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Influenza hemagglutinin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902910/recombinant-hemagglutinin-of-avian-influenza-virus-h5-expressed-in-the-chloroplast-of-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii-and-evaluation-of-its-immunogenicity-in-chickens
#1
Inkar Castellanos-Huerta, Bernardo Bañuelos-Hernández, Guillermo Téllez, Sergio Rosales-Mendoza, Luis G Brieba, Elizabeth Esquivel-Ramos, Josué I Beltrán-López, Gilberto Velazquez, Isidro Fernandez-Siurob
Globally, avian influenza (AI) is a serious problem in poultry farming. Despite vaccination, the prevalence of AI in México highlights the need for new approaches to control AI and to reduce the economic losses associated with its occurrence in susceptible birds. Recombinant proteins from avian influenza virus (AIV) have been expressed in different organisms, such as plants. The present study investigated the feasibility of designing and expressing the HA protein of AIV in the transplastomic microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a novel approach for AIV control and taking advantage of culture conditions, its reproductive range, and safe use in consideration of the generally regarded as safe food ingredient regulatory classification...
December 2016: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902339/progressive-glycosylation-of-the-hemagglutinin-of-avian-influenza-h5n1-modulates-virus-replication-virulence-and-chicken-to-chicken-transmission-without-significant-impact-on-antigenic-drift
#2
El-Sayed M Abdelwhab, Jutta Veits, Kerstin Tauscher, Mario Ziller, Christian Grund, Mohamed K Hassan, Momtaz Shaheen, Timm C Harder, Jens P Teifke, Jürgen Stech, Thomas C Mettenleiter
Highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus (A/H5N1) devastated the poultry industry and continues to pose a pandemic threat. Studying the progressive genetic changes in A/H5N1 after long term circulation in poultry may help to better understand A/H5N1 biology in birds. A/H5N1 clade 2.2.1.1 antigenic drift viruses have been isolated from vaccinated commercial poultry in Egypt. They exhibit a peculiar stepwise accumulation of glycosylation sites (GS) in the hemagglutinin (HA) with viruses carrying, beyond the conserved 5 GS, additional GS at amino acid residues 72, 154, 236 and 273 resulting in 6, 7, 8 or 9 GS in the HA...
October 28, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899915/novel-h7n2-and-h5n6-avian-influenza-a-viruses-in-sentinel-chickens-a-sentinel-chicken-surveillance-study
#3
Teng Zhao, Yan-Hua Qian, Shan-Hui Chen, Guo-Lin Wang, Meng-Na Wu, Yong Huang, Guang-Yuan Ma, Li-Qun Fang, Gregory C Gray, Bing Lu, Yi-Gang Tong, Mai-Juan Ma, Wu-Chun Cao
In 2014, a sentinel chicken surveillance for avian influenza viruses was conducted in aquatic bird habitat near Wuxi City, Jiangsu Province, China. Two H7N2, one H5N6, and two H9N2 viruses were isolated. Sequence analysis revealed that the H7N2 virus is a novel reassortant of H7N9 and H9N2 viruses and H5N6 virus is a reassortant of H5N1 clade 2.3.4 and H6N6 viruses. Substitutions V186 and L226 (H3 numbering) in the hemagglutinin (HA) gene protein was found in two H7N2 viruses but not in the H5N6 virus. Two A138 and A160 mutations were identified in the HA gene protein of all three viruses but a P128 mutation was only observed in the H5N6 virus...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899226/virospot-microneutralization-assay-for-antigenic-characterization-of-human-influenza-viruses
#4
Carel A van Baalen, Rienk E Jeeninga, Germaine H W M Penders, Brenda van Gent, Ruud van Beek, Marion P G Koopmans, Guus F Rimmelzwaan
The hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay has been used for the antigenic characterization of influenza viruses for decades. However, the majority of recent seasonal influenza A viruses of the H3N2 subtype has lost the capacity to agglutinate erythrocytes of various species. The hemagglutination (HA) activity of other A(H3N2) strains is generally sensitive to the action of the neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir, which indicates that the neuraminidase and not the hemagglutinin is responsible for the HA activity...
November 26, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898037/analyses-of-evolutionary-characteristics-of-the-hemagglutinin-esterase-gene-of-influenza-c-virus-during-a-period-of-68-years-reveals-evolutionary-patterns-different-from-influenza-a-and-b-viruses
#5
Yuki Furuse, Yoko Matsuzaki, Hidekazu Nishimura, Hitoshi Oshitani
Infections with the influenza C virus causing respiratory symptoms are common, particularly among children. Since isolation and detection of the virus are rarely performed, compared with influenza A and B viruses, the small number of available sequences of the virus makes it difficult to analyze its evolutionary dynamics. Recently, we reported the full genome sequence of 102 strains of the virus. Here, we exploited the data to elucidate the evolutionary characteristics and phylodynamics of the virus compared with influenza A and B viruses...
November 26, 2016: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894719/structural-based-designed-modular-capsomere-comprising-ha1-for-low-cost-poultry-influenza-vaccination
#6
Jarurin Waneesorn, Nani Wibowo, John Bingham, Anton P J Middelberg, Linda H L Lua
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses cause a severe and lethal infection in domestic birds. The increasing number of HPAI outbreaks has demonstrated the lack of capabilities to control the rapid spread of avian influenza. Poultry vaccination has been shown to not only reduce the virus spread in animals but also reduce the virus transmission to humans, preventing potential pandemic development. However, existing vaccine technologies cannot respond to a new virus outbreak rapidly and at a cost and scale that is commercially viable for poultry vaccination...
November 25, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892498/sensitization-with-vaccinia-virus-encoding-h5n1-hemagglutinin-restores-immune-potential-against-h5n1-influenza-virus
#7
Fumihiko Yasui, Yasushi Itoh, Ai Ikejiri, Masahiro Kitabatake, Nobuo Sakaguchi, Keisuke Munekata, Shintaro Shichinohe, Yukiko Hayashi, Hirohito Ishigaki, Misako Nakayama, Yoshihiro Sakoda, Hiroshi Kida, Kazumasa Ogasawara, Michinori Kohara
H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1 HPAI) virus causes elevated mortality compared with seasonal influenza viruses like H1N1 pandemic influenza (H1N1 pdm) virus. We identified a mechanism associated with the severe symptoms seen with H5N1 HPAI virus infection. H5N1 HPAI virus infection induced a decrease of dendritic cell number in the splenic extrafollicular T-cell zone and impaired formation of the outer layers of B-cell follicles, resulting in insufficient levels of antibody production after infection...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881837/systemic-and-mucosal-immune-responses-following-oral-adenoviral-delivery-of-influenza-vaccine-to-the-human-intestine-by-radio-controlled-capsule
#8
Leesun Kim, C Josefina Martinez, Katie A Hodgson, George R Trager, Jennifer R Brandl, Erik P Sandefer, Walter J Doll, Dave Liebowitz, Sean N Tucker
There are several benefits of oral immunization including the ability to elicit mucosal immune responses that may protect against pathogens that invade through a mucosal surface. Our understanding of human immune biology is hampered by the difficulty in isolating mucosal cells from humans, and the fact that animal models may or may not completely mirror human intestinal immunobiology. In this human pharmacodynamic study, a novel adenovirus vector-based platform expressing influenza hemagglutinin was explored...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876611/re-emergence-of-amantadine-resistant-variants-among-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-h5n1-viruses-in-egypt
#9
Rabeh El-Shesheny, Ola Bagato, Ahmed Kandeil, Ahmed Mostafa, Sara H Mahmoud, Hamdi M Hassanneen, Richard J Webby, Mohamed A Ali, Ghazi Kayali
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus continues to undergo substantial evolution. Emergence of antiviral resistance among H5N1 avian influenza viruses is a major challenge in the control of pandemic influenza. Numerous studies have focused on the genetic and evolutionary dynamics of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes; however, studies on the susceptibility of HPAI H5N1 viruses to amantadine and genetic diversity of the matrix (M) gene are limited. Accordingly, we studied the amantadine susceptibility of the HPAI H5N1 viruses isolated in Egypt during 2006-2015 based on genotypic and phenotypic characteristics...
October 29, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876034/h5n2-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-viruses-from-the-us-2014-2015-outbreak-have-an-unusually-long-pre-clinical-period-in-turkeys
#10
Erica Spackman, Mary J Pantin-Jackwood, Darrell R Kapczynski, David E Swayne, David L Suarez
BACKGROUND: From December 2014 through June 2015, the US experienced the most costly highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreak to date. Most cases in commercial poultry were caused by an H5N2 strain which was a reassortant with 5 Eurasian lineage genes, including a clade 2.3.4.4 goose/Guangdong/1996 lineage hemagglutinin, and 3 genes from North American wild waterfowl low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses. The outbreak primarily affected turkeys and table-egg layer type chickens...
November 22, 2016: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866773/influenza-h7n9-lah-hbc-virus-like-particle-vaccine-with-adjuvant-protects-mice-against-homologous-and-heterologous-influenza-viruses
#11
Dan Zheng, Shaoheng Chen, Di Qu, Jianjun Chen, Fuyan Wang, Ran Zhang, Ze Chen
The long alpha-helix (LAH) region located in influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) shows conservation among different influenza A strains, which could be used as a candidate target of influenza vaccines. Moreover, the hepatitis B virus core protein (HBc) is a carrier for heterologous epitopes in eliciting effective immune responses. We inserted the LAH region of H7N9 influenza virus into the HBc and prepared the LAH-HBc protein, which were capable of self-assembly into virus-like particles (VLP), by using E. coli expression system...
December 12, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856263/rational-design-of-protamine-nanocapsules-as-antigen-delivery-carriers
#12
José Vicente González-Aramundiz, Elena Presas, Inmaculada Dalmau-Mena, Susana Martínez-Pulgarín, Covadonga Alonso, José M Escribano, María J Alonso, Noemi Stefánia Csaba
: Current challenges in global immunization indicate the demand for new delivery strategies, which could be applied to the development of new vaccines against emerging diseases, as well as to improve safety and efficacy of currently existing vaccine formulations. Here, we report a novel antigen nanocarrier consisting of an oily core and a protamine shell, further stabilized with pegylated surfactants. These nanocarriers, named protamine nanocapsules, were rationally designed to promote the intracellular delivery of antigens to immunocompetent cells and to trigger an efficient and long-lasting immune response...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848039/antiviral-susceptibility-profile-of-influenza-a-viruses-keep-an-eye-on-immunocompromised-patients-under-prolonged-treatment
#13
A Kossyvakis, A-F A Mentis, K Tryfinopoulou, V Pogka, A Kalliaropoulos, E Antalis, T Lytras, A Meijer, S Tsiodras, P Karakitsos, A F Mentis
There was an increase in severe and fatal influenza cases in Greece during the 2011-2015 post-pandemic period. To investigate causality, we determined neuraminidase (NA) inhibitor susceptibility and resistance-conferring NA and hemagglutinin (HA) mutations in circulating influenza type A viruses during the pandemic (2009-2010) and post-pandemic periods in Greece. One hundred thirty-four influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and 95 influenza A(H3N2) viruses submitted to the National Influenza Reference Laboratory of Southern Greece were tested for susceptibility to oseltamivir and zanamivir...
November 15, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847366/comparisons-of-the-humoral-and-cellular-immune-responses-induced-by-live-attenuated-influenza-vaccine-laiv-and-inactivated-influenza-vaccine-iiv-in-adults
#14
Daniel F Hoft, Kathleen R Lottenbach, Azra Blazevic, Aldin Turan, Tamara P Blevins, Thomas P Pacatte, Yinyi Yu, Michelle C Mitchell, Stella G Hoft, Robert B Belshe
Both live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) and inactivated influenza vaccines (IIV) induce protective immunity against influenza. There is evidence that LAIV induces superior protection in children, whereas IIV may induce superior protection in adults. The immune mechanisms responsible for these differences have not been identified. We previously compared LAIV and IIV in young children 6-36 months of age, and demonstrated that while both induced similar hemagglutination-inhibiting (HAI) antibody responses, only LAIV induced significant increases in T cell responses...
November 9, 2016: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846599/potent-protection-against-h5n1-and-h7n9-influenza-via-childhood-hemagglutinin-imprinting
#15
Katelyn M Gostic, Monique Ambrose, Michael Worobey, James O Lloyd-Smith
Two zoonotic influenza A viruses (IAV) of global concern, H5N1 and H7N9, exhibit unexplained differences in age distribution of human cases. Using data from all known human cases of these viruses, we show that an individual's first IAV infection confers lifelong protection against severe disease from novel hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes in the same phylogenetic group. Statistical modeling shows that protective HA imprinting is the crucial explanatory factor, and it provides 75% protection against severe infection and 80% protection against death for both H5N1 and H7N9...
November 11, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845268/evidence-for-influenza-b-virus-lineage-shifts-and-reassortants-circulating-in-thailand-in-2014-2016
#16
Nipaporn Tewawong, Nungruthai Suntronwong, Sumeth Korkong, Apiradee Theamboonlers, Sompong Vongpunsawad, Yong Poovorawan
Towards the surveillance of seasonal influenza viruses between August 2015 and June 2016, respiratory samples (n=3390) were collected from Thai patients with influenza-like illness. One-hundred fifty-seven (4.6%) samples tested positive for influenza B virus by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). While the influenza B virus Yamagata lineage strains were more prevalent than the Victoria lineage strains in 2015 (77.5% vs. 22.5%), the Victoria lineage strains appeared to dominate the first half of 2016 (62...
November 12, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834632/viral-factors-in-influenza-pandemic-risk-assessment
#17
Marc Lipsitch, Wendy Barclay, Rahul Raman, Charles J Russell, Jessica A Belser, Sarah Cobey, Peter M Kasson, James O Lloyd-Smith, Sebastian Maurer-Stroh, Steven Riley, Catherine Aa Beauchemin, Trevor Bedford, Thomas C Friedrich, Andreas Handel, Sander Herfst, Pablo R Murcia, Benjamin Roche, Claus O Wilke, Colin A Russell
The threat of an influenza A virus pandemic stems from continual virus spillovers from reservoir species, a tiny fraction of which spark sustained transmission in humans. To date, no pandemic emergence of a new influenza strain has been preceded by detection of a closely related precursor in an animal or human. Nonetheless, influenza surveillance efforts are expanding, prompting a need for tools to assess the pandemic risk posed by a detected virus. The goal would be to use genetic sequence and/or biological assays of viral traits to identify those non-human influenza viruses with the greatest risk of evolving into pandemic threats, and/or to understand drivers of such evolution, to prioritize pandemic prevention or response measures...
November 11, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834623/evaluation-of-the-immunogenicity-of-a-potyvirus-like-particle-as-an-adjuvant-of-a-synthetic-peptide
#18
Albertina Cárdenas-Vargas, Darwin Elizondo-Quiroga, Abel Gutierrez-Ortega, Claudia Charles-Niño, César Pedroza-Roldán
Improvement of current vaccines is highly necessary to increase immunogenicity levels and protection against several pathogens. Virus-like particles (VLPs) are promising approaches for vaccines because they emulate infectious virus structure, but lack any genetic material needed for replication. Plant viruses have emerged as a potential framework for VLP design, mainly because there is no preexisting immunity in mammals. In this study, we evaluated the scaffold of the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) as a VLP adjuvant for a short synthetic peptide derived from the Hemagglutinin protein of AH1 N1 influenza virus-hemagglutinin (VLP-HA)...
November 11, 2016: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830688/-changes-in-the-phenotypic-properties-of-highly-pathogenic-influenza-a-virus-of-h5n1-subtype-induced-by-n186i-and-n186t-point-mutations-in-hemagglutinin
#19
T A Timofeeva, G K Sadykova, I A Rudneva, E Y Boravleva, A S Gambaryan, N F Lomakina, L V Mochalova, N V Bovin, E V Usachev, A G Prilipov
The change in the phenotypic properties resulting from amino acid substitutions in the hemagglutinin (HA) molecule is an important link in the evolutionary process of influenza viruses. It is believed to be one of the mechanisms of the emergence of highly pathogenic strains of influenza A viruses, including subtype H5N1. Using the site-directed mutagenesis, we introduced mutations in the HA gene of the H5N1 subtype of influenza A virus. The obtained virus variants were analyzed and compared using the following parameters: optimal pH of conformational transition (according to the results of the hemolysis test), specificity of receptor binding (using a set of synthetic analogues of cell surface sialooligosaccharides), thermoresistance (heat-dependent reduction of hemagglutinin activity), virulence in mice, and the kinetics of replication in chicken embryos, and reproductive activity at different temperatures (RCT-based)...
September 2016: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826541/inhibition-of-h9n2-virus-invasion-into-dendritic-cells-by-the-s-layer-protein-from-l-acidophilus-atcc-4356
#20
Xue Gao, Lulu Huang, Liqi Zhu, Chunxiao Mou, Qihang Hou, Qinghua Yu
Probiotics are essential for the prevention of virus invasion and the maintenance of the immune balance. However, the mechanism of competition between probiotics and virus are unknown. The objectives of this study were to isolate the surface layer (S-layer) protein from L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 as a new antiviral material, to evaluate the stimulatory effects of the S-layer protein on mouse dendritic cells (DCs) and to verify its ability to inhibit the invasion of H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) in DCs. We found that the S-layer protein induced DCs activation and up-regulated the IL-10 secretion...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
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