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Yilin Sun, Le Zhen, Ying Peng, Jiankun Wang, Fei Fei, Lixiang Aa, Wenjiao Jiang, Xue Pei, Li Lu, Jie Liu, Guangji Wang, Kun Hao
To improve bioavailability and provide resistance to deamination, an array of gemcitabine (dFdC) prodrugs carrying the acyl modifications has been successful in the optimization of pharmacokinetic properties of dFdC, but the reports about 4-N-carbobenzoxy-dFdC (Cbz-dFdC), a dFdC prodrug bearing alkyloxycarbonyl modification, are relatively rare. Notably, in vivo enzymatic hydrolysis was an absolutely essential factor for the activation of these prodrugs, which is correlated with the anti-tumor activity. Therefore, detailed metabolism studies of Cbz-dFdC should be carried out for a more authentic pharmacodynamic evaluation...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Zhaohui Qiu, Jie Peng, Lingli Mou, Xiao Li, Fanqi Meng, Peng Yu
Multidrug resistance (MDR) of tumors occurs when tumor cells exhibit reduced sensitivity to a large number of unrelated drugs. The molecular mechanism of MDR commonly involves overexpression of the plasma membrane drug efflux pump P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Overexpression of P-gp may be induced by the selection and/or adaptation of cells during exposure to chemotherapeutic drugs, referred to as acquired P-gp-mediated MDR. This study aimed to establish a P-gp quantification method by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography and Tandem Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) to better understand the regulation of P-gp expression and its relationship with the level of drug resistance...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Andreas Baumann, Nikolaus Ritt
Language acquisition and change are thought to be causally connected. We demonstrate a method for quantifying the strength of this connection in terms of the 'basic reproductive ratio' of linguistic constituents. It represents a standardized measure of reproductive success, which can be derived both from diachronic and from acquisition data. By analyzing phonotactic English data, we show that the results of both types of derivation correlate, so that phonotactic acquisition indeed predicts phonotactic change, and vice versa...
March 17, 2018: Cognition
Hirotaka Iijima, Kanako Shimoura, Tomoki Aoyama, Masaki Takahashi
BACKGROUND: Stair climbing was suggested to be the first affected task in individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA). RESEARCH QUESTION: This review aimed to identify consistent kinematic, kinetic, and spatiotemporal alterations of stair climbing exhibited by individuals with knee OA. METHODS: A literature search published until September 2017 was conducted in PubMed, PEDro, CINAHL, and Cochrane CENTRAL. Reviewer extracted data in accordance with the Cochrane Handbook...
March 8, 2018: Gait & Posture
Yanyong Guo, Zhibin Li, Yao Wu, Chengcheng Xu
Bicyclists running the red light at crossing facilities increase the potential of colliding with motor vehicles. Exploring the contributing factors could improve the prediction of running red-light probability and develop countermeasures to reduce such behaviors. However, individuals could have unobserved heterogeneities in running a red light, which make the accurate prediction more challenging. Traditional models assume that factor parameters are fixed and cannot capture the varying impacts on red-light running behaviors...
March 17, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Stefano Grazioli, Maurizio Paciaroni, Giancarlo Agnelli, Monica Acciarresi, Andrea Alberti, Cataldo D'Amore, Valeria Caso, Michele Venti, Luigina Guasti, Walter Ageno, Alessandro Squizzato
BACKGROUND: The association between stroke and cancer is well-known but insufficiently investigated. Aim of this multicentre retrospective cohort study was to estimate the prevalence of cancer-associated ischemic stroke, describe clinical outcomes in patients with cancer-associated ischemic stroke and investigate independent factors associated with active cancer. METHODS: Consecutive adult patients admitted for acute ischemic stroke were included. Included patients were admitted in the Stroke Unit of the Hospital of Perugia, Italy, from March 2005 to March 2015, and in a medical unit of the Hospital of Varese, Italy, from January 2010 till December 2011...
March 15, 2018: Thrombosis Research
Ross J Thomson, Nay Aung, Mihir M Sanghvi, Jose Miguel Paiva, Aaron M Lee, Filip Zemrak, Kenneth Fung, Paul E Pfeffer, Alexander J Mackay, Tricia M McKeever, Elena Lukaschuk, Valentina Carapella, Young Jin Kim, Charlotte E Bolton, Stefan K Piechnik, Stefan Neubauer, Steffen E Petersen
BACKGROUND: Reduced lung function is common and associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, even in asymptomatic individuals without diagnosed respiratory disease. Previous studies have identified relationships between lung function and cardiovascular structure in individuals with pulmonary disease, but the relationships in those free from diagnosed cardiorespiratory disease have not been fully explored. METHODS: UK Biobank is a prospective cohort study of community participants in the United Kingdom...
2018: PloS One
Neha Bairoliya, Günther Fink
BACKGROUND: While the high prevalence of preterm births and its impact on infant mortality in the US have been widely acknowledged, recent data suggest that even full-term births in the US face substantially higher mortality risks compared to European countries with low infant mortality rates. In this paper, we use the most recent birth records in the US to more closely analyze the primary causes underlying mortality rates among full-term births. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Linked birth and death records for the period 2010-2012 were used to identify the state- and cause-specific burden of infant mortality among full-term infants (born at 37-42 weeks of gestation)...
March 2018: PLoS Medicine
Naser Nawayseh
Little is known about the transmission of vibration to the head when using whole-body vibration (WBV) training machines. This paper investigates the effect of frequency and posture on the transmission of vibration from a vibrating plate to the head of standing people. Nine male participants were exposed to vertical vibration at nine frequencies in the range of 17-46 Hz and vibration acceleration in the range of 7.85-18.64 m/s2 (peak). The participants adopted four standing postures described as standing with locked knee (LK), bent knee (BK), one leg (OL), and one foot to the front and the other to the back (FB)...
March 20, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Tamara L Sheldon, Chandini Sankaran
Between 1990 and 2015, Indonesia lost nearly 25 percent of its forests, largely due to intentional burning to clear land for cultivation of palm oil and timber plantations.1 The neighboring "victim countries" experienced severe deteriorations in air quality as a result of these fires. For example, Singapore experienced record air pollution levels in June of 2013 and again in September of 2015 as a result of the Indonesian forest fires.2 This air pollution is associated with increased incidences of upper respiratory tract infections, acute conjunctivitis, lung disease, asthma, bronchitis, emphysema, and pneumonia, among other ailments...
May 2017: American Economic Review
Marco Scardino, Tiziana D'Amato, Federica Martorelli, Giorgia Fenocchio, Vincenzo Simili, Berardo Di Matteo, Dario Bugada, Elizaveta Kon
BACKGROUND: Currently many TKA protocols rely on multimodal analgesic protocols with patient-controlled analgesia systems that administer opioids through a patient controlled IV infusion pump, in addition to concomitant peripheral nerve blocks and local anesthetics. Although effective, PCA IV opioids do not provide optimal results with fast track rehabilitation protocols. METHODS: The present is a retrospective study comparing the novel sublingual sufentanil PCA system (SSTS) to our standard of care foreseeing continuous femoral nerve block (cFNB) within a multimodal analgesic in a TKA fast-track protocol...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics
Giuseppe Amatulli, Sami Domisch, Mao-Ning Tuanmu, Benoit Parmentier, Ajay Ranipeta, Jeremy Malczyk, Walter Jetz
Topographic variation underpins a myriad of patterns and processes in hydrology, climatology, geography and ecology and is key to understanding the variation of life on the planet. A fully standardized and global multivariate product of different terrain features has the potential to support many large-scale research applications, however to date, such datasets are unavailable. Here we used the digital elevation model products of global 250 m GMTED2010 and near-global 90 m SRTM4.1dev to derive a suite of topographic variables: elevation, slope, aspect, eastness, northness, roughness, terrain roughness index, topographic position index, vector ruggedness measure, profile/tangential curvature, first/second order partial derivative, and 10 geomorphological landform classes...
March 20, 2018: Scientific Data
Ramsey Hachem, Paul Corris
BACKGROUND: Lung transplantation is a therapeutic option for select patients with end-stage lung disease. However, successful lung transplantation is hampered by chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD), in particular bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS). Although there is no approved or standard treatment for BOS, which may have several distinct phenotypes, extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) has shown promising results in patients who develop BOS refractory to azithromycin treatment...
March 19, 2018: Transplantation
Enrico Bellato, James S Fitzsimmons, Youngbok Kim, Daniel R Bachman, Lawrence J Berglund, Alexander W Hooke, Shawn W O'Driscoll
BACKGROUND: Joint incongruity in posteromedial rotatory instability (PMRI) has been theorized to determine early articular degenerative changes. Our hypothesis was that the articular contact area and contact pressure differ significantly between an intact elbow and an elbow affected by PMRI. METHODS: Seven cadaveric elbows were tested under gravity varus stress using a custom-made machine designed to simulate muscle loads and allow passive elbow flexion (0° to 90°)...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
Samrat Yeramaneni, Jeffrey L Gum, Leah Y Carreon, Eric O Klineberg, Justin S Smith, Amit Jain, Richard A Hostin
BACKGROUND: Readmissions following adult spinal deformity surgical procedures frequently occur, placing a substantial burden on patients and providers. Existing literature on readmission costs, including reason-specific readmission costs, is limited. The purposes of this study were to determine the most expensive reasons for readmission, to assess the impact of reasons and timing on readmission costs, and to estimate the drivers of total costs associated with adult spinal deformity surgical procedures...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
George H Thompson, Connie Poe-Kochert, Christina K Hardesty, Jochen Son-Hing, R Justin Mistovich
BACKGROUND: Vancomycin powder has been demonstrated to be safe in children, and yet there are no data on its use to reduce surgical site infections (SSIs) in surgery for early-onset scoliosis. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of our patients treated for early-onset scoliosis in the period of 2010 to 2016. In 2010, we updated our standardized perioperative growing spine care path. The only later change was the gradual introduction of intrawound vancomycin powder...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
Jeffrey M Ryckman, Chi Lin, Charles B Simone, Vivek Verma
OBJECTIVE: The standard of care for clinical IA cervical cancer is surgery, but nonoperative cases may receive definitive radiation therapy (RT). Herein, we investigated national practice patterns associated with the administration of definitive RT as compared with hysterectomy-based surgery (HYS) as well as delivery of adjuvant RT after HYS. METHODS/MATERIALS: The National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) was queried for clinical IA primary cervical cancer cases (2004-2013) receiving definitive RT or HYS with or without adjuvant RT...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
Miran Brvar, Ming Yin Chan, Andrew H Dawson, Richard R Ribchester, Michael Eddleston
INTRODUCTION: Treatment of acute organophosphorus or carbamate insecticide self-poisoning is often ineffective, with tens of thousands of deaths occurring every year. Researchers have recommended the addition of magnesium sulfate or calcium channel blocking drugs to standard care to reduce acetylcholine release at cholinergic synapses. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to review systematically the evidence from preclinical studies in animals exposed to organophosphorus or carbamate insecticides concerning the efficacy of magnesium sulfate and calcium channel blocking drugs as therapy compared with placebo in reducing mortality or clinical features of poisoning...
March 20, 2018: Clinical Toxicology
Michele Vitacca, Luca Barbano, Daniele Colombo, Olivia Leoni, Enrico Guffanti
Few studies have analyzed the prevalence and accessibility of home mechanical ventilation (HMV) in Italy. We aimed to investigate the prevalence and prescription variability of HMV as well as of long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT) and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), in the Lombardy Region. Prescribing rates of HMV (both noninvasive and tracheostomies), CPAP (auto-CPAP, CPAP/other sleep machines) and LTOT (liquid-O2, O2-gas, concentrators) in the 15 Local Healthcare districts of Lombardy were gathered from billing data for 2012 and compared...
January 29, 2018: Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease, Archivio Monaldi Per le Malattie del Torace
Julia Berazneva, Tanya S. Byker
It is estimated that about one quarter of the global disease burden in terms of healthy life years lost and about one quarter of all premature deaths can be attributed to modifiable environmental factors (Pruss-Ustun and Corvalan 2006). Three infectious diseases--diarrhea, respiratory infections, and malaria--account for the largest absolute burden in developing countries with children facing the greatest impacts. There is a growing body of evidence demonstrating the health burden of air and water pollution, as well as important productivity and income effects (see, for example, reviews of the literature in Pattanayak and Pfaff 2009 and Greenstone and Jack 2016)...
May 2017: American Economic Review
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