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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927245/calcium-homeostasis-in-diabetes-mellitus
#1
REVIEW
Changhwan Ahn, Ji-Houn Kang, Eui-Bae Jeung
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is becoming a lifestyle-related pandemic disease. Diabetic patients frequently develop electrolyte disorders, especially diabetic ketoacidosis or nonketotic hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome. Such patients show characteristic potassium, magnesium, phosphate, and calcium depletion. In this review, we discuss a homeostatic mechanism that links calcium and DM. We also provide a synthesis of the evidence in favor or against this linking mechanism by presenting recent clinical indications, mainly from veterinary research...
September 30, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926763/synthesis-and-2d-qsar-studies-of-neolignan-based-diaryl-tetrahydrofuran-and-furan-analogues-with-remarkable-activity-against-trypanosoma-cruzi-and-assessment-of-the-trypanothione-reductase-activity
#2
Ana Paula Hartmann, Marcelo Rodrigues de Carvalho, Lilian Sibelle Campos Bernardes, Milena Hoehr de Moraes, Eduardo Borges de Melo, Carla Duque Lopes, Mario Steindel, João Santana da Silva, Ivone Carvalho
Two series of diaryl-tetrahydrofuran and -furan were synthesised and screened for anti-trypanosomal activity against trypomastigote and amastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. Based on evidence that modification of a natural product may result in a more effective drug than the natural product itself, and using known neolignan inhibitors veraguensin 1 and grandisin 2 as templates to synthesise simpler analogues, remarkable anti-trypanosomal activity and selectivity were found for 3,5-dimethoxylated diaryl-furan 5c and 2,4-dimethoxylated diaryl-tetrahydrofuran 4e analogues with EC50 0...
September 4, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926705/a-low-temperature-transition-metal-free-cross-dehydrogenative-coupling-protocol-for-the-synthesis-of-3-3-disubstituted-oxindoles
#3
James R Donald, Richard John Kenneth Taylor, Wade F Petersen
A new low-temperature procedure for the synthesis of 3,3-disubstituted 2-oxindoles via cross dehydrogenative coupling (CDC) is reported. The use of a strong, non-reversible base in these reactions has been found to effect a dramatic drop in reaction temperature (to room temperature) relative to the current state-of-the-art (>100 °C). When employing iodine as an 'oxidant', new evidence suggests that this transformation may occur via a transiently stable iodinated intermediate rather than by direct single-electron oxidation...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926194/inverse-response-of-osteoblasts-and-fibroblasts-to-growth-on-carbon-deposited-titanium-surfaces
#4
Chie Yoshihara, Takeshi Ueno, Peng Chen, Yusuke Tsutsumi, Takao Hanawa, Noriyuki Wakabayashi
Titanium implant surfaces may serve as attachment substrates for various cell types. Since carbon adsorption on titanium is inevitable, this study examined the negative/positive biological reaction of osteoblasts and fibroblasts on carbon-deposited titanium surfaces. Osteogenic MC3T3-E1 and fibrogenic NIH/3T3 cells were separately cultured on titanium disks on which carbon deposition was experimentally regulated to achieve titanium/carbon ratios of 6.5, 0.02, 0.005, and 0. The initial attachment of cells demonstrated that the quantity of attached osteoblasts on Ti/C (0...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926039/tuning-linkage-isomerism-and-magnetic-properties-of-bi-and-tri-metallic-cage-silsesquioxanes-by-cation-and-solvent-effects
#5
Alexey N Bilyachenko, Alexander A Korlyukov, Anna V Vologzhanina, Victor N Khrustalev, Alena N Kulakova, Jérôme Long, Joulia Larionova, Yannick Guari, Marina S Dronova, Ulyana S Tsareva, Pavel V Dorovatovskii, Elena S Shubina, Mikhail M Levitsky
Herein, the effect of replacement of the surrounding solvent and/or the partial substitution of sodium ions in the cage-like copper, sodium phenylsilsesquioxane [(PhSiO1.5)12(CuO)4(NaO0.5)4(n-BuOH)6] 1 with a globular structure was investigated; the synthesis of ten new derivatives of complex 1 was performed, and their crystal structures were determined. Solvate replacement of n-butanol in 1 with dimethyl sulfoxide, acetonitrile, 1,4-dioxane/EtOH, and 1,4-dioxane/PhCN afforded the complexes [(PhSiO1.5)12(CuO)4(NaO0...
September 19, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924227/implication-of-the-glutamate-cystine-antiporter-xct-in-schizophrenia-cases-linked-to-impaired-gsh-synthesis
#6
M Fournier, A Monin, C Ferrari, P S Baumann, P Conus, K Do
xCT is the specific chain of the cystine/glutamate antiporter, which is widely reported to support anti-oxidant defenses in vivo. xCT is therefore at the crossroads between two processes that are involved in schizophrenia: oxidative stress and glutamatergic neurotransmission. But data from human studies implicating xCT in the illness and clarifying the upstream mechanisms of xCT imbalance are still scarce. Low glutathione (GSH) levels and genetic risk in GCLC (Glutamate-Cysteine Ligase Catalytic subunit), the gene of limiting synthesizing enzyme for GSH, are both associated with schizophrenia...
September 18, 2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924058/localization-of-cdc7-protein-kinase-during-dna-replication-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#7
Daniel Rossbach, D Suzi Bryan, Jay R Hesselberth, Robert Sclafani
DDK, a conserved serine-threonine protein kinase composed of a regulatory subunit, Dbf4, and a catalytic subunit, Cdc7, is essential for DNA replication initiation during S phase of the cell cycle through MCM2-7 helicase phosphorylation. The biological significance of DDK is well characterized, but the full mechanism of how DDK associates with substrates remains unclear. Cdc7 is bound to chromatin in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome throughout the cell cycle, but there is little empirical evidence as to specific Cdc7 binding locations...
September 18, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923365/mitochondrial-dynamics-at-the-interface-of-immune-cell-metabolism-and-function
#8
REVIEW
Angelika S Rambold, Erika L Pearce
Immune cell differentiation and function are crucially dependent on specific metabolic programs dictated by mitochondria, including the generation of ATP from the oxidation of nutrients and supplying precursors for the synthesis of macromolecules and post-translational modifications. The many processes that occur in mitochondria are intimately linked to their morphology that is shaped by opposing fusion and fission events. Exciting evidence is now emerging that demonstrates reciprocal crosstalk between mitochondrial dynamics and metabolism...
September 8, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923162/food-and-nutrition-programs-for-aboriginal-and-torres-strait-islander-australians-an-overview-of-systematic-reviews
#9
Jennifer Browne, Karen Adams, Petah Atkinson, Deborah Gleeson, Rick Hayes
Objective To provide an overview of previous reviews of programs that aimed to improve nutritional status or diet-related health outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, in order to determine what programs are effective and why.Methods A systematic search of databases and relevant websites was undertaken to identify reviews of nutrition interventions for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians. Pairs of reviewers undertook study selection and data extraction and performed quality assessment using a validated tool...
September 19, 2017: Australian Health Review: a Publication of the Australian Hospital Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922354/reconstructing-promoter-activity-from-lux-bioluminescent-reporters
#10
Mudassar Iqbal, Neil Doherty, Anna M L Page, Saara N A Qazi, Ishan Ajmera, Peter A Lund, Theodore Kypraios, David J Scott, Philip J Hill, Dov J Stekel
The bacterial Lux system is used as a gene expression reporter. It is fast, sensitive and non-destructive, enabling high frequency measurements. Originally developed for bacterial cells, it has also been adapted for eukaryotic cells, and can be used for whole cell biosensors, or in real time with live animals without the need for euthanasia. However, correct interpretation of bioluminescent data is limited: the bioluminescence is different from gene expression because of nonlinear molecular and enzyme dynamics of the Lux system...
September 18, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920682/carboxylate-assisted-formation-of-aryl-co-iii-masked-carbenes-in-cobalt-catalyzed-c-h-functionalization-with-diazo-esters
#11
Oriol Planas, Steven Roldán-Gómez, Vlad Martin-Diaconescu, Teodor Parella, Josep M Luis, Anna Company, Xavi Ribas
Herein we describe the synthesis of a family of aryl-Co(III)-carboxylate complexes and their reactivity with ethyl diazoacetate (EDA). Crystallographic, full spectroscopic characterization and theoretical evidence of unique C-metalated aryl-Co(III) enolate intermediates is provided, unraveling a carboxylate-assisted formation of aryl-Co(III) masked-carbenes. Moreover, additional evidence for an unprecedented Co(III)-mediated intramolecular SN2-type C-C bond formation in which the carboxylate moiety acts as a relay is disclosed...
September 18, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920448/assessing-the-impact-of-headaches-and-the-outcomes-of-treatment-a-systematic-review-of-patient-reported-outcome-measures-proms
#12
Kirstie L Haywood, Tom S Mars, Rachel Potter, Shilpa Patel, Manjit Matharu, Martin Underwood
Aims To critically appraise, compare and synthesise the quality and acceptability of multi-item patient reported outcome measures for adults with chronic or episodic headache. Methods Systematic literature searches of major databases (1980-2016) to identify published evidence of PROM measurement and practical properties. Data on study quality (COSMIN), measurement and practical properties per measure were extracted and assessed against accepted standards to inform an evidence synthesis. Results From 10,903 reviewed abstracts, 103 articles were assessed in full; 46 provided evidence for 23 PROMs: Eleven specific to the health-related impact of migraine (n = 5) or headache (n = 6); six assessed migraine-specific treatment response/satisfaction; six were generic measures...
January 1, 2017: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919844/practical-nutritional-recovery-strategies-for-elite-soccer-players-when-limited-time-separates-repeated-matches
#13
REVIEW
Mayur Krachna Ranchordas, Joel T Dawson, Mark Russell
Specific guidelines that aim to facilitate the recovery of soccer players from the demands of training and a congested fixture schedule are lacking; especially in relation to evidence-based nutritional recommendations. The importance of repeated high level performance and injury avoidance while addressing the challenges of fixture scheduling, travel to away venues, and training commitments requires a strategic and practically feasible method of implementing specific nutritional strategies. Here we present evidence-based guidelines regarding nutritional recovery strategies within the context of soccer...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919842/international-society-of-sports-nutrition-position-stand-nutrient-timing
#14
REVIEW
Chad M Kerksick, Shawn Arent, Brad J Schoenfeld, Jeffrey R Stout, Bill Campbell, Colin D Wilborn, Lem Taylor, Doug Kalman, Abbie E Smith-Ryan, Richard B Kreider, Darryn Willoughby, Paul J Arciero, Trisha A VanDusseldorp, Michael J Ormsbee, Robert Wildman, Mike Greenwood, Tim N Ziegenfuss, Alan A Aragon, Jose Antonio
The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) provides an objective and critical review regarding the timing of macronutrients in reference to healthy, exercising adults and in particular highly trained individuals on exercise performance and body composition. The following points summarize the position of the ISSN:Nutrient timing incorporates the use of methodical planning and eating of whole foods, fortified foods and dietary supplements. The timing of energy intake and the ratio of certain ingested macronutrients may enhance recovery and tissue repair, augment muscle protein synthesis (MPS), and improve mood states following high-volume or intense exercise...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919376/microrna-218-5p-as-a-potential-target-for-the-treatment-of-human-osteoarthritis
#15
Jun Lu, Ming-Liang Ji, Xue-Jun Zhang, Pei-Liang Shi, Hao Wu, Chen Wang, Hee-Jeong Im
Emerging evidence suggests that dysregulated microRNAs (miRNAs) play a pivotal role in osteoarthritis (OA), but the role of specific miRNAs remains unclear. Accordingly, we identified OA-associated miRNAs and functional validation of results. Here, we demonstrate that miR-218-5p is significantly upregulated in moderate and severe OA and correlates with scores on a modified Mankin scale. Through gain-of-function and loss-of-function studies, miR-218-5p was shown to significantly affect matrix synthesis gene expression and chondrocyte proliferation and apoptosis...
August 19, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918954/contemporary-management-of-vesicoureteral-reflux
#16
REVIEW
Perviz Hajiyev, Berk Burgu
CONTEXT: Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) remains the most interesting topic of pediatric urology due to the dynamic nature of recent controversial publications. Starting from the need for a diagnosis to the necessity and effectiveness of treatment in preventing scars, VUR remains in the mist. Although recent strong evidence helped as fog lights in this blurriness, more data are required for achieving crystal clearance. This article aims to summarize and discuss the current state of the evidence regarding VUR management...
September 11, 2017: European Urology Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918315/does-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-for-insomnia-improve-cognitive-performance-a-systematic-review-and-narrative-synthesis
#17
REVIEW
Vanessa Herbert, Simon D Kyle, Daniel Pratt
Individuals with insomnia report difficulties pertaining to their cognitive functioning. Cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) is associated with robust, long-term improvements in sleep parameters, however less is known about the impact of CBT-I on the daytime correlates of the disorder. A systematic review and narrative synthesis was conducted in order to summarise and evaluate the evidence regarding the impact of CBT-I on cognitive functioning. Reference databases were searched and studies were included if they assessed cognitive performance as an outcome of CBT-I, using either self-report questionnaires or cognitive tests...
July 12, 2017: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918301/mathematical-fundamentals-for-the-noise-immunity-of-the-genetic-code
#18
Elena Fimmel, Lutz Strüngmann
Symmetry is one of the essential and most visible patterns that can be seen in nature. Starting from the left-right symmetry of the human body, all types of symmetry can be found in crystals, plants, animals and nature as a whole. Similarly, principals of symmetry are also some of the fundamental and most useful tools in modern mathematical natural science that play a major role in theory and applications. As a consequence, it is not surprising that the desire to understand the origin of life, based on the genetic code, forces us to involve symmetry as a mathematical concept...
September 13, 2017: Bio Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917952/identification-of-potential-allosteric-communication-pathways-between-functional-sites-of-the-bacterial-ribosome-by-graph-and-elastic-network-models
#19
Pelin Guzel, Ozge Kurkcuoglu
BACKGROUND: Accumulated evidence indicates that bacterial ribosome employs allostery throughout its structure for protein synthesis. The nature of the allosteric communication between remote functional sites remains unclear, but the contact topology and dynamics of residues may play role in transmission of a perturbation to distant sites. METHODS/RESULTS: We employ two computationally efficient approaches - graph and elastic network modeling to gain insights about the allosteric communication in ribosome...
September 13, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917819/seabirds-and-marine-plastic-debris-in-the-northeastern-atlantic-a-synthesis-and-recommendations-for-monitoring-and-research
#20
REVIEW
Nina J O'Hanlon, Neil A James, Elizabeth A Masden, Alexander L Bond
Marine plastic pollution is an increasing, and global, environmental issue. Numerous marine species are affected by plastic debris through entanglement, nest incorporation, and ingestion, which can lead to lethal and sub-lethal impacts. However, in the northeastern Atlantic Ocean, an area of international importance for seabirds, there has been little effort to date to assess information from studies of wildlife and plastic to better understand the spatiotemporal variation of how marine plastic affects different seabird species...
September 13, 2017: Environmental Pollution
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