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Executive function in ADHD

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874266/meta-analysis-of-neuropsychological-measures-of-executive-functioning-in-children-and-adolescents-with-high-functioning-autism-spectrum-disorder
#1
Chun Lun Eric Lai, Zoe Lau, Simon S Y Lui, Eugenia Lok, Venus Tam, Quinney Chan, Koi Man Cheng, Siu Man Lam, Eric F C Cheung
Existing literature on the profile of executive dysfunction in autism spectrum disorder showed inconsistent results. Age, comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and cognitive abilities appeared to play a role in confounding the picture. Previous meta-analyses have focused on a few components of executive functions. This meta-analysis attempted to delineate the profile of deficit in several components of executive functioning in children and adolescents with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD)...
November 22, 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868580/attention-lapses-in-children-with-spina-bifida-and-hydrocephalus-and-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#2
Gabriel G De la Torre, Alba Martin, Elizabeth Cervantes, Rocio Guil, Jose M Mestre
Attentional lapses are usually defined as temporary and often brief shifts of attention away from some primary task to unrelated internal information processing. This study addressed the incidence of attention lapses and differences in attentional functioning in 30 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 26 healthy children, and 29 children with spina bifida myelomeningocele and hydrocephalus (SBH). Assessments were conducted using computerized tonic and phasic attention tests, the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), and the Trail Making Test Form B (TMT-B)...
November 20, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831696/neuropsychological-functioning-in-college-students-with-and-without-adhd
#3
Lisa L Weyandt, Danielle R Oster, Bergljot Gyda Gudmundsdottir, George J DuPaul, Arthur D Anastopoulos
Objective: Increasing numbers of students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are attending college; however, little empirical information is available concerning the functional impairment experienced by these students. Although preliminary studies suggest that college students with ADHD are more likely to experience a variety of psychosocial and academic difficulties compared to their peers without the disorder, findings regarding neuropsychological functioning have been inconsistent with some studies reporting that college students with ADHD perform more poorly on various cognitive and neuropsychological tasks while others report no differences compared to their peers without ADHD...
November 10, 2016: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828696/current-and-investigational-medication-delivery-systems-for-treating-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#4
Rakesh Jain, Alain Katic
OBJECTIVE: To review currently available formulations and emphasize unmet needs in the pharmacologic management of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). DATA SOURCES: Publications and clinical trials were identified through PubMed and ClinicalTrials.gov, respectively. A Web-based search identified prescribing information for approved agents for treating ADHD, along with relevant guidelines and diagnostic criteria. STUDY SELECTION: The following search terms were used: (1) ADHD or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder or ADD or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and/or (2) amphetamine or methylphenidate or atomoxetine or guanfacine or clonidine...
August 18, 2016: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827406/heterogeneity-of-executive-functions-among-comorbid-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#5
Dina R Dajani, Maria M Llabre, Mary Beth Nebel, Stewart H Mostofsky, Lucina Q Uddin
Executive functions (EFs) are used to set goals, plan for the future, inhibit maladaptive responses, and change behavior flexibly. Although some studies point to specific EF profiles in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) - prevalent and often highly comorbid neurodevelopmental disorders - others have not differentiated them. The objective of the current study was to identify distinct profiles of EF across typically developing (TD) children and children with ASD and ADHD...
November 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825782/failure-to-maintain-set-as-a-predictor-of-childhood-depression-within-a-children-s-psychiatric-inpatient-sample
#6
Brian C Kavanaugh, Charles E Gaudet, Jennifer A Dupont-Frechette, Perrin P Tellock, Isolde D Maher, Lauren D Haisley, Karen A Holler
Despite a wealth of studies in adults and adolescents, only a handful of studies have examined executive function in childhood depression. This study utilized retrospective chart review of a children's psychiatric inpatient program to evaluate executive function via Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) in 33 children (6-12 years old) with a depressive disorder and 61 age/sex-matched children without a depressive disorder referred for neuropsychological evaluation. WCST categories, perseverative errors, and failure to maintain set errors were examined as potential predictors of depressive disorder diagnosis and self-reported depressive symptoms...
November 1, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817906/temporal-discounting-and-emotional-self-regulation-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#7
Daniel Augusto Utsumi, Mônica Carolina Miranda, Mauro Muszkat
Temporal Discounting (TD) reflects a tendency to discount a reward more deeply the longer its delivery is delayed. TD tasks and behavioral scales have been used to investigate 'hot' executive functions in ADHD. The present study analyzed TD task performance shown by ADHD and control groups for correlations with emotional self-regulation metrics from two scales, the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functions (BRIEF) and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Children (ages 8-12) with ADHD (n=25) and controls (n=24) were assessed using material rewards (toys) for three types of task: Hypothetical (H); Hypothetical with temporal expectation (HTE); and Real (R)...
October 29, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815333/overweight-in-boys-with-adhd-is-related-to-candidate-genes-and-not-to-deficits-in-cognitive-functions
#8
Tomasz Hanć, Monika Dmitrzak-Węglarz, Aneta Borkowska, Tomasz Wolańczyk, Natalia Pytlińska, Filip Rybakowski, Radosław Słopień, Agnieszka Słopień
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess the relationship of overweight, the polymorphisms of selected candidate genes, and deficits in the executive functions among children with ADHD. METHOD: We examined 109 boys with ADHD aged between 7 and 17 years. The study indicated variants of 14 polymorphisms in eight candidate genes. We applied seven neuropsychological tests to evaluate the executive functions. Overweight was diagnosed on the basis of the guidelines of the International Obesity Task Force...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814302/a-series-of-n-of-1-trials-of-stimulants-in%C3%A2-brain-injured-children
#9
Jane Nikles, Geoffrey Mitchell, Lynne McKinlay, Mary-Clare Waugh, Adrienne Epps, Sue-Ann Carmont, Philip J Schluter, Owen Lloyd, M Hugh Senior
BACKGROUND: There is controversy about whether central nervous system stimulant (CNS) medication is an effective method of treating acquired attention deficits in children with acquired brain injury (ABI). OBJECTIVE: The primary objective was to determine the effectiveness of stimulants on attention, concentration and executive function in children with ABI. METHODS: Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multi-centre n-of-1 trials of stimulants assessing effect on attention, concentration and executive function in 53 children and adolescents with ABI who were outpatients of three tertiary hospitals in Australia...
October 31, 2016: NeuroRehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807701/using-physical-activity-to-manage-adhd-symptoms-the-state-of-the-evidence
#10
REVIEW
Betsy Hoza, Caroline P Martin, Anna Pirog, Erin K Shoulberg
This article summarizes the evidence for management of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using chronic aerobic physical activity (PA). Known studies comparing chronic aerobic PA to at least one control group are listed; uncontrolled studies and studies of non-aerobic PA are not considered. Key challenges to conducting chronic PA studies with children and youth with ADHD are summarized. After condensing information from widely varying studies, measures, and research designs, conclusions are stated in broad brush stroke terms...
December 2016: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806078/decreased-left-caudate-volume-is-associated-with-increased-severity-of-autistic-like-symptoms-in-a-cohort-of-adhd-patients-and-their-unaffected-siblings
#11
Laurence O'Dwyer, Colby Tanner, Eelco V van Dongen, Corina U Greven, Janita Bralten, Marcel P Zwiers, Barbara Franke, Dirk Heslenfeld, Jaap Oosterlaan, Pieter J Hoekstra, Catharina A Hartman, Wouter Groen, Nanda Rommelse, Jan K Buitelaar
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms frequently occur in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). While there is evidence that both ADHD and ASD have differential structural brain correlates, knowledge of the structural brain profile of individuals with ADHD with raised ASD symptoms is limited. The presence of ASD-like symptoms was measured by the Children's Social Behavior Questionnaire (CSBQ) in a sample of typically developing controls (n = 154), participants with ADHD (n = 239), and their unaffected siblings (n = 144) between the ages of 8 and 29...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776326/hyperactivity-in-boys-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-the-influence-of-underlying-visuospatial-working-memory-and-self-control-processes
#12
Connor H G Patros, R Matt Alderson, Kristen L Hudec, Stephanie J Tarle, Sarah E Lea
Changes in motor activity were examined across control and executive function (EF) tasks that differ with regard to demands placed on visuospatial working memory (VS-WM) and self-control processes. Motor activity was measured via actigraphy in 8- to 12-year-old boys with (n=15) and without (n=17) attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) during the completion of VS-WM, self-control, and control tasks. Results indicated that boys with ADHD, relative to typically developing boys, exhibited greater motor activity across tasks, and both groups' activity was greater during EF tasks relative to control tasks...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775648/language-problems-and-adhd-symptoms-how-specific-are-the-links
#13
Erin Hawkins, Susan Gathercole, Duncan Astle, The Calm Team, Joni Holmes
Symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity frequently co-occur with language difficulties in both clinical and community samples. We explore the specificity and strength of these associations in a heterogeneous sample of 254 children aged 5 to 15 years identified by education and health professionals as having problems with attention, learning and/or memory. Parents/carers rated pragmatic and structural communication skills and behaviour, and children completed standardised assessments of reading, spelling, vocabulary, and phonological awareness...
October 21, 2016: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764528/sluggish-cognitive-tempo-is-associated-with-poorer-study-skills-more-executive-functioning-deficits-and-greater-impairment-in-college-students
#14
Andrew J Flannery, Aaron M Luebbe, Stephen P Becker
OBJECTIVES: Few studies have examined sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) in college students even though extant research suggests a higher prevalence rate of SCT symptoms in this population compared to general adult or youth samples. The current study examined SCT symptoms in relation to two domains related to college student's academic success, study skills and daily life executive functioning (EF), as well as specific domains of functional impairment. METHOD: 158 undergraduate students (Mage = 19...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744214/emotional-dysregulation-of-adhd-in-childhood-predicts-poor-early-adulthood-outcomes-a-prospective-follow-up-study
#15
Ying Qian, WeiLi Chang, Xiaoxiao He, Li Yang, Lu Liu, Quangang Ma, Yueling Li, Li Sun, Qiujin Qian, Yufeng Wang
BACKGROUD: Emotional dysregulation (EDR) is commonly seen in individuals with attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD). But few are known about the influence of EDR on early-adulthood outcomes. AIMS: To detect the relationship between emotional dysregulation (EDR) in childhood and the outcomes in early-adulthood of participants with attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD). METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Han Chinese children who met DSM-IV ADHD criteria were followed up into early adulthood...
October 12, 2016: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743041/predicting-cognitive-executive-functioning-with-polygenic-risk-scores-for-psychiatric-disorders
#16
Chelsie E Benca, Jaime L Derringer, Robin P Corley, Susan E Young, Matthew C Keller, John K Hewitt, Naomi P Friedman
Executive functions (EFs) have been proposed as an endophenotype for psychopathology because EF deficits are associated with most psychiatric disorders. To examine this hypothesis, we derived polygenic risk scores for autism, attention-deficit/hyperactive disorder (ADHD), bipolar disorder, major depression (MDD), and schizophrenia, using genome-wide data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium as discovery samples. We then examined the relationships between these polygenic risk scores and three separable EF components measured with a latent variable model...
October 14, 2016: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741257/designing-an-ipad-app-to-monitor-and-improve-classroom-behavior-for-children-with-adhd-iselfcontrol-feasibility-and-pilot-studies
#17
Sabrina Schuck, Natasha Emmerson, Hadar Ziv, Penelope Collins, Sara Arastoo, Mark Warschauer, Francis Crinella, Kimberley Lakes
Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) receive approximately 80% of instruction in the general education classroom, where individualized behavioral management strategies may be difficult for teachers to consistently deliver. Mobile device apps provide promising platforms to manage behavior. This pilot study evaluated the utility of a web-based application (iSelfControl) designed to support classroom behavior management. iSelfControl prompted students every 'Center' (30-minutes) to self-evaluate using a universal token-economy classroom management system focused on compliance, productivity, and positive relationships...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738993/the-interaction-between-5-httlpr-and-stress-exposure-influences-connectivity-of-the-executive-control-and-default-mode-brain-networks
#18
Dennis van der Meer, Catharina A Hartman, Raimon H R Pruim, Maarten Mennes, Dirk Heslenfeld, Jaap Oosterlaan, Stephen V Faraone, Barbara Franke, Jan K Buitelaar, Pieter J Hoekstra
We recently reported that the serotonin transporter polymorphism 5-HTTLPR moderates the relation between stress exposure and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) severity. This gene-environment interaction (GxE) has been previously tied to the processing of emotional stimuli, which is increasingly recognized to be a key factor in ADHD-related impairment. The executive control and default mode brain networks play an important role in the regulation of emotion processing, and altered connectivity of these networks has also been associated with ADHD...
October 13, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734305/the-effect-of-single-dose-methylphenidate-on-resting-state-network-functional-connectivity-in-adhd
#19
Timothy J Silk, Charles Malpas, Alasdair Vance, Mark A Bellgrove
We examined the effect of a single dose of methylphenidate (MPH) on whole brain functional connectivity, assessed using resting state functional MRI (rsfMRI), in young people with ADHD. 16 young people with ADHD participated in two rsfMRI scans in a randomized, placebo-controlled study with an acute dose of MPH (20 mg). 15 typically developing controls also performed the task under placebo conditions. The network-based statistic (NBS) was used to identify differential connectivity patterns between the MPH and placebo conditions in the ADHD group...
October 12, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713716/inattention-working-memory-and-goal-neglect-in-a-community-sample
#20
Rebecca N Elisa, Emili Balaguer-Ballester, Benjamin A Parris
Executive function deficits have been linked to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but it has been theorized that the symptom inattention is specifically related to problems with complex verbal working memory (WM). Using the Conners Adult ADHD rating scale, adults aged 18-35 were assessed for ADHD symptoms, and completed tasks designed to tap verbal and spatial aspects of WM (Experiment 1). Results showed that high inattention predicted poor performance on both simple and complex verbal WM measures...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
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