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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822350/baclofen-for-alcohol-withdrawal
#1
REVIEW
Jia Liu, Lu-Ning Wang
BACKGROUND: Baclofen shows potential for rapidly reducing symptoms of severe alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) in people with alcoholism. Treatment with baclofen is easy to manage and rarely produces euphoria or other pleasant effects, or craving for the drug. This is an updated version of the original Cochrane Review published in 2015, Issue 4. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of baclofen for people with AWS. SEARCH METHODS: We updated our searches of the following databases to March 2017: the Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL, PubMed, Embase, and CINAHL...
August 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822119/five-questions-answered-a-review-of-autologous-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-for-the-treatment-of-multiple-sclerosis
#2
REVIEW
Harold L Atkins, Mark S Freedman
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is thought to be an autoimmune disease targeting the central nervous system leading to demyelination, and axonal and neuronal damage, resulting in progressive disability. More intensive therapies such as immunodepletion with hematopoietic stem-cell rescue are being used at a time prior to patients becoming irreversibly disabled. Over the last 15 years, there has been a shift away from using autologous hematopoietic stem-cell transplants (aHSCT) to treat patients with progressive MS, towards treating those with active inflammation and relapses...
August 18, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822067/association-between-serum-osteocalcin-and-body-mass-index-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
Hamed Kord-Varkaneh, Kurosh Djafarian, Masoud Khorshidi, Sakineh Shab-Bidar
PURPOSE: Osteocalcin is considered as a bone-derived hormone affecting on the body fat distribution and body mass index. Several cross-sectional studies have investigated the association between serum osteocalcin and body mass index. The aim of this study was to summarize the evidence on the relationship between serum osteocalcin and body mass index. METHODS: We conducted a complete search up to November 2016 in PubMed and SCOPUS and reviewed reference list of all relevant articles and reviews...
August 18, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822063/mind-body-therapies-in-cancer-what-is-the-latest-evidence
#4
REVIEW
Linda E Carlson, Erin Zelinski, Kirsti Toivonen, Michelle Flynn, Maryam Qureshi, Katherine-Ann Piedalue, Rachel Grant
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Many people living with cancer use complementary therapies, and some of the most popular are mind-body therapies (MBTs), including relaxation and imagery, hypnosis, yoga, meditation, tai chi and qigong, and art therapies. The efficacy of these modalities was reviewed by assessing recent findings in the context of cancer care. RECENT FINDINGS: These therapies show efficacy in treating common cancer-related side effects, including nausea and vomiting, pain, fatigue, anxiety, depressive symptoms and improving overall quality of life...
August 18, 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821745/metabolomics-and-genomics-combine-to-unravel-the-pathway-for-the-presence-of-fragrance-in-rice
#5
Venea Dara Daygon, Mariafe Calingacion, Louise C Forster, James J De Voss, Brett D Schwartz, Ben Ovenden, David E Alonso, Susan R McCouch, Mary J Garson, Melissa A Fitzgerald
Since it was first characterised in 1983, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP) has been considered to be the most important aroma compound in rice. In this study, we show four other amine heterocycles: 6-methyl, 5-oxo-2,3,4,5-tetrahydropyridine (6M5OTP), 2-acetylpyrrole, pyrrole and 1-pyrroline, that correlate strongly with the production of 2AP, and are present in consistent proportions in a set of elite aromatic rice varieties from South East Asia and Australia as well as in a collection of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from indica Jasmine-type varieties, Australian long grain varieties (temperate japonica) and Basmati-type rice (Grp V)...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820896/a-strategy-for-scaling-up-access-to-comprehensive-care-in-adults-with-chagas-disease-in-endemic-countries-the-bolivian-chagas-platform
#6
Maria-Jesus Pinazo, Jimy Pinto, Lourdes Ortiz, Jareth Sánchez, Wilson García, Ruth Saravia, Mirko-R Cortez, Silvia Moriana, Enric Grau, Daniel Lozano, Joaquim Gascon, Faustino Torrico
BACKGROUND: Bolivia has the highest prevalence of Chagas disease (CD) in the world (6.1%), with more than 607,186 people with Trypanosoma cruzi infection, most of them adults. In Bolivia CD has been declared a national priority. In 2009, the Chagas National Program (ChNP) had neither a protocol nor a clear directive for diagnosis and treatment of adults. Although programs had been implemented for congenital transmission and for acute cases, adults remained uncovered. Moreover, health professionals were not aware of treatment recommendations aimed at this population, and research on CD was limited; it was difficult to increase awareness of the disease, understand the challenges it presented, and adapt strategies to cope with it...
August 18, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820460/determination-of-sphingosine-1-phosphate-in-human-plasma-using-liquid-chromatography-coupled-with-q-tof-mass-spectrometry
#7
Emmanuel Eroume-A Egom, Ross Fitzgerald, Rebecca Canning, Rebabonye B Pharithi, Colin Murphy, Vincent Maher
Evidence suggests that high-density lipoprotein (HDL) components distinct from cholesterol, such as sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), may account for the anti-atherothrombotic effects attributed to this lipoprotein. The current method for the determination of plasma levels of S1P as well as levels associated with HDL particles is still cumbersome an assay method to be worldwide practical. Recently, a simplified protocol based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the sensitive and specific quantification of plasma levels of S1P with good accuracy has been reported...
August 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820231/interventions-for-treating-persistent-pain-in-survivors-of-torture
#8
REVIEW
Emma Baird, Amanda C de C Williams, Leslie Hearn, Kirstine Amris
BACKGROUND: Persistent (chronic) pain is a frequent complaint in survivors of torture, particularly but not exclusively pain in the musculoskeletal system. Torture survivors may have no access to health care; where they do, they may not be recognised when they present, and the care available often falls short of their needs. There is a tendency in state and non-governmental organisations' services to focus on mental health, with poor understanding of persistent pain, while survivors may have many other legal, welfare, and social problems that take precedence over health care...
August 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820145/endoscopic-ultrasound-guided-gastroenterostomy-are-we-ready-for-prime-time
#9
REVIEW
Mihai Rimbas, Alberto Larghi, Guido Costamagna
Interventional endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is currently becoming the less invasive therapeutic approach for the drainage of pancreatic fluid collections, of acute cholecystitis in patients unfit for surgery and for biliary drainage after failed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. In addition, EUS-guided gastroenterostomy (EUS-GE) has recently emerged as a feasible procedure to treat patients with gastric outlet obstruction, as an alternative to surgery or to standard endoscopy when endoscopic stent placement is not possible...
July 2017: Endoscopic Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819679/neuromuscular-electrical-stimulation-is-effective-in-strengthening-the-quadriceps-muscle-after-anterior-cruciate-ligament-surgery
#10
REVIEW
Annette V Hauger, M P Reiman, J M Bjordal, C Sheets, L Ledbetter, A P Goode
PURPOSE: Reduced ability to contract the quadriceps muscles is often found immediately following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) surgery. This can lead to muscle atrophy and decreased function. Application of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) may be a useful adjunct intervention to ameliorate these deficits following ACL surgery. The purpose of this review was to determine whether NMES in addition to standard physical therapy is superior to standard physical therapy alone in improving quadriceps strength or physical function following ACL surgery...
August 17, 2017: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819385/a-randomized-open-label-safety-and-exploratory-efficacy-study-of-kanglaite-injection-klti-plus-gemcitabine-versus-gemcitabine-in-patients-with-advanced-pancreatic-cancer
#11
Lee S Schwartzberg, Francis P Arena, Bryan J Bienvenu, Edward H Kaplan, Luis H Camacho, Luis T Campos, J Paul Waymack, Mary A Tagliaferri, Michael M Chen, Dapeng Li
Background: This study was designed to assess the safety and preliminary efficacy of KLTi plus gemcitabine in patients with locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer. Methods: In a randomized, open-label study, patients with locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer were randomized 2:1 to receive KLTi plus gemcitabine or gemcitabine monotherapy. Three sequential cohorts were tested at 30 g/day, 50 g/day, and 30 g/day. Gemcitabine was administered at 1000 mg/m(2) on days 1, 8 and 15 of each 28 day cycle...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819091/review-of-current-evidence-regarding-surgery-in-elderly-patients-with-meningioma
#12
Fusao Ikawa, Yasuyuki Kinoshita, Masaaki Takeda, Taiichi Saito, Satoshi Yamaguchi, Fumiyuki Yamasaki, Koji Iida, Kazuhiko Sugiyama, Kazunori Arita, Kaoru Kurisu
The Japanese population features the highest rate of elderly individuals worldwide. Moreover, Japan has the highest number of computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging devices in the world, which has led to an increase in the incidental detection of meningioma in healthy elderly patients. Many previous papers have discussed the risks and indications for surgery in this patient population, but available information remains insufficient, and the definition of "elderly" has not been standardized. This review tried to clarify the published evidence and challenges associated with elderly meningioma based on a search of the PubMed database using the terms "meningioma," "elderly," and "surgery" for English-language clinical studies and collected related papers published from 2000 to 2016...
August 15, 2017: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818990/clinical-use-and-utility-of-amyloid-imaging
#13
Henryk Barthel, Osama Sabri
Currently, three amyloid PET tracers are approved and commercially available for clinical use. They allow for the accurate in vivo detection of amyloid plaques, one hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we review the current knowledge on the clinical use and utility of amyloid imaging. Appropriate use criteria for the clinical application of amyloid imaging are established, and most currently available data point to their validity. Visual amyloid image analysis is highly standardized. Disclosure of amyloid imaging results is desired by many cognitively impaired subjects, and seems to be safe once appropriate education is delivered to the disclosing clinicians...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818984/pseudo-reference-regions-for-glial-imaging-with-11-c-pbr28-investigation-in-two-clinical-cohorts
#14
Daniel Strakis Albrecht, Marc David Normandin, Sergey Shcherbinin, Dustin W Wooten, Adam J Schwarz, Nicole R Zurcher, Vanessa N Barth, Nicolas J Guehl, Oluwaseun Johnson-Akeju, Nazem Atassi, Mattia Veronese, Federico Turkheimer, Jacob M Hooker, Marco Luciano Loggia
The translocator protein (TSPO) is a commonly used imaging target to investigate neuroinflammation. While TSPO imaging demonstrates great promise, its signal exhibits substantial interindividual variability, which needs to be accounted for to uncover group effects that are truly reflective of neuroimmune activation. Recent evidence suggests that relative metrics computed using pseudo-reference approaches can minimize within-group variability, and increase sensitivity to detect physiologically meaningful group differences...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818966/meta-analysis-using-individual-participant-data-from-randomised-trials-opportunities-and-limitations-created-by-access-to-raw-data
#15
Ewelina Rogozińska, Nadine Marlin, Shakila Thangaratinam, Khalid S Khan, Javier Zamora
Meta-analysis based on individual participant data (IPD), often described as the 'gold standard' for effectiveness evidence synthesis, is increasingly being deployed despite being more resource intensive than collating study-level results. Its professed virtues include the ability to incorporate unreported data and to standardise variables and their definitions across trials. In reality, the unreported data, although present in shared datasets, might still not be usable in the analysis. The characteristics of trial participants and their outcomes may be too diversely captured for harmonisation and too time and resource consuming to standardise...
August 17, 2017: Evidence-based Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818716/positron-emission-tomography-pet-imaging-of-nicotine-induced-dopamine-release-in-squirrel-monkeys-using-18-f-fallypride
#16
Jennifer E Naylor, Takato Hiranita, Katelin S Matazel, Xuan Zhang, Merle G Paule, Amy K Goodwin
BACKGROUND: Nicotine, the principal psychoactive tobacco constituent, is thought to produce its reinforcing effects via actions within the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system. The objective of the current study was to examine the effect of nicotine on DA D2/D3 receptor availability in the nonhuman primate brain with the use of the radioligand [(18)F]fallypride and positron emission tomography (PET). METHODS: Ten adult male squirrel monkeys were used in the current study...
August 8, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818457/relationship-between-sleep-duration-and-childhood-obesity-systematic-review-including-the-potential-underlying-mechanisms
#17
R Felső, S Lohner, K Hollódy, É Erhardt, D Molnár
AIM: The prevalence of obesity is continually increasing worldwide. Determining risk factors for obesity may facilitate effective preventive programs. The present review focuses on sleep duration as a potential risk factor for childhood obesity. The aim is to summarize the evidence on the association of sleep duration and obesity and to discuss the underlying potential physiological and/or pathophysiological mechanisms. DATA SYNTHESIS: The Ovid MEDLINE, Scopus and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) databases were searched for papers using text words with appropriate truncation and relevant indexing terms...
July 25, 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818359/environment-of-care-is-it-time-to-reassess-microbial-contamination-of-the-operating-room-air-as-a-risk-factor-for-surgical-site-infection-in-total-joint-arthroplasty
#18
REVIEW
Javad Parvizi, Sue Barnes, Noam Shohat, Charles E Edmiston
In the modern operating room (OR), traditional surgical mask, frequent air exchanges, and architectural barriers are viewed as effective in reducing airborne microbial populations. Intraoperative sampling of airborne particulates is rarely performed in the OR because of technical difficulties associated with sampling methodologies and a common belief that airborne contamination is infrequently associated with surgical site infections (SSIs). Recent studies suggest that viable airborne particulates are readily disseminated throughout the OR, placing patients at risk for postoperative SSI...
August 14, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818076/extensive-protein-hydrolyzation-is-indispensable-to-prevent-ige-mediated-poultry-allergen-recognition-in-dogs-and-cats
#19
Thierry Olivry, Jennifer Bexley, Isabelle Mougeot
BACKGROUND: The central premise for the commercialization of diets with hydrolyzed ingredients is that the small-sized digested peptides would be unable to crosslink allergen-specific IgE at the surface of tissue mast cells and induce their degranulation. Evidence for the validity of this concept to diagnose food allergies in dogs and cats is limited, however. Our objectives were to study the recognition of standard and variably hydrolyzed poultry extracts by sera from dogs and cats with elevated chicken-specific serum IgE...
August 17, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818058/evaluation-of-therapy-management-and-outcome-in-takotsubo-syndrome
#20
Nadine Abanador-Kamper, Lars Kamper, Judith Wolfertz, Witali Pomjanski, Anamaria Wolf-Pütz, Melchior Seyfarth
BACKGROUND: To date there is no validated evidence for standardized treatment of patients with Takotsubo syndrome (TTS). Medication therapy after final TTS diagnosis remains unclear. Previous data on patient outcome is ambivalent. Aim of this study was to evaluate medication therapy in TTS and to analyze patient outcome. METHODS: Within an observational retrospective cohort study we analyzed our medical records and included 72 patients with TTS that underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) after a median of 2 days interquartile range (IQR 1-3...
August 17, 2017: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
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