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Disruptive innovation

John P A Ioannidis
Meta-research is the study of research itself: its methods, reporting, reproducibility, evaluation, and incentives. Given that science is the key driver of human progress, improving the efficiency of scientific investigation and yielding more credible and more useful research results can translate to major benefits. The research enterprise grows very fast. Both new opportunities for knowledge and innovation and new threats to validity and scientific integrity emerge. Old biases abound, and new ones continuously appear as novel disciplines emerge with different standards and challenges...
March 13, 2018: PLoS Biology
Jiří Novák, Branislav Vrana, Tatsiana Rusina, Krzysztof Okonski, Roman Grabic, Peta A Neale, Beate I Escher, Miroslava Macová, Selim Ait-Aissa, Nicolas Creusot, Ian Allan, Klára Hilscherová
Many aquatic pollutants can be present at low concentrations, but their mixtures can still affect health or behavior of exposed organisms. In this study, toxicological and chemical analyses were combined for spatial contamination profiling using an innovative passive sampling approach. A novel Dynamic Passive Sampler (DPS) was employed as a mobile sampler from a ship cruising along 2130km of the Danube river during the Joint Danube Survey 3 (JDS3). The sampling was performed in eight subsequent river stretches with two types of complementary passive samplers: silicone rubber sheets (SR) used for non-polar chemicals and SDB-RPS Empore™ disks (ED) for more hydrophilic compounds...
March 9, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Caroline O Buckee, Maria I E Cardenas, June Corpuz, Arpita Ghosh, Farhana Haque, Jahirul Karim, Ayesha S Mahmud, Richard J Maude, Keitly Mensah, Nkengafac Villyen Motaze, Maria Nabaggala, Charlotte Jessica Eland Metcalf, Sedera Aurélien Mioramalala, Frank Mubiru, Corey M Peak, Santanu Pramanik, Jean Marius Rakotondramanga, Eric Remera, Ipsita Sinha, Siv Sovannaroth, Andrew J Tatem, Win Zaw
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: BMJ Global Health
Hélène Raoult, François Eugène, Anthony Le Bras, Géraldine Mineur, Béatrice Carsin-Nicol, Jean-Christophe Ferré, Jean-Yves Gauvrit
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The WEB is an innovative flow disruption device for cerebral aneurysm embolization with rapidly expanding indications. Our purpose was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of CTA at 1-year follow-up of aneurysms treated with the WEB. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between April 2014 and May 2016, the study prospectively included patients treated with the WEB at our institution, and followed up within 24hours by CTA and at 1 year by CTA, TOF MRA and DSA...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Neuroradiology. Journal de Neuroradiologie
Xiaoling Xie, Weijun Zhou, Yuxing Hu, Yiran Chen, Honghao Zhang, Yuhua Li
The identification and characterization of tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) that generate specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are vital to the development of cancer immunotherapy. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway substrate 8 gene (Eps8) is involved in regulating cancer progression and might be an ideal antigen. In this study, we searched for novel human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A*2402-restricted epitopes derived from the Eps8 protein via the HLA-binding prediction algorithm. Among four candidates, peptides 327 (EFLDCFQKF), 534 (KYAKSKYDF) and 755 (LFSLNKDEL) induced peptide-specific CTLs to secrete higher levels of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and showed enhanced cytotoxic activity against malignant cancer cells...
March 7, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Teja Voruganti, Amna Husain, Eva Grunfeld, Fiona Webster
PURPOSE: In the advanced cancer context, care coordination is often inadequate, leading to suboptimal continuity of care. We evaluated an electronic web-based tool which assembles the patient, their caregivers, and their healthcare providers in a virtual space for team-based communication. We sought to understand participant perceptions on electronic communication in general and the added value of the new tool in particular. METHODS: We conducted a qualitative descriptive study with participants (patients, caregivers, cancer physicians) who participated in a 3-month pilot trial evaluating the tool...
March 4, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
B Merk, D Litskevich, R Gregg, A R Mount
The PUREX technology based on aqueous processes is currently the leading reprocessing technology in nuclear energy systems. It seems to be the most developed and established process for light water reactor fuel and the use of solid fuel. However, demand driven development of the nuclear system opens the way to liquid fuelled reactors, and disruptive technology development through the application of an integrated fuel cycle with a direct link to reactor operation. The possibilities of this new concept for innovative reprocessing technology development are analysed, the boundary conditions are discussed, and the economic as well as the neutron physical optimization parameters of the process are elucidated...
2018: PloS One
Salvatore Santamaria, Rens de Groot
The metzincin clan of metalloproteinases includes the MMP, ADAM and ADAMTS families, which cleave extracellular targets in a wide range of (patho)physiological processes. Antibodies constitute a powerful tool to modulate the activity of these enzymes for both therapeutic and research purposes. In this review, we give an overview of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that have been tested in preclinical disease models, human trials and important studies of metzincin structure and function. Initial attempts to develop therapeutic small molecule inhibitors against MMPs were hampered by structural similarities between metzincin active sites and, consequently, off-target effects...
February 27, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
Robert Englander, Carol Carraccio
The paradigm shift to competency-based medical education (CBME) is under way, but incomplete implementation is blunting the potential impact on learning and patient outcomes. The fundamental principles of CBME call for standardizing outcomes addressing population health needs, then allowing time-variable progression to achieving them. Operationalizing CBME principles requires continuity within and across phases of the education, training, and practice continuum. However, the piecemeal origin of the phases of the "continuum" has resulted in a sequence of undergraduate to graduate medical education to practice that may be continuous temporally but bears none of the integration of a true continuum...
March 2018: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Jennings Luu, Krzysztof Palczewski
Aging is the most significant risk factor associated with chronic disease in humans. The accumulation of genetic damage throughout life leads to a variety of biological aberrations, including disrupted protein homeostasis, metabolic dysfunction, and altered cellular signaling. Such changes ultimately result in cellular senescence, death, or transformation to uncontrolled proliferation, thereby compromising human health. Events contributing to age-dependent physiological decline also occur in the context of hormonal and metabolic changes, affecting interconnected cellular networks...
February 26, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Bradford W Hesse
An "open science movement" is gaining traction across many disciplines within the research enterprise but is also precipitating consternation among those who worry that too much disruption may be hampering professional productivity. Despite this disruption, proponents of open data collaboration have argued that some of the biggest problems of the 21st century need to be solved with the help of many people and that data sharing will be the necessary engine to make that happen. In the United States, a national strategic plan for data sharing encouraged the federally funded scientific agencies to (a) publish open data for community use in discoverable, machine-readable, and useful ways; (b) work with public and civil society organizations to set priorities for data to be shared; (c) support innovation and feedback on open data solutions; and (d) continue efforts to release and enhance high-priority data sets funded by taxpayer dollars...
February 2018: American Psychologist
Sravan Kumar Yellapu, Bharti, Rajwinder Kaur, Lalit R Kumar, Bhagyashree Tiwari, Xiaolei Zhang, Rajeshwar D Tyagi
With increasing global population and depleting resources, there is an apparent demand for radical unprecedented innovation to satisfy the basal needs of lives. Hence, non-conventional renewable energy resources like biodiesel have been worked out in past few decades. Biofuel (e.g. Biodiesel) serves to be the most sustainable answer to solve "food vs. fuel crisis". In biorefinery process, lipid extraction from oleaginous microbial lipids is an integral part as it facilitates the release of fatty acids...
February 1, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Leslee J Shaw, Rory Hachamovitch, James K Min, Marcelo Di Carli, Jennifer H Mieres, Lawrence Phillips, Ron Blankstein, Andrew Einstein, Viviany R Taqueti, Robert Hendel, Daniel S Berman
In this review, we highlight the need for innovation and creativity to reinvent the field of nuclear cardiology. Revolutionary ideas brought forth today are needed to create greater value in patient care and highlight the need for more contemporary evidence supporting the use of nuclear cardiology practices. We put forth discussions on the need for disruptive innovation in imaging-guided care that places the imager as a central force in care coordination. Value-based nuclear cardiology is defined as care that is both efficient and effective...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
Qilin Yu, Xiaochen Jin, Yaobin Zhang
Sludge cell disruption was generally considered as the rate-limiting step for the anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS). Advanced oxidation processes and bio-electro-chemical systems were recently reported to enhance the hydrolysis of WAS and sludge cell disruption, while the cell-breaking processes of these systems remain unclear yet. In this study, an innovative Bio-electro-Fenton system was developed to pretreat the WAS sequentially with cathode Fenton process and anode anaerobic digestion...
February 9, 2018: Water Research
Tatiana Goncharov, Stefanie Hedayati, Melinda M Mulvihill, Anita Izrael-Tomasevic, Kerry Zobel, Surinder Jeet, Anna V Fedorova, Celine Eidenschenk, Jason deVoss, Kebing Yu, Andrey S Shaw, Donald S Kirkpatrick, Wayne J Fairbrother, Kurt Deshayes, Domagoj Vucic
Inflammatory responses mediated by NOD2 rely on RIP2 kinase and ubiquitin ligase XIAP for the activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and cytokine production. Herein, we demonstrate that selective XIAP antagonism blocks NOD2-mediated inflammatory signaling and cytokine production by interfering with XIAP-RIP2 binding, which removes XIAP from its ubiquitination substrate RIP2. We also establish that the kinase activity of RIP2 is dispensable for NOD2 signaling. Rather, the conformation of the RIP2 kinase domain functions to regulate binding to the XIAP-BIR2 domain...
February 15, 2018: Molecular Cell
Patrick J Silva, Valerie M Schaibley, Kenneth S Ramos
While the promise of the Human Genome Project provided significant insights into the structure of the human genome, the complexities of disease at the individual level have made it difficult to utilize -omic information in clinical decision making. Some of the existing constraints have been minimized by technological advancements that have reduced the cost of sequencing to a rate far in excess of Moore's Law (a halving in cost per unit output every 18 months). The reduction in sequencing costs has made it economically feasible to create large data commons capturing the diversity of disease across populations...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Ellen Fritsche, Philippe Grandjean, Kevin M Crofton, Michael Aschner, Alan Goldberg, Tuula Heinonen, Ellen V S Hessel, Helena Hogberg, Susanne Hougaard Bennekou, Pamela J Lein, Marcel Leist, William R Mundy, Martin Paparella, Aldert H Piersma, Magdalini Sachana, Gabriele Schmuck, Roland Solecki, Andrea Terron, Florianne Monnet-Tschudi, Martin F Wilks, Hilda Witters, Marie-Gabrielle Zurich, Anna Bal-Price
This consensus statement voices the agreement of scientific stakeholders from regulatory agencies, academia and industry that a new framework needs adopting for assessment of chemicals with the potential to disrupt brain development. An increased prevalence of neurodevelopmental disorders in children has been observed that cannot solely be explained by genetics and recently pre- and postnatal exposure to environmental chemicals has been suspected as a causal factor. There is only very limited information on neurodevelopmental toxicity, leaving thousands of chemicals, that are present in the environment, with high uncertainty concerning their developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) potential...
February 12, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Shuang Wang, Jian Sun, Jiahui Zhao, Shasha Lu, Xiurong Yang
G-quadruplex has been developed as an innovator for analytical chemistry and biomedicine due to its vibrant binding activity, structural polymorphism and critical roles in biological regulation. Herein, a simple but versatile platform was obtained by integrating split G-quadruplex and fluorophore into a molecular beacon, where the photo-induced electron transfer could occur when the fluorophore approached the preformed G-quadruplex/hemin complexes. Such design subtly combined the G4 disruption-induced fluorescent turn-on strategy and the photo-induced electron transfer property into one platform for constructing the logic circuits...
February 9, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
C Salvoro, S Bortoluzzi, A Coppe, G Valle, E Feltrin, M L Mostacciuolo, G Vazza
Schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorder (BPD) are highly heritable disorders with an estimated co-heritability of 68%. Hundreds of common alleles have been implicated, but recently a role for rare, high-penetrant variants has been also suggested in both disorders. This study investigated a familial cohort of SCZ and BPD patients from a closed population sample, where the high recurrence of the disorders and the homogenous genetic background indicate a possible enrichment in rare risk alleles. A total of 230 subjects (161 cases, 22 unaffected relatives, and 47 controls) were genetically investigated through an innovative strategy that integrates identity-by-descent (IBD) mapping and whole-exome sequencing (WES)...
February 6, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 5, 2018: Nursing Administration Quarterly
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