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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346031/2016-new-horizons-lecture-beyond-imaging-radiology-of-tomorrow
#1
Hedvig Hricak
This article is based on the New Horizons lecture delivered at the 2016 Radiological Society of North America Annual Meeting. It addresses looming changes for radiology, many of which stem from the disruptive effects of the Fourth Industrial Revolution. This is an emerging era of unprecedented rapid innovation marked by the integration of diverse disciplines and technologies, including data science, machine learning, and artificial intelligence-technologies that narrow the gap between man and machine. Technologic advances and the convergence of life sciences, physical sciences, and bioengineering are creating extraordinary opportunities in diagnostic radiology, image-guided therapy, targeted radionuclide therapy, and radiology informatics, including radiologic image analysis...
January 18, 2018: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339801/cardiac-glycoside-aglycones-inhibit-hiv-1-gene-expression-by-a-mechanism-requiring-mek1-2-erk1-2-signaling
#2
Raymond W Wong, Clifford A Lingwood, Mario A Ostrowski, Tyler Cabral, Alan Cochrane
The capacity of HIV-1 to develop resistance to current drugs calls for innovative strategies to control this infection. We aimed at developing novel inhibitors of HIV-1 replication by targeting viral RNA processing-a stage dependent on conserved host processes. We previously reported that digoxin is a potent inhibitor of this stage. Herein, we identify 12 other cardiac glycoside/aglycones or cardiotonic steroids (CSs) that impede HIV growth in HIV-infected T cells from clinical patients at IC50s (1.1-1.3 nM) that are 2-26 times below concentrations used in patients with heart conditions...
January 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331472/influence-of-partially-demineralized-milk-proteins-on-rheological-properties-and-microstructure-of-acid-gels
#3
G H Meletharayil, H A Patel, L E Metzger, C Marella, T Huppertz
Innovative clean label processes employed in the manufacture of acid gels are targeted to modify the structure of proteins that contribute to rheological properties. In the present study, CO2-treated milk protein concentrate powder with 80% protein in dry matter (TMPC80) was mixed with nonfat dry milk (NDM) in different ratios for the manufacture of acid gels. Dispersions of NDM and TMPC80 that provided 100, 90, 70, and 40% of protein from NDM were reconstituted to 4.0% (wt/wt) protein and 12.0% (wt/wt) total solids...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329419/a-single-mutation-unlocks-cascading-exaptations-in-the-origin-of-a-potent-pitviper-neurotoxin
#4
A Carl Whittington, Andrew J Mason, Darin R Rokyta
Evolutionary innovations and complex phenotypes seemingly require an improbable amount of genetic change to evolve. Rattlesnakes display two dramatically different venom phenotypes. Type I venoms are hemorrhagic with low systemic toxicity and high expression of tissue-destroying snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMP). Type II venoms are highly neurotoxic and lack SVMP expression and associated hemorrhagic activity. This dichotomy hinges on Mojave toxin (MTx), a phospholipase A2 (PLA2) based ᵝ-neurotoxin expressed in Type II venoms...
January 10, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319713/adaptable-liquid-crystal-elastomers-with-transesterification-based-bond-exchange-reactions
#5
Drew W Hanzon, Nicholas A Traugutt, Matthew K McBride, Christopher N Bowman, Christopher M Yakacki, Kai Yu
Adaptable liquid crystal elastomers (LCEs) have recently emerged to provide a new and robust method to program monodomain LCE samples. When a constant stress is applied with active bond exchange reactions (BERs), polymer chains and mesogens gradually align in the strain direction. Mesogen alignment is maintained after removing the BER stimulus (e.g. by lowering the temperature) and the programmed LCE samples exhibit free-standing two-way shape switching behavior. Here, a new adaptable main-chain LCE system was developed with thermally induced transesterification BERs...
January 10, 2018: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304557/abnormal-golgi-ph-homeostasis-in-cancer-cells-impairs-apical-targeting-of-carcinoembryonic-antigen-ceacam5-by-inhibiting-its-gpi-anchor-mediated-association-with-lipid-rafts
#6
Nina Kokkonen, Elham Khosrowabadi, Antti Hassinen, Deborah Harrus, Tuomo Glumoff, Thomas Kietzmann, Sakari Kellokumpu
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEACAM5, CEA) is a known tumor marker for colorectal cancer that localizes in a polarized manner to the apical surface in normal colon epithelial cells while in cancer cells it is present at both the apical and basolateral surfaces of the cells. Since the Golgi apparatus sorts and transports most proteins to these cell surface domains, we set out here to investigate whether any of the factors commonly associated with tumorigenesis including hypoxia, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), altered redox homeostasis or an altered Golgi pH, are responsible for mistargeting of CEA to the basolateral surface in cancer cells...
January 5, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304370/the-expanding-landscape-of-alternative-splicing-variation-in-human-populations
#7
REVIEW
Eddie Park, Zhicheng Pan, Zijun Zhang, Lan Lin, Yi Xing
Alternative splicing is a tightly regulated biological process by which the number of gene products for any given gene can be greatly expanded. Genomic variants in splicing regulatory sequences can disrupt splicing and cause disease. Recent developments in sequencing technologies and computational biology have allowed researchers to investigate alternative splicing at an unprecedented scale and resolution. Population-scale transcriptome studies have revealed many naturally occurring genetic variants that modulate alternative splicing and consequently influence phenotypic variability and disease susceptibility in human populations...
January 4, 2018: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298303/-every-day-they-keep-adding-new-tools-but-they-don-t-take-any-away-producing-indicators-for-intermittent-preventive-treatment-for-malaria-in-pregnancy-iptp-from-routine-data-in-kenya
#8
George Okello, Rene Gerrets, Scholastica Zakayo, Sassy Molyneux, Caroline Jones
BACKGROUND: Intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) is part of a multi-pronged strategy aimed at preventing malaria in pregnancy in areas of moderate to high transmission in sub-Saharan Africa. Despite being formally adopted as a malaria prevention policy over a decade ago, IPTp coverage has remained low. Recent demands for action have incorporated calls to strengthen IPTp monitoring and evaluation systems, including the use of routine data, to measure coverage, track implementation and identify roadblocks to improving uptake...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279287/histone-modifiers-dynamic-regulators-of-the-cutaneous-transcriptome
#9
Kanad Ghosh, Kyle O'Neil, Brian C Capell
By regulating the accessibility of the genome, epigenetic regulators such as histone proteins and the chromatin-modifying enzymes that act upon them control gene expression. Proper regulation of this "histone code" allows for the precise control of transcriptional networks that are essential for establishing and maintaining cell fate and identity, disruption of which may drive carcinogenesis. How these dynamic epigenetic regulators contribute to both skin homeostasis and disease is only beginning to be understood...
December 18, 2017: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275281/innovating-at-the-food-water-and-energy-interface
#10
REVIEW
K J Helmstedt, J R Stokes-Draut, A E Larsen, M D Potts
Food, energy, and water (FEW) systems are inexorably linked. Earth's changing climate and increasing competition for finite land resources are creating and amplifying challenges at the FEW nexus. Managing FEW systems to mitigate these negative impacts and stresses is a pressing policy issue. The FEW interface is often managed as three independent systems, missing disruptive opportunities for streamlined integrated management. We contend that existing technologies can be reframed and emerging technologies can be harnessed for integrated FEW management, changing the way that each resource system operates within the broader system...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258831/identification-and-characterization-of-proteins-in-the-amblyomma-americanum-tick-cement-cone
#11
Taylor Hollmann, Tae Kwon Kim, Lucas Tirloni, Željko M Radulović, Antônio F M Pinto, Jolene K Diedrich, John R Yates, Itabajara da Silva Vaz, Albert Mulenga
The adaptation of hard ticks to feed for long periods is facilitated by the cement cone, which securely anchors the tick mouthparts onto host skin and protects the tick from being groomed off by the host. Thus, preventing tick cement deposition is an attractive target for the development of innovative tick control. We used LC-MS/MS sequencing to identify 160 Amblyomma americanum tick cement proteins that include glycine-rich proteins (GRP, 19%), protease inhibitors (12%), proteins of unknown function (11%), mucin (4%), detoxification, storage, and lipocalin at 1% each, and housekeeping proteins (50%)...
December 16, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239595/explaining-the-absence-of-surgical-procedure-regulation
#12
Jonathan J Darrow
Each year in the United States, surgeons perform approximately 64 million surgical procedures, ranging from tooth extraction to open heart surgery. Yet, notwithstanding the frequency of surgical procedures and their often critical importance to patient health, no state or federal agency either approves the use of new surgical procedures or directly regulates existing procedures. The absence of surgical procedure regulation differs from the regulation of new pharmaceutical products, which can be introduced into interstate commerce only after the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has reviewed "adequate and well-controlled [clinical] investigations" and concluded the data from those studies sufficiently establish the drug's safety and efficacy...
2017: Cornell Journal of Law and Public Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232823/improving-cerebral-blood-flow-after-arterial-recanalization-a-novel-therapeutic-strategy-in-stroke
#13
REVIEW
Mohamad El Amki, Susanne Wegener
Ischemic stroke is caused by a disruption in blood supply to a region of the brain. It induces dysfunction of brain cells and networks, resulting in sudden neurological deficits. The cause of stroke is vascular, but the consequences are neurological. Decades of research have focused on finding new strategies to reduce the neural damage after cerebral ischemia. However, despite the incredibly huge investment, all strategies targeting neuroprotection have failed to demonstrate clinical efficacy. Today, treatment for stroke consists of dealing with the cause, attempting to remove the occluding blood clot and recanalize the vessel...
December 9, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222275/the-mutational-landscape-of-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia-and-its-impact-on-prognosis-and-treatment
#14
REVIEW
Gianluca Gaidano, Davide Rossi
The typical genome of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) carries ∼2000 molecular lesions. Few mutations recur across patients at a frequency >5%, whereas a large number of biologically and clinically uncharacterized genes are mutated at lower frequency. Approximately 80% of CLL patients carry at least 1 of 4 common chromosomal alterations, namely deletion 13q14, deletion 11q22-23, deletion 17p12, and trisomy 12. Knowledge of the CLL genome has translated into the availability of molecular biomarkers for prognosis and treatment prediction...
December 8, 2017: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216874/factors-influencing-the-experience-of-sexual-and-reproductive-healthcare-for-female-adolescents-with-perinatally-acquired-hiv-a-qualitative-case-study
#15
Gertrude Mwalabu, Catrin Evans, Sarah Redsell
BACKGROUND: Young people living with perinatally-acquired HIV require age-appropriate support regarding sex and relationships as they progress towards adulthood. HIV affects both genders but evidence suggests that young women are particularly vulnerable to sexual abuse and more prone to engaging in sexual behaviours to meet their daily survival needs. This can result in poor sexual and reproductive health (SRH) outcomes. HIV services in Malawi provide support for young women's HIV-related clinical needs, but it is unclear whether there is sufficient provision for their SRH needs as they become adults...
December 8, 2017: BMC Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205387/partnership-inclusion-and-innovation-in-occupational-therapy-essential-or-optional-ingredients-to-flourish-in-a-changing-environment
#16
Susan Gilbert Hunt
BACKGROUND/AIM: Historically occupational therapy has evidenced a tenacity to adjust and adapt to societal changes. Currently in Australia we are in the midst of significant change in health, disability and aged care service delivery alongside increasing numbers of new graduates seeking employment. Both of these changes create challenges and opportunities for the profession. How the profession adjusts to new service delivery models and supports new graduates in this changing work environment will influence our future...
December 2017: Australian Occupational Therapy Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203791/identification-of-insulin-sensitizing-molecules-acting-by-disrupting-the-interaction-between-the-insulin-receptor-and-grb14
#17
Anaïs Gondoin, Cornelia Hampe, Richard Eudes, Cyril Fayolle, Cécile Pierre-Eugène, Maria Miteva, Bruno O Villoutreix, Florence Charnay-Pouget, David J Aitken, Tarik Issad, Anne-Françoise Burnol
Metabolic diseases are characterized by a decreased action of insulin. During the course of the disease, usual treatments frequently fail and patients are finally submitted to insulinotherapy. There is thus a need for innovative therapeutic strategies to improve insulin action. Growth factor receptor-bound protein 14 (Grb14) is a molecular adapter that specifically binds to the activated insulin receptor (IR) and inhibits its tyrosine kinase activity. Molecules disrupting Grb14-IR binding are therefore potential insulin-sensitizing agents...
December 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197615/interplay-between-the-lung-microbiome-and-lung-cancer
#18
Qixing Mao, Feng Jiang, Rong Yin, Jie Wang, Wenjie Xia, Gaochao Dong, Weidong Ma, Yao Yang, Lin Xu, Jianzhong Hu
The human microbiome confers benefits or disease susceptibility to the human body through multiple pathways. Disruption of the symbiotic balance of the human microbiome is commonly found in systematic diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and chronic gastric diseases. Emerging evidence has suggested that dysbiosis of the microbiota may also play vital roles in carcinogenesis at multiple levels, e.g., by affecting metabolic, inflammatory, or immune pathways. Although the impact of the gut microbiome on the digestive cancer has been widely explored, few studies have investigated the interplay between the microbiome and lung cancer...
November 29, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194331/kaiser-s-school-of-nursing-a-70-year-legacy-of-disruptive-innovation
#19
Jim DʼAlfonso, Deloras Jones, Terri Moss
A legacy project was launched in 2016 to research, capture, and record the history and voice of Kaiser Foundation School of Nursing alumni. The inspirational stories of these early nursing pioneers emerged within a disruptive and innovative health care system known as Kaiser Permanente. Led by a doctorally prepared nurse director, the new school boldly rejected the dominant social norms of the 1940s by welcoming minorities and offering an unprecedented curriculum that prioritized prevention, health promotion, and wellness over conventional institutionalized sick care models...
January 2018: Nursing Administration Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191558/where-is-the-breakthrough-innovation-for-parasite-control
#20
Ronald Kaminsky
The need to improve parasite control to overcome drug-resistant parasite populations, and to improve compliance by more convenient drug application methods, is evident. While a number of incremental stepwise improvements are visible, the big disruptive innovation, an iPhone-equivalent breakthrough, has been hard to find. Why?
November 27, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
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