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Jayanand Manjhi, Maneesh Gupta, Anvesha Sinha, Beena Rawat, Durg V Rai
Context • Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases of the musculoskeleton, causing functional disability among older adults. Management of OA includes conventional pharmacological treatments consisting primarily of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), acetaminophen, physiotherapy, and surgical procedures. The medications are not ideal therapeutic agents; NSAIDs in particular can cause serious side effects. Objective • The study was conducted to investigate the effects of Balsamodendron mukul (BDM) gum resin extract on cartilage damage and microstructural changes in the subchondral bone of rats with papain-induced, osteoarthritic knee joints...
July 2016: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
Manne Mudhu Sunitha, Lokanathan Srikanth, Pasupuleti Santhosh Kumar, Chodimella Chandrasekhar, Potukuchi Venkata Gurunadha Krishna Sarma
Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) possess multipotent ability to differentiate into various types of cells on providing appropriate niche. In the present study, the differentiating potential of human HSCs into β-cells of islets of langerhans was explored. Human HSCs were apheretically isolated from a donor and cultured. Phenotypic characterization of CD34 glycoprotein in the growing monolayer HSCs was confirmed by immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry techniques. HSCs were induced by selection with beta cell differentiating medium (BDM), which consists of epidermal growth factor (EGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), transferrin, Triiodo-l-Tyronine, nicotinamide and activin A...
October 2016: Cell Biology International
Mengting Li, Zhuanxi Luo, Yameng Yan, Zhenhong Wang, Qiaoqiao Chi, Changzhou Yan, Baoshan Xing
Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) are widely used in consumer products. Nano-TiO2 dispersion could, however, interact with metals and modify their behavior and bioavailability in aquatic environments. In this study, we characterized and examined arsenate (As(V)) accumulation, distribution, and toxicity in Daphnia magna in the presence of nano-TiO2. Nano-TiO2 acts as a positive carrier, significantly facilitating D. magna's ability to uptake As(V). As nano-TiO2 concentrations increased from 2 to 20 mg-Ti/L, total As increased by a factor of 2...
September 6, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Ahmet Turan Özdemir
Wearable devices for fall detection have received attention in academia and industry, because falls are very dangerous, especially for elderly people, and if immediate aid is not provided, it may result in death. However, some predictive devices are not easily worn by elderly people. In this work, a huge dataset, including 2520 tests, is employed to determine the best sensor placement location on the body and to reduce the number of sensor nodes for device ergonomics. During the tests, the volunteer's movements are recorded with six groups of sensors each with a triaxial (accelerometer, gyroscope and magnetometer) sensor, which is placed tightly on different parts of the body with special straps: head, chest, waist, right-wrist, right-thigh and right-ankle...
2016: Sensors
Sudhanshu Agrawal, Anshu Agrawal, Hamid M Said
The water-soluble biotin (vitamin B7) is indispensable for normal human health. The vitamin acts as a cofactor for five carboxylases that are critical for fatty acid, glucose, and amino acid metabolism. Biotin deficiency is associated with various diseases, and mice deficient in this vitamin display enhanced inflammation. Previous studies have shown that biotin affects the functions of adaptive immune T and NK cells, but its effect(s) on innate immune cells is not known. Because of that and because vitamins such as vitamins A and D have a profound effect on dendritic cell (DC) function, we investigated the effect of biotin levels on the functions of human monocyte-derived DCs...
September 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Simone Quercia
Betrayal aversion has been operationalized as the evidence that subjects demand a higher risk premium to take social risks compared to natural risks. This evidence has been first shown by Bohnet and Zeckhauser (2004) using an adaptation of the Becker - DeGroot - Marschak mechanism (BDM, Becker et al. (1964)). We compare their implementation of the BDM mechanism with a new version designed to facilitate subjects' comprehension. We find that, although the two versions produce different distributions of values, the size of betrayal aversion, measured as an average treatment difference between social and natural risk settings, is not different across the two versions...
May 2016: Journal of the Economic Science Association
Ryann M Fame, Jessica T Chang, Alex Hong, Nicole A Aponte-Santiago, Hazel Sive
BACKGROUND: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) contained within the brain ventricles contacts neuroepithelial progenitor cells during brain development. Dynamic properties of CSF movement may limit locally produced factors to specific regions of the developing brain. However, there is no study of in vivo CSF dynamics between ventricles in the embryonic brain. We address CSF movement using the zebrafish larva, during the major period of developmental neurogenesis. METHODS: CSF movement was monitored at two stages of zebrafish development: early larva [pharyngula stage; 27-30 h post-fertilization (hpf)] and late larva (hatching period; 51-54 hpf) using photoactivatable Kaede protein to calculate average maximum CSF velocity between ventricles...
2016: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
Ling-Heng Kong, Xiao-Ming Gu, Xing-Li Su, Na Sun, Ming Wei, Juan-Xia Zhu, Pan Chang, Jing-Jun Zhou
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the Effect of 2,3-butanedione monoxime (BDM) on calcium paradox-induced heart injury and its underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Thirty-two adult male SD rats were randomized into 4 groups, namely the control group, BDM treatment control group, calcium paradox group, and BDM treatment group. Isolated Sprague Dawley male rat hearts underwent Langendorff perfusion and the left ventricular pressure (LVP) and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) were monitored...
May 2016: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
Cátia Velez, Etelvina Figueira, Amadeu M V M Soares, Rosa Freitas
The main goal of the present study was to assess accumulation, tolerance and sub-cellular partitioning of As, Hg, Cd and Pb in Venerupis corrugata. Results showed an increase of elements accumulation in V. corrugata with the increase of exposure. However, organisms presented higher capacity to accumulate Hg, Cd and Pb (BCF ≥ 12.8) than As (BCF ≤ 2.1) and higher accumulation rate for Cd and Pb than for Hg and As. With the increase of Hg exposure concentrations clams tended to increase the amount of metal bound to metal-sensitive fractions, which may explain the mortality recorded at the highest exposure concentration...
August 2016: Chemosphere
Byung Kook Lee, Mu Jin Kim, Kyung Woon Jeung, Sung Soo Choi, Sang Wook Park, Seong Woo Yun, Sung Min Lee, Dong Hun Lee, Yong Il Min
PURPOSE: Ischemic contracture compromises the hemodynamic effectiveness of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and resuscitability from cardiac arrest. In a pig model of cardiac arrest, 2,3-butanedione monoxime (BDM) attenuated ischemic contracture. We investigated the effects of different doses of BDM to determine whether increasing the dose of BDM could improve the hemodynamic effectiveness of CPR further, thus ultimately improving resuscitability. METHODS: After 16minutes of untreated ventricular fibrillation and 8minutes of basic life support, 36 pigs were divided randomly into 3 groups that received 50mg/kg (low-dose group) of BDM, 100mg/kg (high-dose group) of BDM, or an equivalent volume of saline (control group) during advanced cardiovascular life support...
June 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Thiago Lopes Rocha, Tânia Gomes, Emerson Giuliani Durigon, Maria João Bebianno
The environmental health impact of metal-based nanomaterials is of emerging concern, but their metabolism and detoxification pathways in marine bioindicator species remain unclear. This study investigated the role of subcellular partitioning kinetics, metallothioneins (MTs) response and oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation - LPO) in the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed to CdTe quantum dots (QDs) in comparison with its dissolved counterpart. Mussels were exposed to QDs and dissolved Cd for 21 days at 10 μg Cd L(-1) followed by a 50 days depuration...
June 1, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Daniel Heylmann, Bernd Kaina
DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) and blocked replication forks activate the DNA damage response (DDR), a signaling pathway marked by phosphorylation of histone 2AX (H2AX). The phosphorylated form, γH2AX, accumulates at the site of damage and can be detected as foci by immunocytochemistry. Therefore, γH2AX is a sensitive and robust biomarker of DNA damage, notably DSB. Cells from peripheral blood are often used for studies on genotoxic exposure of humans. They are limited, however, by the amount of blood required and the costly blood purification method...
2016: Scientific Reports
Maki Yamaguchi, Masako Kimura, Zhao-Bo Li, Tetsuo Ohno, Shigeru Takemori, Joseph F Y Hoh, Naoto Yagi
The phosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) is an important modulator of skeletal muscle performance and plays a key role in posttetanic potentiation and staircase potentiation of twitch contractions. The structural basis for these phenomena within the filament lattice has not been thoroughly investigated. Using a synchrotron radiation source at SPring8, we obtained X-ray diffraction patterns from skinned rabbit psoas muscle fibers before and after phosphorylation of myosin RLC in the presence of myosin light chain kinase, calmodulin, and calcium at a concentration below the threshold for tension development ([Ca(2+)] = 10(-6...
April 15, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Ruo He, Xiao-Meng Wei, Bao-Hu Tian, Yao Su, Yu-Lan Lu
With comparison of a traditional landfill, a joint recirculation of concentrated leachate and leachate to landfills with or without a microaerobic reactor for leachate treatment was investigated in this study. The results showed that the joint recirculation of concentrated leachate and leachate with a microaerobic reactor for leachate treatment could not only utilize the microaerobic reactor to buffer the fluctuation of quality and quantity of leachate during landfill stabilization, but also reduce the inhibitory effect of acidic pH and high concentrations of ammonium in recycled liquid on microorganisms and accelerate the degradation of landfilled waste...
December 2015: Waste Management
Beth McGee, Anna Marshall-Baker
OBJECTIVE: The development of the Biophilic Design Matrix (BDM) was to aid designers or other specialists in identifying and quantifying biophilic features through a visual inventory of interior spaces. BACKGROUND: With mounting evidence to support the healing attributes of biophilic environments, we propose a method to identify biophilic content within interior spaces. Such a strategy offers much promise to the advancement of restorative environments. METHODS: The BDM was based on Stephen Kellert's biophilic design attribute list and modified to be appropriate for interior environments, specifically children's healthcare spaces...
2015: HERD
Charles S Chung, Charles Mechas, Kenneth S Campbell
Isolated intact myocytes can be used to investigate contractile mechanisms and to screen new therapeutic compounds. These experiments typically require euthanizing an animal and isolating fresh cells each day or analyzing cultured myocytes, which quickly lose their rod-shaped morphology. Recent data suggest that the viability of canine myocytes can be prolonged using low temperature and N-benzyl-p-toluene sulfonamide (an inhibitor of skeletal myosin ATPase). We performed similar studies in rat myocytes in order to test whether the cardiac myosin ATPase inhibitors 2,3-Butanedione monoxime (BDM) and blebbistatin help to maintain cell-level function over multiple days...
June 2015: Physiological Reports
Yue Wang, Jae Boum Youm, Chun Zi Jin, Dong Hoon Shin, Zai Hao Zhao, Eun Yeong Seo, Ji Hyun Jang, Sung Joon Kim, Zhe Hu Jin, Yin Hua Zhang
Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is important in cardiac protection in diseased heart. Recently, we have reported that nNOS is associated with myofilament Ca(2+) desensitization in cardiac myocytes from hypertensive rats. So far, the effect of myofilament Ca(2+) desensitization or nNOS on L-type Ca(2+) channel activity (I(Ca)) in cardiac myocyte is unclear. Here, we examined nNOS regulation of I(Ca) in left ventricular (LV) myocytes from sham and angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertensive rats. Our results showed that basal I(Ca) was not different between sham and hypertension (from -60 to +40 mV, 0...
September 2015: Cell Calcium
A Cavka, L Rasic, A Cosic, I Jukic, I Drenjancevic
OBJECTIVE: Our previous study demonstrated that one week of salt loading significantly impaired skin microvascular reactivity without changes in blood pressure (BP) levels. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether one week of high-salt (HS) diet changes body fluid status and body composition subsequently affecting vascular reactivity. DESIGN AND METHOD: 10 healthy women (age range 20-23) took a 7-days low-salt (LS) diet (<40mmol Na/day) and 7-days HS diet (∼240mmol of Na/day)...
June 2015: Journal of Hypertension
Hanzhi Zhang, Qingjun Guo, Junxing Yang, Jianxiu Shen, Tongbin Chen, Guangxu Zhu, Hui Chen, Chunyan Shao
The aims of this study were: (1) the study of cadmium (Cd) accumulation and toxicity in different castor cultivars (Ricinus communis L.); (2) to investigate changes in antioxidant enzymatic activities and the subcellular distribution of Cd in young and old leaves from two different castor cultivars, after exposure to two different Cd concentrations, and explore the underlying mechanism of Cd detoxification focusing on antioxidant enzymes and subcellular compartmentalization. The Cd concentration, toxicity, and subcellular distribution, as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) activities were measured in Zibo-3 and Zibo-9 cultivars after exposure to two different concentrations of Cd (2mg/L and 5mg/L) for 10 days...
October 2015: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Long Chen, Ming Wang, Lin Zhong
In this paper, we consider the use of H(div) elements in the velocity-pressure formulation to discretize Stokes equations in two dimensions. We address the error estimate of the element pair RT0-P0, which is known to be suboptimal, and render the error estimate optimal by the symmetry of the grids and by the superconvergence result of Lagrange inter-polant. By enlarging RT0 such that it becomes a modified BDM-type element, we develop a new discretization [Formula: see text]. We, therefore, generalize the classical MAC scheme on rectangular grids to triangular grids and retain all the desirable properties of the MAC scheme: exact divergence-free, solver-friendly, and local conservation of physical quantities...
June 2015: Journal of Scientific Computing
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