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Influenza polymerase

Dinko Novosel, Daniel Cadar, Tamás Tuboly, Andreja Jungic, Tomasz Stadejek, Tahar Ait-Ali, Attila Cságola
BACKGROUND: Porcine parvovirus 2 (PPV2) was detected in swine serum without showing any relationship with disease. The emergence of the virus seemed to be a unique event until other genetically highly similar parvoviruses were identified in China and, later in 2012, the presence of the virus was also described in Europe. PPV2 is widely distributed in pig populations where it is suspected to be involved in respiratory conditions, based on its frequent detection in lung samples. In order to investigate the potential pathogenic involvement of PPV2, 60 dead pigs were examined from two farms...
May 21, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Patrick D Slaine, Cara MacRae, Mariel Kleer, Emily Lamoureux, Sarah McAlpine, Michelle Warhuus, André M Comeau, Craig McCormick, Todd Hatchette, Denys A Khaperskyy
Mice are not natural hosts for influenza A viruses (IAVs), but they are useful models for studying antiviral immune responses and pathogenesis. Serial passage of IAV in mice invariably causes the emergence of adaptive mutations and increased virulence. Here, we report the adaptation of IAV reference strain A/California/07/2009(H1N1) (also known as CA/07) in outbred Swiss Webster mice. Serial passage led to increased virulence and lung titers, and dissemination of the virus to brains. We adapted a deep-sequencing protocol to identify and enumerate adaptive mutations across all genome segments...
May 18, 2018: Viruses
Tran Duc Anh Ly, Sophie Edouard, Sekene Badiaga, Herve Tissot-Dupont, Van Thuan Hoang, Vincent Pommier de Santi, Philippe Brouqui, Didier Raoult, Philippe Gautret
OBJECTIVES: To assess risk factors for respiratory tract infection symptoms and signs in sheltered homeless people in Marseille during the winter season, including pathogen carriage. METHODS: Data on 479 male participants within 2 shelters who completed questionnaires and a total of 950 nasal and pharyngeal samples were collected during the winters of 2015-2017. Respiratory pathogen carriage including 7 viruses and 4 bacteria was assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction...
May 16, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Yun Li, Lei Sun, Weinan Zheng, Madina Mahesutihan, Jing Li, Yuhai Bi, Heran Wang, Wenjun Liu, Ting Rong Luo
Nucleoprotein (NP) is a major component of the viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP) complex that is responsible for viral replication, transcription and packaging of influenza A virus. Phosphorylation of NP plays an important role during viral infection. In the present study, we identified threonine 188 (T188) as a novel phosphorylated residue in the NP of influenza A virus by using mass spectrometry. T188 is located within nuclear export signal 2 (NES2) which is chromosome region maintenance 1 (CRM1)-independent...
May 15, 2018: Virology
Wanitchaya Kittikraisak, Piyarat Suntarattiwong, Wiboon Kanjanapattanakul, Darunee Ditsungnoen, Chonticha Klungthong, Kim A Lindblade, Stefan Fernandez, Fatimah S Dawood, Tawee Chotpitayasunondh, Sonja J Olsen
INTRODUCTION: Thailand recommends influenza vaccination for children aged 6 months to <36 months, but investment in vaccine purchase is limited. To inform policy decision with respect to influenza disease burden and associated cost in young children and to support the continued inclusion of children as the recommended group for influenza vaccination, we conducted a prospective cohort study of children in Bangkok hospital to estimate and compare influenza incidence and cost between healthy and high-risk children...
2018: PloS One
David L V Bauer, Michael Tellier, Mónica Martínez-Alonso, Takayuki Nojima, Nick J Proudfoot, Shona Murphy, Ervin Fodor
Influenza virus intimately associates with host RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and mRNA processing machinery. Here, we use mammalian native elongating transcript sequencing (mNET-seq) to examine Pol II behavior during viral infection. We show that influenza virus executes a two-pronged attack on host transcription. First, viral infection causes decreased Pol II gene occupancy downstream of transcription start sites. Second, virus-induced cellular stress leads to a catastrophic failure of Pol II termination at poly(A) sites, with transcription often continuing for tens of kilobases...
May 15, 2018: Cell Reports
Karen A Alroy, Trang Thuy Do, Phu Dac Tran, Tan Quang Dang, Long Ngoc Vu, Nga Thi Hang Le, Anh Duc Dang, Nghia Duy Ngu, Tu Huy Ngo, Phuong Mai Vu Hoang, Lan Trong Phan, Thuong Vu Nguyen, Long Thanh Nguyen, Thinh Viet Nguyen, Mai Quang Vien, Huy Xuan Le, Anh The Dao, Trieu Bao Nguyen, Duoc Tho Pham, Van Thi Tuyet Nguyen, Thanh Ngoc Pham, Binh Hai Phan, Brett Whitaker, Thuy Thi Thu Do, Phuong Anh Dao, S Arunmozhi Balajee, Anthony W Mounts
BACKGROUND: In 2016, as a component of the Global Health Security Agenda, the Vietnam Ministry of Health expanded its existing influenza sentinel surveillance for severe acute respiratory infections (SARI) to include testing for 7 additional viral respiratory pathogens. This article describes the steps taken to implement expanded SARI surveillance in Vietnam and reports data from 1 year of expanded surveillance. METHOD: The process of expanding the suite of pathogens for routine testing by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) included laboratory trainings, procurement/distribution of reagents, and strengthening and aligning SARI surveillance epidemiology practices at sentinel sites and regional institutes (RI)...
May 13, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Jian Lin, Jing Xia, Tian Zhang, Keyun Zhang, Qian Yang
The antigen-presenting ability of dendritic cells (DCs) plays an important and irreplaceable role in recognising and clearing viruses. Antiviral responses must rapidly defend against infection while minimising inflammatory damage, but the mechanisms that regulate the magnitude of response within an infected cell are not well understood. MicroRNAs (microRNAs), small non-coding RNAs, can regulate mouse or avian DCs to inhibit the infection and replication of avian influenza virus (AIV). Here, we performed a global analysis to understand how avian DCs respond to H9N2 AIV and provide a potential mechanism to explain how avian microRNAs can defend against H9N2 AIV replication...
May 10, 2018: Oncogene
Emi Yamaguchi, Kei Fujii, Haruko Ogawa, Kunitoshi Imai
Serological surveys have shown that wild raccoons are exposed to influenza A viruses (IAVs); however, no genetic evidence for this IAV infection has been found. In the present study, we first detected IAV genes in wild raccoons captured during periods other than the wintering season of migratory waterfowl and epidemic season of influenza in Japan. Viral matrix (M) and nucleoprotein (NP) genes were detected by a conventional reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay from three suckling siblings and one juvenile without any noticeable clinical signs, although the NP gene could not be detected from one sibling...
May 8, 2018: Virus Genes
Jiajia Wang, Nan Su, Zefeng Dong, Cheng Liu, Pengwei Cui, Jian-An Huang, Cheng Chen, Yehan Zhu, Liling Chen
OBJECTIVE: Influenza A(H7N9) virus is known for its high pathogenicity in human. A family cluster of influenza A(H7N9) virus infection was identified in Suzhou, China. This study aimed to investigate the possibility of human-to-human transmission of the virus and examine the virologic features of this family cluster. METHODS: The clinical and epidemiologic data of two patients in the family cluster of influenza A(H7N9) virus infection were collected. Viral RNA in samples derived from the two patients, their close contacts, and the environments with likely influenza A(H7N9) virus transmission were tested by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) assay...
May 5, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Mohsen Nakhaie, Hoorieh Soleimanjahi, Hamid Reza Mollaie, Seyed Mohamad Ali Arabzadeh
Background and objective: Millions of people in developing countries lose their lives due to acute respiratory infections, such as Influenza A & B and Adeno viruses. Given the importance of rapid identification of the virus, in this study the researchers attempted to design a method that enables detection of influenza A, B, and adenoviruses, quickly and simultaneously. The Multiplex RT PCR method was the preferred method for the detection of influenza A, B, and adenoviruses in clinical specimens because it is rapid, sensitive, specific, and more cost-effective than alternative methods...
2018: Iranian Journal of Pathology
Phu Tran Vinh Pham, Kadir Turan, Kyosuke Nagata, Atsushi Kawaguchi
Adaptive mutations in viral polymerase, which is composed of PB1, PB2, and PA, of avian influenza viruses are major genetic determinants of the host range. In this study, to elucidate the molecular mechanism of mammalian adaptation of avian viral polymerase, we performed cell-based vRNP reconstitution assays and biochemical analyses using purified recombinant viral polymerase complexes. We found that avian viral polymerase from A/duck/Pennsylvania/10218/84 (DkPen) enhances the viral polymerase activity in mammalian cells by replacing the PA or PB2 gene with that from human influenza virus A/WSN/33 (WSN)...
May 2, 2018: Microbes and Infection
Suli Liu, Wenfei Zhu, Zhaomin Feng, Rongbao Gao, Junfeng Guo, Xiyan Li, Jia Liu, Dayan Wang, Yuelong Shu
Eurasian avian-like H1N1 (EA H1N1) swine influenza viruses (SIVs) have become predominant in pig populations in China and have recently been reported to have the most potential to raise the next pandemic in humans. The mutation D701N in the PB2 protein, which accounts for 31% of H1N1 SIVs, has previously been shown to contribute to the adaptation of the highly pathogenic H5N1 or H7N7 avian influenza viruses in mammals. However, little is known of the effects of this substitution on the EA H1N1 viruses. Herein, we investigated the contributions of 701N in the PB2 protein to an EA H1N1 SIV (A/Hunan/42443/2015(H1N1), HuN EA-H1N1), which had 701D in the PB2 protein...
May 2, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Courtney P Olwagen, Peter V Adrian, Marta C Nunes, Shabir A Madhi
BACKGROUND: Nasopharyngeal bacterial colonization is a pre-requisite for developing bacterial mucosal and invasive disease. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) immunization of children reduces their risk of colonization by vaccine-serotypes, which could affect the biome of the nasopharynx in relation to colonization by other bacteria. This study evaluated the association of PCV immunization on the prevalence density of nasopharyngeal colonization by common, potentially pathogenic bacteria...
April 27, 2018: Vaccine
Siddhartha Saha, Vivek Gupta, Fatimah S Dawood, Shobha Broor, Kathryn E Lafond, Mandeep S Chadha, Sanjay K Rai, Anand Krishnan
OBJECTIVE: To estimate rates of community-level influenza-like-illness (ILI) and influenza-associated ILI in rural north India. METHODS: During 2011, we conducted household-based healthcare utilization surveys (HUS) for any acute medical illness (AMI) in preceding 14days among residents of 28villages of Ballabgarh, in north India. Concurrently, we conducted clinic-based surveillance (CBS) in the area for AMI episodes with illness onset ≤3days and collected nasal and throat swabs for influenza virus testing using real-time polymerase chain reaction...
2018: PloS One
Birutė Zablockienė, Tomas Kačergius, Arvydas Ambrozaitis, Edvardas Žurauskas, Maksim Bratchikov, Laimutė Jurgauskienė, Rolandas Zablockis, Stefan Gravenstein
BACKGROUND/AIM: Severe pulmonary influenza A virus (IAV) infection causes lung inflammation and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), leading to overproduction of nitric oxide (NO). We studied whether zanamivir reduces pulmonary inflammation through inhibition of NO production in mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We treated IAV-infected mice daily with intranasal zanamivir. Controls were infected and either placebo-treated or untreated, or not infected and placebo-treated...
May 2018: In Vivo
Jeremy C Jones, Gyanendra Kumar, Subrata Barman, Isabel Najera, Stephen W White, Richard J Webby, Elena A Govorkova
The clinical severity and annual occurrence of influenza virus epidemics, combined with the availability of just a single class of antivirals to treat infections, underscores the urgent need to develop new anti-influenza drugs. The endonuclease activity within the viral acidic polymerase (PA) protein is an attractive target for drug discovery due to the critical role it plays in viral gene transcription. RO-7 is a next-generation PA endonuclease inhibitor of influenza A and B viruses, but its drug resistance potential is unknown...
April 24, 2018: MBio
Motoi Suzuki, Naoko Katsurada, Minh Nhat Le, Norihiro Kaneko, Makito Yaegashi, Naoto Hosokawa, Yoshihito Otsuka, Masahiro Aoshima, Lay Myint Yoshida, Konosuke Morimoto
BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) against laboratory-confirmed influenza pneumonia in older adults remains to be established. METHODS: Pneumonia patients aged ≥65 years who visited a study hospital in Chiba, Japan, were prospectively enrolled from February 2012 to January 2014. Sputum samples were collected from participants and tested for influenza virus by polymerase chain reaction assays. Influenza vaccine effectiveness (IVE) against laboratory-confirmed influenza pneumonia was estimated by a test-negative design...
April 20, 2018: Vaccine
Tian Ren, Teresa V Dormitorio, Mingyu Qiao, Tung-Shi Huang, Jean Weese
Airborne pathogens are one of the most common avenues leading to poultry diseases. Preventing the avian influenza (AI) virus from entering the chicken hatchery house is critical for reducing the spread and transmission of AI disease. Many studies have investigated the incorporation of antimicrobials into air filters to prevent viruses from entering the indoor environment. N-halamines are one of the most effective antimicrobial agents against a broad spectrum of microorganisms. In this study, 1-chloro-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-4-imidazolidinone (MC, a variety of N-halamine) was coated on nonwoven fabrics to give the fabric antimicrobial activity against the AI virus...
May 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Sarah Elzinga, Stephanie Reedy, Virginia D Barker, Thomas M Chambers, Amanda A Adams
Obesity is an increasing problem in the equine population with recent reports indicating that the percentage of overweight horses may range anywhere from 20.6-51%. Obesity in horses has been linked to more serious health concerns such as equine metabolic syndrome (EMS). EMS is a serious problem in the equine industry given its defining characteristics of insulin dysregualtion and obesity, as well as the involvement of laminitis. Little research however has been conducted to determine the effects of EMS on routine healthcare of these horses, in particular how they respond to vaccination...
May 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
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