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Executive function in ADHD

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428394/the-pharmacology-of-amphetamine-and-methylphenidate-relevance-to-the-neurobiology-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-other-psychiatric-comorbidities
#1
REVIEW
Stephen V Faraone
Psychostimulants, including amphetamines and methylphenidate, are first-line pharmacotherapies for individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This review aims to educate physicians regarding differences in pharmacology and mechanisms of action between amphetamine and methylphenidate, thus enhancing physician understanding of psychostimulants and their use in managing individuals with ADHD who may have comorbid psychiatric conditions. A systematic literature review of PubMed was conducted in April 2017, focusing on cellular- and brain system-level effects of amphetamine and methylphenidate...
February 8, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427262/factor-structure-and-clinical-correlates-of-the-61-item-wender-utah-rating-scale-wurs
#2
Matthew Calamia, Benjamin D Hill, Mandi W Musso, Russell D Pella, Wm Drew Gouvier
The objective of this study was to assess the factor structure and clinical correlates of a 61-item version of the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS), a self-report retrospective measure of childhood problems, experiences, and behavior used in ADHD assessment. Given the currently mostly widely used form of the WURS was derived via a criterion-keyed approach, the study aimed to use latent variable modeling of the 61-item WURS to potentially identify more and more homogeneous set of items reflecting current conceptualizations of ADHD symptoms...
February 9, 2018: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419345/validation-of-the-expanded-versions-of-the-adult-adhd-self-report-scale-v1-1-symptom-checklist-and-the-adult-adhd-investigator-symptom-rating-scale
#3
Michael J Silverstein, Stephen V Faraone, Samuel Alperin, Terry L Leon, Joseph Biederman, Thomas J Spencer, Lenard A Adler
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to validate the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) and Adult ADHD Investigator Symptom Rating Scale (AISRS) expanded versions, including executive function deficits (EFDs) and emotional dyscontrol (EC) items, and to present ASRS and AISRS pilot normative data. METHOD: Two patient samples (referred and primary care physician [PCP] controls) were pooled together for these analyses. RESULTS: Final analysis included 297 respondents, 171 with adult ADHD...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411333/a-review-of-childhood-behavioral-problems-and-disorders-in-the-development-of-obesity-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-beyond
#4
REVIEW
Brittany E Matheson, Dawn M Eichen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Given the high rates of pediatric and adult obesity, it is imperative to identify early risk factors that might contribute to excess weight gain. This review aims to investigate the relationship between childhood behavioral problems with the development and persistence of obesity. Specifically, this review highlights the association of obesity with (1) neurocognitive constructs, such as executive functioning and inhibition/impulsivity, and (2) disorders commonly diagnosed in childhood, including attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD)...
February 6, 2018: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396712/informant-related-effects-of-neurofeedback-and-cognitive-training-in-children-with-adhd-including-a-waiting-control-phase-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Franziska Minder, Agnieszka Zuberer, Daniel Brandeis, Renate Drechsler
There is controversy regarding the clinical efficacy of neurofeedback (NF) and computerized cognitive training (CogT) as treatments for ADHD. Meta-analyses claim that probably blinded teachers observe smaller effects than parents, because they are less biased. We investigated informant-specific effects by manipulating the involvement of informants, by controlling for waiting time effects, and by adding a blinded outcome measure. Seventy-seven children with ADHD were randomly allocated to slow cortical potential NF or to individualized CogT (of attention, working memory or inhibition)...
February 2, 2018: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396361/pattern-of-executive-functioning-in-adolescents-with-epilepsy-a-multimethod-measurement-approach
#6
Avani C Modi, Jennifer Vannest, Angela Combs, Luke Turnier, Shari L Wade
Youth with epilepsy demonstrate deficits in executive functioning (EF), the skills necessary for goal-directed behavior (e.g., problem-solving, initiating, monitoring, organization, planning, and working memory). Despite 30-50% of youth with epilepsy demonstrating EF deficits, no extant studies have utilized both performance and questionnaire-based measures to examine the pattern of EF deficits in adolescents with epilepsy. Study aims were to 1) identify the pattern of EF deficits in adolescents with epilepsy and 2) identify which assessment tools are most sensitive to EF deficits in this population (adolescents, ages 13-17, with epilepsy)...
January 20, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393165/do-signs-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-increase-the-odds-of-dental-caries-a-case-control-study
#7
Isabella Mota-Veloso, Isabela Almeida Pordeus, Márcio Alexandre Homem, Joana Ramos-Jorge, Fernanda Oliveira-Ferreira, Maria Letícia Ramos-Jorge, Saul Martins Paiva
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a behavioural disorder that can affect one's performance in activities of daily living and can exert a negative impact on the oral health of children. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to determine the association between ADHD (signs and executive functions) and dental caries in children aged 7-12 years. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted with 532 children in the city of Diamantina, Brazil. The case group was composed of children with caries and the control group was composed of children without caries...
January 23, 2018: Caries Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378061/young-adult-outcomes-for-children-with-22q11-deletion-syndrome-and-comorbid-adhd
#8
Lea E Taylor, Wendy R Kates, Wanda Fremont, Kevin M Antshel
Background: 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a common microdeletion syndrome associated with a variety of negative health, cognitive, emotional, and behavioral outcomes. 22q11DS is comorbid with many psychiatric disorders including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The current study aimed to investigate the cognitive, behavioral, and functional outcomes that a childhood ADHD diagnosis predicts to in adulthood. Methods: This longitudinal study followed 52 individuals with 22q11DS over 9 years...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340801/maternal-depression-trajectories-from-pregnancy-to-3%C3%A2-years-postpartum-are-associated-with-children-s-behavior-and-executive-functions-at-3-and-6%C3%A2-years
#9
Mina Park, Ursula Brain, Ruth E Grunau, Adele Diamond, Tim F Oberlander
The objective of this study was to investigate how patterns of maternal depressive symptoms from mid-pregnancy to 3 years postpartum are associated with children's behavior at age 3 years and executive functions. Maternal depressive symptoms were measured from mid-pregnancy to 3 years postpartum. Growth mixture modeling was used on standardized maternal depression scores (n = 147) to identify trajectories. Children's behavioral problems and mental health symptomatology (internalizing, externalizing, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) were obtained at 3 and 6 years...
January 16, 2018: Archives of Women's Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313415/a-controlled-trial-of-extended-release-guanfacine-and-psychostimulants-on-executive-function-and-adhd
#10
Judy P M van Stralen
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of guanfacine extended-release (GXR) versus placebo as adjunct therapy to usual care stimulant therapy in improving executive function in children aged 6 to 12 years diagnosed with ADHD. METHOD: In this single center, double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trial, subjects continued to take their psychostimulant and were randomly assigned at baseline to receive active treatment or placebo first. Efficacy measures included Behavioural Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF-P), ADHD Rating Scale IV (ADHD-RS IV), and Clinical Global Impressions of Severity of Illness (CGI-S) and Improvement (CGI-I) scales...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303401/cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-college-students-with-adhd-temporal-stability-of-improvements-in-functioning-following-active-treatment
#11
Arthur D Anastopoulos, Kristen A King, Laura H Besecker, Sarah R O'Rourke, Allison C Bray, Andrew J Supple
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the extent to which college students with ADHD continued to benefit from a cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) program beyond the active phase of treatment. METHOD: In successive cohorts over a 4-year period, a total of 88 college students with well-defined ADHD received CBT in an open clinical trial format that included active treatment and maintenance phases delivered across two consecutive semesters. RESULTS: Immediately following active treatment, participants displayed statistically significant reductions in ADHD symptoms, improvements in executive functioning, and declines in anxiety and depression symptoms...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274848/mirror-neuron-system-activation-in-children-with-developmental-coordination-disorder-a-replication-functional-mri-study
#12
J E Reynolds, J Billington, S Kerrigan, J Williams, C Elliott, A M Winsor, L Codd, M Bynevelt, M K Licari
BACKGROUND: It has been hypothesised that abnormal functioning of the mirror neuron system (MNS) may lead to deficits in imitation and the internal representation of movement, potentially contributing to the motor impairments associated with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). AIMS: Using fMRI, this study examined brain activation patterns in children with and without DCD on a finger adduction/abduction task during four MNS activation states: observation; motor imagery; execution; and imitation...
December 20, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249508/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-associated-cognitive-dysfunction-in-pediatric-epilepsy
#13
Jorge Vidaurre, Jaime Dawn E Twanow
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neuropsychiatric comorbidity associated with childhood epilepsy, affecting about a third of children with epilepsy. In contrast, ADHD in the general population occurs in 4%-12% of school-aged children. The cause of this association remains unclear. It is likely that common mechanisms underlie the vulnerability for both executive deficits and epileptogenesis. There are characteristics unique to children with ADHD and epilepsy. The inattentive type of ADHD is more prevalent than the combined presentation in children with epilepsy, while the combined type is more common in the general population...
November 2017: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244542/differential-long-term-medication-impact-on-executive-function-and-delay-aversion-in-adhd
#14
Belen Rubio Morell, Sergio Hernández Expósito
The objective was to compare long-term effects of methylphenidate (MPH) and atomoxetine (ATX) on executive functions (EF) and delay aversion (DAv) in ADHD. A randomized controlled trial was conducted. A comprehensive neuropsychological battery was administered at three moments (Naive, Post-1, Post-2). ADHD participants who showed deficits in the naive evaluation (n = 26) were randomized to receive either MPH (n = 13; Mage = 11 ± 1, MIQ 96 ± 8) or ATX (n = 13; Mage = 10 ± 1, MIQ 106 ± 16...
December 15, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234356/the-opportunities-of-virtual-reality-in-the-rehabilitation-of-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-literature-review
#15
REVIEW
Azadeh Bashiri, Marjan Ghazisaeedi, Leila Shahmoradi
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in childhood. This disorder, in addition to its main symptoms, creates significant difficulties in education, social performance, and personal relationships. Given the importance of rehabilitation for these patients to combat the above issues, the use of virtual reality (VR) technology is helpful. The aim of this study was to highlight the opportunities for VR in the rehabilitation of children with ADHD. This narrative review was conducted by searching for articles in scientific databases and e-Journals, using keywords including VR, children, and ADHD...
November 2017: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224173/testing-the-specificity-of-executive-functioning-impairments-in-adolescents-with-adhd-odd-cd-and-asd
#16
Virginia Carter Leno, Susie Chandler, Pippa White, Andrew Pickles, Gillian Baird, Chris Hobson, Anna B Smith, Tony Charman, Katya Rubia, Emily Simonoff
Current diagnostic systems conceptualise attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant/conduct disorder (ODD/CD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as separate diagnoses. However, all three demonstrate executive functioning (EF) impairments. Whether these impairments are trans-diagnostic or disorder-specific remains relatively unexplored. Four groups of 10-16 year-olds [typically developing (TD; N = 43), individuals clinically diagnosed with ADHD (N = 21), ODD/CD (N = 26) and ASD (N = 41)] completed Go/NoGo and Switch tasks...
December 9, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209238/disrupted-control-related-functional-brain-networks-in-drug-naive-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#17
Jiejie Tao, Xueyan Jiang, Xin Wang, Huiru Liu, Andan Qian, Chuang Yang, Hong Chen, Jiance Li, Qiong Ye, Jinhui Wang, Meihao Wang
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disease featuring executive control deficits as a prominent neuropsychological trait. Executive functions are implicated in multiple sub-networks of the brain; however, few studies examine these sub-networks as a whole in ADHD. By combining resting-state functional MRI and graph-based approaches, we systematically investigated functional connectivity patterns among four control-related networks, including the frontoparietal network (FPN), cingulo-opercular network, cerebellar network, and default mode network (DMN), in 46 drug-naive children with ADHD and 31 age-, gender-, and intelligence quotient-matched healthy controls (HCs)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198277/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-historical-neuropsychological-perspective
#18
E Mark Mahone, Martha B Denckla
The behavior patterns of hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention that would ultimately become recognized as Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have been described for centuries. Nevertheless, in the past 35 years, advances in diagnostic methods, identification of biomarkers, and treatments have advanced at an exponential rate. ADHD is now recognized as the most common behavioral disorder of childhood, with risks extending well into adulthood for both males and females, leading to its identification as a significant public health issue...
October 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195758/light-up-adhd-i-cortical-hemodynamic-responses-measured-by-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-fnirs
#19
REVIEW
Maddalena Mauri, Maria Nobile, Monica Bellina, Alessandro Crippa, Paolo Brambilla
BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in cognitive and emotional self-control. Optical technique acquisitions, such as near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), seem to be very promising during developmental ages, as they are non- invasive techniques and less influenced by body movements than other neuroimaging methods. Recently, these new techniques are being widely used to measure neural correlates underlying neuropsychological deficits in children with ADHD...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175464/salience-network-coupling-is-linked-to-both-tobacco-smoking-and-symptoms-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd
#20
A C Janes, J M Gilman, B B Frederick, M Radoman, G Pachas, M Fava, A E Evins
INTRODUCTION: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, even those below diagnostic threshold, enhance the likelihood of nicotine dependence, suggesting a neurobiological link between disorders. Of particular interest is the salience network (SN), which mediates attention to salient internal/external stimuli to guide behavior and is anchored by the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and bilateral anterior insula (AI). Disrupted interactions between the SN and the default mode (DMN) and central executive networks (CEN) have been noted in both ADHD and nicotine dependence...
November 21, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
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