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Tam + chemo

M Woldemeskel, I Hawkins, L Whittington
BACKGROUND: Ki67 index, tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) and mast cells (MCs) are associated with malignancies in animal and human neoplasms including colorectal carcinomas (CRC). This has not been assessed in canine CRC. Given similar genetic abnormalities between human and canine CRC, we assessed Ki-67 and mitotic indices, TAMs and MC count (MCC) in canine CRC (n = 17). TAMs and MCC were compared with those in adenomas (n = 13) and control (n = 9). RESULTS: Ki-67 index in CRC (17...
April 20, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
Toyohisa Iriki, Koji Ohnishi, Yukio Fujiwara, Hasita Horlad, Yoichi Saito, Cheng Pan, Koei Ikeda, Takeshi Mori, Makoto Suzuki, Hidenori Ichiyasu, Hirotsugu Kohrogi, Motohiro Takeya, Yoshihiro Komohara
OBJECTIVES: Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is an aggressive tumor with a poor prognosis. It is well known that various stromal cells, including macrophages, play a role in tumor progression in several types of malignant tumors; however, the significance of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in SCLC has not been fully elucidated. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a molecule well-known to be related to tumor progression. In the present study, we investigated the relationship of TAMs and SCLC cells to test the hypothesis that TAMs induce tumor progression in SCLC via STAT3 activation...
April 2017: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
Canan Kasikara, Sushil Kumar, Stanley Kimani, Wen-I Tsou, Ke Geng, Viralkumar Davra, Ganapathy Sriram, Connor Devoe, Khanh-Quynh Nguyen, Anita Antes, Allen Krantz, Grzegorz Rymarczyk, Andrzej Wilczynski, Cyril Empig, Bruce D Freimark, Michael Gray, Kyle Schlunegger, Jeff Hutchins, Sergei V Kotenko, Raymond B Birge
Tyro3, Axl and Mertk (collectively TAM receptors) are three homologous receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) that bind vitamin K-dependent endogenous ligands, Protein S (ProS) and Growth arrest specific factor 6 (Gas6), and act as bridging molecules to promote phosphatidylserine (PS)-mediated clearance of apoptotic cells (efferocytosis). TAM receptors are overexpressed in a vast array of tumor types, whereby the level of expression correlates with the tumor grade and the emergence of chemo- and radio-resistance to targeted therapeutics, but also have been implicated as inhibitory receptors on infiltrating myeloid-derived cells in the tumor microenvironment (TME) that can suppress host anti-tumor immunity...
February 9, 2017: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
Gianpiero Cera, Tobias Haven, Lutz Ackermann
Triazole assistance enabled the first iron-catalyzed C-H alkynylation of arenes, heteroarenes, and alkenes. The modular TAM directing group set the stage for a sequential C-H alkynylation/annulation strategy with ample scope, enabling the iron-catalyzed assembly of isoquinolones, pyridones, pyrrolones, and isoindolinones with high levels of chemo-, site-, and regioselectivity.
March 13, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
Bryan Oronsky, Ramasamy Paulmurugan, Kira Foygel, Jan Scicinski, Susan J Knox, Donna Peehl, Hongjuan Zhao, Shoucheng Ning, Pedro Cabrales, Thomas A Summers, Tony R Reid, William L Fitch, Michelle M Kim, Jane B Trepel, Min-Jung Lee, Santosh Kesari, Nacer D Abrouk, Regina M Day, Arnold Oronsky, Carolyn M Ray, Corey A Carterg
According to Hanahan and Weinberg, cancer manifests as six essential physiologic hallmarks: (1) self-sufficiency in growth signals, (2) insensitivity to growth-inhibitory signals, (3) evasion of programmed cell death, (4) limitless replicative potential, (5) sustained angiogenesis, and (6) invasion and metastasis. As a facilitator of these traits as well as immunosuppression and chemoresistance, the presence of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) may serve as the seventh hallmark of cancer. Anticancer agents that successfully reprogram TAMs to target rather than support tumor cells may hold the key to better therapeutic outcomes...
January 2017: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
Viralkumar Davra, Stanley G Kimani, David Calianese, Raymond B Birge
The TAM family of receptors (i.e., Tyro3, Axl, and Mertk), and their ligands Growth arrest specific factor 6 (Gas6) and Protein S (Pros1) contribute to several oncogenic processes, such as cell survival, invasion, migration, chemo-resistance, and metastasis, whereby expression often correlates with poor clinical outcomes. In recent years, there has been great interest in the study of TAM receptors in cancer, stemming both from their roles as oncogenic signaling receptors, as well as their roles in tumor immunology...
November 29, 2016: Cancers
Yoshihiro Komohara, Motohiro Takeya
Many non-tumour host cells such as inflammatory cells, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells are present in the tumour microenvironment and affect the malignant potential and chemo-resistance of the tumour cells. Macrophages and fibroblasts are the main components of infiltrating stromal cells and are referred to as tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), respectively. TAMs and CAFs are reported to be involved in tumour progression, although their functions change to those of an anti-tumour phenotype under specific conditions...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Pathology
Junko Tsuboki, Yukio Fujiwara, Hasita Horlad, Daisuke Shiraishi, Toshihiro Nohara, Shingo Tayama, Takeshi Motohara, Yoichi Saito, Tsuyoshi Ikeda, Kiyomi Takaishi, Hironori Tashiro, Yukihiro Yonemoto, Hidetaka Katabuchi, Motohiro Takeya, Yoshihiro Komohara
It is well known that tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) play an important role in tumour development by modulating the tumour microenvironment, and targeting of protumour activation or the M2 polarization of TAMs is expected to be an effective therapy for cancer patients. We previously demonstrated that onionin A (ONA), a natural low molecular weight compound isolated from onions, has an inhibitory effect on M2 macrophage polarization. In the present study, we investigated whether ONA had a therapeutic anti-ovarian cancer effect using in vitro and in vivo studies...
July 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
Jing Li, Kun He, Ping Liu, Lisa X Xu
Chemotherapeutic efficacy is also regulated by the tumor microenvironment. IL-6 produced by TAMs and downstream IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway is central regulator in chemotherapeutic response. The M2-like phenotype of TAMs is characterized by elevated iron uptake. Whether iron participates in chemo-resistance need to be elucidated. In the present study, we found that IL-6 participated in breast cancer chemoresistance. Local IL-6 paracrine loop acted as exogenous IL-6 rich niche for chemo-sensitive breast cancer cells, leading to de novo acquired drug resistance...
June 24, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Adriana Baritchii, Anca Jurj, Olga Soritau, Ciprian Tomuleasa, Layos Raduly, Oana Zanoaga, Dana Cernea, Cornelia Braicu, Ioana Neagoe, Ioan Stefan Florian
PURPOSE: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive primary brain tumor. Despite maximal cytoreductive surgery followed by chemoradiotherapy the prognosis is still poor. Although surgery and radiotherapy may have reached maximal effectiveness, chemotherapy has the potential to improve survival. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro the antitumor efficacy of tamoxifen (TAM), raloxifen (RAL), pyrimethamine (PYR) and alphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA) in combination with temozolomide (TMZ) plus ionizing radiation against cultured glioblastoma stem-like cells and primary glioblastoma cells , as possible way to increase the treatment options in patients with therapy-refractory GBM...
January 2016: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
Lutian Yao, Mengyi Wang, Zheyu Niu, Qiaofei Liu, Xiang Gao, Li Zhou, Quan Liao, Yupei Zhao
Pancreatic cancer is characterized as inflammatory malignancy with a dismal prognosis. There is abundant intratumoral infiltration of macrophages, and most of these tumor associated macrophages (TAM) are induced to be M2 phenotype. The M2 polarized TAM has been demonstrated to promote progression and induce chemo-resistance of pancreatic cancer. Interleukin (IL)-27 is a novel member of IL-12 cytokine family and its roles in regulation of phenotypes and functions of TAM remain largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrated IL-27 significantly inhibited the M2 macrophages polarization and dampened the proliferation, migration and metastasis of pancreatic cancer cells and as well enhanced the efficacy of gemcitabine...
January 2017: Cytokine
Gianpiero Cera, Tobias Haven, Lutz Ackermann
Triazole assistance set the stage for a unified strategy for the iron-catalyzed C-H allylation of arenes, heteroarenes, and alkenes with ample scope. The versatile catalyst also proved competent for site-selective methylation, benzylation, and alkylation with challenging primary and secondary halides. Triazole-assisted C-H activation proceeded chemo-, site-, and diastereo-selectively, and the modular TAM directing group was readily removed in a traceless fashion under exceedingly mild reaction conditions.
January 22, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
Bivas Biswas, Mehar Chand Sharma, Asit Ranjan Mridha, Sameer Bakhshi
BACKGROUND: Cysteine protease Cathepsin L is involved in bone remodeling and expressed in activated macrophages. It is highly expressed in metastatic tumor tissue, especially with bone metastases. AIMS: We evaluated immunohistochemical expression of Cathepsin L in tumor cells and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in chemo-naive Ewing sarcoma. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Retrospective evaluation of archived specimens of Ewing sarcoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Immunohistochemical staining was performed on archived blocks of chemo-naive patients with Ewing sarcoma treated with uniform chemotherapy at our institute between January 2009 and November 2011...
April 2015: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
Jayashree C Jagtap, D Parveen, Reecha D Shah, Aarti Desai, Dipali Bhosale, Ashish Chugh, Deepak Ranade, Swapnil Karnik, Bhushan Khedkar, Aaishwarya Mathur, Kumar Natesh, Goparaju Chandrika, Padma Shastry
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most malignant form of brain tumor and is associated with resistance to conventional therapy and poor patient survival. Prostate apoptosis response (Par)-4, a tumor suppressor, is expressed as both an intracellular and secretory/extracellular protein. Though secretory Par-4 induces apoptosis in cancer cells, its potential in drug-resistant tumors remains to be fully explored. Multicellular spheroids (MCS) of cancer cells often acquire multi-drug resistance and serve as ideal experimental models...
2015: FEBS Open Bio
Constantine S Tam, Stephan Stilgenbauer
Patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) carrying deletion of 17p (17p-) or mutations of TP53 have a uniquely poor prognosis related to increased propensities to progress to symptomatic disease, poor responses to chemo(immuno)therapy and high rates of Richter transformation. Both traditional fludarabine, cyclophosphamide and rituximab (FCR)-based chemoimmunotherapy and alemtuzumab-based regimens are inadequate in controlling 17p- CLL durably, and allogeneic stem cell transplant holds the only prospect for long-term survival...
March 2015: Leukemia & Lymphoma
Christian Marinaccio, Giuseppe Ingravallo, Francesco Gaudio, Tommasina Perrone, Beatrice Nico, Eugenio Maoirano, Giorgina Specchia, Domenico Ribatti
Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common form of Non-Hodgkin lymphoma characterized by clinical and biological heterogeneity attributable both to the tumor cells and the complex tumor-microenvironment surrounding them. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and mast cells are two major components of the tumor inflammatory infiltrate with a definite role in enhancing tumor angiogenesis. In this study, we have investigated CD68 and tryptase expression and their relationship with microvascular density (MVD) in chemo-resistant and chemosensitive patients affected by DLBCL...
November 2014: Leukemia Research
Bamaprasad Dutta, Ren Yan, Sai Kiang Lim, James P Tam, Siu Kwan Sze
In contrast to the intensely studied genetic and epigenetic changes that induce host cell transformation to initiate tumor development, those that promote the malignant progression of cancer remain poorly defined. As emerging evidence suggests that the hypoxic tumor microenvironment could re-model the chromatin-associated proteome (chromatome) to induce epigenetic changes and alter gene expression in cancer cells, we hypothesized that hypoxia-driven evolution of the chromatome promotes malignant changes and the development of therapy resistance in tumor cells...
December 2014: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
Kabir Ahmed, Gary Timmerman, Robert Meyer, Tara Miller, Miroslaw Mazurczak, Kimberlee Tams, Muslim Atiq
Verrucous carcinoma of the esophagus is a rare variant of squamous cell carcinoma associated with human papillomavirus. We report the case of a 58-year-old female who presented with ongoing symptoms of dysphagia. On previous endoscopies she had been noted to have a large polyp-like mass involving the esophagus, with negative biopsies for malignancy. Repeat endoscopy with concurrent endoscopic ultrasound showed a large semi-pedunculated polyp in the distal esophagus and a hypoechoic, irregular mass involving the gastroesophageal junction with esophageal thickening...
September 2013: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
Francesco Pantano, Pierpaolo Berti, Francesco Maria Guida, Giuseppe Perrone, Bruno Vincenzi, Michelina Maria Carla Amato, Daniela Righi, Emanuela Dell'aquila, Francesco Graziano, Vincenzo Catalano, Marco Caricato, Sergio Rizzo, Andrea Onetti Muda, Antonio Russo, Giuseppe Tonini, Daniele Santini
Tumour-associated Macrophages (TAM) present two different polarizations: classical (M1) characterized by immunostimulation activity and tumour suppression; alternative (M2) characterized by tumour promotion and immune suppression. In this retrospective study, we evaluated the correlation between the two forms of TAM with survival time in radically resected gastric cancer patients. A total of 52 chemo- and radio-naive patients were included. Two slides were prepared for each patient and double-stained for CD68/NOS2 (M1) or CD68/CD163 (M2) and five representative high-power fields per slide were evaluated for TAM count...
November 2013: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Chengqun Chen, Lin Hou, Huijuan Zhang, Ling Zhu, Hongling Zhang, Chaofeng Zhang, Jinjin Shi, Lei Wang, Xin Jia, Zhenzhong Zhang
An aspargine-glycine-arginine (NGR) peptide modified single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) system, developed by a simple non-covalent approach, could be loaded with the anticancer drug tamoxifen (TAM). This TAM-loaded NGR modified SWCNTs (TAM/NGR-SWCNTs) not only retained both optical properties of SWCNTs and cytotoxicity of TAM, but also could accumulate in tumors and enter into 4T1 cells, which facilitated combination chemotherapy with photothermal therapy in one targeting system. Enhanced cellular uptake, antitumor effect and cell apoptosis of TAM/NGR-SWCNTs on 4T1 cells were observed in vitro, compared with the TAM solution, TAM/SWCNTs and photothermal therapy alone...
November 2013: Journal of Drug Targeting
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