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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329674/%C3%AE-arrestin2-couples-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-5-to-neuronal-protein-synthesis-and-is-a-potential-target-to-treat-fragile-x
#1
Laura J Stoppel, Benjamin D Auerbach, Rebecca K Senter, Anthony R Preza, Robert J Lefkowitz, Mark F Bear
Synaptic protein synthesis is essential for modification of the brain by experience and is aberrant in several genetically defined disorders, notably fragile X (FX), a heritable cause of autism and intellectual disability. Neural activity directs local protein synthesis via activation of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5), yet how mGlu5 couples to the intracellular signaling pathways that regulate mRNA translation is poorly understood. Here, we provide evidence that β-arrestin2 mediates mGlu5-stimulated protein synthesis in the hippocampus and show that genetic reduction of β-arrestin2 corrects aberrant synaptic plasticity and cognition in the Fmr1(-/y) mouse model of FX...
March 21, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329382/systemic-immunomodulating-therapies-for-stevens-johnson-syndrome-and-toxic-epidermal-necrolysis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
Stefanie Zimmermann, Peggy Sekula, Moritz Venhoff, Edith Motschall, Jochen Knaus, Martin Schumacher, Maja Mockenhaupt
Importance: Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN) are rare but severe adverse reactions with high mortality. There is no evidence-based treatment, but various systemic immunomodulating therapies are used. Objectives: To provide an overview on possible immunomodulating treatments for SJS/TEN and estimate their effects on mortality compared with supportive care. Data Sources: A literature search was performed in December 2012 for articles published in MEDLINE, MEDLINE Daily, MEDLINE Inprocess, Web of Science, EMBASE, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library (Central) from January 1990 through December 2012, and updated in December 2015, in the English, French, Spanish, and German languages looking for treatment proposals for SJS/TEN...
March 22, 2017: JAMA Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329273/is-surgical-resection-superior-to-bronchoscopic-resection-in-patients-with-symptomatic-endobronchial-hamartoma
#3
Sarah M Abdel Hady, Salma E Elbastawisy, Aly S Hassaballa, Hany H Elsayed
A best evidence topic was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was: in surgically fit patients with biopsy proven symptomatic endobronchial hamartoma (EH), is surgical resection superior to bronchoscopic resection in terms of outcome. A total of 756 articles were identified using the reported search, of which 8 represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, date, journal, country, study type, population, outcomes and key results are tabulated. Three studies included patients who had either bronchoscopic or surgical treatment of EH in the same study...
February 17, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329235/improving-public-health-by-improving-clinical-trial-guidelines-and-their-application
#4
Martin J Landray, Jeroen J Bax, Laurence Alliot, Marc Buyse, Adam Cohen, Rory Collins, Gerhard Hindricks, Stefan K James, Sile Lane, Aldo P Maggioni, Ann Meeker-O'Connell, Gunnar Olsson, Stuart J Pocock, Michael Rawlins, Jonathan Sellors, Kaori Shinagawa, Karin R Sipido, Liam Smeeth, Richard Stephens, Murray W Stewart, Wendy Gattis Stough, Fergus Sweeney, Frans Van de Werf, Kerrie Woods, Barbara Casadei
Evidence generated from randomized controlled trials forms the foundation of cardiovascular therapeutics and has led to the adoption of numerous drugs and devices that prolong survival and reduce morbidity, as well as the avoidance of interventions that have been shown to be ineffective or even unsafe. Many aspects of cardiovascular research have evolved considerably since the first randomized trials in cardiology were conducted. In order to be large enough to provide reliable evidence about effects on major outcomes, cardiovascular trials may now involve thousands of patients recruited from hundreds of clinical sites in many different countries...
March 8, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329215/triple-antithrombotic-therapy-in-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation-undergoing-percutaneous-coronary-intervention-a-viewpoint
#5
Jennifer C V Gwyn, Mark R Thomas, Paulus Kirchhof
Patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) are treated with dual antiplatelet therapy to reduce the risk of subsequent myocardial infarction (MI) and stent thrombosis. Approximately 5-10% of patients undergoing PCI also have atrial fibrillation (AF). Patients with AF have an additional requirement for anticoagulation, as dual antiplatelet therapy alone is insufficient to adequately reduce the risk of stroke in patients with AF. However, it is now well established that combining anticoagulants with dual antiplatelet therapy also causes a significant increase in the risk of bleeding...
March 13, 2017: European Heart Journal. Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329181/treatment-response-in-enteric-fever-in-an-era-of-increasing-antimicrobial-resistance-an-individual-patient-data-analysis-of-2-092-participants-enrolled-into-four-randomised-controlled-trials-in-nepal
#6
Corinne N Thompsom, Abhilasha Karkey, Sabina Dongol, Amit Ariyal, Marcel Wolbers, Thomas Darton, Jeremey J Farrar, Guy E Thwaites, Christiane Dolecek, Buddha Basnyat, Stephen Baker
Background: Enteric fever, caused by Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A, is the leading cause of bacterial febrile disease in South Asia. Methods: Individual patient data from 2,092 subjects with enteric fever randomised into four trials in Kathmandu, Nepal was pooled. All trials compared gatifloxacin with a comparator drug: cefixime, chloramphenicol, ofloxacin, or ceftriaxone. Treatment outcomes were evaluated according to antimicrobial if S. Typhi/Paratyphi were isolated from blood...
February 28, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329170/life-span-extension-by-axenic-dietary-restriction-is-independent-of-the-mitochondrial-unfolded-protein-response-and-mitohormesis-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#7
Huaihan Cai, Madina Rasulova, Lieselot Vandemeulebroucke, Lea Meagher, Caroline Vlaeminck, Ineke Dhondt, Bart P Braeckman
In Caenorhabditis elegans, a broad range of dietary restriction regimens extend life span to different degrees by separate or partially overlapping molecular pathways. One of these regimens, axenic dietary restriction, doubles the worm's life span but currently, almost nothing is known about the underlying molecular mechanism. Previous studies suggest that mitochondrial stress responses such as the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt) or mitohormesis may play a vital role in axenic dietary restriction-induced longevity...
March 17, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328902/stressed-out-providing-laboratory-animals-with-behavioral-control-to-reduce-the-physiological-effects-of-stress
#8
Brianna N Gaskill, Joseph P Garner
Laboratory animals experience a large amount of environmental stress. An animal's environment can include both physiological and social stressors that may require an animal to adapt to maintain allostatic balance. For example, thermal stress can lead to changes in behavior, reproduction and immune function, which has been detrimental to cancer modeling in mice. Chronic uncontrollable stress is widely acknowledged for its negative alterations to physiology. However, there is a lack in the understanding of how the laboratory environment affects animal physiology and behavior, particularly as it relates to characteristics of the human disease being modeled...
March 22, 2017: Lab Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328893/improving-quality-of-science-through-better-animal-welfare-the-nc3rs-strategy
#9
Mark J Prescott, Katie Lidster
Good animal welfare is linked to the quality of research data derived from laboratory animals, their validity as models of human disease, the number of animals required to reach statistical significance and the reproducibility of in vivo studies. Identifying new ways of understanding and improving animal welfare, and promoting these in the scientific community, is therefore a key part of the work of the National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs). Our strategy for animal welfare includes funding research to generate an evidence base to support refinements, office-led data sharing to challenge existing practices, events and networks to raise awareness of the evidence base, and the creation of online and other resources to support practical implementation of refinement opportunities...
March 22, 2017: Lab Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328857/ivc-filters-trends-in-placement-and-indications-a-study-of-2-populations
#10
Mahek Shah, Talal Alnabelsi, Shantanu Patil, Shilpa Reddy, Brijesh Patel, Marvin Lu, Aditya Chandorkar, Apostholos Perelas, Shilpkumar Arora, Nilay Patel, Larry Jacobs, Glenn G Eiger
Inferior vena cava filter (IVCF) placement appears to be expanding over time despite absence of clear directing evidence.Two populations were studied. The first population included patients who received an IVCF between January 2005 and August 2013 at our community hospital center. Demographic information, indications for placement, and retrieval rate was recorded among other variables. The second population comprised of patients receiving an IVCF from 2005 to 2012 according to the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) using ICD-9CM coding...
March 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328756/pectoralis-and-serratus-fascial-plane-blocks-each-provide-early-analgesic-benefits-following-ambulatory-breast-cancer-surgery-a-retrospective-propensity-matched-cohort-study
#11
Faraj W Abdallah, David MacLean, Caveh Madjdpour, Tulin Cil, Anuj Bhatia, Richard Brull
BACKGROUND: Pectoralis and serratus blocks have been described recently for use in breast surgery, but evidence supporting their analgesic benefits is limited. This cohort study evaluates the benefits of adding a pectoralis or serratus block to conventional opioid-based analgesia (control) in patients who underwent ambulatory breast cancer surgery at Women's College Hospital between July 2013 and May 2015. We tested the joint hypothesis that adding a pectoralis or serratus block reduced postoperative in-hospital (predischarge) opioid consumption and nausea and vomiting (PONV)...
March 21, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328682/early-tranexamic-acid-administration-ameliorates-the-endotheliopathy-of-trauma-and-shock-in-an-in-vitro-model
#12
Lawrence N Diebel, Jonathan V Martin, David M Liberati
BACKGROUND: Systemic vascular endothelial injury is a consequence of trauma-hemorrhagic shock (T/HS) which results in disturbances of coagulation, inflammation and endothelial barrier integrity. The effect of T/HS on the endothelium (Endotheliopathy of Trauma)[EoT] is of intense research interest and may lead to EoT directed therapies. Administration of tranexamic acid (TXA) in trauma patients is associated with a survival benefit and fewer complications if given early after injury. Mechanisms for this protective effect include the anti-fibrinolytic and anti-inflammatory effects of TXA...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328095/haca-s-heritage-a-free-radical-pathway-to-phenanthrene-in-circumstellar-envelopes-of-asymptotic-giant-branch-stars
#13
Tao Yang, Ralf I Kaiser, Tyler P Troy, Bo Xu, Oleg Kostko, Musahid Ahmed, Alexander M Mebel, Marsel V Zagidullin, Valeriy N Azyazov
The hydrogen-abstraction/acetylene-addition (HACA) mechanism has been central for the last decades in attempting to rationalize the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as detected in carbonaceous meteorites such as in Murchison. Nevertheless, the basic reaction mechanisms leading to the formation of even the simplest tricyclic PAHs like anthracene and phenanthrene are still elusive. Here, by exploring the previously unknown chemistry of the ortho-biphenylyl radical with acetylene, we deliver compelling evidence on the efficient synthesis of phenanthrene in carbon-rich circumstellar environments...
March 22, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327997/lumbar-fusion-for-degenerative-disease-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
Daniel Yavin, Steven Casha, Samuel Wiebe, Thomas E Feasby, Callie Clark, Albert Isaacs, Jayna Holroyd-Leduc, R John Hurlbert, Hude Quan, Andrew Nataraj, Garnette R Sutherland, Nathalie Jette
BACKGROUND: Due to uncertain evidence, lumbar fusion for degenerative indications is associated with the greatest measured practice variation of any surgical procedure. OBJECTIVE: To summarize the current evidence on the comparative safety and efficacy of lumbar fusion, decompression-alone, or nonoperative care for degenerative indications. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted using PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (up to June 30, 2016)...
March 17, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327915/vascularized-fibular-strut-autografts-in-spinal-reconstruction-after-resection-of-vertebral-chordoma-or-chondrosarcoma-a-retrospective-series
#15
Vijay Yanamadala, Peter A Rozman, Jay I Kumar, Joseph H Schwab, Sang-Gil Lee, Francis J Hornicek, William T Curry
BACKGROUND: Margin-free en bloc resection is the best medical practice for primary vertebral chordoma and chondrosarcoma. Spinal reconstruction following total spondylectomy requires reconstructive interbody graft (allograft, devascularized autograft, vascularized autograft, or cage constructs) and instrumentation. An important consideration when choosing grafts and instrumentation is the durability and the long-term success of the fusion without subsidence. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the potential use of vascularized fibular autograft as a reconstructive strategy after en bloc resection...
January 13, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327901/data-resources-for-the-identification-and-interpretation-of-actionable-mutations-by-clinicians
#16
A Prawira, T J Pugh, T L Stockley, L L Siu
Following initial characterization of the reference human genome, initiatives have evolved worldwide to identify genomic aberrations in cancer with the aim of deriving diagnostic, prognostic and predictive information. However, the functional and clinical relevance of many somatic variants in cancer are presently unknown and there is no consensus definition of "actionability" for genomic aberrancies. Therefore, while robust detection of a variety of genetic aberrations in clinical specimens remains a technical hurdle, the greater challenge lies in the interpretation of these alterations...
January 24, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327853/-latin-american-perspectives-on-person-centered-medicine
#17
Alberto Perales, Juan Mendoza, Rodolfo Armas, Oscar Cluzet
Person-centered medicine (PCM) is a programmatic global initiative led by the International College of Person-Centered Medicine. It has recently emerged in Latin America. It requires the use of scientific research as an instrument to generate the best clinical evidence, and humanism as the essence of medicine to help mankind. It is focused on not only combatting disease but also promoting the display of healthy human being potentials towards achieving well-being and comprehensive growth. Although the humanism of medicine in Latin America has been a distinctive characteristic of its practice, now, there is a worrying decline in its impact on healthcare...
October 2016: Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327548/opioid-sparing-effect-of-cannabinoids-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
REVIEW
Suzanne Nielsen, Pamela Sabioni, Jose M Trigo, Mark A Ware, Brigid D Betz-Stablein, Bridin Murnion, Nicholas Lintzeris, Kok Eng Khor, Michael Farrell, Andrew Smith, Bernard Le Foll
Cannabinoids, when co-administered with opioids, may enable reduced opioid doses without loss of analgesic efficacy (ie an opioid-sparing effect). The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review to determine the opioid-sparing potential of cannabinoids. Eligible studies included pre-clinical and clinical studies for which the outcome was either analgesia or opioid dose requirements. Clinical studies included controlled studies and case series. We searched Scopus, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Medline, and Embase...
March 22, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327493/noninvasive-ventilation-open-issues-for-nursing-research
#19
Stefano Bambi, Enrica Mati, Christian De Felippis, Alberto Lucchini
According to the current literature, Noninvasive Ventilation (NIV) is a well-recognized respiratory support technique for patients affected by Acute Respiratory Failure (ARF). As highlighted by recent meta-analysis, a tight adherence to protocols regarding patients' selection criteria, relative or absolute contraindications, plus highly skilled and experienced operators, can positively affect the NIV performance and mortality rates. Positive outcome from NIV respiratory support is dependent from: patient's clinical condition and education needs; confidence of the staff with NIV technology; choice and management of the most suitable interface available prevention of interface complications; nutritional assessment (artificial feeding if required) and conditioning of medical gas...
March 14, 2017: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327410/mitochondria-control-acute-and-chronic-responses-to-hypoxia
#20
G S McElroy, N S Chandel
There are numerous mechanisms by which mammals respond to hypoxia. These include acute changes in pulmonary arterial tone due to smooth muscle cell contraction, acute increases in respiration triggered by the carotid body chemosensory cells, and chronic changes such as induction of red blood cell proliferation and angiogenesis by hypoxia inducible factor targets erythropoietin and vascular endothelial growth factor, respectively. Mitochondria account for the majority of oxygen consumption in the cell and have recently been appreciated to serve as signaling organelles required for the initiation or propagation of numerous homeostatic mechanisms...
March 19, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
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