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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439515/endogenous-retroviruses-with-us-and-against-us
#1
REVIEW
Thomas J Meyer, Jimi L Rosenkrantz, Lucia Carbone, Shawn L Chavez
Mammalian genomes are scattered with thousands of copies of endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), mobile genetic elements that are relics of ancient retroviral infections. After inserting copies into the germ line of a host, most ERVs accumulate mutations that prevent the normal assembly of infectious viral particles, becoming trapped in host genomes and unable to leave to infect other cells. While most copies of ERVs are inactive, some are transcribed and encode the proteins needed to generate new insertions at novel loci...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430694/iron-loading-exaggerates-the-inflammatory-response-to-the-toll-like-receptor-4-ligand-lipopolysaccharide-by-altering-mitochondrial-homeostasis
#2
Konrad Hoeft, Donald B Bloch, Jan A Graw, Rajeev Malhotra, Fumito Ichinose, Aranya Bagchi
BACKGROUND: Perioperative and critically ill patients are often exposed to iron (in the form of parenteral-iron administration or blood transfusion) and inflammatory stimuli, but the effects of iron loading on the inflammatory response are unclear. Recent data suggest that mitochondrial reactive oxygen species have an important role in the innate immune response and that increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production is a result of dysfunctional mitochondria. We tested the hypothesis that increased intracellular iron potentiates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation by increasing mitochondrial reactive oxygen species levels...
April 21, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429059/a-novel-method-to-recover-inclusion-body-protein-from-recombinant-e-coli-fed-batch-processes-based-on-phage-%C3%AE-x174-derived-lysis-protein-e
#3
Daniela Ehgartner, Patrick Sagmeister, Timo Langemann, Andrea Meitz, Werner Lubitz, Christoph Herwig
Production of recombinant proteins as inclusion bodies is an important strategy in the production of technical enzymes and biopharmaceutical products. So far, protein from inclusion bodies has been recovered from the cell factory through mechanical or chemical disruption methods, requiring additional cost-intensive unit operations. We describe a novel method that is using a bacteriophage-derived lysis protein to directly recover inclusion body protein from Escherichia coli from high cell density fermentation process: The recombinant inclusion body product is expressed by using a mixed feed fed-batch process which allows expression tuning via adjusting the specific uptake rate of the inducing substrate...
April 20, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414780/sensitive-quantification-of-the-hiv-1-reservoir-in-gut-associated-lymphoid-tissue
#4
Sara Morón-López, Maria C Puertas, Cristina Gálvez, Jordi Navarro, Anna Carrasco, Maria Esteve, Josep Manyé, Manel Crespo, Maria Salgado, Javier Martinez-Picado
BACKGROUND: The implementation of successful strategies to achieve an HIV cure has become a priority in HIV research. However, the current location and size of HIV reservoirs is still unknown since there are limited tools to evaluate HIV latency in viral sanctuaries such as gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). As reported in the so called "Boston Patients", despite undetectable levels of proviral HIV-1 DNA in blood and GALT, viral rebound happens in just few months after ART interruption...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383972/sustained-attention-in-the-face-of-distractors-a-study-of-children-with-rett-syndrome
#5
Susan A Rose, Sam Wass, Jeffery J Jankowski, Judith F Feldman, Aleksandra Djukic
OBJECTIVE: The object of the present study is to advance our understanding of the cognitive profile of Rett syndrome (RTT), an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations in the MECP2 gene. We focus on sustained attention, which plays a critical role in driving cognitive growth, and use an innovative, gaze-based task that minimizes demands on the limited verbal and motor abilities associated with RTT. METHOD: The task required the ability to sustain attention on a visual target (a butterfly) while inhibiting a prepotent response to look to moving distractors (trees and clouds) presented in the peripheral visual field...
April 6, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383862/-technological-convergence-will-quickly-generate-disruptive-innovations-in-oncology
#6
REVIEW
Ph A Coucke
Convergence between information and communication technology and recent developments in medical care will totally change the health care sector. The way we perform diagnosis, treatment and follow-up will undergo disruptive changes in a very near future. We intend to highlight this statement by a limited selection of examples of radical innovations, especially in the field of oncology. To be totally disruptive and to illustrate the concept of "lateral power" - especially cognitive distribution - the list of references is only made up of internet links...
June 2016: Revue Médicale de Liège
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381873/from-apelin-to-exercise-emerging-therapies-for-management-of-hypertension-in-pregnancy
#7
Jeffrey S Gilbert
Studies over the last couple of decades have provided exciting new insights into mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. In addition, several novel and innovative molecules and ideas for management of the syndrome have also come forth. While our basic understanding of the initiating events of preeclampsia continues to be placental ischemia/hypoxia stimulating the release of a variety of factors from the placenta that act on the cardiovascular and renal systems, the number of candidate pathways for intervention continues to increase...
April 6, 2017: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336026/viscoelastic-studies-effective-tools-for-trauma-and-surgical-resuscitation-efforts
#8
Dagoberto Salinas
Trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC) is an abrupt disruption of all hemostatic components of coagulation resulting from severe tissue injury and hypoperfusion. The effective management of TIC has remained elusive to clinicians using traditional laboratory methods, challenging efforts to improve outcomes related to uncontrolled bleeding. Recent initiatives have aimed to reduce TIC-associated morbidity and mortality, further invoking trauma experts to explore innovative modalities in the field of viscoelastic studies, such as thromboelastography (TEG) and rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM)...
April 2017: AORN Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320954/cerberus-nodal-lefty-pitx-signaling-cascade-controls-left-right-asymmetry-in-amphioxus
#9
Guang Li, Xian Liu, Chaofan Xing, Huayang Zhang, Sebastian M Shimeld, Yiquan Wang
Many bilaterally symmetrical animals develop genetically programmed left-right asymmetries. In vertebrates, this process is under the control of Nodal signaling, which is restricted to the left side by Nodal antagonists Cerberus and Lefty. Amphioxus, the earliest diverging chordate lineage, has profound left-right asymmetry as a larva. We show that Cerberus, Nodal, Lefty, and their target transcription factor Pitx are sequentially activated in amphioxus embryos. We then address their function by transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALEN)-based knockout and heat-shock promoter (HSP)-driven overexpression...
April 4, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298279/the-potential-impact-of-animal-science-research-on-global-maternal-and-child-nutrition-and-health-a-landscape-review
#10
REVIEW
Jack Odle, Sheila K Jacobi, R Dean Boyd, Dale E Bauman, Russell V Anthony, Fuller W Bazer, Adam L Lock, Andrew C Serazin
High among the challenges facing mankind as the world population rapidly expands toward 9 billion people by 2050 is the technological development and implementation of sustainable agriculture and food systems to supply abundant and wholesome nutrition. In many low-income societies, women and children are the most vulnerable to food insecurity, and it is unequivocal that quality nutrition during the first 1000 d of life postconception can be transformative in establishing a robust, lifelong developmental trajectory...
March 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296213/action-semantic-and-syntactic-deficits-in-subjects-at-risk-for-huntington-s-disease
#11
Adolfo M García, Yamile Bocanegra, Eduar Herrera, Mariana Pino, Edinson Muñoz, Lucas Sedeño, Agustín Ibáñez
Frontostriatal networks play critical roles in grounding action semantics and syntactic skills. Indeed, their atrophy distinctively disrupts both domains, as observed in patients with Huntington's disease (HD) and Parkinson's disease, even during early disease stages. However, frontostriatal degeneration in these conditions may begin up to 15 years before the onset of clinical symptoms, opening avenues for pre-clinical detection via sensitive tasks. Such a mission is particularly critical in HD, given that patients' children have 50% chances of inheriting the disease...
March 11, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262374/should-indications-for-web-aneurysm-treatment-be-enlarged-report-of-a-series-of-20%C3%A2-patients-with-aneurysms-in-atypical-locations-for-web-treatment
#12
L Pierot, A Biondi, A-P Narata, C Mihalea, A-C Januel, G Metaxas, R Bibi, J Caroff, S Soize, C Cognard, L Spelle, D Herbreteau
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Flow disruption with the WEB device is an innovative technique for the endovascular treatment of wide neck bifurcation aneurysms. Good clinical practice trials have shown high safety of this treatment with good efficacy. Technical developments (single layer devices and smaller microcatheters) facilitate the treatment, potentially leading to enlargement of indications. This series is collecting aneurysms in "atypical" locations for WEB treatment and analyzing safety and efficacy of this treatment...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroradiology. Journal de Neuroradiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241461/quorum-sensing-inhibitors-from-the-sea-discovered-using-bacterial-n-acyl-homoserine-lactone-based-biosensors
#13
REVIEW
Kumar Saurav, Valeria Costantino, Vittorio Venturi, Laura Steindler
Marine natural products with antibiotic activity have been a rich source of drug discovery; however, the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains has turned attention towards the discovery of alternative innovative strategies to combat pathogens. In many pathogenic bacteria, the expression of virulence factors is under the regulation of quorum sensing (QS). QS inhibitors (QSIs) present a promising alternative or potential synergistic treatment since they disrupt the signaling pathway used for intra- and interspecies coordination of expression of virulence factors...
February 23, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219436/from-local-adaptation-to-activism-and-global-solidarity-framing-a-research-and-innovation-agenda-towards-true-health-equity
#14
EDITORIAL
Eric A Friedman, Lawrence O Gostin
The proposal for a global health treaty aimed at health equity, the Framework Convention on Global Health, raises the fundamental question of whether we can achieve true health equity, globally and domestically, and if not, how close we can come. Considerable knowledge currently exists about the measures required to, at the least, greatly improve health equity. Why, then, do immense inequities remain? Building on this basic question, we propose four areas that could help drive the health equity research and innovation agenda over the coming years...
February 21, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199820/a-cycles-breaking-framework-to-disrupt-intergenerational-patterns-of-maltreatment-and-vulnerability-during-the-childbearing-year
#15
Mickey Sperlich, Julia Seng, Healther Rowe, Jane Fisher, Chris Cutherbert, Julie Taylor
We propose a cycles-breaking conceptual framework to guide perinatal research, interventions, and clinical innovations that can prevent or disrupt intergenerational cycles of childhood maltreatment and psychiatric vulnerability. The framework is grounded in literature, clinical observations, team science collaboration, and empirical research from numerous disciplines and is specific to the childbearing year. Adoption of the framework has the potential to speed the progress of research on the social problems of intergenerational childhood maltreatment and psychiatric vulnerability...
February 12, 2017: Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing: JOGNN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194769/precision-medicine-nobody-is-average
#16
EDITORIAL
A A Vinks
Medicine gets personal and tailor-made treatments are underway. Hospitals have started to advertise their advanced genomic testing capabilities and even their disruptive technologies to help foster a culture of innovation. The prediction in the lay press is that in decades from now we may look back and see 2017 as the year precision medicine blossomed. It is all part of the Precision Medicine Initiative that takes into account individual differences in people's genes, environments, and lifestyles.
March 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185958/characterisation-of-aggregates-of-cyclodextrin-drug-complexes-using-taylor-dispersion-analysis
#17
Hadar Zaman, Andrew G Bright, Kevin Adams, David M Goodall, Robert T Forbes
There is a need to understand the nature of aggregation of cyclodextrins (CDs) with guest molecules in increasingly complex formulation systems. To this end an innovative application of Taylor dispersion analysis (TDA) and comparison with dynamic light scattering (DLS) have been carried out to probe the nature of ICT01-2588 (ICT-2588), a novel tumor-targeted vascular disrupting agent, in solvents including a potential buffered formulation containing 10% hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin. The two hydrodynamic sizing techniques give measurement responses are that fundamentally different for aggregated solutions containing the target molecule, and the benefits of using TDA in conjunction with DLS are that systems are characterised through measurement of both mass- and z-average hydrodynamic radii...
February 6, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151816/mobile-technology-in-the-perioperative-arena-rapid-evolution-and-future-disruption
#18
Brian S Rothman, Rajnish K Gupta, Matthew D McEvoy
Throughout the history of medicine, physicians have relied upon disruptive innovations and technologies to improve the quality of care delivered, patient outcomes, and patient satisfaction. The implementation of mobile technology in health care is quickly becoming the next disruptive technology. We first review the history of mobile technology over the past 3 decades, discuss the impact of hardware and software, explore the rapid expansion of applications (apps), and evaluate the adoption of mobile technology in health care...
March 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134280/modulation-of-actin-dynamics-as-potential-macrophage-subtype-targeting-anti-tumour-strategy
#19
Carlo Pergola, Katrin Schubert, Simona Pace, Jana Ziereisen, Felix Nikels, Olga Scherer, Stephan Hüttel, Stefan Zahler, Angelika M Vollmar, Christina Weinigel, Silke Rummler, Rolf Müller, Martin Raasch, Alexander Mosig, Andreas Koeberle, Oliver Werz
Tumour-associated macrophages mainly comprise immunosuppressive M2 phenotypes that promote tumour progression besides anti-tumoural M1 subsets. Selective depletion or reprogramming of M2 may represent an innovative anti-cancer strategy. The actin cytoskeleton is central for cellular homeostasis and is targeted for anti-cancer chemotherapy. Here, we show that targeting G-actin nucleation using chondramide A (ChA) predominantly depletes human M2 while promoting the tumour-suppressive M1 phenotype. ChA reduced the viability of M2, with minor effects on M1, but increased tumour necrosis factor (TNF)α release from M1...
January 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129853/analysis-of-myelinated-axon-formation-in-zebrafish
#20
M D'Rozario, K R Monk, S C Petersen
Myelin is a lipid-rich sheath formed by the spiral wrapping of specialized glial cells around axon segments. Myelinating glia allow for rapid transmission of nerve impulses and metabolic support of axons, and the absence of or disruption to myelin results in debilitating motor, cognitive, and emotional deficits in humans. Because myelin is a jawed vertebrate innovation, zebrafish are one of the simplest vertebrate model systems to study the genetics and development of myelinating glia. The morphogenetic cellular movements and genetic program that drive myelination are conserved between zebrafish and mammals, and myelin develops rapidly in zebrafish larvae, within 3-5days postfertilization...
2017: Methods in Cell Biology
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