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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457993/leptospira-seroprevalence-in-animals-in-the-caribbean-region-a-systematic-review
#1
REVIEW
Nicola Pratt, Sreekumari Rajeev
This systematic review summarises the data published on the Leptospira seroprevalence, serovar diversity and distribution among animal species in the Caribbean region. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines, and checklist, relevant articles were identified and data were extracted and recorded. The review provided Leptospira seroprevalence data from 16 Caribbean islands (Barbados, Trinidad, Grenada, Puerto Rico, Saint Croix, St. Kitts and Nevis, Jamaica, Antigua, Carriacou, Dominica, Guadalupe, Martinique, Monserrat, St...
February 16, 2018: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456960/evaluation-and-customization-of-who-safety-checklist-for-patient-safety-in-otorhinolaryngology
#2
Yogesh Dabholkar, Haritosh Velankar, Sneha Suryanarayan, Twinkle Y Dabholkar, Akanksha A Saberwal, Bhavika Verma
The WHO has designed a safe surgery checklist to enhance communication and awareness of patient safety during surgery and to minimise complications. WHO recommends that the check-list be evaluated and customised by end users as a tool to promote safe surgery. The aim of present study was to evaluate the impact of WHO safety checklist on patient safety awareness in otorhinolaryngology and to customise it for the speciality. A prospective structured questionnaire based study was done in ENT operating room for duration of 1 month each for cases, before and after implementation of safe surgery checklist...
March 2018: Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456871/gestational-obesity-weight-management-implementation-of-national-guidelines-glowing-a-pilot-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial-of-a-guideline-implementation-intervention-for-the-management-of-maternal-obesity-by-midwives
#3
Nicola Heslehurst, Judith Rankin, Catherine McParlin, Falko F Sniehotta, Denise Howel, Stephen Rice, Elaine McColl
Background: Weight management in pregnancy guidelines exist, although dissemination alone is an ineffective means of implementation. Midwives identify the need for support to overcome complex barriers to practice. An evaluation of an intervention to support midwives' guideline implementation would require a large-scale cluster randomised controlled trial. A pilot study is necessary to explore the feasibility of delivery and evaluation prior to a definitive trial. The GestationaL Obesity Weight management: Implementation of National Guidelines (GLOWING) trial aims to test whether it is feasible and acceptable to deliver a behaviour change intervention to support midwives' implementation of weight management guidelines...
2018: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456498/using-spm-12-s-second-level-bayesian-inference-procedure-for-fmri-analysis-practical-guidelines-for-end-users
#4
Hyemin Han, Joonsuk Park
Recent debates about the conventional traditional threshold used in the fields of neuroscience and psychology, namely P < 0.05, have spurred researchers to consider alternative ways to analyze fMRI data. A group of methodologists and statisticians have considered Bayesian inference as a candidate methodology. However, few previous studies have attempted to provide end users of fMRI analysis tools, such as SPM 12, with practical guidelines about how to conduct Bayesian inference. In the present study, we aim to demonstrate how to utilize Bayesian inference, Bayesian second-level inference in particular, implemented in SPM 12 by analyzing fMRI data available to public via NeuroVault...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456356/the-current-state-of-rural-neurosurgical-practice-an-international-perspective
#5
REVIEW
Pavan S Upadhyayula, John K Yue, Jason Yang, Harjus S Birk, Joseph D Ciacci
Introduction: Rural and low-resource areas have diminished capacity to care for neurosurgical patients due to lack of infrastructure, healthcare investment, and training programs. This review summarizes the range of rural neurosurgical procedures, novel mechanisms for delivering care, rapid training programs, and outcome differences across international rural neurosurgical practice. Methods: A comprehensive literature search was performed for English language manuscripts with keywords "rural" and "neurosurgery" using the National Library of Medicine PubMed database (01/1971-06/2017)...
January 2018: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455709/what-do-they-know-guidelines-and-knowledge-translation-for-foreign-health-sector-workers-following-natural-disasters
#6
Ola Dunin-Bell
Introduction The incidence of natural disasters is increasing worldwide, with countries the least well-equipped to mitigate or manage them suffering the greatest losses. Following natural disasters, ill-prepared foreign responders may become a burden to the affected population, or cause harm to those needing help. Problem The study was performed to determine if international guidelines for foreign workers in the health sector exist, and evidence of their implementation. METHODS: A structured literature search was used to identify guidelines for foreign health workers (FHWs) responding to natural disasters...
February 19, 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455163/theory-of-change-for-the-delivery-of-talking-therapies-by-lay-workers-to-survivors-of-humanitarian-crises-in-low-income-and-middle-income-countries-protocol-of-a-systematic-review
#7
Grace Kathryn Ryan, Andreas Bauer, Judith K Bass, Julian Eaton
INTRODUCTION: There is a severe shortage of specialist mental healthcare providers in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) affected by humanitarian crises. In these settings, talking therapies may be delivered by non-specialists, including lay workers with no tertiary education or formal certification in mental health. This systematic review will synthesise the literature on the implementation and effectiveness of talking therapies delivered by lay workers in LMICs affected by humanitarian crises, in order to develop a Theory of Change (ToC)...
February 17, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454350/application-of-four-dimension-criteria-to-assess-rigour-of-qualitative-research-in-emergency-medicine
#8
Roberto Forero, Shizar Nahidi, Josephine De Costa, Mohammed Mohsin, Gerry Fitzgerald, Nick Gibson, Sally McCarthy, Patrick Aboagye-Sarfo
BACKGROUND: The main objective of this methodological manuscript was to illustrate the role of using qualitative research in emergency settings. We outline rigorous criteria applied to a qualitative study assessing perceptions and experiences of staff working in Australian emergency departments. METHODS: We used an integrated mixed-methodology framework to identify different perspectives and experiences of emergency department staff during the implementation of a time target government policy...
February 17, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453025/material-properties-of-the-brain-in-injury-relevant-conditions-experiments-and-computational-modeling
#9
Wei Zhao, Bryan Choate, Songbai Ji
Material properties of the brain have been extensively studied but remain poorly characterized. The vast variations in constitutive models and material constants are well documented. However, no study exists to translate the variations into disparities in impact-induced brain strains most relevant to brain injury. Here, we reviewed a subset of injury-relevant brain material properties either characterized in experiments or adopted in recent head injury models. To highlight how variations in measured brain material properties manifested in simulated brain strains, we selected six experiments that have provided a complete set of brain material model and constants to implement a common head injury model...
February 6, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452994/transmission-routes-of-respiratory-viruses-among-humans
#10
REVIEW
Jasmin S Kutter, Monique I Spronken, Pieter L Fraaij, Ron Am Fouchier, Sander Herfst
Respiratory tract infections can be caused by a wide variety of viruses. Airborne transmission via droplets and aerosols enables some of these viruses to spread efficiently among humans, causing outbreaks that are difficult to control. Many outbreaks have been investigated retrospectively to study the possible routes of inter-human virus transmission. The results of these studies are often inconclusive and at the same time data from controlled experiments is sparse. Therefore, fundamental knowledge on transmission routes that could be used to improve intervention strategies is still missing...
January 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452837/dramatically-polarized-opinion-on-the-role-of-brachytherapy-boost-in-management-of-high-risk-prostate-cancer-a-survey-of-north-american-genitourinary-expert-radiation-oncologists
#11
Shearwood McClelland, Kiri A Sandler, Catherine Degnin, Yiyi Chen, Timur Mitin
INTRODUCTION: Three randomized clinical trials have established brachytherapy (BT) boost in combination with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) as superior to definitive EBRT and ADT alone in terms of biochemical control (but not overall survival) at the expense of increased toxicity in men with high-risk (HR) prostate cancer (PCa). The current view regarding these 2 treatment algorithms among North American genitourinary (GU) experts is not known...
February 2, 2018: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452803/preoperative-fasting-in-children-review-of-existing-guidelines-and-recent-developments
#12
REVIEW
P Frykholm, E Schindler, R Sümpelmann, R Walker, M Weiss
The current guidelines for preoperative fasting recommend intervals of 6, 4, and 2 h (6-4-2) of fasting for solids, breast milk, and clear fluids, respectively. The objective is to minimize the risk of pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents, but also to prevent unnecessarily long fasting intervals. Pulmonary aspiration is rare and associated with nearly no mortality in paediatric anaesthesia. The incidence may have decreased during the last decades, judging from several audits published recently. However, several reports of very long fasting intervals have also been published, in spite of the implementation of the 6-4-2 fasting regimens...
March 2018: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452626/translation-of-an-evidence-based-therapeutic-exercise-program-for-patients-with-peripheral-artery-disease
#13
Dereck L Salisbury, Mary O Whipple, Marsha Burt, Rebecca J L Brown, Alan Hirsch, Christopher Foley, Diane Treat-Jacobson
The purpose of this study was to implement and evaluate quality outcomes including referral, enrollment, and completion rates of a new peripheral artery disease (PAD)-specific supervised exercise therapy (SET) program within a preexisting clinical exercise wellness program and to evaluate the clinical effectiveness and patient-centered outcomes derived from 12 weeks of PAD-specific SET. Recruited participants completed an individualized, minimally supervised, PAD-specific SET program based on the AHA-ACC guidelines...
March 2018: Journal of Vascular Nursing: Official Publication of the Society for Peripheral Vascular Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452361/iui-review-and-systematic-assessment-of-the-evidence-that-supports-global-recommendations
#14
Ben Cohlen, Aartjan Bijkerk, Sheryl Van der Poel, Willem Ombelet
BACKGROUND: IUI with or without ovarian stimulation (OS) has become a first-line treatment option for many infertile couples, worldwide. The appropriate treatment modality for couples and their clinical management through IUI or IUI/OS cycles must consider maternal and perinatal outcomes, most notably the clinical complication of higher-order multiple pregnancies associated with IUI-OS. With a current global emphasis to continue to decrease maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity, the World Health Organization (WHO) had established a multi-year project to review the evidence for the establishment of normative guidance for the implementation of IUI as a treatment to address fertility problems, and to consider its cost-effectiveness for lower resource settings...
February 14, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452309/echocardiography-for-the-management-of-patients-with-biventricular-pacing-possible-roles-in-cardiac-resynchronization-therapy-implementation
#15
REVIEW
Emmanouil Poulidakis, Constantina Aggeli, Konstantinos Kappos, Antonis S Manolis, Skevos Sideris, Konstantinos Gatzoulis, Evangelos Oikonomou, Dimitrios Tousoulis
Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (CRT) is an established therapeutic option for the subset of patients with heart failure (HF), reduced ejection fraction (EF) and dyssynchrony evidenced by electrocardiography. Benefit from CRT has been proven in many clinical trials, yet a sizeable proportion of these patients with wide QRS do not respond to this intervention, despite the updated practice guidelines. Several echocardiographic indices, targeting mechanical rather than electrical dyssynchrony, have been suggested to address this issue, but research so far has not succeeded in providing a single and simple measurement with adequate sensitivity and specificity for identification of responders...
February 13, 2018: Hellenic Journal of Cardiology: HJC, Hellēnikē Kardiologikē Epitheōrēsē
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451925/the-impact-of-option-b-on-hiv-transmission-from-mother-to-child-in-rwanda-an-interrupted-time-series-analysis
#16
Monique Abimpaye, Catherine M Kirk, Hari S Iyer, Neil Gupta, Eric Remera, Placidie Mugwaneza, Michael R Law
BACKGROUND: Nearly a quarter of a million children have acquired HIV, prompting the implementation of new protocols-Option B and B+-for treating HIV+ pregnant women. While efficacy has been demonstrated in randomized trials, there is limited real-world evidence on the impact of these changes. Using longitudinal, routinely collected data we assessed the impact of the adoption of WHO Option B in Rwanda on mother to infant transmission. METHODS: We used interrupted time series analysis to evaluate the impact of Option B on mother-to-child HIV transmission in Rwanda...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451709/shortcomings-in-the-management-of-undescended-testis-guideline-intention-vs-reality-and-the-underlying-causes-insights-from-the-biggest-german-cohort
#17
Philip Boehme, Berit Geis, Johannes Doerner, Stefan Wirth, Kai O Hensel
OBJECTIVES: To assess the implementation of the current guideline and identify potential underlying causes for late surgery in children with Undescended testis (UDT) in Germany. UDT is the most common surgical issue in paediatric urology. To avoid malignant degeneration and subfertility current guidelines recommend orchidopexy during the first year of life. However, this seems not to be implemented in practice. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 5547 patients with cryptorchidism at 16 hospitals nationwide were studied regarding age at orchidopexy between 2003 and 2016...
February 16, 2018: BJU International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450511/improving-evidence-for-implementation-of-guideline-based-care-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#18
Christopher B Granger, Denis Xavier
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 13, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450104/strengthening-effective-preventive-services-for-refugee-populations-toward-communities-of-solution
#19
Kim S Griswold, Kevin Pottie, Isok Kim, Wooksoo Kim, Li Lin
Refugee populations have unequal access to primary care and may not receive appropriate health screening or preventive service recommendations. They encounter numerous health care disadvantages as a consequence of low-income status, race and ethnicity, lower educational achievement, varying degrees of health literacy, and limited English proficiency. Refugees may not initially embrace the concept of preventive care, as these services may have been unavailable in their countries of origin, or may not be congruent with their beliefs on health care...
2018: Public Health Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449443/sex-differences-in-ischemic-heart-disease-advances-obstacles-and-next-steps
#20
Niti R Aggarwal, Hena N Patel, Laxmi S Mehta, Rupa M Sanghani, Gina P Lundberg, Sandra J Lewis, Marla A Mendelson, Malissa J Wood, Annabelle S Volgman, Jennifer H Mieres
Evolving knowledge of sex-specific presentations, improved recognition of conventional and novel risk factors, and expanded understanding of the sex-specific pathophysiology of ischemic heart disease have resulted in improved clinical outcomes in women. Yet, ischemic heart disease continues to be the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in women in the United States. The important publication by the Institute of Medicine titled "Women's Health Research-Progress, Pitfalls, and Promise," highlights the persistent disparities in cardiovascular disease burden among subgroups of women, particularly women who are socially disadvantaged because of race, ethnicity, income level, and educational attainment...
February 2018: Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
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