, Heather K Mehl, Cheryl L Blomquist, Neil McRoberts, David M Rizzo
Phylogenetic relationships between thirteen species of downy mildew and 103 species of Phytophthora (plant-pathogenic oomycetes) were investigated with two nuclear and four mitochondrial loci, using several likelihood-based approaches. Three Phytophthora taxa and all downy mildew taxa were excluded from the previously recognized subgeneric clades of Phytophthora, though all were strongly supported within the paraphyletic genus. Downy mildews appear to be polyphyletic, with graminicolous downy mildews (GDM), brassicolous downy mildews (BDM) and downy mildews with colored conidia (DMCC) forming a clade with the previously unplaced Phytophthora taxon totara; downy mildews with pyriform haustoria (DMPH) were placed in their own clade with affinities to the obligate biotrophic P...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471801/a-maximum-likelihood-algorithm-for-reconstructing-3d-structures-of-human-chromosomes-from-chromosomal-contact-data
#3
Oluwatosin Oluwadare, Yuxiang Zhang, Jianlin Cheng
BACKGROUND: The development of chromosomal conformation capture techniques, particularly, the Hi-C technique, has made the analysis and study of the spatial conformation of a genome an important topic in bioinformatics and computational biology. Aided by high-throughput next generation sequencing techniques, the Hi-C technique can generate genome-wide, large-scale intra- and inter-chromosomal interaction data capable of describing in details the spatial interactions within a genome. These data can be used to reconstruct 3D structures of chromosomes that can be used to study DNA replication, gene regulation, genome interaction, genome folding, and genome function...
February 23, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373340/residual-force-enhancement-is-preserved-for-conditions-of-reduced-contractile-force
#4
Atsuki Fukutani, Walter Herzog
INTRODUCTION: The isometric muscle force attained after active stretch is greater than that attained in a purely isometric contraction. This property is referred to as residual force enhancement (RFE). Since RFE is thought to be caused by a titin-based passive force, it should be preserved in reduced contractile force states. Therefore, we evaluated the magnitude of RFE in normal and reduced contractile force states. METHODS: Skinned fibers of rabbit psoas and soleus (N = 60) were used in all experiments...
January 26, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137603/clustertad-an-unsupervised-machine-learning-approach-to-detecting-topologically-associated-domains-of-chromosomes-from-hi-c-data
#5
Oluwatosin Oluwadare, Jianlin Cheng
BACKGROUND: With the development of chromosomal conformation capturing techniques, particularly, the Hi-C technique, the study of the spatial conformation of a genome is becoming an important topic in bioinformatics and computational biology. The Hi-C technique can generate genome-wide chromosomal interaction (contact) data, which can be used to investigate the higher-level organization of chromosomes, such as Topologically Associated Domains (TAD), i.e., locally packed chromosome regions bounded together by intra chromosomal contacts...
November 14, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123273/in-vivo-imaging-of-the-microvasculature-of-the-soft-tissue-margins-of-osteonecrotic-jaw-lesions
#6
P Bastos, V Patel, F Festy, N Hosny, R J Cook
Introduction Given the increasing incidence of medication-related jaw osteonecrosis, and recognition of the mucosal blood supply's importance, we have developed a non-invasive Real Time Optical Vascular Imaging (RTOVI) instrument. Imaging the red blood cells within the sub-mucosal capillary networks demonstrates the microcirculatory anatomy. We report a small trial, demonstrating the technique's viability, examining mucosal microcirculatory changes adjacent to osteonecrotic lesions.Aims Imaging the microvasculature of soft tissue margins of patients' exposed necrotic bone lesions in situ was intended to provide unique observational as well as quantitative data, using an image analysis routine, based on ImageJ software...
November 10, 2017: British Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072928/donor-milk-utilization-for-healthy-infants-experience-at-a-single-academic-center
#7
Sarbattama Sen, Charis Benjamin, Jennifer Riley, Abigail Heleba, Kaitlin Drouin, Katherine Gregory, Mandy Brown Belfort
BACKGROUND: Banked donor milk (BDM) has historically been used as an alternative to formula for preterm infants. Recently, BDM has been endorsed by two national organizations for use in healthy infants. We sought to quantify utilization trends and characteristics of mothers and their healthy newborns who received BDM during their postpartum stay between 2013 and 2016 at a single academic medical center. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this observational study, we used a clinical log to identify all infants who received BDM in the well-baby nursery between July 2013 and June 2016...
January 2018: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860999/a-method-sustaining-the-bioelectric-biophysical-and-bioenergetic-function-of-cultured-rabbit-atrial-cells
#8
Noa Kirschner Peretz, Sofia Segal, Limor Arbel-Ganon, Ronen Ben Jehuda, Yuval Shemer, Binyamin Eisen, Moran Davoodi, Ofer Binah, Yael Yaniv
Culturing atrial cells leads to a loss in their ability to be externally paced at physiological rates and to maintain their shape. We aim to develop a culture method that sustains the shape of atrial cells along with their biophysical and bioenergetic properties in response to physiological pacing. We hypothesize that adding 2,3-Butanedione 2-monoxime (BDM), which inhibits contraction during the culture period, will preserve these biophysical and bioenergetic properties. Rabbit atrial cells were maintained in culture for 24 h in a medium enriched with a myofilament contraction inhibitor, BDM...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832809/relationship-between-total-and-segmental-bone-mineral-density-and-different-domains-of-physical-activity-among-children-and-adolescents-cross-sectional-study
#9
Tiego Aparecido Diniz, Ricardo Ribeiro Agostinete, Paulo Costa, Bruna Thamyres Ciccotti Saraiva, Diego Kanashiro Sonvenso, Ismael Forte Freitas, Rômulo Araujo Fernandes, Diego Giulliano Destro Christofaro
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between total and segmental bone mineral density (BDM) and physical activity (PA) in different domains (school, leisure and sports) among adolescents and children. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study in the Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP). METHODS: The study sample consisted of 173 children and adolescents (10.31 ± 1.87 years). The BMDs for the whole body (WB) and the regions of the trunk and legs were measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)...
September 2017: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680155/polarized-distribution-of-active-myosin-ii-regulates-directional-migration-of-cultured-olfactory-ensheathing-cells
#10
Cheng-Gen Zheng, Fan Zhang, Xiao-Mei Bao, Shi-Yang Wu, Peng Wang, Jia-Nan Zhou, Yuan Gao, Hong-Lin Teng, Ying Wang, Zhi-Hui Huang
Migration of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) is critical for development of olfactory system and essential for neural regeneration after OEC transplantation into nerve injury site. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of directional migration of OECs remain unclear. In this study, we found that in migrating OECs, phosphorylated myosin light chain (p-MLC, active myosin II) displayed a polarized distribution, with the leading front exhibiting higher than soma and trailing process. Over-expression of GFP-MLC significantly reduced OEC migration...
July 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648599/2-3-butandione-2-monoxime-inhibits-skeletal-myosin-ii-by-accelerating-atp-cleavage
#11
Hideyuki Komatsu, Yuji Koseki, Takeshi Kanno, Shunsuke Aoki, Takao Kodama
2,3-Butandione 2-monoxime (BDM) is a widely used myosin inhibitor with an unclear mode of action. In this report, we investigated the mechanism of BDM oxime group nucleophilic reactivity on the phosphoester bond of ATP. BDM increased the ATPase activity of skeletal myosin subfragment 1 (S1) under conditions in which ATP cleavage is the rate-limiting step (K+ , EDTA-ATPase activity of native S1 and Mg2+ -ATPase activity of trinitrophenylated S1 and partially unfolded S1). Furthermore, the effect of BDM on the S1-bound adenosine 5'-(β,γ-imido) triphosphate (AMPPNP)31 P NMR spectrum suggests that BDM changes the microenvironment around the phosphorus atoms of myosin-bound nucleotide...
August 26, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605368/murine-short-axis-ventricular-heart-slices-for-electrophysiological-studies
#12
Gabriel Peinkofer, Juergen Hescheler, Marcel Halbach
Murine cardiomyocytes have been extensively used for in vitro studies of cardiac physiology and new therapeutic strategies. However, multicellular preparations of dissociated cardiomyocytes are not representative of the complex in vivo structure of cardiomyocytes, non-myocytes and extracellular matrix, which influences both mechanical and electrophysiological properties of the heart. Here we describe a technique to prepare viable ventricular slices of adult mouse hearts with a preserved in vivo like tissue structure, and demonstrate their suitability for electrophysiological recordings...
June 4, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603807/bdm-mediated-regulation-of-flagellar-biogenesis-in-escherichia-coli-and-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium
#13
Jaejin Lee, Dae-Jun Kim, Ji-Hyun Yeom, Kangseok Lee
Synthesis of the flagellar apparatus in Escherichia coli is mediated via complex regulatory pathways. A previous study indicated that the protein encoded by the biofilm-dependent modulation (bdm) gene is linked closely with a regulatory pathway for flagellar assembly. However, the specific role of Bdm in flagellar biogenesis remains unknown. Herein, we showed that Bdm interacts with FlgM and inhibits its function as an anti-σ28 factor, which induces the transcription of flagellar late-class genes in E. coli...
September 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587452/genetic-toxicity-of-complex-mixtures-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-evaluating-dose-additivity-in-a-transgenic-mouse-model
#14
Alexandra S Long, Christine L Lemieux, Rémi Gagné, Iain B Lambert, Paul A White
This study evaluates the risk assessment approach currently employed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated media, wherein carcinogenic hazards are evaluated using a dose-addition model that employs potency equivalency factors (PEFs) for targeted carcinogenic PAHs. Here, MutaMouse mice were subchronically exposed to PAH mixtures (p.o.), and mutagenic potency (MP) values were determined for five tissues. Predicted dose-additive mixture MPs were generated by summing the products of the concentrations and MPs of the individual targeted PAHs; values were compared to the experimental MPs of the mixtures to evaluate dose-additivity...
July 18, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561902/safety-and-pharmacokinetics-of-bendamustine-rapid-infusion-formulation
#15
Eric M Cheung, William J Edenfield, Bassam Mattar, Stephen P Anthony, Peter J Mutch, Brian Chanas, Mark Smith, Adrian Hepner
Bendamustine hydrochloride (BDM) is approved in the United States to treat chronic lymphocytic leukemia and relapsed indolent B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The first formulation marketed in the United States (original BDM) was a lyophilized product requiring reconstitution prior to dilution to the final admixture. A liquid formulation of BDM was subsequently introduced that did not require reconstitution before dilution. Both formulations are administered as a 500 mL admixture with a recommended infusion time of 30 or 60 minutes for chronic lymphocytic leukemia and indolent B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma, respectively...
November 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470349/cadmium-compartmentalization-in-the-pulmonate-snail-lymnaea-stagnalis-improving-our-understanding-of-exposure
#16
Evelyn G Reátegui-Zirena, Amanda D French, David M Klein, Christopher J Salice
In ecotoxicology, analytical compartmentalization analysis can be used to better understand metal sequestration and detoxification. Metals are typically found in two main compartments, biologically detoxified metal (BDM) and metal sensitive fractions (MSF). The purpose of this study was to analyze the subcellular distribution of cadmium (Cd) in Lymnaea stagnalis. Adult snails were exposed to three concentrations of Cd for 56 days as part of a global ring test for L. stagnalis. At the end of the 56-day exposure, organisms were separated in two sections (viscera and foot)...
May 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437138/epidemiology-of-basil-downy-mildew
#17
Yigal Cohen, Yariv Ben Naim, Lidan Falach, Avia E Rubin
Basil downy mildew (BDM) caused by the oomycete Peronospora belbahrii is a destructive disease of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) worldwide. It originated in Uganda in the 1930s and recently spread to Europe, the Middle East, Americas, and the Far East. Seed transmission may be responsible for its quick global spread. The pathogen attacks leaf blades, producing chlorotic lesions with ample dark asexual spores on the lower leaf surface. Oospores may form in the mesophyll of infected leaves. The asexual spores germinate on a wet leaf surface within 2 h and penetrate into the epidermis within 4 h...
October 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405178/utilizing-bd-max%C3%A2-enteric-bacterial-panel-to-detect-stool-pathogens-from-rectal-swabs
#18
Barbara DeBurger, Sarah Hanna, Eleanor A Powell, Cindi Ventrola, Joel E Mortensen
BACKGROUND: The BD MAX™ Enteric Bacterial Panel (BDM-EBP) is designed and FDA-cleared to detect Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter, and Shiga toxin genes stx1/2 from stool samples. However, rectal swabs, which are not FDA-cleared for clinical testing with the BDM-EBP, are common specimens received from pediatric patients for enteric pathogen testing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of the BDM-EBP to detect stool pathogens from rectal swabs. METHODS: Routine cultures, Shiga toxin testing, and molecular testing with BDM-EBP were performed on 272 sequential rectal swabs collected from August 2015 to December 2015...
2017: BMC Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274217/disruption-of-rcsb-by-a-duplicated-sequence-in-a-curli-producing-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-results-in-differential-gene-expression-in-relation-to-biofilm-formation-stress-responses-and-metabolism
#19
V K Sharma, D O Bayles, D P Alt, T Looft, B W Brunelle, J A Stasko
BACKGROUND: Escherichia coli O157:H7 (O157) strain 86-24, linked to a 1986 disease outbreak, displays curli- and biofilm-negative phenotypes that are correlated with the lack of Congo red (CR) binding and formation of white colonies (CR- ) on a CR-containing medium. However, on a CR medium this strain produces red isolates (CR+ ) capable of producing curli fimbriae and biofilms. RESULTS: To identify genes controlling differential expression of curli fimbriae and biofilm formation, the RNA-Seq profile of a CR+ isolate was compared to the CR- parental isolate...
March 8, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258869/comparative-skin-evaluation-after-split-thickness-skin-grafts-using-2-different-acellular-dermal-matrices-to-cover-composite-forearm-defects
#20
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Myung Chul Lee, Yong Jun Jang, In Sik Yun, Dae Hyun Lew, Won Jai Lee
PURPOSE: The combination of acellular dermal matrix (ADM) and split-thickness skin graft (STSG) has been widely adopted to overcome functional and cosmetic limitations of conventional STSG. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of this combination using 2 types of ADM: cadaveric acellular dermal matrix (CDM) and bovine acellular dermal matrix (BDM). METHODS: We recruited 72 patients undergoing autologous STSG to cover radial forearm free flap donor sites. They were included in 1 of 3 therapeutic groups: group 1, STSG using CDM (n = 29); group 2, STSG using BDM (n = 20); and group 3, STSG only (n = 23)...
April 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery
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