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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656532/of-lamp-posts-keys-and-fabled-drunkards-a-perspectival-tale-of-4-guidelines
#1
Trisha Greenhalgh
BACKGROUND: Evidence-based medicine is the application of research findings to inform individual clinical decisions. There is a tension-both philosophical and practical-between the average result from a population study and the circumstances and needs of an individual patient. This personal account of "evidence-based" trauma care illustrates and explores this tension. THE CASE: The author, a keen athlete, describes her experience of a high-impact cycle accident that led to limb fractures (which were diagnosed and treated according to evidence-based guidelines) and also an occult injury to the cervical spine (which was not diagnosed at the time)...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651735/coroners-and-ptsd-treatment-implications
#2
REVIEW
Raymond B Flannery, Thomas Greenhalgh
Experimental studies have documented the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in first responders. These studies have routinely included police, firefighters, and paramedics. However, there is another group of first responders that are at risk for PTSD but that has received less research attention. This group is comprised of coroners. This paper reviewed the published data concerning coroners and PTSD and outlined various treatments for addressing coronial PTSD. The findings, the differing treatments, and a detailed methodological inquiry are presented...
April 13, 2018: Psychiatric Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625956/video-outpatient-consultations-a-case-study-of-real-world-implementation-at-macro-meso-and-micro-level
#3
Trish Greenhalgh, Sara Shaw, Joseph Wherton, Shanti Vijayaraghavan, Joanne Morris, Satya Bhattacharya, Philippa Hanson, Desirée Campbell-Richards, Seendy Ramoutar, Anna Collard, Isabel Hodkinson
BACKGROUND: There is much interest in virtual consultations using video technology. Randomized controlled trials have shown video consultations to be acceptable, safe, and effective in selected conditions and circumstances. But this model has rarely been mainstreamed and sustained in real-world settings. OBJECTIVE: The study sought to (1) define good practice and inform implementation of video outpatient consultations and (2) generate transferable knowledge about challenges to scaling up and routinizing this service model...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623607/making-demography-astonishing-lessons-in-the-politics-of-population-science
#4
Susan Greenhalgh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 5, 2018: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605724/timing-of-laparotomy-and-closure-in-burn-patients-with-abdominal-compartment-syndrome-effects-on-survival
#5
Jesus I Ramirez, Soman Sen, Tina L Palmieri, David G Greenhalgh
BACKGROUND: Survival of burned patients with abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is uniformly reported to be poor, averaging just 16% after laparotomy. We hypothesize that better outcomes may be achieved with a strategy of immediate laparotomy and early fascial closure. STUDY DESIGN: Patients with burn injury who were diagnosed with ACS between 2005 and 2016 were identified through a search of databases. Data was gathered from electronic medical records. Timing of laparotomy and closure were calculated for each patient...
March 29, 2018: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600384/paclitaxel-as-albumin-bound-nanoparticles-with-gemcitabine-for-untreated-metastatic-pancreatic-cancer-an-evidence-review-group-perspective-of-a-nice-single-technology-appraisal
#6
REVIEW
Angela Stainthorpe, Janette Greenhalgh, Adrian Bagust, Marty Richardson, Angela Boland, Sophie Beale, Rui Duarte, Eleanor Kotas, Lindsay Banks, Daniel Palmer
As part of the single technology appraisal (STA) process, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) invited Celgene Ltd to submit clinical and cost-effectiveness evidence for paclitaxel as albumin-bound nanoparticles (Nab-Pac) in combination with gemcitabine (Nab-Pac + Gem) for patients with untreated metastatic pancreatic cancer. The STA was a review of NICE's 2015 guidance (TA360) in which Nab-Pac + Gem was not recommended for patients with untreated metastatic pancreatic cancer...
March 29, 2018: PharmacoEconomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578574/time-to-challenge-the-spurious-hierarchy-of-systematic-over-narrative-reviews
#7
Trisha Greenhalgh, Sally Thorne, Kirsti Malterud
Systematic reviews are generally placed above narrative reviews in an assumed hierarchy of secondary research evidence. We argue that systematic reviews and narrative reviews serve different purposes and should be viewed as complementary. Conventional systematic reviews address narrowly focused questions; their key contribution is summarising data. Narrative reviews provide interpretation and critique; their key contribution is deepening understanding. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved...
March 26, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540093/hyperinflation-of-glycopyrrolate
#8
Elizabeth Greenhalgh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2018: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509747/prostate-specific-antigen-velocity-in-a-prospective-prostate-cancer-screening-study-of-men-with-genetic-predisposition
#9
Christos Mikropoulos, Christina G Hutten Selkirk, Sibel Saya, Elizabeth Bancroft, Emily Vertosick, Tokhir Dadaev, Charles Brendler, Elizabeth Page, Alexander Dias, D Gareth Evans, Jeanette Rothwell, Lovise Maehle, Karol Axcrona, Kate Richardson, Diana Eccles, Thomas Jensen, Palle J Osther, Christi J van Asperen, Hans Vasen, Lambertus A Kiemeney, Janneke Ringelberg, Cezary Cybulski, Dominika Wokolorczyk, Rachel Hart, Wayne Glover, Jimmy Lam, Louise Taylor, Monica Salinas, Lidia Feliubadaló, Rogier Oldenburg, Ruben Cremers, Gerald Verhaegh, Wendy A van Zelst-Stams, Jan C Oosterwijk, Jackie Cook, Derek J Rosario, Saundra S Buys, Tom Conner, Susan Domchek, Jacquelyn Powers, Margreet G E M Ausems, Manuel R Teixeira, Sofia Maia, Louise Izatt, Rita Schmutzler, Kerstin Rhiem, William D Foulkes, Talia Boshari, Rosemarie Davidson, Marielle Ruijs, Apollonia T J M Helderman-van den Enden, Lesley Andrews, Lisa Walker, Katie Snape, Alex Henderson, Irene Jobson, Geoffrey J Lindeman, Annelie Liljegren, Marion Harris, Muriel A Adank, Judy Kirk, Amy Taylor, Rachel Susman, Rakefet Chen-Shtoyerman, Nicholas Pachter, Allan Spigelman, Lucy Side, Janez Zgajnar, Josefina Mora, Carole Brewer, Neus Gadea, Angela F Brady, David Gallagher, Theo van Os, Alan Donaldson, Vigdis Stefansdottir, Julian Barwell, Paul A James, Declan Murphy, Eitan Friedman, Nicola Nicolai, Lynn Greenhalgh, Elias Obeid, Vedang Murthy, Lucia Copakova, John McGrath, Soo-Hwang Teo, Sara Strom, Karin Kast, Daniel A Leongamornlert, Anthony Chamberlain, Jenny Pope, Anna C Newlin, Neil Aaronson, Audrey Ardern-Jones, Chris Bangma, Elena Castro, David Dearnaley, Jorunn Eyfjord, Alison Falconer, Christopher S Foster, Henrik Gronberg, Freddie C Hamdy, Oskar Johannsson, Vincent Khoo, Jan Lubinski, Eli Marie Grindedal, Joanne McKinley, Kylie Shackleton, Anita V Mitra, Clare Moynihan, Gad Rennert, Mohnish Suri, Karen Tricker, Sue Moss, Zsofia Kote-Jarai, Andrew Vickers, Hans Lilja, Brian T Helfand, Rosalind A Eeles
This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/bjc.2017.429.
March 6, 2018: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29508669/networks-as-systems
#10
Allan Best, Alex Berland, Trisha Greenhalgh, Ivy L Bourgeault, Jessie E Saul, Brittany Barker
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to present a case study of the World Health Organization's Global Healthcare Workforce Alliance (GHWA). Based on a commissioned evaluation of GHWA, it applies network theory and key concepts from systems thinking to explore network emergence, effectiveness, and evolution to over a ten-year period. The research was designed to provide high-level strategic guidance for further evolution of global governance in human resources for health (HRH). Design/methodology/approach Methods included a review of published literature on HRH governance and current practice in the field and an in-depth case study whose main data sources were relevant GHWA background documents and key informant interviews with GHWA leaders, staff, and stakeholders...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Health Organization and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465107/sanatoria-revisited-sunlight-and-health
#11
I Greenhalgh, A R Butler
Since the 18th century tuberculosis has been a major cause of death throughout the world. It is a highly infectious disease that spreads by droplet infection and finding effective treatment to combat tuberculosis took a great deal of time. One of the first treatments to have some real success was a stay in a sanatorium. Sanatoria were homes that provided patients with good food and fresh air (and therefore sunlight). The first sanatorium to use sunlight therapy (heliotherapy) seriously was founded in Leysin, Switzerland, by Auguste Rollier...
September 2017: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396385/how-knowledge-is-constructed-and-exchanged-in-virtual-communities-of-physicians-qualitative-study-of-mindlines-online
#12
Sietse Wieringa, Eivind Engebretsen, Kristin Heggen, Trisha Greenhalgh
BACKGROUND: As a response to the criticisms evidence-based practice currently faces, groups of health care researchers and guideline makers have started to call for the appraisal and inclusion of different kinds of knowledge in guideline production (other than randomized controlled trials [RCTs]) to better link with the informal knowledge used in clinical practice. In an ethnographic study, Gabbay and Le May showed that clinicians in everyday practice situations do not explicitly or consciously use guidelines...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386252/tumour-risks-and-genotype-phenotype-correlations-associated-with-germline-variants-in-succinate-dehydrogenase-subunit-genes-sdhb-sdhc-and-sdhd
#13
Katrina A Andrews, David B Ascher, Douglas Eduardo Valente Pires, Daniel R Barnes, Lindsey Vialard, Ruth T Casey, Nicola Bradshaw, Julian Adlard, Simon Aylwin, Paul Brennan, Carole Brewer, Trevor Cole, Jackie A Cook, Rosemarie Davidson, Alan Donaldson, Alan Fryer, Lynn Greenhalgh, Shirley V Hodgson, Richard Irving, Fiona Lalloo, Michelle McConachie, Vivienne P M McConnell, Patrick J Morrison, Victoria Murday, Soo-Mi Park, Helen L Simpson, Katie Snape, Susan Stewart, Susan E Tomkins, Yvonne Wallis, Louise Izatt, David Goudie, Robert S Lindsay, Colin G Perry, Emma R Woodward, Antonis C Antoniou, Eamonn R Maher
BACKGROUND: Germline pathogenic variants in SDHB/SDHC / SDHD are the most frequent causes of inherited phaeochromocytomas/paragangliomas. Insufficient information regarding penetrance and phenotypic variability hinders optimum management of mutation carriers. We estimate penetrance for symptomatic tumours and elucidate genotype-phenotype correlations in a large cohort of SDHB/SDHC / SDHD mutation carriers. METHODS: A retrospective survey of 1832 individuals referred for genetic testing due to a personal or family history of phaeochromocytoma/paraganglioma...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384470/the-uk-endovascular-aneurysm-repair-evar-randomised-controlled-trials-long-term-follow-up-and-cost-effectiveness-analysis
#14
Rajesh Patel, Janet T Powell, Michael J Sweeting, David M Epstein, Jessica K Barrett, Roger M Greenhalgh
BACKGROUND: Short-term survival benefits of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) compared with open repair (OR) of intact abdominal aortic aneurysms have been shown in randomised trials, but this early survival benefit is soon lost. Survival benefit of EVAR was unclear at follow-up to 10 years. OBJECTIVE: To assess the long-term efficacy of EVAR against OR in patients deemed fit and suitable for both procedures (EVAR trial 1; EVAR-1); and against no intervention in patients unfit for OR (EVAR trial 2; EVAR-2)...
January 2018: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382705/discovery-of-potent-and-selective-mrck-inhibitors-with-therapeutic-effect-on-skin-cancer
#15
Mathieu Unbekandt, Simone Belshaw, Justin Bower, Maeve Clarke, Jacqueline Cordes, Diane Crighton, Daniel R Croft, Martin J Drysdale, Mathew J Garnett, Kathryn Gill, Christopher Gray, David A Greenhalgh, James Am Hall, Jennifer Konczal, Sergio Lilla, Duncan McArthur, Patricia McConnell, Laura McDonald, Lynn McGarry, Heather McKinnon, Carol McMenemy, Mokdad Mezna, Nicholas A Morrice, June Munro, Gregory Naylor, Nicola Rath, Alexander W Schüttelkopf, Mairi Sime, Michael F Olson
The myotonic dystrophy-related Cdc42-binding kinases MRCKα and MRCKβ contribute to the regulation of actin-myosin cytoskeleton organization and dynamics, acting in concert with the Rho-associated coiled-coil kinases ROCK1 and ROCK2. The absence of highly potent and selective MRCK inhibitors has resulted in relatively little knowledge of the potential roles of these kinases in cancer. Here we report the discovery of the azaindole compounds BDP8900 and BDP9066 as potent and selective MRCK inhibitors that reduce substrate phosphorylation, leading to morphological changes in cancer cells along with inhibition of their motility and invasive character...
January 30, 2018: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378576/economic-evaluation-of-type-2-diabetes-prevention-programmes-markov-model-of-low-and-high-intensity-lifestyle-programmes-and-metformin-in-participants-with-different-categories-of-intermediate-hyperglycaemia
#16
Samantha Roberts, Dawn Craig, Amanda Adler, Klim McPherson, Trisha Greenhalgh
BACKGROUND: National guidance on preventing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the UK recommends low-intensity lifestyle interventions for individuals with intermediate categories of hyperglycaemia defined in terms of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or 'at-risk' levels of HbA1c. In a recent systematic review of economic evaluations of such interventions, most studies had evaluated intensive trial-based lifestyle programmes in participants with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). This study examines the costs and effects of different intensity lifestyle programmes and metformin in participants with different categories of intermediate hyperglycaemia...
January 30, 2018: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374007/a-web-based-course-on-public-health-principles-in-disaster-and-medical-humanitarian-response-survey-among-students-and-faculty
#17
Greta Tam, Emily Ying Yang Chan, Sida Liu
BACKGROUND: Web-based public health courses are becoming increasingly popular. "Public Health Principles in Disaster and Medical Humanitarian Response" is a unique Web-based course in Hong Kong. This course aimed to fill a public health training gap by reaching out to postgraduates who are unable to access face-to-face learning. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper was to use a structured framework to objectively evaluate the effectiveness of a Web-based course according to Greenhalgh et al's quality framework and the Donabedian model to make recommendations for program improvement...
January 26, 2018: JMIR Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329500/a-c-o%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-isothiouronium-interaction-dictates-enantiodiscrimination-in-acylative-kinetic-resolutions-of-tertiary-heterocyclic-alcohols
#18
Mark D Greenhalgh, Samuel M Smith, Daniel M Walden, James E Taylor, Zamira Brice, Emily R T Robinson, Charlene Fallan, David B Cordes, Alexandra M Z Slawin, H Camille Richardson, Markas A Grove, Paul Ha-Yeon Cheong, Andrew D Smith
A combination of experimental and computational studies have identified a C=O⋅⋅⋅isothiouronium interaction as key to efficient enantiodiscrimination in the kinetic resolution of tertiary heterocyclic alcohols bearing up to three potential recognition motifs at the stereogenic tertiary carbinol center. This discrimination was exploited in the isothiourea-catalyzed acylative kinetic resolution of tertiary heterocyclic alcohols (38 examples, s factors up to >200). The reaction proceeds at low catalyst loadings (generally 1 mol %) with either isobutyric or acetic anhydride as the acylating agent under mild conditions...
March 12, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325407/the-bright-elusive-butterfly-of-value-in-health-technology-development-comment-on-providing-value-to-new-health-technology-the-early-contribution-of-entrepreneurs-investors-and-regulatory-agencies
#19
COMMENT
Trisha Greenhalgh, Nick Fahy, Sara Shaw
The current system of health technology development is characterised by multiple misalignments. The "supply" side (innovation policy-makers, entrepreneurs, investors) and the "demand" side (health policy-makers, regulators, health technology assessment, purchasers) operate under different - and conflicting - logics. The system is less a "pathway" than an unstable ecosystem of multiple interacting sub-systems. "Value" means different things to each of the numerous actors involved...
May 29, 2017: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325217/neutrophil-infiltration-to-the-brain-is-platelet-dependent-and-is-reversed-by-blockade-of-platelet-gpib%C3%AE
#20
James A Giles, Andrew D Greenhalgh, Adam Denes, Bernhard Nieswandt, Graham Coutts, Barry W McColl, Stuart M Allan
Neutrophils are key components of the innate immune response, providing host defence against infection and being recruited to non-microbial injury sites. Platelets act as a trigger for neutrophil extravasation to inflammatory sites but mechanisms and tissue-specific aspects of these interactions are currently unclear. Here, we use bacterial endotoxin in mice to trigger an innate inflammatory response in different tissues and measure neutrophil invasion with or without platelet reduction. We show that platelets are essential for neutrophil infiltration to the brain, peritoneum and skin...
January 11, 2018: Immunology
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