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Disruptive innovation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140919/collaboration-and-teamwork-in-the-health-professions-rethinking-the-role-of-conflict
#1
Quentin Eichbaum
Whereas the business professions have long recognized that conflict can be a source of learning and innovation, the health professions still tend to view conflict negatively as being disruptive, inefficient, and unprofessional. As a consequence, the health professions tend to avoid conflict or resolve it quickly. This neglect to appreciate conflict's positive attributes appears to be driven in part by (1) individuals' fears about being negatively perceived and the potential negative consequences in an organization of being implicated in conflict, (2) constrained views and approaches to professionalism and to evaluation and assessment, and (3) lingering autocracies and hierarchies of power that view conflict as a disruptive threat...
November 14, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138303/cxc-chemokines-exhibit-bactericidal-activity-against-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-pathogens
#2
Matthew A Crawford, Debra J Fisher, Lisa M Leung, Sara Lomonaco, Christine Lascols, Antonio Cannatelli, Tommaso Giani, Gian Maria Rossolini, Yohei Doi, David R Goodlett, Marc W Allard, Shashi K Sharma, Erum Khan, Robert K Ernst, Molly A Hughes
The continued rise and spread of antimicrobial resistance among bacterial pathogens pose a serious challenge to global health. Countering antimicrobial-resistant pathogens requires a multifaceted effort that includes the discovery of novel therapeutic approaches. Here, we establish the capacity of the human CXC chemokines CXCL9 and CXCL10 to kill multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, including New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase-1-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and colistin-resistant members of the family Enterobacteriaceae that harbor the mobile colistin resistance protein MCR-1 and thus possess phosphoethanolamine-modified lipid A...
November 14, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118336/self-assembling-dipeptide-antibacterial-nanostructures-with-membrane-disrupting-activity
#3
Lee Schnaider, Sayanti Brahmachari, Nathan W Schmidt, Bruk Mensa, Shira Shaham-Niv, Darya Bychenko, Lihi Adler-Abramovich, Linda J W Shimon, Sofiya Kolusheva, William F DeGrado, Ehud Gazit
Peptide-based supramolecular assemblies are a promising class of nanomaterials with important biomedical applications, specifically in drug delivery and tissue regeneration. However, the intrinsic antibacterial capabilities of these assemblies have been largely overlooked. The recent identification of common characteristics shared by antibacterial and self-assembling peptides provides a paradigm shift towards development of antibacterial agents. Here we present the antibacterial activity of self-assembled diphenylalanine, which emerges as the minimal model for antibacterial supramolecular polymers...
November 8, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096681/slowmo-a-digital-therapy-targeting-reasoning-in-paranoia-versus-treatment-as-usual-in-the-treatment-of-people-who-fear-harm-from-others-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#4
Philippa A Garety, Thomas Ward, Daniel Freeman, David Fowler, Richard Emsley, Graham Dunn, Elizabeth Kuipers, Paul Bebbington, Helen Waller, Kathryn Greenwood, Mar Rus-Calafell, Alison McGourty, Amy Hardy
BACKGROUND: Paranoia is one of the most common symptoms of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, and is associated with significant distress and disruption to the person's life. Developing more effective and accessible psychological interventions for paranoia is a clinical priority. Our research team has approached this challenge in two main ways: firstly, by adopting an interventionist causal approach to increase effectiveness and secondly, by incorporating user-centred inclusive design methods to enhance accessibility and usability...
November 2, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073084/disruption-and-rescue-of-interareal-theta-phase-coupling-and-adaptive-behavior
#5
Robert M G Reinhart
Rescuing executive functions in people with neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders has been a major goal of psychology and neuroscience for decades. Innovative computer-training regimes for executive functions have made tremendous inroads, yet the positive effects of training have not always translated into improved cognitive functioning and often take many days to emerge. In the present study, we asked whether it was possible to immediately change components of executive function by directly manipulating neural activity using a stimulation technology called high-definition transcranial alternating current stimulation (HD-tACS)...
October 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065325/novel-stepwise-ph-control-strategy-to-improve-short-chain-fatty-acid-production-from-sludge-anaerobic-fermentation
#6
Jianwei Zhao, Dongbo Wang, Yiwen Liu, Huu Hao Ngo, Wenshan Guo, Qi Yang, Xiaoming Li
This study reports an innovative strategy known as stepwise pH fermentation, developed to enhance the production of short chain volatile fatty acids (SCFA) from waste activated sludge (WAS) anaerobic fermentation. Experimental results confirmed the optimal pH for WAS disruption and acidification was 11 and 9, respectively, and corresponding optimal time was, respectively, 5 d and 2 d. In this scenario, the optimal SCFA yield was 2356 mg chemical oxygen demand (COD)/L, which was much higher than that derived from alkaline fermentation system...
October 14, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064337/david-bowie-and-the-art-of-slow-innovation-a-fast-second-winner-strategy-for-biotechnology-and-precision-medicine-global-development
#7
Vural Özdemir, George P Patrinos
Original ideas and innovation cannot always be ordered like a courier service and delivered fresh to our desk at 9 am. Yet, most creativity-based organizations, careers, and professions, science and biotechnology innovation included, emphasize the speed as the prevailing ideology. But a narrow focus on speed has several and overlooked shortcomings. For example, it does not offer the opportunity to draw from, and stitch together disparate concepts and practices for truly disruptive innovation. Preventing false starts, learning from others' or our own mistakes, and customizing innovations for local community needs are difficult in a speed-hungry innovation ecosystem...
November 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046154/neural-network-alterations-across-eating-disorders-a-narrative-review-of-fmri-studies
#8
Trevor Steward, José M Menchón, Susana Jiménez-Murcia, Carles Soriano-Mas, Fernando Fernández-Aranda
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has provided insight on how neural abnormalities are related to the symptomatology of the eating disorders (EDs): anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED). More specifically, an increasingly growing number of brain imaging studies has shed light on how functionally connected brain networks contribute not only to disturbed eating behavior, but also to transdiagnostic alterations in body/interoceptive perception, reward processing and executive functions...
October 17, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037123/ultrafine-particles-exposure-reveals-the-importance-of-foxo1-notch-activation-complex-for-vascular-regeneration
#9
Kyung In Baek, Rene R Packard, Jefferey J Hsu, Arian Saffari, Zhao Ma, Anh Phuong Luu, Andrew Pietersen, Hilary Yen, Bin Ren, Yichen Ding, Constantinos Sioutas, Rongsong Li, Tzung K Hsiai
AIMS: Redox active ultrafine particles (UFP,<i> d</i> < 0.2 µm) promote vascular oxidative stress and atherosclerosis. Notch signaling is intimately involved in vascular homeostasis, in which FOXO1 acts a co-activator of the Notch activation complex. We elucidated the importance of FOXO1/Notch transcriptional activation complex to restore vascular regeneration following UFP exposure. RESULTS: In a zebrafish model of tail injury and repair, transgenic <i>Tg(fli1:GFP) </i>embryos developed vascular regeneration at 3 days post tail amputation, whereas UFP exposure impaired regeneration (<i>P</i> < 0...
October 17, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036695/identifying-greener-and-safer-plasticizers-a-4-step-approach
#10
Océane Albert, Thomas C Nardelli, Barbara F Hales, Bernard Robaire
The health and economic burden of endocrine disrupting chemicals, such as the plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), is prompting industry to develop alternatives. However, the absence of requirements for manufacturers to ensure the safety of these alternatives has led to the generation of replacements that may have similar or worse effects than the original chemicals. Consequently, there is increasing recognition by scientists, regulators and industry that proactive approaches are needed to develop safe chemical substitutes...
August 2, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965106/safety-and-efficacy-of-aneurysm-treatment-with-web-in-the-cumulative-population-of-three-prospective-multicenter-series
#11
Laurent Pierot, Jacques Moret, Xavier Barreau, Istvan Szikora, Denis Herbreteau, Francis Turjman, Markus Holtmannspötter, Anne-Christine Januel, Vincent Costalat, Jens Fiehler, Joachim Klisch, Jean-Yves Gauvrit, Werner Weber, Hubert Desal, Stéphane Velasco, Thomas Liebig, Luc Stockx, Joachim Berkefeld, Andrew Molyneux, James Byrne, Laurent Spelle
BACKGROUND: Flow disruption with the WEB is an innovative endovascular approach for treatment of wide-neck bifurcation aneurysms. Initial studies have shown a low complication rate with good efficacy. PURPOSE: To report clinical and anatomical results of the WEB treatment in the cumulative population of three Good Clinical Practice (GCP) studies: WEBCAST (WEB Clinical Assessment of Intrasaccular Aneurysm), French Observatory, and WEBCAST-2. METHODS: WEBCAST, French Observatory, and WEBCAST-2 are single-arm, prospective, multicenter, GCP studies dedicated to the evaluation of WEB treatment...
September 30, 2017: Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959968/epigenetic-restriction-of-extraembryonic-lineages-mirrors-the-somatic-transition-to-cancer
#12
Zachary D Smith, Jiantao Shi, Hongcang Gu, Julie Donaghey, Kendell Clement, Davide Cacchiarelli, Andreas Gnirke, Franziska Michor, Alexander Meissner
In mammals, the canonical somatic DNA methylation landscape is established upon specification of the embryo proper and subsequently disrupted within many cancer types. However, the underlying mechanisms that direct this genome-scale transformation remain elusive, with no clear model for its systematic acquisition or potential developmental utility. Here, we analysed global remethylation from the mouse preimplantation embryo into the early epiblast and extraembryonic ectoderm. We show that these two states acquire highly divergent genomic distributions with substantial disruption of bimodal, CpG density-dependent methylation in the placental progenitor...
September 28, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955383/novel-concept-of-a-heart-gut-axis-in-the-pathophysiology-of-heart-failure
#13
REVIEW
Takehiro Kamo, Hiroshi Akazawa, Jun-Ichi Suzuki, Issei Komuro
Patients with heart failure (HF) have structural and functional changes of the gut as a result of microcirculatory disturbances. A disrupted gut epithelial barrier may lead to translocation of microbial products into systemic circulation, possibly aggravating HF by inducing inflammatory responses. Gut microbiota play an essential role in the maintenance of host homeostasis because large quantities of their gene products complement host physiological processes. Emerging evidence has suggested the potential clinical significance of gut microbiota in the pathophysiology of HF...
September 2017: Korean Circulation Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954656/wetlands-for-wastewater-treatment
#14
Jairo Castillo-Valenzuela, Edith Martinez-Guerra, Veera Gnaneswar Gude
This article provides an update on the wastewater treatment technologies, which utilize natural processes or passive components to remove various pollutants. The focus is on the wetland systems and their applications in wastewater treatment (as an advanced treatment unit or a decentralized system), and nutrient and pollutant removal (heavy and hazardous metals, industrial and emerging pollutants including pharmaceutical and personal care products and endocrine disrupting chemicals). A summary of studies involving the effects of vegetation, wetland design and operation, modeling, hybrid and innovative systems, storm water treatment, sludge treatment, landfill leachate treatment, and pathogen removal is also included...
October 1, 2017: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945443/comprehensive-grief-care-for-children-and-families-policy-and-practice-implications
#15
Brook Griese, Michaeleen R Burns, Samantha A Farro, Louise Silvern, Ayelet Talmi
Since the 1998 publication of the groundbreaking Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Kaiser Permanente, increased research and funding has focused on mitigating experiences that place children at risk for developmental disruption. Surprisingly, the death of a parent, sibling, or other important attachment figure-often noted as one of the most disruptive and potentially traumatic experiences for a child-has received relatively little attention in these efforts...
2017: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916430/therapeutic-approaches-to-cftr-dysfunction-from-discovery-to-drug-development
#16
Hongyu Li, Emanuela Pesce, David N Sheppard, Ashvani K Singh, Nicoletta Pedemonte
Cystic fibrosis (CF) mutations have complex effects on the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein. They disrupt its processing to and stability at the plasma membrane and function as an ATP-gated Cl(-) channel. Here, we review therapeutic strategies to overcome defective CFTR processing and stability. Because CF mutations have multiple impacts on the assembly of CFTR protein, combination therapy with several pharmacological chaperones is likely to be required to rescue mutant CFTR expression at the plasma membrane...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902616/mef2c-loss-of-function-mutation-associated-with-familial-dilated-cardiomyopathy
#17
Fang Yuan, Zhao-Hui Qiu, Xing-Hua Wang, Yu-Min Sun, Jun Wang, Ruo-Gu Li, Hua Liu, Min Zhang, Hong-Yu Shi, Liang Zhao, Wei-Feng Jiang, Xu Liu, Xing-Biao Qiu, Xin-Kai Qu, Yi-Qing Yang
BACKGROUND: The MADS-box transcription factor myocyte enhancer factor 2C (MEF2C) is required for the cardiac development and postnatal adaptation and in mice-targeted disruption of the MEF2C gene results in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). However, in humans, the association of MEF2C variation with DCM remains to be investigated. METHODS: The coding regions and splicing boundaries of the MEF2C gene were sequenced in 172 unrelated patients with idiopathic DCM. The available close relatives of the index patient harboring an identified MEF2C mutation and 300 unrelated, ethnically matched healthy individuals used as controls were genotyped for MEF2C...
September 13, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899449/the-provider-perspective-investigating-the-effect-of-the-electronic-patient-reported-outcome-epro-mobile-application-and-portal-on-primary-care-provider-workflow
#18
Parminder K Hans, Carolyn Steele Gray, Ashlinder Gill, James Tiessen
Aim This qualitative study investigates how the Electronic Patient-Reported Outcome (ePRO) mobile application and portal system, designed to capture patient-reported measures to support self-management, affected primary care provider workflows. BACKGROUND: The Canadian health system is facing an ageing population that is living with chronic disease. Disruptive innovations like mobile health technologies can help to support health system transformation needed to better meet the multifaceted needs of the complex care patient...
September 13, 2017: Primary Health Care Research & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899063/disruptive-innovation-in-neurovascular-disease
#19
Robert H Rosenwasser, Michael Lang, Stavropoula Tjoumakaris, Pascal Jabbour
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873011/response-to-blood-meal-in-the-fat-body-of-anopheles-stephensi-using-quantitative-proteomics-toward-new-vector-control-strategies-against-malaria
#20
Manish Kumar, Ajeet Kumar Mohanty, Sreelakshmi K Sreenivasamurthy, Gourav Dey, Jayshree Advani, Sneha M Pinto, Ashwani Kumar, Thottethodi Subrahmanya Keshava Prasad
Malaria remains a grand challenge for disruptive innovation in global health therapeutics and diagnostics. Anopheles stephensi is one of the major vectors of malaria in Asia. Vector and transmission control are key focus areas in the fight against malaria, a field of postgenomics research where proteomics can play a substantive role. Moreover, to identify novel strategies to control the vector population, it is necessary to understand the vector life processes at a global and molecular scale. In this context, fat body is a vital organ required for vitellogenesis, vector immunity, vector physiology, and vector-parasite interaction...
September 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
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