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Executive function in ADHD

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663184/performance-based-measures-and-behavioral-ratings-of-executive-function-in-diagnosing-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-children
#1
Alexander Tan, Lauren Delgaty, Kayla Steward, Melissa Bunner
Deficits in real-world executive functioning (EF) are a frequent characteristic of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the predictive value of using performance-based and behavioral rating measures of EF when diagnosing ADHD remains unclear. The current study investigates the use of performance-based EF measures and a parent-report questionnaire with established ecological validity and clinical utility when diagnosing ADHD. Participants included 21 healthy controls, 21 ADHD-primary inattentive, and 21 ADHD-combined type subjects aged 6-15 years...
April 16, 2018: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661516/lisdexamfetamine-targets-amygdala-mechanisms-that-bias-cognitive-control-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#2
Kurt P Schulz, Beth Krone, Lenard A Adler, Anne-Claude V Bédard, Stephanie Duhoux, Juan Pedraza, Sanweda Mahagabin, Jeffrey H Newcorn
BACKGROUND: Prefrontal-limbic circuits that form the neural architecture for emotion to influence behavior have been implicated in the pathophysiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and represent a potentially important target of medication treatment that has not been substantively evaluated. This study tested the effect of the psychostimulant prodrug lisdexamfetamine dimesylate on amygdala activation and connectivity during the emotional bias of response execution and inhibition...
March 19, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660590/detection-of-neurodevelopmental-diversity-in-memory-clinics-validation-of-a-self-report-measure
#3
Alon Seifan, Chiashin Shih, Katherine Hackett, Max J Pensack, Matthew W Schelke, Michael Lin, Hemali Patel, Christine A Ganzer, Mahreen Ahmed, Robert Krikorian, Peter Tamboer, Adolfo M Henriquez, Richard S Isaacson, Sheila Steinhof
BACKGROUND: Neurodevelopmental learning and attentional disorders (NLAD) such as dyslexia, dyscalculia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affect at least 6% of the adult population or more. They are associated with atypical cognitive patterns in early and adult life. The cognitive patterns of affected individuals in late life have never been described. One main challenge is detecting individuals in clinical settings during which mild cognitive changes could be confounding the clinical presentation...
April 13, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658934/using-brain-activation-nir-heg-q-eeg-and-execution-measures-cpts-in-a-adhd-assessment-protocol
#4
Debora Areces, Marisol Cueli, Trinidad García, Paloma González-Castro, Celestino Rodríguez
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a problem that impacts academic performance and has serious consequences that result in difficulties in scholastic, social and familial contexts. One of the most common problems in the identification of this disorder relates to the apparent over diagnosis of the disorder due to the absence of global protocols for assessment. The research group of School Learning, Difficulties and Academic Performance (ADIR) from the University of Oviedo, has developed a complete protocol that suggests the existence of certain patterns of cortical activation and executive control for identifying ADHD more objectively...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651240/cognitive-neuroscience-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-and-its-clinical-translation
#5
REVIEW
Katya Rubia
This review focuses on the cognitive neuroscience of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies and on recent clinically relevant applications such as fMRI-based diagnostic classification or neuromodulation therapies targeting fMRI deficits with neurofeedback (NF) or brain stimulation. Meta-analyses of fMRI studies of executive functions (EFs) show that ADHD patients have cognitive-domain dissociated complex multisystem impairments in several right and left hemispheric dorsal, ventral and medial fronto-cingulo-striato-thalamic and fronto-parieto-cerebellar networks that mediate cognitive control, attention, timing and working memory (WM)...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649723/the-relevance-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-self-limited-childhood-epilepsy-with-centrotemporal-spikes
#6
Ellen Marise Lima, Patricia Rzezak, Bernardo Dos Santos, Letícia Gentil, Maria A Montenegro, Marilisa M Guerreiro, Kette D Valente
In this study, we aimed to evaluate the attentional and executive functions in patients with benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BCECTS) with and without attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared with controls and compared with patients with ADHD without epilepsy. We evaluated 12 patients with BCECTS and ADHD (66.7% boys; mean age of 9.67years); 11 children with non-ADHD BCECTS (63.6% boys; mean age of 11.91years); 20 healthy children (75% boys; mean age of 10.15years); and 20 subjects with ADHD without epilepsy (60% boys; mean age of 10...
April 9, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644473/attention-and-executive-functions-computer-training-for-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-results-from-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Aida Bikic, James F Leckman, Torben Ø Christensen, Niels Bilenberg, Søren Dalsgaard
Multicenter randomized clinical superiority single-blind trial investigated the effect of a computer training program targeting multiple cognitive functions. Seventy children with ADHD, aged 6-13, were randomized to intervention or control group. The intervention group used ACTIVATE™ for 8 weeks and both groups received treatment as usual and were assessed in regard to cognitive functions, symptoms, behavioral and functional outcome measures after 8, 12 and 24 weeks. There was no significant effect on the primary outcome, sustained attention (β = - 0...
April 11, 2018: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620405/neurocognitive-and-behavioral-predictors-of-social-problems-in-adhd-a-bayesian-framework
#8
Michael J Kofler, Sherelle L Harmon, Paula A Aduen, Taylor N Day, Kristin E Austin, Jamie A Spiegel, Lauren Irwin, Dustin E Sarver
OBJECTIVE: Social problems are a key area of functional impairment for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and converging evidence points to executive dysfunction as a potential mechanism underlying ADHD-related social dysfunction. The evidence is mixed, however, with regard to which neurocognitive abilities account for these relations. METHOD: A well-characterized group of 117 children ages 8-13 (M = 10.45, SD = 1.53; 43 girls; 69.5% Caucasian/Non-Hispanic) with ADHD (n = 77) and without ADHD (n = 40) were administered multiple, counterbalanced tests of neurocognitive functioning and assessed for social skills via multi-informant reports...
March 2018: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602533/the-neurocognitive-nature-of-children-with-adhd-comorbid-sluggish-cognitive-tempo-might-sct-be-a-disorder-of-vigilance
#9
Muharrem Burak Baytunca, Sevim Berrin Inci, Melis Ipci, Burcu Kardas, Gul Unsel Bolat, Eyup Sabri Ercan
Sluggish Cognitive Tempo (SCT) refers to a clinical construct including several symptoms such as sluggishness, absentmindedness, low energy. In the present study, we compared neurocognitive laboratory outcomes of ADHD children with or without SCT. METHOD: The CNS Vital Signs Battery was utilized to measure neurocognitive measure of the participants. The SCT+ADHD group comprised of 42 subjects, ADHD group was 41 subjects and control group was 24 subjects. RESULTS: The cognitive flexibility score was found to be more severely impaired in ADHD children with SCT in comparison to the ADHD-only...
March 21, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575401/previously-undiagnosed-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-associated-with-poor-metabolic-control-in-adolescents-with-type-1-diabetes
#10
C Nylander, K Lindström, N Khalifa, E Fernell
BACKGROUND: Managing modern diabetes treatment requires efficient executive functions. Patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and type 1 diabetes have poor metabolic control and present with ketoacidosis more often than patients without ADHD. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether patients with type 1 diabetes and with indications of executive problems met criteria for ADHD, and to investigate whether these patients had difficulties achieving metabolic control...
March 24, 2018: Pediatric Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566425/cognitive-behavioural-interventions-for-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-in-adults
#11
REVIEW
Pablo Luis Lopez, Fernando Manuel Torrente, Agustín Ciapponi, Alicia Graciela Lischinsky, Marcelo Cetkovich-Bakmas, Juan Ignacio Rojas, Marina Romano, Facundo F Manes
BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental condition characterised by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity, along with deficits in executive function, emotional regulation and motivation. The persistence of ADHD in adulthood is a serious clinical problem.ADHD significantly affects social interactions, study and employment performance.Previous studies suggest that cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) could be effective in treating adults with ADHD, especially when combined with pharmacological treatment...
March 23, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560310/neural-mechanisms-underlying-successful-and-deficient-multi-component-behavior-in-early-adolescent-adhd
#12
Annet Bluschke, Krutika Gohil, Maxi Petzold, Veit Roessner, Christian Beste
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a disorder affecting cognitive control. These functions are important to achieve goals when different actions need to be executed in close succession. This type of multi-component behavior, which often further requires the processing of information from different modalities, is important for everyday activities. Yet, possible changes in neurophysiological mechanisms have not been investigated in adolescent ADHD. We examined N = 31 adolescent ADHD patients and N = 35 healthy controls (HC) in two Stop-Change experiments using either uni-modal or bi-modal stimuli to trigger stop and change processes...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544968/-all-you-need-to-know-about-methylphenidate-and-dared-not-ask
#13
L Zimmer, P Fourneret
Methylphenidate (MPH) remains the only accessible psychostimulant used in France in the attention and behavior disturbances of attention deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity (ADHD). Its prescription has been extended during the past decade to other neurodevelopmental disorders in children and adolescents, also associated with a deficit of attentional resources or, more broadly, fragility of executive functions. Despite its efficiency, validated by more than 400 randomized controlled and double-blind studies, and the good tolerance of MPH in these indications, this treatment remains limited in France because of many fears and other prejudices on the part of medical practitioners and/or families...
March 12, 2018: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29537898/a-situation-specific-approach-to-measure-attention-in-adults-with-adhd-the-everyday-life-attention-scale-elas
#14
Yvonne Groen, Anselm B M Fuermaier, Lara Tucha, Matthias Weisbrod, Steffen Aschenbrenner, Oliver Tucha
This study describes the development and utility of a new self-report measure of attentional capacities of adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): the Everyday Life Attention Scale (ELAS). Different from previous attention scales, attentional capacities are rated for nine everyday situations. Study 1 investigated the factor structure, validity, and reliability of the ELAS in 1206 healthy participants. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a situation-specific approach which categorizes everyday attention into nine situation scales: Reading, Movie, Activity, Lecture, Conversation, Assignment, Cooking, Cleaning up, and Driving...
March 14, 2018: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29537056/electrophysiological-correlates-of-reading-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#15
P A Gonzalez-Perez, S Hernandez-Exposito, J Perez, G Ramirez, A Dominguez
AIMS: To investigate whether or not the deficits in executive functions in the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affect reading comprehension and identify a potential biological marker of this neuropsychological endophenotype through event-related potentials (ERP). The phenotypic association between reading comprehension and the specific functions of inhibition and working memory is studied. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The sample consisted of 52 children with ADHD (8-13 years) divided in two groups according to the presence (TDAH-; n = 27; percentile < 30) or the absence (TDAH+; n = 25; percentile > 50) of reading comprehension deficits and a control group (n = 27)...
March 16, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536801/a-critical-appraisal-of-the-role-of-neuropsychological-deficits-in-preschool-adhd
#16
Douglas Sjöwall, Lisa B Thorell
The present study aimed at improving our understanding of the role of neuropsychological deficits in preschool Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The study included 52 children in the ADHD group and 72 controls (age 4-6 years). Both laboratory measures and teacher reports of executive deficits (i.e., working memory, inhibition, and shifting), delay-related behaviors (i.e., the preference for minimizing delay), and emotional functions (i.e., emotion recognition and regulation) were included. Variable-oriented analyses were complemented with person-oriented analyses (i...
March 14, 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535621/event-related-potentials-during-a-gambling-task-in-young-adults-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#17
Sarah K Mesrobian, Alessandro E P Villa, Michel Bader, Lorenz Götte, Alessandra Lintas
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by deficits in executive functions and decision making during childhood and adolescence. Contradictory results exist whether altered event-related potentials (ERPs) in adults are associated with the tendency of ADHD patients toward risky behavior. Clinically diagnosed ADHD patients ( n = 18) and healthy controls ( n = 18), aged between 18 and 29 (median 22 Yo), were screened with the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales and assessed by the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, adult ADHD Self-Report Scale, and by the 60-item HEXACO Personality Inventory...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521611/the-association-between-executive-functioning-and-psychopathology-general-or-specific
#18
A J P Bloemen, A J Oldehinkel, O M Laceulle, J Ormel, N N J Rommelse, C A Hartman
BACKGROUND: We modeled both psychopathology and executive function (EF) as bi-factor models to study if EF impairments are transdiagnostic or relate to individual syndromes, and concurrently, if such associations are with general EF or specific EF impairments. METHODS: Data were obtained from the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS; N = 2230). Psychopathology was assessed with parent-report questionnaires at ages 11, 14, 16, and 19, and EF with tasks from the Amsterdam Neuropsychological Tasks program at ages 11 and 19...
March 9, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521286/neuropsychological-profile-related-with-executive-function-of-chinese-preschoolers-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-neuropsychological-measures-and-behavior-rating-scale-of-executive-function-preschool-version
#19
Hui-Feng Zhang, Lan Shuai, Jin-Song Zhang, Yu-Feng Wang, Teng-Fei Lu, Xin Tan, Jing-Xue Pan, Li-Xiao Shen
Background: Previous studies have found that schoolchildren with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) showed difficulties in neuropsychological function. This study aimed to assess neuropsychological function in Chinese preschoolers with ADHD using broad neuropsychological measures and rating scales and to test whether the pattern and severity of neuropsychological weakness differed among ADHD presentations in preschool children. Methods: The 226 preschoolers (163 with ADHD and 63 controls) with the age of 4-5 years were included and assessed using the Behavior Rating Scale of Executive Function-Preschool Version (BRIEF-P) and a series of tests to investigate neuropsychological function...
March 20, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520239/behavioral-phenotyping-of-dopamine-transporter-knockout-rats-compulsive-traits-motor-stereotypies-and-anhedonia
#20
Stefano Cinque, Francesca Zoratto, Anna Poleggi, Damiana Leo, Luca Cerniglia, Silvia Cimino, Renata Tambelli, Enrico Alleva, Raul R Gainetdinov, Giovanni Laviola, Walter Adriani
Alterations in dopamine neurotransmission are generally associated with diseases such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Such diseases typically feature poor decision making and lack of control on executive functions and have been studied through the years using many animal models. Dopamine transporter (DAT) knockout (KO) and heterozygous (HET) mice, in particular, have been widely used to study ADHD. Recently, a strain of DAT KO rats has been developed (1)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
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