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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909503/prophylactic-antibiotics-in-pediatric-neurological-surgery
#1
Friederike Knerlich-Lukoschus, Martina Messing-Jünger
PURPOSE: Surgical antibiotic prophylaxis (SAP) in pediatric neurosurgery has poorly been characterized until now. This review gives an overview on the current literature extracting recommendations and guidelines. METHODS: The current literature on SAP with special forcus on pediatric neurosurgerical procedures was reviewed. Further, available recommendations in online databases were checked. Clean neurosurgical, shunt, and implant surgeries are considered separately...
June 16, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909327/diclofenac-affects-early-embryo-development-in-the-marine-bivalve-mytilus-galloprovincialis
#2
Teresa Balbi, Michele Montagna, Rita Fabbri, Cristina Carbone, Silvia Franzellitti, Elena Fabbri, Laura Canesi
Diclofenac-DCF, one of the most widely prescribed non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, is globally detected in environmental compartments. Due to its occurrence in freshwater and potential impact on aquatic organisms, it has been added to the watch list of chemicals in the EU Water Directive; consequently, research on the impact of DCF in model aquatic organisms has great regulatory implications towards ecosystem health. DCF is also detected in coastal waters at concentrations from ng/L to 1 μg/L, as well as in marine organisms, such as the mussel Mytilus...
June 14, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909084/clinical-outcomes-in-the-treatment-of-unilateral-condylar-fractures-a-cross-sectional-study
#3
A V J Rozeboom, L T Klumpert, M Koutris, L Dubois, C M Speksnijder, F Lobbezoo, J de Lange
The treatment of mandibular condyle fractures has been the subject of considerable discussion, especially whether open or closed treatment should be used. There is a need for practical,evidence-based guidelines, and both objective and subjective parameters should be measured. To date, fewstudies have considered clinically relevant subjective parameters. This study was performed to evaluate the outcomes of the treatment of condylar fractures using the Mandibular Function Impairment Questionnaire (MFIQ) and the Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (DC/TMD) and to compare the outcomes of open and the closed treatment...
June 13, 2018: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908945/residual-setup-errors-towards-the-heart-after-image-guidance-linked-with-poorer-survival-in-lung-cancer-patients-do-we-need-stricter-igrt-protocols
#4
Corinne N Johnson, Gareth J Price, Corinne Faivre-Finn, Marianne C Aznar, Marcel van Herk
BACKGROUND: and Purpose: Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) is widely used but data directly relating setup errors to patient outcome is scarce. This study investigates the relationship between residual IGRT shifts and overall patient survival, and uses the observed relations to identify structures sensitive to radiation dose. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Residual shift data for 780 NSCLC patients was summarised for each patient over the course of treatment by determining the mean shifts, standard deviations and the vector shift in the direction of the heart...
June 1, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908871/an-overview-on-personalisation-of-radiotherapy-prescriptions-in-locally-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-are-we-there-yet
#5
REVIEW
Sarah Barrett, Gerard G Hanna, Laure Marignol
Standard of care radiotherapy in LA-NSCLC is 60-66 Gy in 30-33 fractions. However outcomes for these patients are poor with 5-year survival in the range of 10-20%. Randomised controlled trials have shown that dose escalation in a linear fashion does not improve outcomes for all patients, thus there is a need to tailor the prescription to the individual patient. This review assesses the strategies published to personalise the radiation therapy dose prescription in LA-NSCLC. A systematic and scoping search of the literature was performed to identify studies that met the inclusion criteria...
June 13, 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908787/objective-evaluation-of-a-didactic-curriculum-for-the-radiation-oncology-medical-student-clerkship
#6
Daniel W Golden, Gregory E Kauffmann, Ryan P McKillip, Jeanne M Farnan, Yoon Soo Park, Alan Schwartz
PURPOSE: A structured didactic radiation oncology clerkship curriculum for medical students is in use at multiple academic medical centers. Objective evidence supporting this educational approach over the traditional clerkship model is lacking. This study evaluated the curriculum efficacy using an objective knowledge assessment. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Medical students received the Radiation Oncology Education Collaborative Study Group (ROECSG) curriculum consisting of 3 lectures (Overview of Radiation Oncology, Radiation Biology/Physics, and Practical Aspects of Simulation/Radiation Emergencies) and a radiation oncology treatment-planning workshop...
April 26, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908647/emergency-department-use-of-neuroimaging-in-children-and-adolescents-presenting-with-headache
#7
Meghan R Cain, Dimitrios Arkilo, Amy M Linabery, Anupam B Kharbanda
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate emergency department use and outcomes of neuroimaging for headache in a free-standing children's hospital system. STUDY DESIGN: We prospectively enrolled children aged 6-18 years who presented to the emergency department with a chief complaint of headache from September 2015 to September 2016. Standardized data collection was performed in real time, including telephone follow-up as needed, and imaging outcome was determined through a chart review...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908570/therapeutic-herbs-confirmed-by-evidence-based-medicine
#8
Carl R Thornfeldt
Mucocutaneous diseases and conditions, including aging, are known to be the result of multiple pathophysiologic anomalies induced by various environmental insults. Creating therapeutic products for these multifactorial diseases and conditions is challenging. Although safety testing is not required for cosmetics and cosmeceuticals, consumer expectation is for products to be effective and well tolerated while maintaining cosmetic elegance. This requires that the finished product being sold to consumers should be tested in human clinical trials for safety profile, efficacy, and scientific integrity...
May 2018: Clinics in Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908373/validation-of-diagnostic-tests-for-histologic-chorioamnionitis-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
Claudia Patricia Cataño Sabogal, Javier Fonseca, Herney Andrés García-Perdomo
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic performance of different diagnostic tests for histologic chorioamnionitis in patients at more than 20 weeks of gestation. METHODS: A systematic search was carried out through MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, CENTRAL and unpublished literature. Observational studies included with pregnant women (>20 weeks) with chorioamnionitis. The reference standard was the histopathological study of the placenta, umbilical cord and fetal membranes...
June 9, 2018: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908078/ultrasound-detection-of-insulin-induced-lipohypertrophy-in-type-1-and-type-2-diabetes
#10
J E Kapeluto, B W Paty, S D Chang, G S Meneilly
AIMS: To define standard criteria for the detection of lipohypertrophy using ultrasonography and to determine the accuracy of this method. METHOD: Individuals using insulin therapy for ≥2 years with unknown lipohypertrophy status were enrolled at a diabetes education centre. A team of diabetes educator nurses performed a clinical examination for evidence of lipohypertrophy and a separate team of ultrasonographers examined participants in a blinded fashion. RESULTS: The echo signature for lipohypertrophy consisted of location in the subcutaneous layer and lesions that were 1) well circumscribed either by hyperechoic foci with defined borders or a nodular shape with a hypoechoic halo, 2) heterogeneous in echotexture compared with surrounding tissue, 3) associated with distortion of surrounding connective tissue with 4) absence of vascularity and 5) absence of capsule...
June 16, 2018: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908037/alpha-blockers-as-medical-expulsive-therapy-for-ureteral-stones-a-cochrane-systematic-review
#11
Thijs Campschroer, Xiaoye Zhu, Robin W M Vernooij, M T W Tycho Lock
OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of alpha-blockers compared to standard therapy or placebo for ureteral stones 1 cm and less confirmed by imaging in adult patients presenting with symptoms of ureteral stone disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a systematic search in multiple databases and grey literature with no restrictions on the language of publication or publication status, up until November 2017. We included randomised controlled trials evaluating ureteral stone passage in adult patients, that compared alpha-blockers with standard therapy or placebo...
June 16, 2018: BJU International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908026/growth-patterns-of-palestinian-children-from-birth-to-24-months
#12
Ali Albelbeisi, Zalilah Mohd Shariff, Chan Yoke Mun, Hejar Abdul-Rahman, Yehia Abed
Background: Growth faltering in early life can adversely affect health in later childhood and adulthood. Growth monitoring of children can provide evidence to help formulate effective strategies to address growth problems but such information on Palestinian children is lacking. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the growth patterns of children under 2 years in Gaza, Palestine. Methods: This retrospective cohort study was conducted in 2014 in 10 randomly selected primary health care clinics in 5 governorates of Gaza...
June 10, 2018: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, la Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée Orientale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907973/biological-effect-of-the-abutment-material-on-the-stability-of-peri-implant-marginal-bone-levels-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
REVIEW
Ignacio Sanz-Sánchez, Ignacio Sanz-Martín, Ana Carrillo de Albornoz, Elena Figuero, Mariano Sanz
OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the available evidence on the effect of the abutment material on the stability and health of the peri-implant hard tissues. METHODS: A protocol was developed to answer the following focused question: "Which is the effect of the abutment material on stability and health of the peri-implant hard tissues?" Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), controlled clinical trials (CCTs) or prospective case series (CS) with at least 6 months of follow-up were included, and meta-analyses were performed to compare abutment materials vs...
June 15, 2018: Clinical Oral Implants Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907898/inpatient-glycemic-management-of-non-cardiac-cvd-focus-on-stroke-and-pvd
#14
REVIEW
Estelle Everett, Nestoras Mathioudakis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hyperglycemia occurs frequently in hospitalized patients with stroke and peripheral vascular disease (PVD). Guidelines for inpatient glycemic management are not well established for this patient population. We will review the clinical impact of hyperglycemia in this acute setting and review the evidence for glycemic control. RECENT FINDINGS: Hyperglycemia in acute stroke is associated with poor short and long-term outcomes, and perioperative hyperglycemia in those undergoing revascularization for PVD is linked to increased post-surgical complications...
June 16, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907787/assessing-the-accuracy-of-intracameral-phenylephrine-preparation-in-cataract-surgery
#15
Stuart Guthrie, Thomas Jensen, Richard C Hartley, Kanna Ramaesh, David Lockington
PURPOSE: Unpreserved phenylephrine is often used as an off-licence intracameral surgical adjunct during cataract surgery to assist with pupil dilation and/or stabilise the iris in floppy iris syndrome. It can be delivered as a neat 0.2 ml bolus of either 2.5 or 10% strength, or in a range of ad-hoc dilutions. We wished to assess the accuracy of intracameral phenylephrine preparation in clinical practice. METHODS: Phenylephrine 0.2 ml was analysed both neat (2...
June 15, 2018: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907601/pragmatic-and-evidence-based-approach-to-paediatric-cerebrospinal-fluid-reference-limits-for-white-cell-count-and-concentrations-of-total-protein-and-glucose
#16
Nicky Josman, Nancy W S Tee, Matthias Maiwald, Liat Hui Loo, Clement K M Ho
BACKGROUND: It is often impractical for each laboratory to establish its own paediatric reference intervals. This is particularly true for specimen types collected using invasive procedures, for example, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). METHODS: Published CSF reference intervals for white cell count, and concentrations of total protein and glucose were reviewed by stakeholders in a paediatric hospital. Consensus reference intervals for the three CSF parameters were then subjected to verification using guidelines from the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute and residual CSF specimens...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907540/american-society-for-metabolic-and-bariatric-surgery-review-of-the-literature-on-one-anastomosis-gastric-bypass
#17
Manish Parikh, Dan Eisenberg, Jason Johnson, Maher El-Chaar
The following review is being published by the American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery in response to numerous inquiries made to the Society by patients, physicians, society members, hospitals, and others regarding one-anastomosis gastric bypass as a primary treatment for obesity or metabolic disease. The review is based on current clinical knowledge, expert opinion, and published peer-reviewed scientific evidence available at this time. The review is not intended as, and should not be construed as, stating or establishing a local, regional, or national standard of care...
May 9, 2018: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907294/new-colorimetric-aptasensor-for-rapid-on-site-detection-of-campylobacter-jejuni-and-campylobacter-coli-in-chicken-carcass-samples
#18
Young-Ji Kim, Hong-Seok Kim, Jung-Whan Chon, Dong-Hyeon Kim, Ji-Yeon Hyeon, Kun-Ho Seo
Campylobacter is the most common cause of infectious intestinal disease, with nearly all cases caused by two species: C. jejuni and C. coli. We recently reported a gold nanoparticle-based two-stage aptasensing platform, which was improved in the present study for the rapid and on-site detection of both C. jejuni and C. coli in food samples. Compared to the previous platform, the improved platform yielded a more obvious colour change from red to purple due to the aggregation of gold nanoparticles, and does not require additional time or a pH optimization step for the aptamers to be adsorbed onto the gold nanoparticles...
October 31, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907261/adaptation-to-spanish-of-the-ics-good-urodynamic-practices
#19
S Arlandis, E Morán, E Martínez-Cuenca, M Á Bonillo, R Martínez-García, P Rosier
The standardisation working group of the International Continence Society has updated the Good Urodynamic Practice directives. This evidence-based ICS-GUP2016 has defined the terminology and standards of Urodynamic practice, for the laboratory and for individual practice, in quality control during cystometry and pressure-flow analysis. In addition, the working group included recommendations prior to the test and information about how to prepare the patient, as well as recommendations for the reporting of urodynamics...
June 12, 2018: Actas Urologicas Españolas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907112/a-systematic-review-of-stakeholder-views-of-selection-methods-for-medical-schools-admission
#20
M E Kelly, F Patterson, S O'Flynn, J Mulligan, A W Murphy
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this paper is to systematically review the literature with respect to stakeholder views of selection methods for medical school admissions. METHODS: An electronic search of nine databases was conducted between January 2000-July 2014. Two reviewers independently assessed all titles (n = 1017) and retained abstracts (n = 233) for relevance. Methodological quality of quantitative papers was assessed using the MERSQI instrument. The overall quality of evidence in this field was low...
June 15, 2018: BMC Medical Education
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