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Executive function in ADHD

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631964/evidence-based-assessment-of-adhd-diagnosis-in-children-and-adolescents
#1
Xuechun Zhou, Cecil R Reynolds, Jianjun Zhu, Randy W Kamphaus, Ou Zhang
This study illustrates the accuracy and efficiency of using an evidence-based assessment (EBA) strategy for diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by integrating the scale scores obtained on BASC-3 teacher and parent rating scales. The examined process used empirical diagnostic likelihood ratios (DLRs) derived from a sample of children with ADHD (N = 339) matched on demographic characteristics from the normative sample. The results show that behavioral scales of executive functioning and functional communication provided incremental utility in ADHD diagnosis...
February 22, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628794/neurological-soft-signs-but-not-theory-of-mind-and-emotion-recognition-deficit-distinguished-children-with-adhd-from-healthy-control
#2
Mariabernarda Pitzianti, Clementina Grelloni, Livia Casarelli, Elisa D'Agati, Simonetta Spiridigliozzi, Paolo Curatolo, Augusto Pasini
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is associated with social cognition impairment, executive dysfunction and motor abnormalities, consisting in the persistence of neurological soft signs (NSS). Theory of mind (ToM) and emotion recognition (ER) deficit of children with ADHD have been interpreted as a consequence of their executive dysfunction, particularly inhibitory control deficit. To our knowledge, there are not studies that evaluate the possible correlation between the ToM and ER deficit and NSS in the population with ADHD, while this association has been studied in other psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia...
June 12, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594254/predictive-factors-of-success-in-neurofeedback-training-for-children-with-adhd
#3
Yasuko Okumura, Yosuke Kita, Mikimasa Omori, Kota Suzuki, Akira Yasumura, Ayako Fukuda, Masumi Inagaki
INTRODUCTION: Neurofeedback (NF) training aims the enhancement of self-regulation over brain activities. While it is largely recognized as an effective treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), the existence of non-learners has also been reported. The present study explored pre-training assessment indices that could predict learners prior to NF training. METHODS: Twenty-two children with ADHD participated in slow cortical potential (SCP) NF training and completed pre- and post-training assessments...
June 8, 2017: Developmental Neurorehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579912/interaction-of-bilingualism-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-young-adults
#4
Ellen Bialystok, Kornelia Hawrylewicz, Melody Wiseheart, Maggie Toplak
One hundred and sixty-eight young adult participants were classified as monolingual or bilingual and as having a previously reported clinical diagnosis of ADHD or not to create four groups. All participants completed tests of language proficiency, ADHD ratings, and executive control. Both bilingualism and ADHD are generally associated with poorer vocabulary knowledge, but bilingualism and ADHD are associated with opposite effects on executive control. Consistent with this literature, bilinguals performed more poorly than monolinguals on the vocabulary test but contrary to predictions, the ADHD group performed somewhat better on language ability than the non-ADHD group, attesting to their high functioning status...
May 2017: Bilingualism: Language and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28568910/sex-differences-in-parent-reported-executive-functioning-and-adaptive-behavior-in-children-and-young-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#5
Emily I White, Gregory L Wallace, Julia Bascom, Anna C Armour, Kelly Register-Brown, Haroon S Popal, Allison B Ratto, Alex Martin, Lauren Kenworthy
This study is the largest to date examining executive function and adaptive skills in females with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Its primary aim was to utilize parent ratings of real-world executive functioning and adaptive behavior to better understand whether females with ASD differ from males with ASD in these areas of everyday functioning. We compared 79 females with ASD to 158 males with ASD (ages 7-18) who were statistically matched on age, IQ, and level of ADHD or ASD traits. All participants were assessed using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and a subset (56 females and 130 males) also received the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS)...
June 1, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539944/the-behavior-rating-inventory-of-executive-function-and-continuous-performance-test-in-preschoolers-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#6
H Tuna Çak, S Ebru Çengel Kültür, Bahar Gökler, Ferhunde Öktem, Candan Taşkıran
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to examine performance-based measures and behavioral ratings of executive functions (EF) as a component of preschool attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: Twenty-one 4-to-6-year-old children with ADHD and 52 children with no psychopathology, matched on age, gender, socioeconomic status, and parental education, were enrolled. Parents were interviewed with the use of The Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children Present and Lifetime version...
May 2017: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536846/time-on-task-effects-in-children-with-and-without-adhd-depletion-of-executive-resources-or-depletion-of-motivation
#7
Tycho J Dekkers, Joost A Agelink van Rentergem, Alette Koole, Wery P M van den Wildenberg, Arne Popma, Anika Bexkens, Reino Stoffelsen, Anouk Diekmann, Hilde M Huizenga
Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are characterized by deficits in their executive functioning and motivation. In addition, these children are characterized by a decline in performance as time-on-task increases (i.e., time-on-task effects). However, it is unknown whether these time-on-task effects should be attributed to deficits in executive functioning or to deficits in motivation. Some studies in typically developing (TD) adults indicated that time-on-task effects should be interpreted as depletion of executive resources, but other studies suggested that they represent depletion of motivation...
May 23, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523385/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-symptoms-in-children-adopted-from-poland-and-their-atypical-association-patterns-a-bayesian-approach
#8
Donna A de Maat, Sandra Knuiman, Catharina H A M Rijk, René A C Hoksbergen, Anneloes L van Baar
Although high rates of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms have been observed among internationally adopted children, research on these symptoms in Polish adoptees is lacking. Therefore, we examined ADHD symptoms in Polish adoptees and their relationship to pre-adoptive risk factors, that is, time in institutional care, early deprivation, and prenatal alcohol exposure. We further compared the association patterns and gender distribution of ADHD symptoms in children adopted from Poland to those reported in the literature for ADHD symptoms in non-adopted children...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497641/adult-executive-functioning-inventory-adexi-validity-reliability-and-relations-to-adhd
#9
Ylva Holst, Lisa B Thorell
This study examined the psychometric properties of the Adult Executive Functioning Inventory (ADEXI). This new executive functioning (EF) rating instrument has the advantage of being brief (14 items) and focusing specifically on working memory and inhibitory control. Results showed that scores on the ADEXI had high internal consistency and adequate test-retest reliability, but low concurrence between self-ratings and other ratings. High and statistically significant correlations were found between ADEXI scores and scores from another EF rating instrument, whereas the correlations between ADEXI scores and neuropsychological test scores were weak and often non-significant...
May 12, 2017: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494131/neuropsychological-functioning-in-college-students-who-misuse-prescription-stimulants
#10
Timothy E Wilens, Nicholas W Carrellas, MaryKate Martelon, Amy M Yule, Ronna Fried, Rayce Anselmo, Sean Esteban McCabe
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Relatively little is known about the neuropsychological profiles of college students who misuse prescription stimulant medications. METHODS: Data presented are from college students aged 18-28 years who misused prescription stimulants prescribed for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and controls (no prescription stimulant misuse). Students were assessed neuropsychologically using the self-report Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning (BRIEF-A), the Cambridge Automated Neuropsychological Test and Battery (CANTAB), and other tests of cognitive functioning...
June 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483638/linking-adhd-to-the-neural-circuitry-of-attention
#11
REVIEW
Adrienne Mueller, David S Hong, Steven Shepard, Tirin Moore
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a complex condition with a heterogeneous presentation. Current diagnosis is primarily based on subjective experience and observer reports of behavioral symptoms - an approach that has significant limitations. Many studies show that individuals with ADHD exhibit poorer performance on cognitive tasks than neurotypical controls, and at least seven main functional domains appear to be implicated in ADHD. We discuss the underlying neural mechanisms of cognitive functions associated with ADHD, with emphasis on the neural basis of selective attention, demonstrating the feasibility of basic research approaches for further understanding cognitive behavioral processes as they relate to human psychopathology...
June 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480824/-for-some-reason-i-find-it-hard-to-work-quickly-introduction-to-the-special-issue-on-sluggish-cognitive-tempo
#12
Stephen P Becker
The body of research investigating the sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) construct continues to accumulate at a rapid pace. This article provides an introduction to the Special Issue on SCT, which includes 10 empirical studies that collectively make a major contribution to the SCT knowledge base. Notably, the studies in this Special Issue include participants spanning in age from 4 to 64 years and from four continents, helping to move the field toward a life span, transcultural understanding of SCT. Together, these studies demonstrate that SCT symptoms can be distinguished from ADHD symptoms as early as preschool and that SCT does not fall under the overarching umbrella of ADHD...
June 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446885/the-impact-of-inattention-hyperactivity-impulsivity-symptoms-and-executive-functions-on-learning-behaviors-of-children-with-adhd
#13
Carla Colomer, Carmen Berenguer, Belén Roselló, Inmaculada Baixauli, Ana Miranda
Children diagnosed with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at risk of experiencing lower academic achievement compared to their peers without ADHD. However, we have a limited understanding of the mechanisms underlying this association. Both the symptoms of the disorder and the executive functions can negatively influence learning behaviors, including motivation, attitude toward learning, or persistence, key aspects of the learning process. The first objective of this study was to compare different components of learning behaviors in children diagnosed with ADHD and typically developing (TD) children...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424381/-the-relationship-between-physical-activity-and-executive-functions-among-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#14
Martina Miklós, Judit Futó, Judit Balázs
The connection between physical activity and executive functions has recently started to emerge as a new focus of research within the field of attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder (ADHD). In the present paper we summarise the major findings of these studies concentrating specifically on paediatric population. We present the results of six studies that focus on the connection between acute physical activity and executive functions and seven others that examine the relationship between chronic physical activity and executive functions in children with ADHD...
2017: Psychiatria Hungarica: A Magyar Pszichiátriai Társaság Tudományos Folyóirata
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410255/neurocognitive-correlates-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-symptoms-in-children-born-at-extremely-low-gestational-age
#15
Megan N Scott, Scott J Hunter, Robert M Joseph, Thomas Michael OʼShea, Stephen R Hooper, Elizabeth N Allred, Alan Leviton, Karl Kuban
OBJECTIVE: Compared with children born near term, those born extremely preterm (EP) are at much higher risk for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Little information is available about differences in neuropsychological outcomes among EP children with and without ADHD. Our analyses aimed to evaluate the neuropsychological correlates of ADHD symptoms in extremely low gestational age newborns (ELGANs). METHODS: We obtained Child Symptom Inventory-4 reports from parents (n = 871) and teachers (n = 634) of 10-year-old children born before the 28th week of gestation...
May 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405786/maternal-responsiveness-as-a-predictor-of-self-regulation-development-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-symptoms-across-preschool-ages
#16
Ursula Pauli-Pott, Susan Schloß, Katja Becker
Preschool-age "hot" executive function capacity (i.e. reward-related effortful control) represents an early kind of self-regulation that is involved in social adjustment development as well as the development of subtypes of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Early self-regulation development might be malleable by responsive parenting. We analyzed whether maternal responsiveness/sensitivity predicts reward-related control (RRC) development within the preschool period, and whether RRC mediates a negative link between maternal responsiveness and ADHD symptoms...
April 12, 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395578/changing-relations-among-cognitive-abilities-across-development-implications-for-measurement-and-research
#17
Jala Rizeq, David B Flora, Maggie E Toplak
OBJECTIVE: The constructs of intelligence and executive function (EF) are commonly used in neuropsychological, cognitive, and developmental research, and in the context of clinical assessment. Yet, we have a limited understanding of the changing age-related associations among these cognitive constructs and the implications for measurement and research. The objectives of this study were to compare hypothetical models using intellectual abilities (non-age corrected scores of intelligence or IQ) and experimental measures of EF and to better understand the role of age in determining the associations between these cognitive abilities at two different periods of development...
April 11, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388850/auditory-and-visual-executive-functions-in-children-and-response-to-methylphenidate-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
Yaffa Hadar, Shraga Hocherman, Oren Lamm, Emanuel Tirosh
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to assess auditory and visually based executive functions (EFs) and the effect of methylphenidate (MPH) in children with ADHD. METHODS: Thirty-six boys between the ages of 8.3 and 9.7 years with ADHD and 36 matched controls were included. The study group was randomized into MPH and placebo for 7 days each in a crossover design. A Cued Choice Reaction Time (CCRT) test that included incongruent cuing was administered at baseline and following 1 and 2 weeks...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383930/sluggish-cognitive-tempo-in-adults-psychometric-validation-of-the-adult-concentration-inventory
#19
Stephen P Becker, G Leonard Burns, Annie A Garner, Matthew A Jarrett, Aaron M Luebbe, Jeffery N Epstein, Erik G Willcutt
As interest in sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) increases, a primary limitation for the field is the lack of a unified set of symptoms for assessing SCT. No existing SCT measure includes all items identified in a recent meta-analysis as optimal for distinguishing between SCT and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) inattention. This study evaluates a new self-report measure for assessing SCT in adulthood, the Adult Concentration Inventory (ACI), which was developed in response to the meta-analytic findings for assessing SCT...
April 6, 2017: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377393/does-a-brief-behavioural-intervention-delivered-by-paediatricians-or-psychologists-improve-sleep-problems-for-children-with-adhd-protocol-for-a-cluster-randomised-translational-trial
#20
E Sciberras, M Mulraney, H Heussler, N Rinehart, T Schuster, L Gold, N Hayes, H Hiscock
INTRODUCTION: Up to 70% of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) experience sleep problems. We have demonstrated the efficacy of a brief behavioural intervention for children with ADHD in a large randomised controlled trial (RCT) and now aim to examine whether this intervention is effective in real-life clinical settings when delivered by paediatricians or psychologists. We will also assess the cost-effectiveness of the intervention. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Children aged 5-12 years with ADHD (n=320) are being recruited for this translational cluster RCT through paediatrician practices in Victoria and Queensland, Australia...
April 4, 2017: BMJ Open
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