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Pierre Billon, Eric E Bryant, Sarah A Joseph, Tarun S Nambiar, Samuel B Hayward, Rodney Rothstein, Alberto Ciccia
Standard CRISPR-mediated gene disruption strategies rely on Cas9-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Here, we show that CRISPR-dependent base editing efficiently inactivates genes by precisely converting four codons (CAA, CAG, CGA, and TGG) into STOP codons without DSB formation. To facilitate gene inactivation by induction of STOP codons (iSTOP), we provide access to a database of over 3.4 million single guide RNAs (sgRNAs) for iSTOP (sgSTOPs) targeting 97%-99% of genes in eight eukaryotic species, and we describe a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay that allows the rapid detection of iSTOP-mediated editing in cell populations and clones...
September 21, 2017: Molecular Cell
Cary J Blum, Lewis S Nelson, Robert S Hoffman
BACKGROUND: Prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs) have emerged as one tool to combat prescription drug misuse and diversion. New York State mandates that prescribers use its PDMP (called ISTOP) before prescribing controlled substances. We surveyed physicians to assess their experiences with mandatory PDMP use. METHODS: Electronic survey of attending physicians, from multiple clinical specialties, at one large urban academic medical center. RESULTS: Of 207 responding physicians, 89...
November 2016: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
Alan J Forster, Tobias E Erlanger, Alison Jennings, Claudine Auger, David Buckeridge, Carl van Walraven, Robyn Tamblyn
BACKGROUND: Medications are an effective intervention for managing and preventing health problems but their benefit can be undermined by non-adherence or adverse drug events (ADEs). Since these issues may be interconnected, efforts to improve non-adherence should also include reduction of ADEs. We have developed the ISTOP-ADE system (Information Systems-enabled Outreach for Preventing Adverse Drug Events), which enables timely monitoring and managing of ADEs. The objectives of this study are to determine whether the ISTOP-ADE system, compared to routine care, will reduce: a) the probability of discontinuing the use of prognosis-altering medications; b) the probability of a patient experiencing a severe ADE; c) the proportion of patients experiencing ADEs, preventable ADEs and ameliorable ADEs; and d) health services utilization...
January 8, 2015: Trials
Andreas Bornø, Gerrit van Hall
An important area within clinical functional metabolomics is in vivo amino acid metabolism and protein turnover measurements for which accurate amino acid concentrations and stable isotopically labeled amino acid enrichments are mandatory not the least when tissue metabolomics is determined. The present study describes a new sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry method quantifying 20 amino acids and their tracer(s) ([ring-(13)C6]/D5Phenylalanine) in human plasma and skeletal muscle specimens...
March 1, 2014: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Carlos Martínez Del Rio, Richard Anderson-Sprecher
Ecologists conduct isotopic incorporation experiments to determine the residence time of various stable isotopes in animal tissues. These experiments permit determining the time window through which isotopic ecologists perceive the course of diet changes, and therefore the scale of the inferences that we can make from isotopic data. Until recently, the results of these experiments were analyzed using first-order, one-compartment models. Cerling et al. (Oecologia 151:175-189, 2007) proposed an approach they named the reaction progress variable to: (1) determine how many compartments are needed to describe a pattern of istopic incorporation, and (2) to estimate the size and rate constant of each pool...
July 2008: Oecologia
L Sternberg, M J Deniro, J E Keeley
Isotope ratios of cellulose and cellulose nitrate from aquatic Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) and non-CAM plants were determined. Cellulose oxygen istope ratios for all plants that grew together were virtually identical, whereas large differences were observed for hydrogen isotope ratios of cellulose nitrate between CAM and non-CAM plants. Carbon isotope ratios of cellulose nitrate did not differentiate CAM from non-CAM plants.
September 1984: Plant Physiology
Enzo Lombi, Rebecca E Hamon, Steve P McGrath, Mike J McLaughlin
The use of soil amendments has been proposed as a low input alternative for the remediation of metal polluted soils. However, little information is available concerning the stability, and therefore the longevity, of the remediation treatments when important soil parameters change. In this paper we investigate the effect of pH changes on the lability of heavy metals in soils treated with lime, beringite, and red mud using a modified isotopic dilution technique in combination with a stepwise acidification procedure...
March 1, 2003: Environmental Science & Technology
Y Miyachi
Before the introduction of radioimmunoassay most hormones were measured by bioassay and/or chemical methods. The sensitivity of these methods was low, so large amounts of samples were needed to perform hormone determinations. In 1959, Berson and Yalow, first applied radioimmunoassay to the measurement of insulin, after which many protein hormones were determined by this method. Subsequently, radioimmunoassays were developed for small peptide molecules as well as for non-peptide hormones such as thyroid hormones and steroid hormones...
March 1994: Kaku Igaku. the Japanese Journal of Nuclear Medicine
A Vittadini, R Franchi, L L Barbieri
Isotope phlebography is performed using 99mTc as pertecnetate, macroaggregates of albumin (MAA) or microspheres of albumin (MISA). The isotope is injected at a dose of 6-10 mCi into the dorsal foot veins. The area studied begins at the knee and is followed successively by the groin, the iliac area and the region of the IVC. A pulmonary scan is performed when MAA or MISA are used. Our method has proven to be reliable in showing 1) thrombosis of the veins of the groin and iliac area, which appear as a 'non visualisation' of the venous tract, 2) delayed transit time of the isotope, 3) visualisation of the superficial circulation (changes and irrgularities)...
April 1980: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine
H Puchelt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1967: Archiv Für Physikalische Therapie
J F Dumon, M T Brouillet-Gabriel, M Leonardelli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
1967: Marseille Médical
J Wolf-Rogers, J A Weare, K Rice, E F Robertson, P Guidinger, O S Khalil, G Madsen
A chemiluminescent, microparticle-membrane capture immunoassay (CLIA/MMC) for the detection of antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) is described. The assay utilizes recombinant hepatitis B core antigen coupled to carboxylated latex microparticles. Human polyclonal IgG anti-HBc labelled with acridinium competes with antibody in the sample for a limited number of binding sites on the solid phase. After a 40 min incubation at 40 degrees C, the reaction mixture is transferred to a glass fiber capture membrane and washed...
October 19, 1990: Journal of Immunological Methods
G Belloni, C di Rocco, C Focacci, G Galli, G Maira, G F Rossi
Twenty two of fifty five patients initially suspected of suffering from normotensive hydrocephalus were surgically treated (CSF ventriculoatrial shunt). The results of surgery were related to the findings of the different diagnostic examinations (pneumoencephalography, isotope cisternography, transfer fron CSF to blood of isotope labelled serum albumin, constant infusion manometric test, long lasting intraventricular pressure recording). 1.Pneumoencephalography, intraventricular pressure recording, and, above all, isotope cisternography provided the most reliable data for diagnosis and surgical prognosis...
1976: Acta Neurochirurgica
L Klein, D T Reilly
Bone from rats sacrified at 2, 5, and 95 weeks of age following 45Ca and 3H-tetracycline labeling in utero or postnatally was placed in solutions of physiological saline, nonradioactive calcium, or tetracycline. This procedure was designed to determine the availability for exchange of 45Ca and 3H-tetracycline from bone mineral in vitro. With time after labeling a gradual decrease occurred in both the nonspecific loss and specific exchange of 45Ca and 3H-tetracycline. 45Ca and 3H-tetracycline in bone could be partially exchanged in vitro with their respective nonradioactive counterparts...
April 20, 1976: Calcified Tissue Research
L Klein, J M Zika
The increase of total collagen and its destruction were compared for whole calvaria and long bones from young growing rats prelabeled in utero with 3H-L-proline. Rats were compared from birth to 16 weeks of age. Long bones and calvaria were isolated as intact anatomical units for autoradiography or separated by collagenase into calified and uncalcified collagens. Autoradiography using 14C-L-proline demonstrated eccentric modeling of bone collagen. With growth the mass of calcified collagen (bone) increased rapidly in calvaria and long bones...
April 20, 1976: Calcified Tissue Research
F P Retief, A du Heyns, M Oosthuizen, O R van Reenen
After 14C-methyl folate (14C-MeTHF) was taken by mouth, progressive incorporation of this istope into the dialysis-resistant plasma folate fraction occurred. At 6 hours 68,9% of the total plasma radioactive folate was dialysis-resistant. We have previously shown that 14C-folic acid (14C-PGA) taken by mouth is not similarly bound at 6 hours. Chromatography of plasma on DEA A50 after 14C-PGA absorption, showed that PGA in plasma (peak 1) was gradually converted to MeTHF (peak 2) and the absence of bound radiofolate 6 hours after 14C-PGA ingestion probably reflects this conversion phase...
February 14, 1976: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
J L Chiasson, J E Liljenquist, B C Sinclair-Smith, W W Lacy
Although the stimulatory effect of glucagon on gluconeogenesis has been well demonstrated in certain systems in vitro, this effect has never been established in man. The present study was undertaken, therefore, to determine whether glucagon could stimulate gluconeogenesis from alanine in normal fasting man. Glucagon might stimulate this process by increasing the hepatic alanine uptake and/or by shunting the extracted alanine within the liver into the gluconeogenic pathway. In order to be able to examine these two aspects of gluconeogenesis, we combined the hepatic vein-brachial artery catheterization technic with an istopic infusion of alanine-14C...
June 1975: Diabetes
J P Bolton, V J Hoffman
The doppler ultrasound probe was used to study 138 patients after major surgery to assess the incidence of iliofemoral thrombosis in the early postoperative period. The patients were simultaneously studied with the 125-I-fibrinogen uptake test. The accuracy of the ultrasonic technique was assessed concurrently by comparing its results with those of ascending phlebography in a separate group of patients. The ultrasound probe detected thrombus proximal to the calf but was inaccurate in locating its exact site...
February 1, 1975: British Medical Journal (1857-1980)
F Hefti, W Lichtensteiger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1976: Journal of Neurochemistry
J R Jasmin, C Brocheriou, B Klein, M Morin, F Smadja-Joffe, P Cernea, C Jasmin
A colloidal suspension of radioactive cerium stabilized in the form of hydroxide was inoculated into young Sprague-Dawley rats near the maxillary sinus. Well-differentiated epidermoid carcinomas of the paranasal sinus were obtained in 8 of 12 rats and in 8 of 9 animals that liver more then 200 days. Therefore, this istope was highly effectivein inducing tumors at the site of injection. The uniformity of the histologic type of tumors induced under these experimental conditions was remarkable.
February 1977: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
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