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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146638/preventing-type-2-diabetes-systematic-review-of-studies-of-cost-effectiveness-of-lifestyle-programmes-and-metformin-with-and-without-screening-for-pre-diabetes
#1
Samantha Roberts, Eleanor Barry, Dawn Craig, Mara Airoldi, Gwyn Bevan, Trisha Greenhalgh
OBJECTIVE: Explore the cost-effectiveness of lifestyle interventions and metformin in reducing subsequent incidence of type 2 diabetes, both alone and in combination with a screening programme to identify high-risk individuals. DESIGN: Systematic review of economic evaluations. DATA SOURCES AND ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Database searches (Embase, Medline, PreMedline, NHS EED) and citation tracking identified economic evaluations of lifestyle interventions or metformin alone or in combination with screening programmes in people at high risk of developing diabetes...
November 15, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142896/sodium-variability-is-associated-with-increased-mortality-in-severe-burn-injury
#2
Soman Sen, Nam Tran, Brian Chan, Tina L Palmieri, David G Greenhalgh, Kiho Cho
Background: Dysnatremias are associated with increased mortality in critically ill patients. Hypernatremia in burn patients is also associated with poor survival. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that high plasma sodium variability is a marker for increased mortality in severely burn-injured patients. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of adult burn patients with a burn injury of 15% total body surface area (TBSA) or greater from 2010 to 2014. All patients included in the study had at least three serum sodium levels checked during admission...
2017: Burns and Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097444/razor-a-phase-ii-open-randomized-trial-of-screening-plus-goserelin-and-raloxifene-versus-screening-alone-in-pre-menopausal-women-at-increased-risk-of-breast-cancer
#3
Anthony Howell, Linda Ashcroft, Lesley Fallowfield, Diana M Eccles, Rosalind A Eeles, Ann Ward, Adam R Brentnall, Mitchell Dowsett, Jack M Cuzick, Rosemary Greenhalgh, Caroline Boggis, Jamie Motion, Jamie C Sergeant, Judith Adams, D Gareth R Evans
BACKGROUND: Ovarian suppression in premenopausal women is known to reduce breast cancer risk. This study aimed to assess uptake and compliance with ovarian suppression using the LHRH analogue, goserelin, with add-back raloxifene, as a potential regimen for breast cancer prevention. METHODS: Women at ≥30% lifetime risk breast cancer were approached and randomized to mammographic screening alone(C-Control) or screening in addition to monthly subcutaneous injections of 3...
November 2, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092808/beyond-adoption-a-new-framework-for-theorizing-and-evaluating-nonadoption-abandonment-and-challenges-to-the-scale-up-spread-and-sustainability-of-health-and-care-technologies
#4
Trisha Greenhalgh, Joseph Wherton, Chrysanthi Papoutsi, Jennifer Lynch, Gemma Hughes, Christine A'Court, Susan Hinder, Nick Fahy, Rob Procter, Sara Shaw
BACKGROUND: Many promising technological innovations in health and social care are characterized by nonadoption or abandonment by individuals or by failed attempts to scale up locally, spread distantly, or sustain the innovation long term at the organization or system level. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to produce an evidence-based, theory-informed, and pragmatic framework to help predict and evaluate the success of a technology-supported health or social care program...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061963/%C3%AE-v-integrins-on-mesenchymal-cells-regulate-skeletal-and-cardiac-muscle-fibrosis
#5
I R Murray, Z N Gonzalez, J Baily, R Dobie, R J Wallace, A C Mackinnon, J R Smith, S N Greenhalgh, A I Thompson, K P Conroy, D W Griggs, P G Ruminski, G A Gray, M Singh, M A Campbell, T J Kendall, J Dai, Y Li, J P Iredale, H Simpson, J Huard, B Péault, N C Henderson
Mesenchymal cells expressing platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRβ) are known to be important in fibrosis of organs such as the liver and kidney. Here we show that PDGFRβ(+) cells contribute to skeletal muscle and cardiac fibrosis via a mechanism that depends on αv integrins. Mice in which αv integrin is depleted in PDGFRβ(+) cells are protected from cardiotoxin and laceration-induced skeletal muscle fibrosis and angiotensin II-induced cardiac fibrosis. In addition, a small-molecule inhibitor of αv integrins attenuates fibrosis, even when pre-established, in both skeletal and cardiac muscle, and improves skeletal muscle function...
October 24, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044179/the-effect-of-insecticide-synergist-treatment-on-genome-wide-gene-expression-in-a-polyphagous-pest
#6
Simon Snoeck, Robert Greenhalgh, Luc Tirry, Richard M Clark, Thomas Van Leeuwen, Wannes Dermauw
Synergists can counteract metabolic insecticide resistance by inhibiting detoxification enzymes or transporters. They are used in commercial formulations of insecticides, but are also frequently used in the elucidation of resistance mechanisms. However, the effect of synergists on genome-wide transcription in arthropods is poorly understood. In this study we used Illumina RNA-sequencing to investigate genome-wide transcriptional responses in an acaricide resistant strain of the spider mite Tetranychus urticae upon exposure to synergists such as S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF), diethyl maleate (DEM), piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and cyclosporin A (CsA)...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034449/nitrous-oxide-based-vs-nitrous-oxide-free-general-anaesthesia-and-accidental-awareness-in-surgical-patients-an-abridged-cochrane-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
J Hounsome, J Greenhalgh, O J Schofield-Robinson, S R Lewis, T M Cook, A F Smith
Accidental awareness during general anaesthesia can arise from a failure to deliver sufficient anaesthetic agent, or from a patient's resistance to an expected sufficient dose of such an agent. Awareness is 'explicit' if the patient is subsequently able to recall the event. We conducted a systematic review into the effect of nitrous oxide used as part of a general anaesthetic on the risk of accidental awareness in people over the age of five years undergoing general anaesthesia for surgery. We included 15 randomised controlled trials, 14 of which, representing a total of 3439 participants, were included in our primary analysis of the frequency of accidental awareness events...
October 16, 2017: Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017005/early-planned-removal-of-umbilical-venous-catheters-to-prevent-infection-in-newborn-infants
#8
REVIEW
Adrienne Gordon, Mark Greenhalgh, William McGuire
BACKGROUND: Lengthy duration of use may be a risk factor for umbilical venous catheter-associated bloodstream infection in newborn infants. Early planned removal of umbilical venous catheters (UVCs) is recommended to reduce the incidence of infection and associated morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVES: To compare the effectiveness of early planned removal of UVCs (up to two weeks after insertion) versus an expectant approach or a longer fixed duration in preventing bloodstream infection and other complications in newborn infants...
October 10, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955999/a-novel-human-glucocorticoid-receptor-snp-results-in-increased-transactivation-potential
#9
Tajia L Green, Kelly Tung, Debora Lim, Stacey M Leventhal, Kiho Cho, David G Greenhalgh
Glucocorticoids are one of the most widely used therapeutics in the treatment of a variety of inflammatory disorders. However, it is known that there are variable patient responses to glucocorticoid treatment; there are responders and non-responders, or those that need higher dosages. Polymorphisms in the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) have been implicated in this variability. In this study, ninety-seven volunteers were surveyed for polymorphisms in the human GR-alpha (hGRα), the accepted biologically active reference isoform...
March 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951865/highly-variable-genomic-landscape-of-endogenous-retroviruses-in-the-c57bl-6j-inbred-strain-depending-on-individual-mouse-gender-organ-type-and-organ-location
#10
Kang-Hoon Lee, Debora Lim, David Greenhalgh, Kiho Cho
Transposable repetitive elements, named the "TREome," represent ~40% of the mouse genome. We postulate that the germ line genome undergoes temporal and spatial diversification into somatic genomes in conjunction with the TREome activity. C57BL/6J inbred mice were subjected to genomic landscape analyses using a TREome probe from murine leukemia virus-type endogenous retroviruses (MLV-ERVs). None shared the same MLV-ERV landscape within each comparison group: (1) sperm and 18 tissues from one mouse, (2) six brain compartments from two females, (3) spleen and thymus samples from four age groups, (4) three spatial tissue sets from two females, and (5) kidney and liver samples from three females and three males...
2017: International Journal of Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935561/analysis-of-the-optimal-vaccination-age-for-dengue-in-brazil-with-a-tetravalent-dengue-vaccine
#11
Sandra B Maier, Xiao Huang, Eduardo Massad, Marcos Amaku, Marcelo N Burattini, David Greenhalgh
In this paper we study a mathematical model to analyse the optimal vaccination age against Dengue in Brazil. Data from Brazil are used to estimate the basic reproduction numbers for each of the four Dengue serotypes and then the optimal vaccination age is calculated using a method due to Hethcote [1]. The vaccine has different efficacies against each serotype. Vaccination that is too early is ineffective as individuals are protected by maternal antibodies but leaving vaccination until later may allow the disease to spread...
September 19, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933018/-18-f-fluoromisonidazole-pet-in-rectal-cancer
#12
Tanuj Puri, Tessa A Greenhalgh, James M Wilson, Jamie Franklin, Lia Mun Wang, Victoria Strauss, Chris Cunningham, Mike Partridge, Tim Maughan
BACKGROUND: There is an increasing interest in developing predictive biomarkers of tissue hypoxia using functional imaging for personalised radiotherapy in patients with rectal cancer that are considered for neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT). The study explores [(18)F]fluoromisonidazole ([(18)F]FMISO) positron emission tomography (PET) scans for predicting clinical response in rectal cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant CRT. METHODS: Patients with biopsy-proven rectal adenocarcinoma were imaged at 0-45 min, 2 and 4 h, at baseline and after 8-10 fractions of CRT (week 2)...
September 20, 2017: EJNMMI Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931436/structural-analysis-of-health-relevant-policy-making-information-exchange-networks-in-canada
#13
Damien Contandriopoulos, François Benoît, Denise Bryant-Lukosius, Annie Carrier, Nancy Carter, Raisa Deber, Arnaud Duhoux, Trisha Greenhalgh, Catherine Larouche, Bernard-Simon Leclerc, Adrian Levy, Ruth Martin-Misener, Katerina Maximova, Kimberlyn McGrail, Candace Nykiforuk, Noralou Roos, Robert Schwartz, Thomas W Valente, Sabrina Wong, Evert Lindquist, Carolyn Pullen, Anne Lardeux, Melanie Perroux
BACKGROUND: Health systems worldwide struggle to identify, adopt, and implement in a timely and system-wide manner the best-evidence-informed-policy-level practices. Yet, there is still only limited evidence about individual and institutional best practices for fostering the use of scientific evidence in policy-making processes The present project is the first national-level attempt to (1) map and structurally analyze-quantitatively-health-relevant policy-making networks that connect evidence production, synthesis, interpretation, and use; (2) qualitatively investigate the interaction patterns of a subsample of actors with high centrality metrics within these networks to develop an in-depth understanding of evidence circulation processes; and (3) combine these findings in order to assess a policy network's "absorptive capacity" regarding scientific evidence and integrate them into a conceptually sound and empirically grounded framework...
September 20, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922829/the-threshold-of-the-state-civil-defence-the-blackout-and-the-home-in-second-world-war-britain
#14
James Greenhalgh
This article reconsiders the way that the British state extended its control of the home during the Second World War, using the implementation of air raid precautions and the blackout as a lens through which to view the state's developing attitudes to domestic space. Presented here is not the familiar story of pitch-dark, dangerous streets or altered cityscapes of fear and destruction; instead, by examining personal testimony the article inverts traditional treatments of the blackout to look at the interior of dwellings, demonstrating how the realities of total warfare impinged upon the psychological elements that constituted the home...
June 1, 2017: 20 Century British History
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915892/modelling-the-impact-of-the-long-term-use-of-insecticide-treated-bed-nets-on-anopheles-mosquito-biting-time
#15
Claudia P Ferreira, Silas P Lyra, Franciane Azevedo, David Greenhalgh, Eduardo Massad
BACKGROUND: Evidence of changing in biting and resting behaviour of the main malaria vectors has been mounting up in recent years as a result of selective pressure by the widespread and long-term use of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs), and indoor residual spraying. The impact of resistance behaviour on malaria intervention efficacy has important implications for the epidemiology and malaria control programmes. In this context, a theoretical framework is presented to understand the mechanisms determining the evolution of feeding behaviour under the pressure of use of ITNs...
September 15, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891062/a-systematic-review-of-information-format-and-timing-before-scheduled-adult-surgery-for-peri-operative-anxiety
#16
REVIEW
J Hounsome, A Lee, J Greenhalgh, S R Lewis, O J Schofield-Robinson, C H Coldwell, A F Smith
We included 34 trials with 3742 participants, identified through 6 database and supplementary searches (to May 2017): 29 were randomised; 4 were quasi-randomised and 1 was cluster-randomised. Disparate measurements and outcomes precluded meta-analyses. Blinding was attempted in only 6 out of 34 (18%) trials. A multimedia format, alone or in combination with text or verbal formats, was studied in 20/34 (59%) trials: pre-operative anxiety was unaffected in 10 out of 14 trials and reduced by the multimedia format in three; postoperative anxiety was unaffected in four out of five trials in which formats were compared...
October 2017: Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855862/novel-influences-of-il-10-on-cns-inflammation-revealed-by-integrated-analyses-of-cytokine-networks-and-microglial-morphology
#17
Warren D Anderson, Andrew D Greenhalgh, Aditya Takwale, Samuel David, Rajanikanth Vadigepalli
Coordinated interactions between cytokine signaling and morphological dynamics of microglial cells regulate neuroinflammation in CNS injury and disease. We found that pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression in vivo showed a pronounced recovery following systemic LPS. We performed a novel multivariate analysis of microglial morphology and identified changes in specific morphological properties of microglia that matched the expression dynamics of pro-inflammatory cytokine TNFα. The adaptive recovery kinetics of TNFα expression and microglial soma size showed comparable profiles and dependence on anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 expression...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843543/microglia-and-macrophages-differ-in-their-inflammatory-profile-after-permanent-brain-ischemia
#18
Juan G Zarruk, Andrew D Greenhalgh, Samuel David
We studied the expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory molecules in microglia and infiltrating monocyte-derived macrophages after permanent Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion (pMCAO). LysM-EGFP knock-in mice were used to distinguish between these two cell types, as peripheral myeloid cells are LysM-EGFP(+), while microglia are not. This was confirmed with P2ry12 (a microglial specific marker), Iba-1 and EGFP immunostaining. The peak of LysM-EGFP(+) myeloid cell infiltration was 72h post-ischemia, and were distributed evenly in the lesion core, surrounded by a dense region of microglia...
August 24, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838312/docosahexaenoic-acid-containing-choline-phospholipid-modulates-lps-induced-neuroinflammation-in-vivo-and-in-microglia-in-vitro
#19
Célia Fourrier, Julie Remus-Borel, Andrew D Greenhalgh, Michel Guichardant, Nathalie Bernoud-Hubac, Michel Lagarde, Corinne Joffre, Sophie Layé
BACKGROUND: Neuroinflammatory processes are considered a double-edged sword, having both protective and detrimental effects in the brain. Microglia, the brain's resident innate immune cells, are a key component of neuroinflammatory response. There is a growing interest in developing drugs to target microglia and control neuroinflammatory processes. In this regard, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the brain's n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, is a promising molecule to regulate pro-inflammatory microglia and cytokine production...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832903/drug-eluting-stents-versus-bare-metal-stents-for-acute-coronary-syndrome
#20
REVIEW
Joshua Feinberg, Emil Eik Nielsen, Janette Greenhalgh, Juliet Hounsome, Naqash J Sethi, Sanam Safi, Christian Gluud, Janus C Jakobsen
BACKGROUND: Approximately 3.7 million people died from acute coronary syndrome worldwide in 2012. Acute coronary syndrome, also known as myocardial infarction or unstable angina pectoris, is caused by a sudden blockage of the blood supplied to the heart muscle. Percutaneous coronary intervention is often used for acute coronary syndrome, but previous systematic reviews on the effects of drug-eluting stents compared with bare-metal stents have shown conflicting results with regard to myocardial infarction; have not fully taken account of the risk of random and systematic errors; and have not included all relevant randomised clinical trials...
August 23, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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