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Influenza polymerase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148396/multiple-reassorted-viruses-as-cause-of-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-a-h5n8-virus-epidemic-the-netherlands-2016
#1
Nancy Beerens, Rene Heutink, Saskia A Bergervoet, Frank Harders, Alex Bossers, Guus Koch
In 2016, an epidemic of highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus subtype H5N8 in the Netherlands caused mass deaths among wild birds, and several commercial poultry farms and captive bird holdings were affected. We performed complete genome sequencing to study the relationship between the wild bird and poultry viruses. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the viruses are related to H5 clade 2.3.4.4 viruses detected in Russia in May 2016 but contained novel polymerase basic 2 and nucleoprotein gene segments and 2 different variants of the polymerase acidic segment...
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145464/cellular-hnrnp-a2-b1-interacts-with-the-np-of-influenza-a-virus-and-impacts-viral-replication
#2
Cheng-Kai Chang, Chi-Jene Chen, Chih-Ching Wu, Shiau-Wen Chen, Shin-Ru Shih, Rei-Lin Kuo
The viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP) of influenza A virus is formed by virion RNA (vRNA), viral polymerase complex, and nucleoprotein (NP). The NP plays an important role in facilitating the replication and stabilization of viral RNA. To explore host factors that may be involved in the regulation of viral replication through interactions with NP, we conducted an immunoprecipitation experiment followed by mass spectrometry to identify NP-associated cellular proteins. Here, we demonstrate that NP can interact and colocalize with heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A2/B1 in mammalian cells and that the interaction may occur via direct binding to the glycine-rich domain (GRD) of hnRNP A2/B1...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143374/asthma-and-lung-function-in-adulthood-after-a-viral-wheezing-episode-in-early-childhood
#3
Katri Backman, Hertta Ollikainen, Eija Piippo-Savolainen, Kirsi Nuolivirta, Matti Korppi
BACKGROUND: Viral etiology of infection has a significant role in the long-term outcome of early-childhood wheezing. OBJECTIVE: This study examines asthma and lung function in adulthood after early-childhood wheezing induced by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and rhinovirus (RV). METHODS: A total of 100 children were hospitalized for a wheezing episode at less than 24 months of age from 1992 to 1993 in Kuopio University Hospital (Finland)...
November 16, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142123/initiation-elongation-and-realignment-during-influenza-virus-mrna-synthesis
#4
Aartjan J W Te Velthuis, Judith Oymans
The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of the influenza A virus replicates and transcribes the viral genome segments in the nucleus of the host cell. To transcribe these viral genome segments, the RdRp 'snatches' capped RNA oligonucleotides from nascent host cell mRNAs and aligns these primers to the ultimate or penultimate nucleotide of the segments for the initiation of viral mRNA synthesis. It has been proposed that this initiation process is not processive and that the RdRp uses a prime-realign mechanism during transcription...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137903/implementation-of-alere-i-influenza-a-b-point-of-care-test-for-the-diagnosis-of-influenza-in-an-emergency-department
#5
E Trabattoni, V Le, B Pilmis, G Pean de Ponfilly, C Caisso, C Couzigou, B Vidal, A Mizrahi, O Ganansia, A Le Monnier, B Lina, J C Nguyen Van
STUDY OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the impact of implementing rapid point-of-care testing (POCT) with the Alere i Influenza A & B in an emergency department (ED) during an influenza epidemic. METHODS: Direct nasal swabs were prospectively collected following the physical examination of patients aged >18years who presented to the ED of a tertiary hospital in France with influenza-like illness (ILI) symptoms (N=301) between February 1st and March 31st, 2016, which coincided with an influenza epidemic...
October 18, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129489/development-and-application-of-a-triplex-real-time-pcr-assay-for-the-simultaneous-detection-of-avian-influenza-virus-subtype-h5-h7-and-h9
#6
Junli Liu, Lu Yao, Feifei Zhai, Yuqing Chen, Jing Lei, Zhenwei Bi, Jianhua Hu, Qian Xiao, Suquan Song, Liping Yan, Jiyong Zhou
Avian influenza virus (AIV), especially subtypes H5, H7 and H9, has contributed to enormous economic losses and poses a potential pandemic threat to global human public health. Early screening of suspected cases is key to controlling the spread of AIVs. In this study, an accurate, rapid, and triplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for the simultaneous detection of AIV subtypes H5, H7 and H9. The sensitivity of the real-time PCR was at least 100 times higher than that of the conventional PCR, with a detection limit of 50 copies and an EID50 of 1 (50% egg infections dose) for the H5, H7, and H9 subtypes...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128380/low-influenza-vaccine-effectiveness-and-the-effect-of-previous-vaccination-in-preventing-admission-with-a-h1n1-pdm09-or-b-victoria-lineage-in-patients-60-years-old-or-older-during-the-2015-2016-influenza-season
#7
Joan Puig-Barberà, Beatriz Guglieri-López, Miguel Tortajada-Girbés, F Xavier López-Labrador, Mario Carballido-Fernández, Joan Mollar-Maseres, Germán Schwarz-Chavarri, Víctor Baselga-Moreno, Ainara Mira-Iglesias, Javier Díez-Domingo
BACKGROUND: The 2015/2016 influenza season was characterized in Europe by the circulation of A(H1N1)pdm09 clade 6B.1 and B/Victoria-lineage influenza viruses. The components of the vaccines used in the current and past two seasons in the Valencia region were similar but not well matched to the 2015/2016 dominant influenza-circulating strains. We estimate influenza vaccine effectiveness (IVE) and interference of previous vaccination in preventing admission with A(H1N1)pdm09 or B/Victoria-lineage in this particular season...
November 8, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120096/the-association-between-oral-health-status-and-respiratory-pathogen-colonization-with-pneumonia-risk-in-institutionalized-adults
#8
Chl Hong, M M Aung, K Kanagasabai, C A Lim, S Liang, K S Tan
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the oral health and the prevalence of pre-existing oral colonization with respiratory pathogens in dependent elderly, and whether these factors influence pneumonia development. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Participants residing in a long-term care facility received bedside oral examinations, and information on their oral health (caries status, calculus index and debris index) was obtained. Samples from the tongue and teeth were collected at baseline and at time of pneumonia development...
November 9, 2017: International Journal of Dental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118119/a-mechanism-for-prime-realignment-during-influenza-a-virus-replication
#9
Judith Oymans, Aartjan J W Te Velthuis
The influenza A virus genome consists of eight segments of single-stranded RNA. These segments are replicated and transcribed by a viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) that is made up of the influenza virus proteins PB1, PB2 and PA. To copy the viral RNA (vRNA) genome segments and the complementary RNA (cRNA) segments, the replicative intermediate of viral replication, the RdRp must use two promoters and two different de novo initiation mechanisms. On the vRNA promoter, the RdRp initiates on the 3' terminus, while on the cRNA promoter the RdRp initiates internally and subsequently realigns the nascent vRNA product to ensure that the template is copied in full...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117669/late-diagnosis-of-influenza-in-adult-patients-during-a-seasonal-outbreak
#10
Seong-Ho Choi, Jin-Won Chung, Tark Kim, Ki-Ho Park, Mi Suk Lee, Yee Gyung Kwak
Background/Aims: Due to advances in diagnostic techniques, clinicians are more frequently performing influenza diagnostic tests and referring to their test results ahead of the administration of neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs). To investigate the clinical significance of the time from symptom onset to laboratory diagnosis, we reviewed the clinical characteristics of adult patients with influenza who had an early laboratory diagnosis (ED) or a late laboratory diagnosis (LD) at one of four tertiary care centers during a seasonal outbreak of influenza...
November 10, 2017: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107643/nuclear-trim25-specifically-targets-influenza-virus-ribonucleoproteins-to-block-the-onset-of-rna-chain-elongation
#11
Nicholas R Meyerson, Ligang Zhou, Yusong R Guo, Chen Zhao, Yizhi J Tao, Robert M Krug, Sara L Sawyer
TRIM25 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that activates RIG-I to promote the antiviral interferon response. The NS1 protein from all strains of influenza A virus binds TRIM25, although not all virus strains block the interferon response, suggesting alternative mechanisms for TRIM25 action. Here we present a nuclear role for TRIM25 in specifically restricting influenza A virus replication. TRIM25 inhibits viral RNA synthesis through a direct mechanism that is independent of its ubiquitin ligase activity and the interferon pathway...
November 8, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100706/efficacy-of-trivalent-influenza-vaccine-against-laboratory-confirmed-influenza-among-young-children-in-a-randomized-trial-in-bangladesh
#12
Melissa A Rolfes, Doli Goswami, Amina Tahia Sharmeen, Sultana Yeasmin, Nasrin Parvin, Kamrun Nahar, Mustafizur Rahman, Marion Barends, Dilruba Ahmed, Mohammed Ziaur Rahman, Joseph Bresee, Stephen Luby, Lawrence H Moulton, Mathuram Santosham, Alicia M Fry, W Abdullah Brooks
BACKGROUND: Few trials have evaluated influenza vaccine efficacy (VE) in young children, a group particularly vulnerable to influenza complications. We aimed to estimate VE against influenza in children aged <2 years in Bangladesh; a subtropical setting, where influenza circulation can be irregular. METHODS: Children aged 6-23 months were enrolled 1:1 in a parallel, double-blind, randomized controlled trial of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV3) versus inactivated polio vaccine (IPV); conducted August 2010-March 2014 in Dhaka, Bangladesh...
October 31, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097654/role-of-influenza-a-virus-np-acetylation-on-viral-growth-and-replication
#13
Sebastian Giese, Kevin Ciminski, Hardin Bolte, Étori Aguiar Moreira, Seema Lakdawala, Zehan Hu, Quinnlan David, Larissa Kolesnikova, Veronika Götz, Yongxu Zhao, Jörn Dengjel, Y Eugene Chin, Ke Xu, Martin Schwemmle
Lysine acetylation is a post-translational modification known to regulate protein functions. Here we identify several acetylation sites of the influenza A virus nucleoprotein (NP), including the lysine residues K77, K113 and K229. Viral growth of mutant virus encoding K229R, mimicking a non-acetylated NP lysine residue, is severely impaired compared to wildtype or the mutant viruses encoding K77R or K113R. This attenuation is not the result of decreased polymerase activity, altered protein expression or disordered vRNP co-segregation but rather caused by impaired particle release...
November 2, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090273/nmr-spectra-of-pb2-627-the-rna-binding-domain-in-influenza-a-virus-rna-polymerase-that-contains-the-pathogenicity-factor-lysine-627-and-improvement-of-the-spectra-by-small-osmolytes
#14
Yusuke S Kato, Masaru Tanokura, Takashi Kuzuhara
The influenza A virus, which has an RNA genome, requires RNA-dependent RNA polymerase for transcription and replication. The polymerase is comprised of the subunits PA, PB1, and PB2. The C-terminal RNA-binding domain in PB2 contains lysine 627 (PB2 627), which is associated with pathogenicity and host range. However, the structure and molecular mechanism of PB2 627 in solution remain obscure. Here, we investigated PB2 627 in solution by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and detected inhomogeneity in the intensities of backbone amide proton signals due to local fluctuations in structure...
December 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075636/influenza-herd-level-prevalence-and-seasonality-in-breed-to-wean-pig-farms-in-the-midwestern-united-states
#15
Fabian Orlando Chamba Pardo, Ana Alba-Casals, Joel Nerem, Robert B Morrison, Pedro Puig, Montserrat Torremorell
Influenza is a costly disease for pig producers and understanding its epidemiology is critical to control it. In this study, we aimed to estimate the herd-level prevalence and seasonality of influenza in breed-to-wean pig farms, evaluate the correlation between influenza herd-level prevalence and meteorological conditions, and characterize influenza genetic diversity over time. A cohort of 34 breed-to-wean farms with monthly influenza status obtained over a 5-year period in piglets prior to wean was selected...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075244/internal-gene-cassette-from-a-genotype-s-h9n2-avian-influenza-virus-attenuates-the-pathogenicity-of-h5-viruses-in-chickens-and-mice
#16
Xiaoli Hao, Jiongjiong Wang, Jiao Hu, Xiaolong Lu, Zhao Gao, Dong Liu, Juan Li, Xiaoquan Wang, Min Gu, Zenglei Hu, Xiaowen Liu, Shunlin Hu, Xiulong Xu, Daxin Peng, Xinan Jiao, Xiufan Liu
H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) of genotype S frequently donate internal genes to facilitate the generation of novel reassortants such as H7N9, H10N8, H5N2 and H5N6 AIVs, posing an enormous threat to both human health and poultry industry. However, the pathogenicity and transmission of reassortant H5 viruses with internal gene cassette of genotype S H9N2-origin in chickens and mice remain unknown. In this study, four H5 reassortants carrying the HA and NA genes from different clades of H5 viruses and the remaining internal genes from an H9N2 virus of the predominant genotype S were generated by reverse genetics...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066377/mice-with-type-1-diabetes-exhibit-increased-susceptibility-to-influenza-a-virus
#17
Caiyun Huo, Shouping Zhang, Siyi Zhang, Ming Wang, Peng Qi, Jin Xiao, Yanxin Hu, Hong Dong
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a metabolic disease induced by abnormal insulin secretions from damaged islet B cells. Clinical observations have shown that T1D patients are more easily infected by influenza A virus (IAV) and suffer more serious symptoms than non-T1D patients. To investigate the susceptibility of T1D mice to IAV, a T1D mouse model was built by intraperitoneal injection of diluted streptozotocin (STZ) over 5 consecutive days, followed by infection with three subtypes of IAV (H1N1/H5N1/H7N2). The T1D-infected mice showed more serious clinical symptoms and lower survival rates than the non-T1D infected mice...
October 21, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056430/a-highly-pathogenic-avian-h7n9-influenza-virus-isolated-from-a-human-is-lethal-in-some-ferrets-infected-via-respiratory-droplets
#18
Masaki Imai, Tokiko Watanabe, Maki Kiso, Noriko Nakajima, Seiya Yamayoshi, Kiyoko Iwatsuki-Horimoto, Masato Hatta, Shinya Yamada, Mutsumi Ito, Yuko Sakai-Tagawa, Masayuki Shirakura, Emi Takashita, Seiichiro Fujisaki, Ryan McBride, Andrew J Thompson, Kenta Takahashi, Tadashi Maemura, Hiromichi Mitake, Shiho Chiba, Gongxun Zhong, Shufang Fan, Kohei Oishi, Atsuhiro Yasuhara, Kosuke Takada, Tomomi Nakao, Satoshi Fukuyama, Makoto Yamashita, Tiago J S Lopes, Gabriele Neumann, Takato Odagiri, Shinji Watanabe, Yuelong Shu, James C Paulson, Hideki Hasegawa, Yoshihiro Kawaoka
Low pathogenic H7N9 influenza viruses have recently evolved to become highly pathogenic, raising concerns of a pandemic, particularly if these viruses acquire efficient human-to-human transmissibility. We compared a low pathogenic H7N9 virus with a highly pathogenic isolate, and two of its variants that represent neuraminidase inhibitor-sensitive and -resistant subpopulations detected within the isolate. The highly pathogenic H7N9 viruses replicated efficiently in mice, ferrets, and/or nonhuman primates, and were more pathogenic in mice and ferrets than the low pathogenic H7N9 virus, with the exception of the neuraminidase inhibitor-resistant virus, which showed mild-to-moderate attenuation...
November 8, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056109/respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-control-challenges-with-a-novel-polymerase-chain-reaction-assay-in-a-tertiary-medical-center
#19
Parham Sendi, Adrian Egli, Marc Dangel, Reno Frei, Sarah Tschudin-Sutter, Andreas F Widmer
OBJECTIVES To evaluate host characteristics, mode of infection acquisition, and infection control procedures in patients with a positive respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) test result after the introduction of the GenXpert Influenza/RSV polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study. PATIENTS Adults with a positive PCR test result for RSV who were hospitalized in a tertiary academic medical center between January 2015 and December 2016 were included in this study. Our infection control policy applies contact isolation precautions only for immunocompromised patients...
October 23, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052126/genetic-characterization-of-h9n2-avian-influenza-viruses-isolated-from-poultry-in-poland-during-2013-2014
#20
Edyta Świętoń, Michał Jóźwiak, Zenon Minta, Krzysztof Śmietanka
The study presents molecular characterization of H9N2 avian influenza (AI) isolates from field outbreaks in turkeys that occurred in Poland in 2013-2014. Sequences of all gene segments of one isolate from 2013 (A/turkey/Poland/14/2013(H9N2)) and two isolates from 2014 (A/turkey/Poland/08/2014(H9N2), A/turkey/Poland/09/2014(H9N2)) were obtained and analyzed in search of the phylogenetic relationship and molecular markers of zoonotic potential or increased pathogenicity. All gene segments were shown to originate from the wild bird reservoir and the close relationship of the analyzed isolates proved the link between the outbreaks in 2013 and 2014...
October 19, 2017: Virus Genes
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