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Influenza polymerase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079473/protective-immunity-against-influenza-in-hla-a2-transgenic-mice-by-modified-vaccinia-virus-ankara-vectored-vaccines-containing-internal-influenza-proteins
#1
Giuseppina Di Mario, Ester Sciaraffia, Marzia Facchini, Francesco Gubinelli, Elisa Soprana, Maddalena Panigada, Valentina Bernasconi, Bruno Garulli, Antonio Siccardi, Isabella Donatelli, Maria R Castrucci
BACKGROUND: The emergence of novel strains of influenza A viruses with hemagglutinins (HAs) that are antigenically distinct from those circulating in humans, and thus have pandemic potential, pose concerns and call for the development of more broadly protective influenza vaccines. In the present study, modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) encoding internal influenza antigens were evaluated for their immunogenicity and ability to protect HLA-A2.1 transgenic (AAD) mice from infection with influenza viruses...
January 12, 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077093/evaluation-of-the-point-of-care-becton-dickinson-veritor%C3%A2-rapid-influenza-diagnostic-test-in-kenya-2013-2014
#2
Linus K Ndegwa, Gideon Emukule, Timothy M Uyeki, Eunice Mailu, Sandra S Chaves, Marc-Alain Widdowson, Bandika V Lewa, Francis K Muiruri, Peter Omoth, Barry Fields, Joshua A Mott
BACKGROUND: We evaluated the performance of the Becton Dickinson Veritor™ System Flu A + B rapid influenza diagnostic test (RIDT) to detect influenza viruses in respiratory specimens from patients enrolled at five surveillance sites in Kenya, a tropical country where influenza seasonality is variable. METHODS: Nasal swab (NS) and nasopharyngeal (NP)/oropharyngeal (OP) swabs were collected from patients with influenza like illness and/or severe acute respiratory infection...
January 11, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077083/evaluation-of-the-line-probe-assay-for-the-rapid-detection-of-bacterial-meningitis-pathogens-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-samples-from-children
#3
Ahmet Soysal, Demet Gedikbasi Toprak, Salih Türkoğlu, Mustafa Bakir
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to compare the diagnostic performance of the line probe assay (LPA) with conventional multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Streptococcus pneumoniae as well as real-time PCR for Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from children during the multicenter national surveillance of bacterial meningitis between the years 2006 and 2009 in Turkey. RESULTS: During the study period 1460 subjects were enrolled and among them 841 (57%) met the criteria for probable bacterial meningitis...
January 11, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073985/population-based-pertussis-incidence-and-risk-factors-in-infants-less-than-6-months-in-nepal
#4
Michelle M Hughes, Janet A Englund, Jane Kuypers, James M Tielsch, Subarna K Khatry, Laxman Shrestha, Steven C LeClerq, Mark Steinhoff, Joanne Katz
BACKGROUND: Pertussis is estimated to cause 2 percent of childhood deaths globally and is a growing public health problem in developed countries despite high vaccination coverage. Infants are at greatest risk of morbidity and mortality. Maternal vaccination during pregnancy may be effective to prevent pertussis in young infants, but population-based estimates of disease burden in infants are lacking, particularly in low-income countries. The objective of this study was to estimate the incidence of pertussis in infants less than 6 months of age in Sarlahi District, Nepal...
January 10, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055819/outbreaks-among-wild-birds-and-domestic-poultry-caused-by-reassorted-influenza-a-h5n8-clade-2-3-4-4-viruses-germany-2016
#5
Anne Pohlmann, Elke Starick, Timm Harder, Dirk Höper, Anja Globig, Christoph Staubach, Klaas Dietze, Christian Grund, Günter Strebelow, Reiner G Ulrich, Jan Schinköthe, Jens P Teifke, Franz J Conraths, Thomas C Mettenleiter, Martin Beer
In November 2016, an influenza A(H5N8) outbreak caused deaths of wild birds and domestic poultry in Germany. Clade 2.3.4.4 virus was closely related to viruses at the Russia-Mongolia border in 2016 but had new polymerase acidic and nucleoprotein segments. These new strains may be more efficiently transmitted to and shed by birds.
April 15, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053101/generation-of-a-genetically-stable-high-fidelity-influenza-vaccine-strain
#6
Tadasuke Naito, Kotaro Mori, Hiroshi Ushirogawa, Naoki Takizawa, Eri Nobusawa, Takato Odagiri, Masato Tashiro, Ryosuke L Ohniwa, Kyosuke Nagata, Mineki Saito
: Vaccination is considered the most effective preventive means for influenza control. The development of a master virus with high growth and genetic stability, which may be used for the preparation of vaccine viruses by gene reassortment, is crucial for the enhancement of vaccine performance and efficiency of production. Here, we describe the generation of a high-fidelity and high-growth influenza vaccine master virus strain with a single V43I amino acid change in the PB1 polymerase of the high-growth PR8 master virus...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031371/screening-for-novel-small-molecule-inhibitors-targeting-the-assembling-of-influenza-virus-polymerase-complex-by-a-bilc-based-reporter-system
#7
Chunfeng Li, Zining Wang, Yang Cao, Lulan Wang, Jingyun Ji, Zhigao Chen, Tao Deng, Taijiao Jiang, Genhong Cheng, F Xiao-Feng Qin
: Influenza virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase consists of three viral protein subunits: PA, PB1 and PB2. Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) of these subunits play pivotal roles in assembling the functional polymerase complex, which is essential for the replication and transcription of influenza virus RNA. Here we developed a highly specific and robust bimolecular luminescence complementation (BiLC) reporter system to facilitate the investigation for influenza virus polymerase complex formation...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018924/h1n1-induced-venous-thromboembolic-events-results-of-a-single-institution-case-series
#8
Evangelos Dimakakos, Dimitra Grapsa, Ioannis Vathiotis, Aggeliki Papaspiliou, Meropi Panagiotarakou, Emmanouil Manolis, Konstantinos Syrigos
We describe the clinical and imaging characteristics of 7 cases with polymerase chain reaction-confirmed novel influenza A H1N1 virus (pH1N1) infection who developed venous thromboembolic events (VTEs) while being hospitalized for influenza pneumonia. Pulmonary embolism (PE) without deep vein thrombosis (DVT) was observed in 6 of 7 cases (85.7%); PE with underlying DVT was found in 1 patient (14.3%).
October 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018874/hospital-admissions-for-lower-respiratory-tract-infections-among-infants-in-the-canadian-arctic-a-cohort-study
#9
Anna Banerji, Val Panzov, Michael Young, Joan Robinson, Bonita Lee, Theo Moraes, Muhammad Mamdani, B Louise Giles, Depeng Jiang, Danny Bisson, Marguerite Dennis, Johanne Morel, Judith Hall, Charles Hui, Bosco Paes, James B Mahony
BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether this burden of disease of lower respiratory tract infections is comparable across the Canadian Arctic. The objectives of this surveillance study were to compare the rates of hospital admission for lower respiratory tract infection and the severity of infection across Arctic Canada, and to describe the responsible viruses. METHODS: We performed a prospective multicentre surveillance study of infants less than 1 year of age admitted in 2009 with lower respiratory tract infection to all hospitals (5 regional, 4 tertiary) in the Northwest Territories, Nunavut and Nunavik to assess for regional differences...
October 2016: CMAJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018433/viral-agents-causing-acute-respiratory-infections-in-children-under-five-a-study-from-eastern-india
#10
Pravakar Mishra, Lipika Nayak, Rashmi Ranjan Das, Bhagirathi Dwibedi, Amitabh Singh
Background. Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are important cause of mortality and morbidity in children under five in developing country. Methods. This observational study was conducted over two-year period in a tertiary care teaching hospital of Eastern India. Nasal and throat swabs were collected, transported to the laboratory at 2-8°C in viral transport media, and then processed for detection of viruses using mono/multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results. A total of 300 children aged 2-60 months with ARIs were included...
2016: International Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011636/chemical-controlled-activation-of-antiviral-myxovirus-resistance-1
#11
Judith Verhelst, Lien Van Hoecke, Jan Spitaels, Dorien De Vlieger, Annasaheb Kolpe, Xavier Saelens
The antiviral myxovirus resistance protein 1 (MX1) is an interferon-induced GTPase that plays an important role in the defense of mammalian cells against influenza A viruses. Mouse MX1 interacts with the influenza ribonucleoprotein complexes (vRNPs) and can prevent the interaction between polymerase basic 2 (PB2) and the nucleoprotein (NP) of influenza A viruses. However, it is unclear if mouse MX1 disrupts the PB2-NP interaction in the context of pre-existing vRNPs or prevents the assembly of new vRNP components...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004398/detection-of-d151g-n-mutations-in-the-neuraminidase-gene-of-influenza-a-h3n2-viruses-by-real-time-rt-pcr-allelic-discrimination-assay
#12
Vahid Rajabali Zadeh, Anitha Jagadesh, Anjana Krishnan, Govindakarnavar Arunkumar
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at D151 position of neuraminidase (NA) gene of influenza A(H3N2) virus has been associated with drug resistance and increased binding affinity. NA-D151G/N-substitutions of influenza A(H3N2) viruses are frequently induced and selected by culturing in Madin-Darby Canine Kidney(MDCK) cell lines. It is important to consider and exclude D151G/N mutants after isolation of influenza virus in MDCK cell line since; the substitutions can highly influence the results of experimental research...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002402/structural-basis-of-an-essential-interaction-between-influenza-polymerase-and-pol-ii-ctd
#13
Maria Lukarska, Guillaume Fournier, Alexander Pflug, Patricia Resa-Infante, Stefan Reich, Nadia Naffakh, Stephen Cusack
The heterotrimeric influenza polymerase (FluPol), comprising subunits PA, PB1 and PB2, binds to the conserved 5' and 3' termini (the 'promoter') of each of the eight single-stranded viral RNA (vRNA) genome segments and performs both transcription and replication of vRNA in the infected cell nucleus. To transcribe viral mRNAs, FluPol associates with cellular RNA polymerase II (Pol II), which enables it to take 5'-capped primers from nascent Pol II transcripts. Here we present a co-crystal structure of bat influenza A polymerase bound to a Pol II C-terminal domain (CTD) peptide mimic, which shows two distinct phosphoserine-5 (SeP5)-binding sites in the polymerase PA subunit, accommodating four CTD heptad repeats overall...
December 21, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995031/simultaneous-detection-of-influenza-a-subtypes-of-h3n2-virus-pandemic-h1n1-2009-virus-and-reassortant-avian-h7n9-virus-in-humans-by-multiplex-one-step-real-time-rt-pcr-assay
#14
Dawei Cui, Dejian Zhao, Guoliang Xie, Xianzhi Yang, Zhaoxia Huo, Shufa Zheng, Fei Yu, Yu Chen
BACKGROUND: Influenza A virus is a leading causative pathogen of human acute respiratory infection. Recently, the co-circulation of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 and seasonal H3N2 viruses was reported, and sporadic cases with reassortant avian H7N9 virus are continually reported in China. We aimed to establish a multiplex one-step real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) assay to simultaneously detect and discriminate FluA subtypes, including human seasonal H3N2 virus, pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus and reassortant avian H7N9 virus, in one reaction tube...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994923/microbiological-features-of-upper-respiratory-tract-infections-in-bulgarian-children-for-the-period-1998-2014
#15
Raina Tzvetanova Gergova, Guergana Petrova, Stefan Gergov, Petko Minchev, Ivan Mitov, Tanya Strateva
BACKGROUND: Across the globe, upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) are the most prevalent cause of morbidity in childhood. AIMS: The aim of our study is to analyze the incidence and etiology of bacterial URTIs in Bulgarian children, as well as the increasing antimicrobial resistance to the most common etiologic agents over a period of 17 years. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study. METHODS: The study material comprised the data from 4768 patients (aged 1-16 years) with URTI during the period from 1998-2014...
November 2016: Balkan Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966711/development-of-a-point-of-care-diagnostic-for-influenza-detection-with-antiviral-treatment-effectiveness-indication
#16
Richard C Murdock, Karen M Gallegos, Joshua A Hagen, Nancy Kelley-Loughnane, Alison A Weiss, Ian Papautsky
Currently, diagnosis of influenza is performed either through tedious polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or through rapid antigen detection assays. The rapid antigen detection assays available today are highly specific but not very sensitive, and most importantly, lack the ability to show if the strain of influenza detected is susceptible to antiviral agents, such as Tamiflu and Relenza. The ability to rapidly determine if a patient has an infectious disease and what type of treatment the infection will respond to, would significantly reduce the treatment decision time, shorten the impact of symptoms, and minimize transfer to others...
December 14, 2016: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966289/an-epidemiological-study-of-avian-influenza-a-h5-virus-in-nomadic-ducks-and-their-raising-practices-in-northeastern-bangladesh-2011-2012
#17
Shamim Sarkar, Salah Uddin Khan, Andrea Mikolon, Mohammad Ziaur Rahman, Jaynal Abedin, Nord Zeidner, Katherine Sturm-Ramirez, Stephen P Luby
BACKGROUND: In Bangladesh, nomadic duck flocks are groups of domestic ducks reared for egg production that are moved to access feeding sites beyond their owners' village boundaries and are housed overnight in portable enclosures in scavenging areas. The objectives of this study were to measure the prevalence of influenza A virus RNA and H5-specific antibodies in nomadic ducks and to characterize nomadic duck raising practices in northeastern Bangladesh. METHODS: We tested duck egg yolk specimens by competitive ELISA to detect antibodies against avian influenza A (H5) and environmental fecal samples by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) to detect influenza A virus RNA and H5 subtype...
December 14, 2016: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943329/viral-pathogens-among-elderly-people-with-acute-respiratory-infections-in-shanghai-china-preliminary-results-from-a-laboratory-based-surveillance-2012-2015
#18
Chuchu Ye, Weiping Zhu, Jianxing Yu, Zhongjie Li, Yifei Fu, Yajia Lan, Shengjie Lai, Yuanping Wang, Lifeng Pan, Qiao Sun, Genming Zhao
Acute respiratory infections (ARIs), with viral pathogens as the major contributors, are the most common illnesses worldwide, and increase the morbidity and mortality among the elderly population. The clinical and pathological features of elderly people with ARIs need to be identified for disease intervention. From January 1(st) , 2012 through December 31(st) , 2015, respiratory specimens from patients above 60 years old with ARIs were collected from the outpatient and inpatient settings of six sentinel hospitals in Pudong New Area...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936139/epidemiological-and-virological-characteristics-of-influenza-in-chongqing-china-2011-2015
#19
Li Qi, Yu Xiong, Bangzhong Xiao, Wenge Tang, Hua Ling, Jiang Long, Dayong Xiao, Han Zhao, Sheng Ye, Shuang Chen, Zhen Yu, Qin Li
BACKGROUND: Chongqing is the largest municipality and located in Southwestern of China, with over 30 million registered inhabitants. There are few reports regarding the epidemiology of influenza in Chongqing. The objective of the paper is to explore the epidemiology of influenza in Chongqing, in order to provide scientific basis for prevention and control of influenza. METHODOLOGY /PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From 2011 to 2015, we collected information on influenza-like illness (ILI) patients fulfilling the case definition, and took nasalpharyngeal or throat swabs specimens from ILI cases per week at the 7 sentinel hospitals...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927274/characterization-of-avian-influenza-a-h7n9-virus-prevalence-in-humans-and-poultry-in-huai-an-china-molecular-epidemiology-phylogenetic-and-dynamics-analyses
#20
Peng Fei Yang, Qing Li Yan, Chun Cheng Liu, Ya Dong Xing, Min Hui Zhang, Qiang Gao, Hao Yu, Hai Bo Yao, Nan Jiang He
OBJECTIVE: To trace the source of human H7N9 cases in Huai'an and elucidate the genetic characterization of Huai'an strains associated with both humans and birds in live poultry market. METHODS: An enhanced surveillance was implemented when the first human H7N9 case was confirmed in Huai'an. Clinical specimens, cloacal swabs, and fecal samples were collected and screened by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for H7N9 virus. The positive samples were subjected to further RT-PCR and genome sequencing...
October 2016: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
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