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Evidence synthesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140140/the-physiological-mechanisms-of-effect-of-vitamins-and-amino-acids-on-tendon-and-muscle-healing-a-systematic-review
#1
Christopher Tack, Faye Shorthouse, Lindsy Kass
AIMS/OBJECTIVES: To evaluate current literature via systematic review to ascertain whether amino acids/ vitamins provide any influence on musculotendinous healing, and by which physiological mechanisms Methods: EBSCO, PUBMED, Science Direct, Embase Classic/ Embase, and MEDLINE were searched using terms including "vitamins", "amino acids", "healing", "muscle" and "tendon". The primary search had 479 citations, 466 of which were excluded predominantly due to non-randomised design. Randomised human and animal studies investigating all supplement types/ forms of administration were included...
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139110/unconditional-cash-transfers-for-reducing-poverty-and-vulnerabilities-effect-on-use-of-health-services-and-health-outcomes-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#2
REVIEW
Frank Pega, Sze Yan Liu, Stefan Walter, Roman Pabayo, Ruhi Saith, Stefan K Lhachimi
BACKGROUND: Unconditional cash transfers (UCTs; provided without obligation) for reducing poverty and vulnerabilities (e.g. orphanhood, old age or HIV infection) are a type of social protection intervention that addresses a key social determinant of health (income) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The relative effectiveness of UCTs compared with conditional cash transfers (CCTs; provided so long as the recipient engages in prescribed behaviours such as using a health service or attending school) is unknown...
November 15, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138746/a-novel-encephalopathy-in-a-thiamine-deficient-dog-resembling-human-wernicke-s-disease-with-atypical-mri-pattern
#3
Floriana Gernone, Mario Ricciardi
Thiamine is a water-soluble vitamin, which participates in several vital metabolic pathways involved in energy metabolism and neurotransmitter synthesis of mammals. In companion animals thiamine deficiency is classically associated with signs of diffuse encephalopathy and lesions on brainstem nuclei and mesencephalic colliculi evident on magnetic resonance imaging. This paper describes a novel clinical presentation in a thiamine-deficient dog showing multifocal, central and peripheral nervous and cardiovascular system alterations...
2017: Open veterinary journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137910/tamponade-hemodynamic-and-echocardiographic-diagnosis
#4
REVIEW
Mark J Kearns, Keith R Walley
Cardiac tamponade is a medical emergency that can be readily reversed with timely recognition and appropriate intervention. The clinical diagnosis of cardiac tamponade requires synthesis of a constellation of otherwise non-specific features, based on an understanding of the underlying pathophysiology. Whereas echocardiographic examination is a central component of diagnosis, alone it is insufficient to establish the physiologic diagnosis of hemodynamically significant cardiac tamponade. The hemodynamic diagnosis of cardiac tamponade requires clinical evidence of low cardiac output and stroke volume in the setting of elevated cardiac filling pressures, with evidence of increased sympathetic tone (tachycardia, peripheral vasoconstriction, etc), and exclusion of other causes of shock as the primary problem (particularly cardiogenic shock)...
November 11, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137868/what-works-in-inclusion-health-overview-of-effective-interventions-for-marginalised-and-excluded-populations
#5
REVIEW
Serena Luchenski, Nick Maguire, Robert W Aldridge, Andrew Hayward, Alistair Story, Patrick Perri, James Withers, Sharon Clint, Suzanne Fitzpatrick, Nigel Hewett
Inclusion health is a service, research, and policy agenda that aims to prevent and redress health and social inequities among the most vulnerable and excluded populations. We did an evidence synthesis of health and social interventions for inclusion health target populations, including people with experiences of homelessness, drug use, imprisonment, and sex work. These populations often have multiple overlapping risk factors and extreme levels of morbidity and mortality. We identified numerous interventions to improve physical and mental health, and substance use; however, evidence is scarce for structural interventions, including housing, employment, and legal support that can prevent exclusion and promote recovery...
November 10, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137660/optimising-the-value-of-the-evidence-generated-in-implementation-science-the-use-of-ontologies-to-address-the-challenges
#6
EDITORIAL
Susan Michie, Marie Johnston
Implementing research findings into healthcare practice and policy is a complex process occurring in diverse contexts; it invariably depends on changing human behaviour in many parts of an intricate implementation system. Questions asked with the aim of improving implementation are multifarious variants of 'What works, compared with what, how well, with what exposure, with what behaviours (for how long), for whom, in what setting and why?'. Relevant evidence is being published at a high rate, but its quantity, complexity and lack of shared terminologies present challenges...
November 14, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137659/the-effectiveness-of-research-implementation-strategies-for-promoting-evidence-informed-policy-and-management-decisions-in-healthcare-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
Mitchell N Sarkies, Kelly-Ann Bowles, Elizabeth H Skinner, Romi Haas, Haylee Lane, Terry P Haines
BACKGROUND: It is widely acknowledged that health policy and management decisions rarely reflect research evidence. Therefore, it is important to determine how to improve evidence-informed decision-making. The primary aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effectiveness of research implementation strategies for promoting evidence-informed policy and management decisions in healthcare. The secondary aim of the review was to describe factors perceived to be associated with effective strategies and the inter-relationship between these factors...
November 14, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137223/hormone-induced-dna-damage-response-and-repair-mediated-by-cyclin-d1-in-breast-and-prostate-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Gabriele Di Sante, Agnese Di Rocco, Claudia Pupo, Mathew C Casimiro, Richard G Pestell
Cell cycle control proteins govern events that leads to the production of two identical daughter cells. Distinct sequential temporal phases, Gap 1 (G1), Gap 0 (G0), Synthesis (S), Gap 2 (G2) and Mitosis (M) are negotiated through a series of check points during which the favorability of the local cellular environment is assessed, prior to replicating DNA [1]. Cyclin D1 has been characterized as a key regulatory subunit of the holoenzyme that promotes the G1/S-phase transition through phosphorylating the pRB protein...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136415/occupational-noise-exposure-and-the-risk-for-work-related-injury-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
Angel Dzhambov, Donka Dimitrova
Objectives: Occupational noise exposure has been linked to work-related injuries. Strategies to control occupational hazards often rely on dose-response relationships needed to inform policy, but quantitative synthesis of the relevant literature has not been done so far. This study aimed to systematically review the epidemiological literature and to perform meta-analysis of the risk for work-related injury due to occupational noise exposure. Methods: PRISMA and MOOSE guidelines were followed...
November 10, 2017: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135979/a-systematic-review-of-grandparents-influence-on-grandchildren-s-cancer-risk-factors
#10
Stephanie A Chambers, Neneh Rowa-Dewar, Andrew Radley, Fiona Dobbie
Many lifestyle patterns are established when children are young. Research has focused on the potential role of parents as a risk factor for non communicable disease in children, but there is limited investigation of the role of other caregivers, such as grandparents. The aim of this review was to identify and synthesise evidence for any influence grandparents' care practices may have on their grandchildren's long term cancer risk factors. A systematic review was carried out with searches across four databases (MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, PsycINFO) as well as searches of reference lists and citing articles, and Google Scholar...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135750/student-and-educator-experiences-of-maternal-child-simulation-based-learning-a-systematic-review-of-qualitative-evidence
#11
Karen MacKinnon, Lenora Marcellus, Julie Rivers, Carol Gordon, Maureen Ryan, Diane Butcher
BACKGROUND: Although maternal-child care is a pillar of primary health care, there is a global shortage of maternal-child health care providers. Nurse educators experience difficulties providing undergraduate students with maternal-child learning experiences for a number of reasons. Simulation has the potential to complement learning in clinical and classroom settings. Although systematic reviews of simulation are available, no systematic reviews of qualitative evidence related to maternal-child simulation-based learning (SBL) for undergraduate nursing students and/or educators have been located...
November 2017: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135743/experiences-of-people-with-parkinson-s-disease-and-their-views-of-physical-activity-interventions-a-qualitative-systematic-review-protocol
#12
Heather Hunter, Christopher Lovegrove, Bernhard Haas, Jennifer Freeman, Hilary Gunn
This review aims to explore the experiences of people with Parkinson's disease (pwPD) participation in physical activity and their views of interventions designed to engage and sustain engagement. Synthesis of the best available evidence will be used to determine any gaps in the research literature and make recommendations on approaches to increase and maintain engagement in physical activity in pwPD living in a community setting. The specific objectives are to.
November 2017: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135532/meta-analysis-in-evidence-based-healthcare-a-paradigm-shift-away-from-random-effects-is-overdue
#13
Suhail A R Doi, Luis Furuya-Kanamori, Lukman Thalib, Jan J Barendregt
Each year up to 20 000 systematic reviews and meta-analyses are published whose results influence healthcare decisions, thus making the robustness and reliability of meta-analytic methods one of the world's top clinical and public health priorities. The evidence synthesis makes use of either fixed-effect or random-effects statistical methods. The fixed-effect method has largely been replaced by the random-effects method as heterogeneity of study effects led to poor error estimation. However, despite the widespread use and acceptance of the random-effects method to correct this, it too remains unsatisfactory and continues to suffer from defective error estimation, posing a serious threat to decision-making in evidence-based clinical and public health practice...
November 11, 2017: International Journal of Evidence-based Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134705/a-dystroglycan-mutation-p-cys667phe-associated-to-muscle-eye-brain-disease-with-multicystic-leucodystrophy-results-in-er-retention-of-the-mutant-protein
#14
Giulia Signorino, Sonia Covaceuszach, Manuela Bozzi, Wolfgang Hubner, Viola Mönkemöller, Petr V Konarev, Alberto Cassetta, Andrea Brancaccio, Francesca Sciandra
Dystroglycan (DG) is a cell adhesion complex composed by two subunits, the highly glycosylated α-DG and the transmembrane β-DG. In skeletal muscle, DG is involved in dystroglycanopathies, a group of heterogeneous muscular dystrophies characterized by a reduced glycosylation of α-DG. The genes mutated in secondary dystroglycanopathies are involved in the synthesis of O-mannosyl glycans and in the O-mannosylation pathway of α-DG. Mutations in the DG gene (DAG1), causing primary dystroglycanopathies, destabilize the α-DG core protein influencing its binding to modifying enzymes...
November 13, 2017: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133952/engaging-homeostatic-plasticity-to-treat-depression
#15
E R Workman, F Niere, K F Raab-Graham
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a complex and heterogeneous mood disorder, making it difficult to develop a generalized, pharmacological therapy that is effective for all who suffer from MDD. Through the fortuitous discovery of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists as effective antidepressants, we have gained key insights into how antidepressant effects can be produced at the circuit and molecular levels. NMDAR antagonists act as rapid-acting antidepressants such that relief from depressive symptoms occurs within hours of a single injection...
November 14, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133447/subsumed-complexity-abiogenesis-as-a-by-product-of-complex-energy-transduction
#16
Z R Adam, D Zubarev, M Aono, H James Cleaves
The origins of life bring into stark relief the inadequacy of our current synthesis of thermodynamic, chemical, physical and information theory to predict the conditions under which complex, living states of organic matter can arise. Origins research has traditionally proceeded under an array of implicit or explicit guiding principles in lieu of a universal formalism for abiogenesis. Within the framework of a new guiding principle for prebiotic chemistry called subsumed complexity, organic compounds are viewed as by-products of energy transduction phenomena at different scales (subatomic, atomic, molecular and polymeric) that retain energy in the form of bonds that inhibit energy from reaching the ground state...
December 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133138/contextual-factors-and-motivations-affecting-rural-community-sanitation-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Josef Novotný, Jiří Hasman, Martin Lepič
BACKGROUND: Unsafe management of human faecal waste represents a major risk for public health, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Efforts to improve sanitation conditions are considerably sensitive to contextual specifics of natural and social environments. This review operationalises, analyses, and synthesises evidence of how contextual factors and motivations affect different sanitation outcomes with a specific focus on community approaches to rural sanitation. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We operationalised contextual factors and motivations as determinants that influence sanitation conditions independently of the examined intervention...
November 6, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131717/in-vitro-effects-of-high-intensity-laser-photobiomodulation-on-equine-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cell-viability-and-cytokine-expression
#18
Frances J Peat, Aimee C Colbath, Lori M Bentsen, Laurie R Goodrich, Melissa R King
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the influence of neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser irradiation on equine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) viability, proliferation, and cytokine expression in vitro. BACKGROUND: Photobiomodulation of cells using monochromatic light is a technique designed to influence cellular processes. Previous studies have shown dose-dependent effects of low-level laser irradiation on cell proliferation and cytokine expression in a range of cell types and species...
November 13, 2017: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131597/facile-low-temperature-synthesis-of-cellulose-nanocrystals-carrying-buckminsterfullerene-and-its-radical-scavenging-property-in-vitro
#19
Jinxian Lin, Zhijing Zhong, Qunling Li, Zhaoyi Tan, Tao Lin, Yi Quan, Dong Zhang
Buckminsterfullerene (C60), known for its strong radical scavenging properties, has been studied extensively for its biomedical applications. Its clinical use would be promoted by novel functionalisation of C60 with the aid of drug delivery carriers based on nanoparticle technologies. Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs), have been recently exploited as a promising nanoplatform for drug delivery, owing to their intriguing attributes such as nanoscale dimensions, low toxicity, broad chemical-modifying capacity, and biocompatibility...
November 13, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131369/photobiomodulation-for-traumatic-brain-injury-and-stroke
#20
REVIEW
Michael R Hamblin
There is a notable lack of therapeutic alternatives for what is fast becoming a global epidemic of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Photobiomodulation (PBM) employs red or near-infrared (NIR) light (600-1100nm) to stimulate healing, protect tissue from dying, increase mitochondrial function, improve blood flow, and tissue oxygenation. PBM can also act to reduce swelling, increase antioxidants, decrease inflammation, protect against apoptosis, and modulate microglial activation state. All these mechanisms of action strongly suggest that PBM delivered to the head should be beneficial in cases of both acute and chronic TBI...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
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