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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070223/medical-grade-footwear-the-impact-of-fit-and-comfort
#1
Bessie Hurst, Helen Branthwaite, Andrew Greenhalgh, Nachiappan Chockalingam
BACKGROUND: Pressure-related skin lesions on the digits are a significant cause of discomfort. Most foot pain related to ill-fitting shoes occurs in the forefoot and digital areas. Pain has been associated with poor shoe fit, reduced toe box volume, as well as contour and shape of the shoe Off-the-shelf medical-grade footwear is designed as an intervention for chronic lesions on the digits. These shoes are designed with a flexible neoprene fabric upper that is thought to reduce pressure on the forefoot and reduce discomfort associated with ill-fitting shoes...
2017: Journal of Foot and Ankle Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052845/efficacy-and-effectiveness-of-screen-and-treat-policies-in-prevention-of-type-2-diabetes-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-screening-tests-and-interventions
#2
Eleanor Barry, Samantha Roberts, Jason Oke, Shanti Vijayaraghavan, Rebecca Normansell, Trisha Greenhalgh
OBJECTIVES:  To assess diagnostic accuracy of screening tests for pre-diabetes and efficacy of interventions (lifestyle or metformin) in preventing onset of type 2 diabetes in people with pre-diabetes. DESIGN:  Systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES AND METHOD:  Medline, PreMedline, and Embase. Study protocols and seminal papers were citation-tracked in Google Scholar to identify definitive trials and additional publications...
January 4, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041754/not-all-patients-meet-the-1day-per-percent-burn-rule-a-simple-method-for-predicting-hospital-length-of-stay-in-patients-with-burn
#3
Sandra L Taylor, Soman Sen, David G Greenhalgh, MaryBeth Lawless, Terese Curri, Tina L Palmieri
INTRODUCTION: Hospital length of stay (LOS) is utilized to estimate resource utilization and quality of care. In burns the LOS estimation is 1day per percent total body surface area burn (1day/%TBSA). Our purpose was to evaluate the 1day/%TBSA burn rule and develop simple accurate formulas to predict LOS. METHODS: The American Burn Association National Burn Repository (NBR) from 2000 to 2013 was utilized to collate data on patients >18 years. We divided 106,543 records in half, utilizing one set to develop a model (training set) and the other to test the model (test set)...
December 29, 2016: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011333/effect-of-simulation-training-on-the-development-of-nurses-and-nursing-students-critical-thinking-a-systematic-literature-review
#4
REVIEW
Mohsen Adib-Hajbaghery, Najmeh Sharifi
OBJECTIVE: To gain insight into the existing scientific evidence on the effect of simulation on critical thinking in nursing education. DESIGN: A systematic literature review of original research publications. DATA SOURCES: In this systematic review, the papers published in English and Farsi databases of PubMed, Science Direct, ProQuest, ERIC, Google Scholar and Ovid, MagIran and SID, from 1975 to 2015 were reviewed by two independent researchers...
December 20, 2016: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009701/burn-shock-and-resuscitation-proceedings-of-a-symposium-conducted-at-the-meeting-of-the-american-burn-association-chicago-il-21-april-2015
#5
Maria L Serio-Melvin, José Salinas, Kevin K Chung, Clayton Collins, John C Graybill, David T Harrington, David N Herndon, David G Greenhalgh, George C Kramer, Alicia Lintner, Michael J Mosier, Ashish Nagpal, Leopoldo C Cancio
The Special Interest Groups of the American Burn Association provide a forum for interested members of the multidisciplinary burn team to congregate and discuss matters of mutual interest. At the 47th Annual Meeting of the American Burn Association in Chicago, IL, the Fluid Resuscitation Special Interest Group sponsored a special symposium on burn resuscitation. The purpose of the symposium was to review the history, current status, and future direction of fluid resuscitation of patients with burn shock. The reader will note several themes running through the following presentations...
January 2017: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991921/rock2-ras-ha-co-operation-induces-malignant-conversion-via-p53-loss-elevated-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-tenascin-c-associated-rigidity-but-p21-inhibits-rock2-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-mediated-progression
#6
S F Masre, N Rath, M F Olson, D A Greenhalgh
To study ROCK2 activation in carcinogenesis, mice expressing 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4HT)-activated ROCK2 (K14.ROCK(er)) were crossed with mice expressing epidermal-activated ras(Ha) (HK1.ras(1205)). At 8 weeks, 4HT-treated K14.ROCK(er)/HK1.ras(1205) cohorts exhibited papillomas similar to HK1.ras(1205) controls; however, K14.ROCK(er)/HK1.ras(1205) histotypes comprised a mixed papilloma/well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (wdSCC), exhibiting p53 loss, increased proliferation and novel NF-κB expression...
December 19, 2016: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978837/what-works-for-whom-in-pharmacist-led-smoking-cessation-support-realist-review
#7
Trisha Greenhalgh, Fraser Macfarlane, Liz Steed, Robert Walton
BACKGROUND: New models of primary care are needed to address funding and staffing pressures. We addressed the research question "what works for whom in what circumstances in relation to the role of community pharmacies in providing lifestyle interventions to support smoking cessation?" METHODS: This is a realist review conducted according to RAMESES standards. We began with a sample of 103 papers included in a quantitative review of community pharmacy intervention trials identified through systematic searching of seven databases...
December 16, 2016: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929198/b%C3%AE-arg448lys-polymorphism-is-associated-with-altered-fibrin-clot-structure-and-fibrinolysis-in-type-2-diabetes
#8
Katie A Greenhalgh, Mark W Strachan, Saad Alzahrani, Paul D Baxter, Kristina F Standeven, Robert F Storey, Robert A S Ariens, Peter J Grant, Jackie F Price, Ramzi A Ajjan
Both type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and Bβ448Lys variant of fibrinogen are associated with dense fibrin clots, impaired fibrinolysis and increased cardiovascular risk. It was our objective to investigate whether BβArg448Lys adds to vascular risk by modulating fibrin network structure and/or fibrinolysis in diabetes. The primary aim was to study effects of BβArg448Lys on fibrin network characteristics in T2DM. Secondary aims investigated interactions between gender and BβArg448Lys substitution in relation to fibrin clot properties and vascular disease...
December 8, 2016: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925823/systematic-reviews-for-policymaking-muddling-through
#9
Trisha Greenhalgh, Kirsti Malterud
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893703/generation-of-genome-scale-metabolic-reconstructions-for-773-members-of-the-human-gut-microbiota
#10
Stefanía Magnúsdóttir, Almut Heinken, Laura Kutt, Dmitry A Ravcheev, Eugen Bauer, Alberto Noronha, Kacy Greenhalgh, Christian Jäger, Joanna Baginska, Paul Wilmes, Ronan M T Fleming, Ines Thiele
Genome-scale metabolic models derived from human gut metagenomic data can be used as a framework to elucidate how microbial communities modulate human metabolism and health. We present AGORA (assembly of gut organisms through reconstruction and analysis), a resource of genome-scale metabolic reconstructions semi-automatically generated for 773 human gut bacteria. Using this resource, we identified a defined growth medium for Bacteroides caccae ATCC 34185. We also showed that interactions among modeled species depend on both the metabolic potential of each species and the nutrients available...
January 2017: Nature Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893575/variations-in-burn-excision-and-grafting-a-survey-of-the-american-burn-association
#11
Jacqueline S Israel, David G Greenhalgh, Angela L Gibson
It is unknown whether variations in burn care affect outcomes or affect the success of emerging therapeutics. The purpose of this study was to assess burn surgeons' preferences in excision and grafting to determine if surgical technique affects outcomes. A 71-item survey evaluating skin grafting techniques and preferences was emailed to members of the American Burn Association in July and August 2015. The survey was anonymous and voluntary. Relationships between variables were evaluated using Fisher's exact test...
January 2017: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893574/randomized-comparison-of-packed-red-blood-cell-to-fresh-frozen-plasma-transfusion-ratio-of-4-1-vs-1-1-during-acute-massive-burn-excision
#12
Laura A Galganski, David G Greenhalgh, Soman Sen, Tina L Palmieri
This prospective randomized controlled trial compared 1:1 vs 4:1 packed red blood cell with fresh frozen plasma (PRBC/FFP) transfusion strategy on outcomes in children with >20% TBSA burns. Children with >20% TBSA burns were randomized to a 1:1 or 4:1 PRBC/FFP transfusion ratio during burn excision. Parameters measured included demographics, TBSA burn, and Pediatric Risk of Mortality scores. Laboratory values recorded preoperatively, 1 hour, 12 hours, 24 hours, and 1 week postoperatively included prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time (PTT), international normalized ratio, fibrinogen, protein C, and antithrombin C (AIII)...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869112/a-brief-overview-of-english-primary-care-in-the-last-half-century
#13
Carlota Blanco Rubio, Carmen de Francisco Montero, Francisco Javier González Hernández, Alberto Adrada Bautista, Inmaculada Gabaldón-Rodríguez, Manuel Ortega-Calvo
Key hefts, the hard core of clinical profile, scientific nursing and nowadays of the English School of Primary Care in the last sixty years are revisited. We understand that the most profound intellectual influence has been to Archie Cochrane, among family physicians hard core components we include John Fry (1922-1994), David Metcalfe and Julian Tudor Hart. On the other hand, Lisbeth Hockey (1918-2004), PhD in Nursing, was responsible for several years of Nursing Research Unit at the University of Edinburgh...
November 21, 2016: Revista Española de Salud Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819746/monotherapy-treatment-of-epilepsy-in-pregnancy-congenital-malformation-outcomes-in-the-child
#14
REVIEW
Jennifer Weston, Rebecca Bromley, Cerian F Jackson, Naghme Adab, Jill Clayton-Smith, Janette Greenhalgh, Juliet Hounsome, Andrew J McKay, Catrin Tudur Smith, Anthony G Marson
BACKGROUND: There is evidence that certain antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are teratogenic and are associated with an increased risk of congenital malformation. The majority of women with epilepsy continue taking AEDs throughout pregnancy; therefore it is important that comprehensive information on the potential risks associated with AED treatment is available. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of prenatal exposure to AEDs on the prevalence of congenital malformations in the child...
7, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816520/inherently-variable-responses-to-glucocorticoid-stress-among-endogenous-retroviruses-isolated-from-23-mouse-strains
#15
Karen Hsu, Young-Kwan Lee, Alex Chew, Sophia Chiu, Debora Lim, David G Greenhalgh, Kiho Cho
Active participation of endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) in disease processes has been exemplified by the finding that the HERV (human ERV)-W envelope protein is involved in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis, an autoimmune disease. We also demonstrated that injury-elicited stressors alter the expression of murine ERVs (MuERVs), both murine leukemia virus-type and mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV)-type (MMTV-MuERV). In this study, to evaluate MMTV-MuERVs' responses to stress (e.g., injury, infection)-elicited systemic glucocorticoid (GC) levels, we examined the GC-stress response of 64 MMTV-MuERV promoters isolated from the genomes of 23 mouse strains...
November 3, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797949/complex-evolutionary-dynamics-of-massively-expanded-chemosensory-receptor-families-in-an-extreme-generalist-chelicerate-herbivore
#16
Phuong Cao Thi Ngoc, Robert Greenhalgh, Wannes Dermauw, Stephane Rombauts, Sabina Bajda, Vladimir Zhurov, Miodrag Grbić, Yves Van de Peer, Thomas Van Leeuwen, Pierre Rouzé, Richard M Clark
While mechanisms to detoxify plant produced, anti-herbivore compounds have been associated with plant host use by herbivores, less is known about the role of chemosensory perception in their life histories. This is especially true for generalists, including chelicerate herbivores that evolved herbivory independently from the more studied insect lineages. To shed light on chemosensory perception in a generalist herbivore, we characterized the chemosensory receptors (CRs) of the chelicerate two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, an extreme generalist...
December 14, 2016: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789487/blood-pressure-measurement-a-call-to-arms
#17
EDITORIAL
Christine A'Court, James Sheppard, Trisha Greenhalgh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: British Journal of General Practice: the Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783657/non-market-values-in-a-cost-benefit-world-evidence-from-a-choice-experiment
#18
Florian V Eppink, Matthew Winden, Will C C Wright, Suzie Greenhalgh
In support of natural resource and ecosystem service policy, monetary value estimates are often presented to decision makers along with other types of information. There is some evidence that, presented with such 'mixed' information, people prioritise monetary over non-monetary information. We conduct a discrete choice experiment among New Zealand decision makers in which we manipulate the information presented to participants. We find that providing explicit monetary information strengthens the pursuit of economic benefits as well as the avoidance of environmental damage...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775859/tissue-selective-expression-of-a-conditionally-active-rock2-estrogen-receptor-fusion-protein
#19
Michael S Samuel, Nicola Rath, Siti F Masre, Sarah T Boyle, David A Greenhalgh, Marina Kochetkova, Sheila Bryson, David Stevenson, Michael F Olson
The serine/threonine kinases ROCK1 and ROCK2 are central mediators of actomyosin contractile force generation that act downstream of the RhoA small GTP-binding protein. As a result, they have key roles in regulating cell morphology and proliferation, and have been implicated in numerous pathological conditions and diseases including hypertension and cancer. Here we describe the generation of a gene-targeted mouse line that enables CRE-inducible expression of a conditionally-active fusion between the ROCK2 kinase domain and the hormone-binding domain of a mutated estrogen receptor (ROCK2:ER)...
December 2016: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767013/models-and-applications-for-measuring-the-impact-of-health-research-update-of-a-systematic-review-for-the-health-technology-assessment-programme
#20
James Raftery, Steve Hanney, Trish Greenhalgh, Matthew Glover, Amanda Blatch-Jones
BACKGROUND: This report reviews approaches and tools for measuring the impact of research programmes, building on, and extending, a 2007 review. OBJECTIVES: (1) To identify the range of theoretical models and empirical approaches for measuring the impact of health research programmes; (2) to develop a taxonomy of models and approaches; (3) to summarise the evidence on the application and use of these models; and (4) to evaluate the different options for the Health Technology Assessment (HTA) programme...
October 2016: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
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