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Evidence synthesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356298/heterozygosis-in-aromatic-amino-acid-decarboxylase-deficiency-evidence-for-a-positive-interallelic-complementation-between-r347q-and-r358h-mutations
#1
Riccardo Montioli, Giacomo Janson, Alessandro Paiardini, Mariarita Bertoldi, Carla Borri Voltattorni
Aromatic amino acid or Dopa decarboxylase (AADC or DDC) is a homodimeric pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) enzyme responsible for the generation of the neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin. AADC deficiency is a rare inborn disease caused by mutations of the AADC gene leading to a defect of AADC enzyme and resulting in impaired dopamine and serotonin synthesis. Until now, only the molecular effects of homozygous mutations were analyzed. However, although heterozygous carriers of AADC deficiency were identified, the molecular aspects of their enzymatic phenotypes are not yet investigated...
January 22, 2018: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355583/involvement-of-cystatin-c-in-immunity-and-apoptosis
#2
REVIEW
Mengting Zi, Yuekang Xu
As an abundantly expressed cysteine protease inhibitor widely distributed in the organisms, cystatin C is involved in various physiological processes. Due to its relatively small molecular weight and easy detection, cystatin C is commonly used as a measure for glomerular filtration rate. In pathological conditions, however, growing evidences suggest that cystatin C is associated with various immune responses against either exogenous or endogenous antigens, which ultimately result in inflammatory autoimmune diseases or tumor development if not properly controlled...
January 17, 2018: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355552/maternal-hypertension-and-feto-placental-growth-restriction-is-reversed-by-sildenafil-evidence-of-independent-effects-of-circulating-nitric-oxide-levels
#3
Victor Hugo Gonçalves-Rizzi, José Sérgio Possomato-Vieira, Regina Aparecida Nascimento, Mayara Caldeira-Dias, Carlos Alan Dias-Junior
Sildenafil has shown nitric oxide (NO)-independent pleiotropic effects, however the mechanisms involved are unclear. We investigated the protective effects of sildenafil against hypertension in pregnancy and feto-placental growth restriction induced by NO inhibition, and if sodium nitrite-derived NO formation influences sildenafil effects. We evaluated the plasmatic levels of NO metabolites, cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), oxidative stress and myeloperoxidase, which are involved in endothelial dysfunction during hypertension in pregnancy...
January 17, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355024/the-transition-of-adolescents-with-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis-or-epilepsy-from-paediatric-health-care-services-to-adult-health-care-services-a-scoping-review-of-the-literature-and-a-synthesis-of-the-evidence
#4
Lauren Burke, Jamie Kirkham, Janine Arnott, Victoria Gray, Matthew Peak, Michael W Beresford
Young people with long-term health conditions (LTCs) can face challenges when making the transition to adult health services. This paper sought to identify studies that assess and explore transitional care for young people with LTCs. Two conditions were used as exemplars: juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and epilepsy. A scoping review of the literature was conducted by using search terms to search for papers in English between 2001 and 2016 concerning transitional care on four databases. Qualitative papers were reviewed and synthesized using thematic analysis...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Child Health Care: for Professionals Working with Children in the Hospital and Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354840/electrochemical-processes-on-solid-shaped-nanoparticles-with-defined-facets
#5
REVIEW
Peter Strasser, Manuel Gliech, Stefanie Kuehl, Tim Moeller
This 2007 Chemistry Nobel prize update covers scientific advances of the past decade in our understanding of electrocatalytic processes on surfaces of nanoscale shape-controlled polyhedral solids. It is argued that the field of chemical reaction processes on solid surfaces has recently been paying increasing attention to the fundamental understanding of electrified solid-liquid interfaces and toward the operando study of the minute fraction of catalytically active, structurally dynamic non-equilibrium Taylor-type surface sites...
January 22, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354330/synthesis-biological-evaluation-and-modeling-studies-of-new-pyrido-3-4-b-indole-derivatives-as-broad-spectrum-potent-anticancer-agents
#6
Shivaputra A Patil, James K Addo, Hemantkumar Deokar, Shan Sun, Jin Wang, Wei Li, D Parker Suttle, Wei Wang, Ruiwen Zhang, John K Buolamwini
Objective: There is an urgent need drugs against particularly difficult to treat solid tumors such as pancreatic, triple negative breast, lung, colon, metastatic prostate cancers and melanoma. Thus, the objective of this study was to synthesize compounds based computational modeling that indicated the pyrido[3,4-b]indole class bind to MDM2, a new cancer target for which there are still no drug on the market. Methods: Compounds were synthesized by established methods and tested for antiproliferative activity against a broad range of human cancer cell lines, comprising HCT116 colon, HPAC, MIA PaCa-2 and Panc-1 pancreatic, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-468 breast, A375 and WM164 melanoma, A549 lung, and LNCaP, DU145 and PC3 prostate cancer lines...
March 2017: Drug Designing: Open Access
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353227/the-natural-history-of-phytosterolemia-observations-on-its-homeostasis
#7
David Mymin, Gerald Salen, Barbara Triggs-Raine, Darrel J Waggoner, Thomas Dembinski, Grant M Hatch
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Phytosterolemia is a rare genetic disease caused by mutation of the ABCG5/8 gene. Our aim was to elucidate the natural history and homeostasis of phytosterolemia. METHODS: We analyzed a Hutterite kindred consisting of 21 homozygotes with phytosterolemia assembled over a period of two decades, all of whom carried the ABCG8 S107X mutation and were treated with ezetimibe. RESULTS: Most of these subjects were asymptomatic and devoid of clinical stigmata, and this, since they were ascertained primarily by a process of cascade testing, suggests that, relative to its true prevalence, phytosterolemia is a condition of low morbidity...
December 28, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352594/systematic-review-of-uterine-artery-embolisation-practice-guidelines-are-all-the-guidelines-on-the-same-page
#8
H T Chen, S Athreya
AIM: To evaluate the degree of concordance amongst the currently available guidelines informing the use of uterine artery embolisation (UAE), and identify any inconsistencies present. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Standards of practice and quality improvement guidelines were retrieved through a search of PubMed and EMBASE. Additional sets of guidelines were retrieved directly from the websites of known obstetrics and gynaecology and radiological associations. RESULTS: Eleven guidelines were retrieved from organisations located in Europe, North America, and Australia...
January 15, 2018: Clinical Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352295/correction-stakeholders-views-and-experiences-of-care-and-interventions-for-addressing-frailty-and-pre-frailty-a-meta-synthesis-of-qualitative-evidence
#9
Barbara D'Avanzo, Rachel Shaw, Silvia Riva, Joao Apostolo, Elzbieta Bobrowicz-Campos, Donata Kurpas, Maria Bujnowska-Fedak, Carol Holland
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0180127.].
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351412/expression-of-ctgf-ccn2-in-response-to-lpa-is-stimulated-by-fibrotic-extracellular-matrix-via-the-integrin-fak-axis
#10
Camilo Riquelme-Guzman, Osvaldo Contreras, Enrique Brandan
Fibrosis is a common feature of several chronic diseases, and is characterized by exacerbated accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM). Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the development of this condition is crucial for designing efficient treatments for those pathologies. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) is a pleiotropic protein with strong pro-fibrotic activity. In this report, we present experimental evidence showing that ECM stimulates the synthesis of CTGF in response to lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)...
December 27, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351406/interleukin-6-promotes-a-sustained-loss-of-endothelial-barrier-function-via-janus-kinase-mediated-stat3-phosphorylation-and-de-novo-protein-synthesis
#11
Hiba Alsaffar, Nina Martino, Joshua P Garrett, Alejandro P Adam
Vascular leakage is a hallmark of the inflammatory response. Acute changes in endothelial permeability are due to post-translational changes in intercellular adhesion and cytoskeleton proteins. However, little is known about the mechanisms leading to long-term changes in vascular permeability. Here, we show that Interleukin-6 (IL-6) promotes an increase in endothelial monolayer permeability that lasts over 24 h and demonstrate that activation of Src and MEK/Erk pathways are required only for short-term increases in permeability, being dispensable after 2 h...
January 10, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350919/pair-distribution-function-analysis-of-structural-disorder-by-nb5-inclusion-in-ceria-evidence-for-enhanced-oxygen-storage-capacity-from-under-coordinated-oxide
#12
Craig Hiley, Helen Y Playford, Janet Fisher, Noelia Cortes Felix, David Thompsett, Reza J Kashtiban, Richard I Walton
Partial substitution of Ce4+ by Nb5+ is possible in CeO2 by co-inclusion of Na+ to balance the charge, via hydrothermal synthesis in sodium hydroxide solution. Pair distribution function analysis using reverse Monte Carlo refinement reveals that the small pentavalent substituent resides in irregular coordination positions in an average fluorite lattice, displaced away from the ideal cubic coordination towards four oxygens. This results in under-coordinated oxygen, which explains significantly enhanced oxygen storage capacity of the materials of relevance to redox catalysis used in energy and environmental applications...
January 19, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350565/safety-and-efficacy-of-denosumab-in-osteoporotic-patients-previously-treated-with-other-medications-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
Andreas Fontalis, Kenanidis Eustathios, Efthymia Prousali, Potoupnis Michael, Tsiridis Eleftherios
Denosumab is a monoclonal antibody that received approval by the FDA for the treatment of osteoporosis in 2010. Available higher level research evidence concerns the treatment of patients that have not received any anti-osteoporotic medication in the past. Further investigation is warranted, since clinicians often face the challenge of administering the most efficacious drug in patients, pretreated with other medications. Areas Covered: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy and safety of denosumab compared to other active anti-osteoporotic agents in patients formerly receiving other treatments...
January 19, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350476/investigating-the-mechanisms-underlying-phytoprotection-by-plant-growth-promoting-rhizobacteria-in-spartina-densiflora-under-metal-stress
#14
K Paredes-Páliz, R Rodríguez-Vázquez, B Duarte, M A Caviedes, E Mateos-Naranjo, S Redondo-Gómez, Isabel Caçador, Ignacio D Rodríguez-Llorente, E Pajuelo
Pollution of coasts by toxic metals and metalloids is a worldwide problem for which phytoremediation using halophytes and associated microbiomes is getting relevance. Metal(loid)s excess is a constraint for plant establishment and development, and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) mitigate plant stress under these conditions. However, mechanisms underlying this effect remain elusive. In this paper, the effect of toxic metal(loid)s on the activity of ROS-scavenging enzymes in roots of the halophyte Spartina densiflora grown on real polluted sediments in a green house experiment, was investigated...
January 19, 2018: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350417/hepatitis-c-virus-core-protein-induces-dysfunction-of-liver-sinusoidal-endothelial-cell-by-down-regulation-of-silent-information-regulator-1
#15
Li-Jie Sun, Jian-Wu Yu, Yu-Guang Shi, Xiao-Yu Zhang, Meng-Ni Shu, Mo-Yang Chen
Objective Hepatic fibrosis is a frequent feature of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Some evidence has suggested the potential role of silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) in organ fibrosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of HCV core protein on expression of SIRT1 of liver sinusoidal endothelial cell (LSEC) and function of LSEC. Methods LSECs were co-cultured with HepG2 cells or HepG2 cells expressing HCV core protein and LSECs cultured alone were used as controls. After co-culture, the activity and expression levels of mRNA and protein of SIRT1 in LSEC were detected by a SIRT1 fluorometric assay kit, real time-PCR (RT-PCR), Western blot, respectively...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350322/do-telehealth-interventions-improve-oral-anticoagulation-management-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
REVIEW
Munil Lee, Mei Wang, Jiayu Liu, Anne Holbrook
The benefits and harms of telehealth interventions compared to usual care for oral anticoagulation management are unclear. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to assess their impact on clinically important outcomes. A search was conducted through MEDLINE, EMBASE and CENTRAL databases, and the retrieved citations were independently screened and extracted by two review authors. Cochrane Collaboration-recommended tools were used to assess for risk of bias. Co-primary outcomes were major bleeding and major thromboembolic events...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349895/men-s-views-and-experiences-of-infant-feeding-a-qualitative-systematic-review
#17
Sarah Earle, Robin Hadley
Although the advantages of breastfeeding are well documented, rates for breastfeeding often fall short of international and national targets. Increasing attention has been paid to the role of men in infant feeding, but a lot of the research about men has been elicited from women, rather than from men themselves. To explore these issues further, a systematic review of the qualitative research on infant feeding was carried out, focusing specifically on men's own views and experiences. Evidence was identified by searching electronic databases (CINAL, Cochrane, PubMed, and Scopus), manually searching citations, and by searching the grey literature...
January 19, 2018: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349860/effects-of-maternal-anthropometrics-on-pregnancy-outcomes-in-south-asian-women-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
E Slack, J Rankin, D Jones, N Heslehurst
AIM: This systematic review investigates associations between maternal pre-pregnancy/early-pregnancy anthropometrics (e.g. weight and body fat), anthropometric change and pregnancy outcomes in South Asian and White women. METHODS: Twelve electronic literature databases, reference lists and citations of all included studies were searched. Observational studies published in the English language were included. Descriptive synthesis was used to summarize the evidence base...
January 19, 2018: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349792/meta-analysis-of-gaussian-individual-patient-data-two-stage-or-not-two-stage
#19
Tim P Morris, David J Fisher, Michael G Kenward, James R Carpenter
Quantitative evidence synthesis through meta-analysis is central to evidence-based medicine. For well-documented reasons, the meta-analysis of individual patient data is held in higher regard than aggregate data. With access to individual patient data, the analysis is not restricted to a "two-stage" approach (combining estimates and standard errors) but can estimate parameters of interest by fitting a single model to all of the data, a so-called "one-stage" analysis. There has been debate about the merits of one- and two-stage analysis...
January 18, 2018: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349599/evolution-of-eukaryal-and-archaeal-pseudouridine-synthase-pus10
#20
Elisabeth Fitzek, Archi Joardar, Ramesh Gupta, Matt Geisler
In archaea, pseudouridine (Ψ) synthase Pus10 modifies uridine (U) to Ψ at positions 54 and 55 of tRNA. In contrast, Pus10 is not found in bacteria, where modifications at those two positions are carried out by TrmA (U54 to m5U54) and TruB (U55 to Ψ55). Many eukaryotes have an apparent redundancy; their genomes contain orthologs of archaeal Pus10 and bacterial TrmA and TruB. Although eukaryal Pus10 genes share a conserved catalytic domain with archaeal Pus10 genes, their biological roles are not clear for the two reasons...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Molecular Evolution
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