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Evidence synthesis

Stefano Corbella, Roberto Weinstein, Luca Francetti, Silvio Taschieri, Massimo Del Fabbro
The aim of the present study was to systematically review the existing literature on periodontal regenerative procedures in individuals affected by aggressive periodontitis (AgP). An electronic and manual search was performed using an ad hoc prepared search string. All types of study designs were considered acceptable for inclusion. Data about treated patients, baseline clinical parameters, type of surgery, and outcomes were extracted and recorded. A narrative evaluation of the results was performed. After the article-selection process, a total of 22 full-texts were included in the qualitative synthesis...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Investigative and Clinical Dentistry
Bruno Gamarra, Ansgar Kahmen
RATIONALE: Leaf wax n-alkanes are long-chained aliphatic compounds that are present in the cuticle of terrestrial plant leaves. Their δ(2) H values are used for the reconstruction of past environments and for plant ecological investigations. The timing of n-alkane synthesis during leaf development and the rate of synthesis of secondary n-alkanes in fully matured leaves are still a matter of debate. METHODS: Using a (2) H-labeling approach we estimated secondary leaf wax n-alkane synthesis rates in mature leaf blades of six C3 grass species grown in climate chambers under controlled environmental conditions...
October 25, 2016: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Andrew A M Morris, Viktor Kožich, Saikat Santra, Generoso Andria, Tawfeg I M Ben-Omran, Anupam B Chakrapani, Ellen Crushell, Mick J Henderson, Michel Hochuli, Martina Huemer, Miriam C H Janssen, Francois Maillot, Philip D Mayne, Jenny McNulty, Tara M Morrison, Helene Ogier, Siobhan O'Sullivan, Markéta Pavlíková, Isabel Tavares de Almeida, Allyson Terry, Sufin Yap, Henk J Blom, Kimberly A Chapman
Cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) deficiency is a rare inherited disorder in the methionine catabolic pathway, in which the impaired synthesis of cystathionine leads to accumulation of homocysteine. Patients can present to many different specialists and diagnosis is often delayed. Severely affected patients usually present in childhood with ectopia lentis, learning difficulties and skeletal abnormalities. These patients generally require treatment with a low-methionine diet and/or betaine. In contrast, mildly affected patients are likely to present as adults with thromboembolism and to respond to treatment with pyridoxine...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
M A Sotomayor-Sobrino, A Ochoa-Aguilar, L A Méndez-Cuesta, C Gómez-Acevedo
INTRODUCTION: Stroke is one of the leading causes of death in the world; its incidence is increasing due to increased life expectancy. However, treatment options for these patients are limited since no clinically effective drugs have been developed to date. DEVELOPMENT: According to clinical evidence, a number of neurochemical changes take place after stroke, including energy depletion, increased free radical synthesis, calcium accumulation, neurotransmitter imbalance, excitotoxicity, and, at a later stage, immune system activation leading to inflammation...
October 21, 2016: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
L Le Normand, M Cosson, F Cour, X Deffieux, L Donon, P Ferry, B Fatton, J-F Hermieu, H Marret, G Meurette, A Cortesse, L Wagner, X Fritel
OBJECTIVE: Develop guidelines for surgery for primary pelvic organ prolapse (POP). METHODS: Literature review, establishment of levels of evidence, external review, and grading of recommendations by 5 French academic societies: Association Française d'Urologie, Collège National des Gynécologues et Obstétriciens Français, Société Interdisciplinaire d'Urodynamique et de Pelvi-Périnéologie, Société Nationale Française de Colo-proctologie, and Société de Chirurgie Gynécologique et Pelvienne...
October 21, 2016: Journal de Gynécologie, Obstétrique et Biologie de la Reproduction
Andrea Barsevick
OBJECTIVES: To examine the evolution of the concept of the symptom cluster through literature synthesis and identify knowledge gaps. DATA SOURCES: Published literature. CONCLUSION: A robust body of research has developed showing that clusters of symptoms can be identified empirically with modest evidence of convergence across methods. The science would benefit from a coordinated effort of qualitative studies to ensure that appropriate symptoms are evaluated; empirical symptom cluster identification studies building upon qualitative work; and subgroup identification studies based on empirically defined symptom clusters...
October 21, 2016: Seminars in Oncology Nursing
S D Shenkin, M G Zhang, G Der, S Mathur, T H Mina, R M Reynolds
Low birth weight is associated with adverse health outcomes. If birth weight records are not available, studies may use recalled birth weight. It is unclear whether this is reliable. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies comparing recalled with recorded birth weights. We followed the Meta-Analyses of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) statement and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) to May 2015...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
Slavica Stankic, Sneha Suman, Francia Haque, Jasmina Vidic
Th antibacterial activity of metal oxide nanoparticles has received marked global attention as they can be specifically synthesized to exhibit significant toxicity to bacteria. The importance of their application as antibacterial agents is evident keeping in mind the limited range and effectiveness of antibiotics, on one hand, and the plethora of metal oxides, on the other, along with the propensity of nanoparticles to induce resistance being much lower than that of antibiotics. Effective inhibition against a wide range of bacteria is well known for several nano oxides consisting of one metal (Fe3O4, TiO2, CuO, ZnO), whereas, research in the field of multi-metal oxides still demands extensive exploration...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
Félix Javier Jiménez-Jiménez, Hortensia Alonso-Navarro, María Trinidad Herrero, Elena García-Martín, José A G Agúndez
BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) is not fully understood. Together with some important physiological functions in the Central Nervous System (CNS), nitric oxide (NO) can have both, neuroprotective or neurotoxic actions, depending on its redox state. An important body of evidence suggests the involvement of NO in many of the processes leading to neurodegeneration in several neurological disorders including PD. OBJECTIVE: The main aim of this review is to update the data regarding the possible involvement of NO in the pathogenesis of PD...
2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Shun Wang, Zhe Dong, Shen Li, Haotian Yin, Zhifu Zhao, Dongmei Gao, Guimin Ren, Xuexiang Bao
Tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) was stained in the central nervous system of the Neanthes japonica (Polychaeta, Annelida), using sheep anti-tryptophan hydroxylase antibody by the Streptavidin-Peroxidase immunohistochemical method and Colophony-Paraffin embedded section technique. The immunohistochemistry results revealed that the TPH is distributed in the brain and ventral nerve cord, which is consistent with that of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) that labeled by anti-serotonin antibody. Using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technique, TPH cDNA cloned from Neanthes japonica's central nervous system was 1778bp, which encodes predicted protein of 463 amino acid residues...
October 24, 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Maura Marinozzi, Fabrizio Pertusati, Michaela Serpi
The compounds characterized by the presence of a λ(5)-phosphorus functionality at the α-position with respect to the diazo moiety, here referred to as λ(5)-phosphorus-containing α-diazo compounds (PCDCs), represent a vast class of extremely versatile reagents in organic chemistry and are particularly useful in the preparation of phosphonate- and phosphinoxide-functionalized molecules. Indeed, thanks to the high reactivity of the diazo moiety, PCDCs can be induced to undergo a wide variety of chemical transformations...
October 24, 2016: Chemical Reviews
Jason M Law, Sebastian C Stark, Ke Liu, Norah E Liang, Mahmud M Hussain, Matthias Leiendecker, Daisuke Ito, Oscar Verho, Andrew M Stern, Stephen E Johnston, Yan-Ling Zhang, Gavin P Dunn, Alykhan F Shamji, Stuart L Schreiber
Evidence suggests that specific mutations of isocitrate dehydrogenases 1 and 2 (IDH1/2) are critical for the initiation and maintenance of certain tumor types and that inhibiting these mutant enzymes with small molecules may be therapeutically beneficial. In order to discover mutant allele-selective IDH1 inhibitors with chemical features distinct from existing probes, we screened a collection of small molecules derived from diversity-oriented synthesis. The assay identified compounds that inhibit the IDH1-R132H mutant allele commonly found in glioma...
October 13, 2016: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
M Venkataravanappa, H Nagabhushana, B Daruka Prasad, G P Darshan, R B Basavaraj, G R Vijayakumar
A novel Sr2SiO4:Eu (1-5mol %) superstructures (SS) were synthesized using bio-sacrificial A.V. gel assisted ultrasound method. Powder X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the presence of both α and β phase formation. It was evident that the morphological growth was highly reliant on A.V. gel concentration, sonication time, pH and sonication power. The formation mechanisms for different hierarchical SS were proposed. From diffuse reflectance spectra, the energy band gap was estimated and found to be ∼4.70-5...
January 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
R B Basavaraj, H Nagabhushana, B Daruka Prasad, G R Vijayakumar
The cationic surfactants assisted ultrasound route was used to prepare Dy(3+) doped Zn2SiO4 nanophosphors. The final products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), ultraviolet visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and photoluminescence. Orthorhombic phase of Zn2SiO4:Dy(3+) (JCPDS card No. 35-1485) was confirmed from PXRD. It was evident that the morphology of spherical and broom like structures were obtained with epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactants respectively...
January 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Zhong-Hua Li, Dong-Xiao Yang, Peng-Fei Geng, Ji Zhang, Hao-Ming Wei, Biao Hu, Qian Guo, Xin-Hui Zhang, Wen-Ge Guo, Bing Zhao, Bin Yu, Li-Ying Ma, Hong-Min Liu
A series of [1,2,3]triazolo[4,5-d]pyrimidine derivatives bearing a hydrazone moiety were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their antiproliferative activity against several cancer cell lines of different origins by MTT assay. Most of the synthesized compounds demonstrated moderate to good activity against the cancer cell lines selected. Especially, compound 43 showed the most potent antiproliferative activity as well as good selectivity between cancer and normal cells (IC50 values of 0.85 μM against MGC-803 and 56...
October 14, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Vincenzo Amendola, Stefano Scaramuzza, Francesco Carraro, Elti Cattaruzza
Laser ablation in liquids (LAL) emerged as a powerful technique for the synthesis of multielement nanoparticles (NPs) such as metal alloys with thermodynamically forbidden composition. Consequently, there is a great interest in expanding the current knowledge about NPs formation during LAL, in order to improve the control on product structure and to extend the range of compositions accessible by this technique. Here we performed a systematic investigation on alloy NPs formation by nanosecond LAL of Au/Fe/glass multilayers with different thickness and order of deposition...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Hossein E Jazayeri, Mohammadreza Tahriri, Mehdi Razavi, Kimia Khoshroo, Farahnaz Fahimipour, Erfan Dashtimoghadam, Luis Almeida, Lobat Tayebi
Tissue regeneration is rapidly evolving to treat anomalies in the entire human body. The production of biodegradable, customizable scaffolds to achieve this clinical aim is dependent on the interdisciplinary collaboration among clinicians, bioengineers and materials scientists. While bone grafts and varying reconstructive procedures have been traditionally used for maxillofacial defects, the goal of this review is to provide insight on all materials involved in the progressing utilization of the tissue engineering approach to yield successful treatment outcomes for both hard and soft tissues...
January 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Tim Stokes, Elizabeth J Shaw, Janette Camosso-Stefinovic, Mari Imamura, Lovney Kanguru, Julia Hussein
BACKGROUND: Maternal mortality remains a major international health problem in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), and most could have been prevented by quality improvement interventions already demonstrated to be effective, such as clinical guideline implementation strategies. The aim of this systematic review was to synthesise qualitative evidence on guideline implementation strategies to improve obstetric care practice in LMIC in order to identify barriers and enablers to their successful implementation...
October 22, 2016: Implementation Science: IS
Mark Hedglin, Binod Pandey, Stephen J Benkovic
Translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) during S-phase uses specialized TLS DNA polymerases to replicate a DNA lesion, allowing stringent DNA synthesis to resume beyond the offending damage. Human TLS involves the conjugation of ubiquitin to PCNA clamps encircling damaged DNA and the role of this post-translational modification is under scrutiny. A widely-accepted model purports that ubiquitinated PCNA recruits TLS polymerases such as pol η to sites of DNA damage where they may also displace a blocked replicative polymerase...
October 22, 2016: ELife
Bahtijor Rasulov, Eero Talts, Ulo Niinemets
Plant isoprene emissions respond to light and temperature similarly to photosynthesis, but CO2-dependencies of isoprene emission and photosynthesis are profoundly different with photosynthesis increasing and isoprene emissions decreasing with increasing CO2 concentration due to reasons not yet understood. We studied isoprene emission, net assimilation rate and chlorophyll fluorescence under different CO2 and O2 concentrations in the strong isoprene emitter hybrid aspen (Populus tremula x P. tremuloides), and used rapid changes in ambient CO2 or O2 concentrations or light level to induce oscillations...
October 21, 2016: Plant Physiology
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