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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914320/biochemical-precursor-effects-on-the-fatty-acid-production-in-cell-suspension-cultures-of-theobroma-cacao-l
#1
O Parra, A M Gallego, A Urrea, L F Rojas, C Correa, L Atehortúa
Cocoa butter (CB) is composed of 96% palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic fatty acids that are responsible for the hardness, texture and fusion properties of chocolate. Through in vitro plant cell culture it is possible to modify CB lipid profiles and to study the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway on a subcellular level, evaluating fundamental aspects to enhance in vitro fatty acid production in a specific and controlled way. In this research, culture media was supplemented with acetate, biotin, pyruvate, bicarbonate and glycerol at three different concentrations and the effects on the biomass production (g/L), cell viability, and fatty acids profile and production was evaluated in in vitro cell suspensions culture...
November 25, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914300/structure-based-analysis-of-bacilli-and-plasmid-dihydrofolate-reductase-evolution
#2
Mona Alotaibi, Ben Delos Reyes, Tin Le, Phuong Luong, Faramarz Valafar, Robert P Metzger, Gary B Fogel, David Hecht
Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), a key enzyme in tetrahydrofolate-mediated biosynthetic pathways, has a structural motif known to be highly conserved over a wide range of organisms. Given its critical role in purine and amino acid synthesis, DHFR is a well established therapeutic target for treating a wide range of prokaryotic and eukaryotic infections as well as certain types of cancer. Here we present a structural-based computer analysis of bacterial (Bacilli) and plasmid DHFR evolution. We generated a structure-based sequence alignment using 7 wild-type DHFR x-ray crystal structures obtained from the RCSB Protein Data Bank and 350 chromosomal and plasmid homology models we generated from sequences obtained from the NCBI Protein Database...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914190/culturally-competent-patient-provider-communication-in-the-management-of-cancer-an-integrative-literature-review
#3
REVIEW
Ottilia Brown, Wilma Ten Ham-Baloyi, Dalena Rm van Rooyen, Colleen Aldous, Leonard Charles Marais
BACKGROUND: Managing cancer in a multicultural environment poses several challenges, which include the communication between the patient and the healthcare provider. Culture is an important consideration in clinical care as it contributes to shaping patients' health-related values, beliefs, and behaviours. This integrative literature review gathered evidence on how culturally competent patient-provider communication should be delivered to patients diagnosed with cancer. DESIGN: Whittemore and Knafl's approach to conducting an integrative literature review was used...
2016: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914018/encapsulation-of-%C3%AE-sitosterol-in-polyurethane-by-sol-gel-electrospinning
#4
Musarat Amina, Touseef Amna, Nawal Al-Musayeib, Sami A Zabin, M Shamshi Hassan, Myung-Seob Khil
Pristine β-sitosterol or in combination with other phytosterols is utilized in an array of enriched commercial foods. Considering the presence of β-sitosterol in different functional foods and its potential role in prevention and cure of neurodegenerative diseases, the aims of our investigation were to encapsulate β-sitosterol in nanofibers and to estimate influence of β-sitosterol on proliferation of fibroblasts. Electrospun nanofibers have widely been used as scaffolds to mimic natural extracellular matrix...
December 2, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913917/network-meta-analysis-an-introduction-for-clinicians
#5
Benjamin Rouse, Anna Chaimani, Tianjing Li
Network meta-analysis is a technique for comparing multiple treatments simultaneously in a single analysis by combining direct and indirect evidence within a network of randomized controlled trials. Network meta-analysis may assist assessing the comparative effectiveness of different treatments regularly used in clinical practice and, therefore, has become attractive among clinicians. However, if proper caution is not taken in conducting and interpreting network meta-analysis, inferences might be biased. The aim of this paper is to illustrate the process of network meta-analysis with the aid of a working example on first-line medical treatment for primary open-angle glaucoma...
December 2, 2016: Internal and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913822/more-than-just-scanning-the-importance-of-cap-independent-mrna-translation-initiation-for-cellular-stress-response-and-cancer
#6
REVIEW
Rafaela Lacerda, Juliane Menezes, Luísa Romão
The scanning model for eukaryotic mRNA translation initiation states that the small ribosomal subunit, along with initiation factors, binds at the cap structure at the 5' end of the mRNA and scans the 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) until an initiation codon is found. However, under conditions that impair canonical cap-dependent translation, the synthesis of some proteins is kept by alternative mechanisms that are required for cell survival and stress recovery. Alternative modes of translation initiation include cap- and/or scanning-independent mechanisms of ribosomal recruitment...
December 2, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913290/early-and-brain-region-specific-decrease-of-de-novo-cholesterol-biosynthesis-in-huntington-s-disease-a-cross-validation-study-in-q175-knock-in-mice
#7
Mahalakshmi Shankaran, Eleonora Di Paolo, Valerio Leoni, Claudio Caccia, Costanza Ferrari Bardile, Hussein Mohammed, Stefano Di Donato, Seung Kwak, Deanna Marchionini, Scott Turner, Elena Cattaneo, Marta Valenza
Cholesterol precursors and cholesterol levels are reduced in brain regions of Huntington's disease (HD) mice. Here we quantified the rate of in vivo de novo cholesterol biosynthesis in the HD brain. Samples from different brain regions and blood of the heterozygous knock-in mouse model carrying 175 CAG repeats (Q175) at different phenotypic stages were processed independently by two research units to quantify cholesterol synthesis rate by (2)H2O labeling and measure the concentrations of lathosterol, cholesterol and its brain-specific cholesterol catabolite 24-hydroxy-cholesterol (24OHC) by isotope dilution mass spectrometry...
November 29, 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913196/nf-kb-regulated-exosomal-mir-155-promotes-the-inflammation-associated-with-arsenite-carcinogenesis
#8
Chao Chen, Fei Luo, Xinlu Liu, Lu Lu, Hui Xu, Qianlei Yang, Junchao Xue, Le Shi, Jun Li, Aihua Zhang, Qizhan Liu
In the cancer microenvironment, extracellular communication allows various types of cells to coordinate and execute biological functions. Emerging evidence indicates that exosomes, as mediators of cell communication, are involved in tumor progression. Little is known, however, about the mechanism by which exosomal miRNAs regulate inflammatory infiltration in arsenite-induced liver cancer. The present research aimed to determine if miRNAs secreted from arsenite-transformed human hepatic epithelial (L-02) cells are transferred into normal L-02 and THLE-3 cells, which are functionally active in the recipient cells...
November 29, 2016: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912120/solvothermal-synthesis-of-ag-hybrid-bipo4-heterostructures-with-enhanced-photodegradation-activity-and-stability
#9
Chang-Wei Huang, Mei-Yao Wu, Yang-Wei Lin
In this study, Ag hybrid BiPO4 (Ag/BiPO4) heterostructures were synthesized using a solvothermal method. The morphologies and optical properties of the Ag/BiPO4 heterostructures were drastically different from those of BiPO4 and were highly dependent on the AgNO3:BiPO4 weight percent during the synthesis. The three formulated heterostructures were evaluated for their photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) under UV light illumination; the 0.5%Ag/BiPO4 heterostructure was observed to result in 99% degradation of MB within 60min, a remarkably higher level of photodegradation activity than the levels caused by TiO2 and BiPO4...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912044/mutations-in-prosc-disrupt-cellular-pyridoxal-phosphate-homeostasis-and-cause-vitamin-b6-dependent-epilepsy
#10
Niklas Darin, Emma Reid, Laurence Prunetti, Lena Samuelsson, Ralf A Husain, Matthew Wilson, Basma El Yacoubi, Emma Footitt, W K Chong, Louise C Wilson, Helen Prunty, Simon Pope, Simon Heales, Karine Lascelles, Mike Champion, Evangeline Wassmer, Pierangelo Veggiotti, Valérie de Crécy-Lagard, Philippa B Mills, Peter T Clayton
Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), the active form of vitamin B6, functions as a cofactor in humans for more than 140 enzymes, many of which are involved in neurotransmitter synthesis and degradation. A deficiency of PLP can present, therefore, as seizures and other symptoms that are treatable with PLP and/or pyridoxine. Deficiency of PLP in the brain can be caused by inborn errors affecting B6 vitamer metabolism or by inactivation of PLP, which can occur when compounds accumulate as a result of inborn errors of other pathways or when small molecules are ingested...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911011/fragment-based-design-synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-of-1-substituted-indole-2-carboxylic-acids-as-selective-mcl-1-inhibitors
#11
Ziqian Wang, Wenjie Xu, Ting Song, Zongwei Guo, Lu Liu, Yudan Fan, Anhui Wang, Zhichao Zhang
Based on a known selective Mcl-1 inhibitor, 6-chloro-3-(3-(4-chloro-3,5-dimethylphenoxy)propyl)-1H-indole-2-carboxylic acid, we applied a fragment-based approach to obtain new molecules that extended into the p1 pocket of the BH3 groove and then exhibited binding selectivity for the Mcl-1 over the Bcl-2 protein. After we deconstructed the 1H-indole-2-carboxylic acid from the parental molecule, a benzenesulfonyl was substituted at the 1-position to adopt a geometry preferred for accessing the p1 pocket according to the binding mode of the parental molecule identified by X-ray crystallography...
December 2, 2016: Archiv der Pharmazie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910912/bhx-inhibits-the-wnt-signaling-pathway-by-suppressing-%C3%AE-catenin-transcription-in-the-nucleus
#12
Fengxia Ding, Meisa Wang, Yibo Du, Shuangshuang Du, Zhongling Zhu, Zhao Yan
BHX (N-(4-hydroxybenzyl)-1,3,4-triphenyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole-5-carboxamide), a Wnt signaling pathway inhibitor, effectively inhibits tumor cell growth, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. Thus, we aim to investigate the effects and associated mechanism of BHX action on A549 and MCF-7 cell lines. In our study, MTT(3-[4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl]-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide) and xenograft model assay indicated that cell growth was inhibited by BHX at a range of concentrations in vitro and in vivo...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910887/energy-metabolism-regulated-by-hdac-inhibitor-attenuates-cardiac-injury-in-hemorrhagic-rat-model
#13
Qiyuan Kuai, Chunyan Wang, Yanbing Wang, Weijing Li, Gongqing Zhang, Zhixin Qiao, Min He, Xuanlin Wang, Yu Wang, Xingwei Jiang, Lihua Su, Yuezhong He, Suping Ren, Qun Yu
A disturbance of energy metabolism reduces cardiac function in acute severe hemorrhagic patients. Alternatively, adequate energy supply reduces heart failure and increases survival. However, the approach to regulating energy metabolism conductive to vital organs is limited, and the underlying molecular mechanism remains unknown. This study assesses the ability of histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) to preserve cardiac energy metabolism during lethal hemorrhagic injury. In the lethally hemorrhagic rat and hypoxic myocardial cells, energy metabolism and heart function were well maintained following HDACI treatment, as evident by continuous ATP production with normal cardiac contraction...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910747/effect-of-dietary-fat-on-gene-expression-in-poultry-a-review
#14
Bahman Navidshad, M Royan
Traditionally, poultry farmers aimed to produce birds with high body weight and feed conversion ratio. However, in line with current developments, there are other traits that must be taken into account as well. These include producing poultry meat with lower body fat content and improving the nutritional quality of the poultry meat to appeal to consumer requirements. The interrelated importance of human diet and health status is an ancient subject. Human foods as a lifestyle factor is involved in the incidence of many types of diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer...
2016: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910173/facilitators-and-barriers-to-person-centred-care-in-child-and-young-people-mental-health-services-a-systematic-review
#15
Dawid Gondek, Julian Edbrooke-Childs, Tjasa Velikonja, Louise Chapman, Felicity Saunders, Daniel Hayes, Miranda Wolpert
: Implementation of person-centred care has been widely advocated across various health settings and patient populations, including recent policy for child and family services. Nonetheless, evidence suggests that service users are rarely involved in decision-making, whilst their preferences and goals may be often unheard. The aim of the present research was to systematically review factors influencing person-centred care in mental health services for children, young people and families examining perspectives from professionals, service users and carers...
December 2, 2016: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907935/a-meta-analysis-of-functional-outcomes-in-patient-specific-instrumented-knee-arthroplasty
#16
Ashim Mannan, Deji Akinyooye, Fahad Hossain
Alignment data in patient-specific instrumented (PSI) knee arthroplasty have been examined in several meta-analyses, with demonstration of comparative but not improved restitution of a neutral mechanical axis and favorable outcomes in femoral implant axial alignment. To date, no comprehensive synthesis of data has been conducted specifically for functional outcomes. Relevant databases were searched according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines during the period 2000 to 2015 of Levels 1 and 2 studies comparing functional outcomes of patient-specific instrumentation (PSI) versus conventional instrumentation...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Knee Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907900/insulin-resistance-in-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic-clamp-studies
#17
Samantha Cassar, Marie L Misso, William G Hopkins, Christopher S Shaw, Helena J Teede, Nigel K Stepto
STUDY QUESTION: What is the degree of intrinsic insulin resistance (IR) in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and the relative contribution of BMI to overall IR based on meta-analysis of gold standard insulin clamp studies? SUMMARY ANSWER: We report an inherent reduction (-27%) of insulin sensitivity (IS) in PCOS patients, which was independent of BMI. WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN: PCOS is prevalent, complex and underpinned by IR but controversies surround the degree of intrinsic IR in PCOS, the effect of BMI and the impact of the different diagnostic criteria (NIH versus Rotterdam) in PCOS...
November 2016: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907161/barriers-and-facilitators-to-safe-food-handling-among-consumers-a-systematic-review-and-thematic-synthesis-of-qualitative-research-studies
#18
Ian Young, Lisa Waddell
Foodborne illness has a substantial health and economic burden on society, and most cases are believed to be due to unsafe food handling practices at home. Several qualitative research studies have been conducted to investigate consumers' perspectives, opinions, and experiences with safe food handling at home, and these studies provide insights into the underlying barriers and facilitators affecting their safe food handling behaviours. We conducted a systematic review of previously published qualitative studies in this area to synthesize the main across-study themes and to develop recommendations for future consumer interventions and research...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906934/can-unilateral-kyphoplasty-replace-bilateral-kyphoplasty-in-treatment-of-osteoporotic-vertebral-compression-fractures-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
Han Sun, Pei-Pei Lu, Yi-Jie Liu, Xu Yang, Ping-Hui Zhou, Xiao-Feng Shen, Si-Wei Sun, Huilin Yang
BACKGROUND: Kyphoplasty has been proven to be an efficient method to relieve patient suffering from osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCFs). Because of its technological superiority, unilateral kyphoplasty consumes less operative time and bone cement than traditional bilateral kyphoplasty. However, there is controversy about which method is most efficient in the treatment of OVCFs. Thus, an overall analysis should be performed to shed light on the facts corroborating both procedures...
November 2016: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906721/preoperative-evaluation-and-preparation-of-the-morbidly-obese-patient
#20
Andreas B Böhmer, Frank Wappler
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to familiarize with the most current findings regarding preoperative evaluation and preparation of morbidly obese patients prior to elective, noncardiac surgery. In the light of the increasing number of surgical patients being morbidly obese, the knowledge of evidence-based preoperative evaluation strategies is profound for a rational approach. RECENT FINDINGS: Preoperative evaluation should be carried out with sufficient time before the day of surgery to allow modification of the perioperative management...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
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