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Executive function in ADHD

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224173/testing-the-specificity-of-executive-functioning-impairments-in-adolescents-with-adhd-odd-cd-and-asd
#1
Virginia Carter Leno, Susie Chandler, Pippa White, Andrew Pickles, Gillian Baird, Chris Hobson, Anna B Smith, Tony Charman, Katya Rubia, Emily Simonoff
Current diagnostic systems conceptualise attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant/conduct disorder (ODD/CD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as separate diagnoses. However, all three demonstrate executive functioning (EF) impairments. Whether these impairments are trans-diagnostic or disorder-specific remains relatively unexplored. Four groups of 10-16 year-olds [typically developing (TD; N = 43), individuals clinically diagnosed with ADHD (N = 21), ODD/CD (N = 26) and ASD (N = 41)] completed Go/NoGo and Switch tasks...
December 9, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209238/disrupted-control-related-functional-brain-networks-in-drug-naive-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#2
Jiejie Tao, Xueyan Jiang, Xin Wang, Huiru Liu, Andan Qian, Chuang Yang, Hong Chen, Jiance Li, Qiong Ye, Jinhui Wang, Meihao Wang
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disease featuring executive control deficits as a prominent neuropsychological trait. Executive functions are implicated in multiple sub-networks of the brain; however, few studies examine these sub-networks as a whole in ADHD. By combining resting-state functional MRI and graph-based approaches, we systematically investigated functional connectivity patterns among four control-related networks, including the frontoparietal network (FPN), cingulo-opercular network, cerebellar network, and default mode network (DMN), in 46 drug-naive children with ADHD and 31 age-, gender-, and intelligence quotient-matched healthy controls (HCs)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198277/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-historical-neuropsychological-perspective
#3
E Mark Mahone, Martha B Denckla
The behavior patterns of hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention that would ultimately become recognized as Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have been described for centuries. Nevertheless, in the past 35 years, advances in diagnostic methods, identification of biomarkers, and treatments have advanced at an exponential rate. ADHD is now recognized as the most common behavioral disorder of childhood, with risks extending well into adulthood for both males and females, leading to its identification as a significant public health issue...
October 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195758/light-up-adhd-i-cortical-hemodynamic-responses-measured-by-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-fnirs
#4
REVIEW
Maddalena Mauri, Maria Nobile, Monica Bellina, Alessandro Crippa, Paolo Brambilla
BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in cognitive and emotional self-control. Optical technique acquisitions, such as near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), seem to be very promising during developmental ages, as they are non- invasive techniques and less influenced by body movements than other neuroimaging methods. Recently, these new techniques are being widely used to measure neural correlates underlying neuropsychological deficits in children with ADHD...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175464/salience-network-coupling-is-linked-to-both-tobacco-smoking-and-symptoms-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd
#5
A C Janes, J M Gilman, B B Frederick, M Radoman, G Pachas, M Fava, A E Evins
INTRODUCTION: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, even those below diagnostic threshold, enhance the likelihood of nicotine dependence, suggesting a neurobiological link between disorders. Of particular interest is the salience network (SN), which mediates attention to salient internal/external stimuli to guide behavior and is anchored by the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and bilateral anterior insula (AI). Disrupted interactions between the SN and the default mode (DMN) and central executive networks (CEN) have been noted in both ADHD and nicotine dependence...
November 21, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164079/cognitive-and-behavioral-disorders-in-children-with-neurofibromatosis-type-1
#6
REVIEW
Martha Milade Torres Nupan, Alberto Velez Van Meerbeke, Claudia Alejandra López Cabra, Paula Marcela Herrera Gomez
Aim: The last systematic review of research on the behavior of children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) was in 2012. Since then, several important findings have been published. Therefore, the study aim was to synthesize recent relevant work related to this issue. Method: We conducted a systematic review of the literature. Relevant articles were identified using the electronic databases PubMed, PsycINFO, and Scopus and a manual search of references lists. Thirty of 156 articles identified met the inclusion criteria...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161919/the-effects-of-adhd-on-cognitive-performance
#7
Emma Claesdotter, Matti Cervin, Sofia Åkerlund, Maria Råstam, Magnus Lindvall
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common and impairing neurodevelopmental disorder. The Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) is a computerized test battery with standardized procedures and solid psychometric properties targeting multiple neuropsychological functions. AIMS: The aim of this study was to look at the effects of ADHD on cognitive performance using CANTAB expressed as a statistical interaction term in regression modeling...
November 21, 2017: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161891/the-significance-of-impulsive-error-in-children-with-adhd
#8
Yu-Chi Liao, Nai-Wen Guo, Shin-Jaw Chen, Hsing-Fang Tsai, Jhih-Hong Fang, Jia-Jin Chen, Bei-Yi Su
A deficit of inhibition ability is a neuropsychological problem in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We investigated whether in children who made impulsive error (IE), less error-related negativity (ERN) would correlate with poorer executive attention functions (EAFs). Ninety children (49 with ADHD and 41 without ADHD) were investigated by a 4-minute simple reaction time task and simultaneous electroencephalogram. When they made IE, the ERN in response-locked event-related potential (ERP) was defined as error awareness...
November 1, 2017: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157066/association-between-small-for-gestational-age-and-low-birth-weight-with-attention-deficit-and-impaired-executive-functions-in-3-6-years-old-children
#9
M Shariat, J Gharaee, H Dalili, Y Mohammadzadeh, Sh Ansari, Z Farahani
BACKGROUND: Behavioral disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms are frequently reported among children with history of small body size at birth and disproportionate intrauterine growth retardation. The current study aimed to investigate some factors like executive functions and attention deficit in children with history of Small for gestational age (SGA) and /or Low Birth Weight (LBW) at birth. METHODS: A historical cohort study was done and 3-6 years old preschool children (with past history of SGA/LBW) from some kindergartens and health centers were selected...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152165/specificity-of-executive-function-and-theory-of-mind-performance-in-relation-to-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-symptoms-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#10
Steve Lukito, Catherine R G Jones, Andrew Pickles, Gillian Baird, Francesca Happé, Tony Charman, Emily Simonoff
Background: Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) frequently demonstrate symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Previous findings in children with ASD have suggested that these symptoms are associated with an impairment in executive function (EF) abilities. However, studies rarely considered this association within a single framework that controls for other related factors such as Theory of Mind (ToM) abilities and ASD symptoms. Methods: We used structural equation modeling to explore the relations among EF, ToM, and symptoms of ASD and ADHD, using data from a population-based sample of 100 adolescents with ASD and full-scale IQ ≥ 50 (the Special Needs and Autism Project (SNAP) cohort)...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143699/are-there-distinct-cognitive-and-motivational-sub-groups-of-children-with-adhd
#11
Rikke Lambek, Edmund Sonuga-Barke, Rosemary Tannock, Anne Virring Sørensen, Dorte Damm, Per Hove Thomsen
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is proposed to be a neuropsychologically heterogeneous disorder that encompasses two distinct sub-groups, one with executive function (EF) deficits and one with delay aversion (DA). However, such claims have often been based on studies that have operationalized neuropsychological deficits using a categorical approach - using intuitive but rather arbitrary, clinical cut-offs. The current study applied an alternative empirical approach to sub-grouping in ADHD, latent profile analysis (LPA), and attempted to validate emerging subgroups through clinically relevant correlates...
November 16, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116873/the-effect-of-experimental-supplementation-with-the-klamath-algae-extract-klamin-on-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#12
Maurizio Cremonte, Davide Sisti, Ilaria Maraucci, Simona Giribone, Evelin Colombo, Marco Bruno Luigi Rocchi, Stefano Scoglio
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic neurobiological condition with onset in childhood. The disorder is characterized by inattention, impulsivity, and/or motor hyperactivity, which often affect the development and social integration of affected subjects. Phenylethylamine (PEA), naturally contained in the Klamath Lake microalgae and concentrated in the Klamin(®) extract, is an endogenous molecule with a general neuromodulatory activity. It functions as an activator for the neurotransmission of dopamine and other catecholamines, and very low concentrations of PEA may be associated with specific psychological disorders such as ADHD...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115192/a-novel-experimental-paradigm-to-evaluate-children-and-adolescents-diagnosed-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-comparison-with-two-standard-neuropsychological-methods
#13
Marcos F Rosetti, Rosa E Ulloa, Ernesto Reyes-Zamorano, Lino Palacios-Cruz, Francisco de la Peña, Robyn Hudson
INTRODUCTION: In this study we evaluated a recently developed test, the Ball Search Field Task (BSFT) as a neuropsychological tool for measuring cognitive and behavioral performance of individuals with disorders such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which are frequently accompanied by cognitive deficits and a lack of behavioral inhibition. The task provides a complementary method of assessment that attempts ecological validity by drawing on challenges faced in real-world situations...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110563/increased-beta-activity-links-to-impaired-emotional-control-in-adhd-adults-with-high-iq
#14
Hui Li, Qihua Zhao, Fang Huang, Qingjiu Cao, Qiujin Qian, Stuart J Johnstone, Yufeng Wang, Changming Wang, Li Sun
OBJECTIVE: The present study investigated the neuropathology of everyday-life executive function (EF) deficits in adults with ADHD with high IQ. METHOD: Forty adults with ADHD with an IQ ≥ 120 and 40 controls were recruited. Ecological EFs were measured, and eyes-closed Electroencephalograph (EEG) signals were recorded during a resting-state condition; EEG power and correlations with impaired EFs were analyzed. RESULTS: Compared with controls, the ADHD group showed higher scores on all clusters of EF...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100212/an-event-related-potential-investigation-of-the-acute-effects-of-aerobic-and-coordinative-exercise-on-inhibitory-control-in-children-with-adhd
#15
Sebastian Ludyga, Serge Brand, Markus Gerber, Peter Weber, Mark Brotzmann, Fahimeh Habibifar, Uwe Pühse
The current body of evidence suggests that an aerobic exercise session has a beneficial effect on inhibitory control, whereas the impact of coordinative exercise on this executive function has not yet been examined in children with ADHD. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the acute effects of aerobic and coordinative exercise on behavioral performance and the allocation of attentional resources in an inhibitory control task. Using a cross-over design, children with ADHD-combined type and healthy comparisons completed a Flanker task before and after 20min moderately-intense cycling exercise, coordinative exercise and an inactive control condition...
October 27, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099034/the-association-between-sleep-and-theory-of-mind-in-school-aged-children-with-adhd
#16
REVIEW
Rackeb Tesfaye, Reut Gruber
Theory of Mind (ToM) is defined as the ability to infer a range of internal mental states of others, including beliefs, intentions, desires, and emotions. These abilities are associated with children's ability to socialize effectively with peers. ToM impairments are associated with peer rejection and psychiatric disorders such as Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Previous studies have found poor sleep negatively impacts executive functioning (EF) and emotional information processing, which are essential for the effective use of ToM...
August 21, 2017: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081833/parent-reported-problematic-sleep-behaviors-in-children-with-comorbid-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#17
Katharine C Reynolds, Michelle Patriquin, Candice A Alfano, Katherine A Loveland, Deborah A Pearson
BACKGROUND: Sleep problems are frequent and well documented in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and children with internalizing problems, however limited work has examined sleep problems in children presenting with comorbid ASD/ADHD. In healthy children, sleep problems negatively impact social, emotional, and academic functioning. The current study sought to examine diagnostic severity as predictors of sleep problems in children with comorbid ASD/ADHD...
July 2017: Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075206/abnormal-resting-state-functional-connectivity-of-insular-subregions-and-disrupted-correlation-with-working-memory-in-adults-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#18
Qihua Zhao, Hui Li, Xiaoyan Yu, Fang Huang, Yanfei Wang, Lu Liu, Qingjiu Cao, Qiujin Qian, Yufeng Zang, Li Sun, Yufeng Wang
OBJECTIVES: Executive function (EF) deficits are major impairments in adults with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Previous studies have shown that the insula is involved in cognitive and EFs. However, the insula is highly heterogeneous in function, and few studies have focused on functional networks which related to specific insular subregions in adults with ADHD. We explored the functional networks of the insular subregions [anterior insula (AI), mid-insula (MI), and posterior insula (PI)]...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063592/omega-3-supplementation-associated-with-improved-parent-rated-executive-function-in-youth-with-mood-disorders-secondary-analyses-of-the-omega-3-and-therapy-oats-trials
#19
Anthony T Vesco, Andrea S Young, L Eugene Arnold, Mary A Fristad
BACKGROUND: Improvements in executive functioning (EF) may lead to improved quality of life and lessened functional impairment for children with mood disorders. The aim was to assess the impact of omega-3 supplementation (Ω3) and psychoeducational psychotherapy (PEP), each alone and in combination, on EF in youth with mood disorders. We completed secondary analyses of two randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of Ω3 and PEP for children with depression and bipolar disorder. METHODS: Ninety-five youths with depression or bipolar disorder not otherwise specified/cyclothymic disorder were randomized in 12-week RCTs...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048312/adhd-symptoms-and-peer-problems-mediation-of-executive-function-and-theory-of-mind
#20
Carmen Berenguer Forner, Belén Roselló Miranda, Inmaculada Baixauli Fortea, Rosa García Castellar, Carla Colomer Diago, Ana Miranda Casas
BACKGROUND: The social maladjustment suffered by many children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is maintained over time, increasing the risk of subsequent adverse outcomes. The objectives of the study were to explore the mechanisms that operate between ADHD symptoms and social problems with peers, considering the mediation of FE and ToM. METHOD: 35 children with ADHD and 37 with typical development matched in age and IQ were compared. Parents assessed ToM skills and relationships with peers, and teachers provided EF ratings...
November 2017: Psicothema
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