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Executive function in ADHD

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29935154/considering-noradrenergically-mediated-facilitation-of-sensory-signal-processing-as-a-component-of-psychostimulant-induced-performance-enhancement
#1
Rachel L Navarra, Barry D Waterhouse
Prescription stimulants are used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Psychostimulants are also used off-label by non-ADHD patients as performance-enhancing agents across academic, occupational, athletic, and social settings. Extensive work has focused on the reinforcing effects and abuse liability of psychostimulants, but understanding the mechanisms through which these agents regulate neural circuit functions that govern cognitive and sensorimotor processes to result in their performance-enhancing effects has received less attention...
June 20, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898021/dental-caries-in-schoolchildren-influence-of-inattention-hyperactivity-and-executive-functions
#2
Isabella Mota-Veloso, Maria Letícia Ramos-Jorge, Marcio Alexandre Homem, Isabela Almeida Pordeus, Saul Martins Paiva, Fernanda Oliveira-Ferreira
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by inappropriate levels of hyperactivity, impulsivity, and/or inattention. Individuals with ADHD may present limitations with regard to executive functions and performing activities that involve planning and/or attention/concentration. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between dental caries and signs of ADHD in a representative sample of schoolchildren. A representative sample of 851 schoolchildren aged seven to 12 years was randomly selected from public and private schools...
June 7, 2018: Brazilian Oral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29890879/the-relationship-between-neuropsychological-deficits-and-emotional-lability-in-adults-with-adhd
#3
Laura Gisbert, Vanesa Richarte, Montserrat Corrales, Pol Ibáñez, Rosa Bosch, Mariano Bellina, Christian Fadeuilhe, Miquel Casas, Josep Antoni Ramos-Quiroga
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the extent to which neuropsychological performance parameters implicated in ADHD might mediate the relationship between emotional lability (EL) and this disorder. METHOD: Eight hundred twelve adult patients with ADHD were examined. EL was assessed using the EL subscale of Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS). To assess cognitive and executive functions, a battery of neuropsychological tests was performed in 262 patients with ADHD and high EL symptomatology and 550 patients with ADHD and low EL symptomatology...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29884212/training-executive-attention-and-motor-skills-teams-training-versus-standard-treatment-for-preschool-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-randomised-clinical-trial
#4
Helle Annette Vibholm, Jesper Pedersen, Erlend Faltinsen, Michael H Marcussen, Christian Gluud, Ole Jakob Storebø
OBJECTIVE: This study compared the effectiveness of manualised training, executive, attention, and motor skills (TEAMS) training versus standard treatment in preschool children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We conducted a randomised parallel group, single-blinded, superiority trial. The primary outcome was ADHD symptoms and the secondary outcome was functionality. Parents and primary school teachers assessed outcomes at pretreatment, posttreatment, and at one, three, and 6 months follow-up...
June 8, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790729/prenatal-phthalates-maternal-thyroid-function-and-risk-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-the-norwegian-mother-and-child-cohort
#5
Stephanie M Engel, Gro D Villanger, Rachel C Nethery, Cathrine Thomsen, Amrit K Sakhi, Samantha S M Drover, Jane A Hoppin, Pal Zeiner, Gun Peggy Knudsen, Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud, Amy H Herring, Heidi Aase
BACKGROUND: There is growing concern that phthalate exposures may have an impact on child neurodevelopment. Prenatal exposure to phthalates has been linked with externalizing behaviors and executive functioning defects suggestive of an attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) phenotype. OBJECTIVES: We undertook an investigation into whether prenatal exposure to phthalates was associated with clinically confirmed ADHD in a population-based nested case-control study of the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort (MoBa) between the years 2003 and 2008...
May 10, 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771624/virtual-reality-training-to-enhance-behavior-and-cognitive-function-among-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-brief-report
#6
Shirley Shema-Shiratzky, Marina Brozgol, Pablo Cornejo-Thumm, Karen Geva-Dayan, Michael Rotstein, Yael Leitner, Jeffrey M Hausdorff, Anat Mirelman
PURPOSE: To examine the feasibility and efficacy of a combined motor-cognitive training using virtual reality to enhance behavior, cognitive function and dual-tasking in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). METHODS: Fourteen non-medicated school-aged children with ADHD, received 18 training sessions during 6 weeks. Training included walking on a treadmill while negotiating virtual obstacles. Behavioral symptoms, cognition and gait were tested before and after the training and at 6-weeks follow-up...
May 17, 2018: Developmental Neurorehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769613/genetic-variant-for-behavioral-regulation-factor-of-executive-function-and-its-possible-brain-mechanism-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#7
Xiao Sun, Zhaomin Wu, Qingjiu Cao, Ying Qian, Yong Liu, Binrang Yang, Suhua Chang, Li Yang, Yufeng Wang
As a childhood-onset psychiatric disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is complicated by phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity. Lifelong executive function deficits in ADHD are described in many literatures and have been proposed as endophenotypes of ADHD. However, its genetic basis is still elusive. In this study, we performed a genome-wide association study of executive function, rated with Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF), in ADHD children. We identified one significant variant (rs852004, P = 2...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754497/the-compensatory-adhd-behaviors-scale-cabs-development-and-initial-validation
#8
Peter J Castagna, Scott Roye, Matthew Calamia
Several measures are available that assess inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity, and executive functioning deficits. Treatments for adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and skill-based academic interventions focus on improving compensatory strategies to ameliorate functional impairment; however, no measure exists that examines the compensatory behaviors adults utilize to compensate for the functional deficits associated with inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. The current study aimed to determine the psychometric properties of the Compensatory ADHD Behaviors Scale (CABS)...
May 1, 2018: Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745359/contribution-of-family-relatedness-to-neurobehavioral-comorbidities-in-idiopathic-childhood-epilepsies
#9
Dace N Almane, Qianqian Zhao, Paul J Rathouz, Melissa Hanson, Daren C Jackson, David A Hsu, Carl E Stafstrom, Jana E Jones, Michael Seidenberg, Monica Koehn, Bruce P Hermann
OBJECTIVES: Rates of cognitive, academic and behavioral comorbidities are elevated in children with epilepsy. The contribution of environmental and genetic influences to comorbidity risk is not fully understood. This study investigated children with epilepsy, their unaffected siblings, and controls to determine the presence and extent of risk associated with family relatedness across a range of epilepsy comorbidities. METHODS: Participants were 346 children (8-18 years), n=180 with recent-onset epilepsy, their unaffected siblings (n=67), and healthy first-degree cousin controls (n=99)...
May 10, 2018: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724641/identifying-patterns-of-motor-performance-executive-functioning-and-verbal-ability-in-preschool-children-a-latent-profile-analysis
#10
Suzanne Houwen, Erica Kamphorst, Gerda van der Veer, Marja Cantell
BACKGROUND: A relationship between motor performance and cognitive functioning is increasingly being recognized. Yet, little is known about the precise nature of the relationship between both domains, especially in early childhood. AIMS: To identify distinct constellations of motor performance, executive functioning (EF), and verbal ability in preschool aged children; and to explore how individual and contextual variables are related to profile membership. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: The sample consisted of 119 3- to 4-year old children (62 boys; 52%)...
April 30, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705926/executive-functioning-heterogeneity-in-pediatric-adhd
#11
Michael J Kofler, Lauren N Irwin, Elia F Soto, Nicole B Groves, Sherelle L Harmon, Dustin E Sarver
Neurocognitive heterogeneity is increasingly recognized as a valid phenomenon in ADHD, with most estimates suggesting that executive dysfunction is present in only about 33%-50% of these children. However, recent critiques question the veracity of these estimates because our understanding of executive functioning in ADHD is based, in large part, on data from single tasks developed to detect gross neurological impairment rather than the specific executive processes hypothesized to underlie the ADHD phenotype...
April 28, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698907/using-an-emotional-saccade-task-to-characterize-executive-functioning-and-emotion-processing-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-bipolar-disorder
#12
Rachel Yep, Stephen Soncin, Donald C Brien, Brian C Coe, Alina Marin, Douglas P Munoz
Despite distinct diagnostic criteria, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and bipolar disorder (BD) share cognitive and emotion processing deficits that complicate diagnoses. The goal of this study was to use an emotional saccade task to characterize executive functioning and emotion processing in adult ADHD and BD. Participants (21 control, 20 ADHD, 20 BD) performed an interleaved pro/antisaccade task (look toward vs. look away from a visual target, respectively) in which the sex of emotional face stimuli acted as the cue to perform either the pro- or antisaccade...
July 2018: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695985/augmented-go-no-go-task-mouse-cursor-motion-measures-improve-adhd-symptom-assessment-in-healthy-college-students
#13
Anton Leontyev, Stanley Sun, Mary Wolfe, Takashi Yamauchi
Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is frequently characterized as a disorder of executive function (EF). However, behavioral tests of EF, such as go/No-go tasks, often fail to grasp the deficiency in EF revealed by questionnaire-based measures. This inability is usually attributed to questionnaires and behavioral tasks assessing different constructs of EFs. We propose an additional explanation for this discrepancy. We hypothesize that this problem stems from the lack of dynamic assessment of decision-making (e...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689173/comparison-of-children-with-and-without-adhd-on-a-new-pictorial-self-assessment-of-executive-functions
#14
Ruthie Traub Bar-Ilan, Noa Cohen, Adina Maeir
OBJECTIVE: We examined the Pictorial Interview of Children's Metacognition and Executive Functions' (PIC-ME's) reliability and validity, targeting children's appraisal of their executive function (EF) in daily life. METHOD: One hundred children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and 44 typically developing children (ages 5-10 yr) completed the PIC-ME. Parents completed the PIC-ME and Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). RESULTS: Cronbach's α for the child PIC-ME was ...
May 2018: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683192/investigating-late-onset-adhd-a-population-cohort-investigation
#15
Miriam Cooper, Gemma Hammerton, Stephan Collishaw, Kate Langley, Ajay Thapar, Søren Dalsgaard, Evie Stergiakouli, Kate Tilling, George Davey Smith, Barbara Maughan, Michael O'Donovan, Anita Thapar, Lucy Riglin
BACKGROUND: Adult ADHD has been assumed to be a continuation of childhood-onset ADHD. However, recent studies have identified individuals with ADHD in adulthood who have not had ADHD in childhood. Whether or not these individuals have a 'typical' neurodevelopmental profile is not clear. METHODS: We tested two explanations for the emergence of apparent late-onset ADHD symptomatology using the ALSPAC epidemiological cohort, by grouping individuals according to their scores on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) hyperactivity subscale at ages 12 and 17 years...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683076/lifetime-victimization-in-children-and-adolescents-with-adhd
#16
Jorge Aguado-Gracia, Pilar Mundo-Cid, Fernando Lopez-Seco, Silvia Acosta-García, María José Cortes-Ruiz, Elisabet Vilella, Adela Masana-Marín
The objective of this study is to describe the frequency and type of victimization in a Spanish child and adolescent clinical ADHD sample and to analyze the association between the types of victimization and the severity of the symptoms. The sample is composed of 106 outpatients in treatment for ADHD, according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV) criteria. Symptom severity was measured by the Conners-3 scales. ADHD and comorbid diagnostics were evaluated with the Mini-Kid interview...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663184/performance-based-measures-and-behavioral-ratings-of-executive-function-in-diagnosing-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-children
#17
Alexander Tan, Lauren Delgaty, Kayla Steward, Melissa Bunner
Deficits in real-world executive functioning (EF) are a frequent characteristic of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the predictive value of using performance-based and behavioral rating measures of EF when diagnosing ADHD remains unclear. The current study investigates the use of performance-based EF measures and a parent-report questionnaire with established ecological validity and clinical utility when diagnosing ADHD. Participants included 21 healthy controls, 21 ADHD-primary inattentive, and 21 ADHD-combined type subjects aged 6-15 years...
April 16, 2018: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661516/lisdexamfetamine-targets-amygdala-mechanisms-that-bias-cognitive-control-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#18
Kurt P Schulz, Beth Krone, Lenard A Adler, Anne-Claude V Bédard, Stephanie Duhoux, Juan Pedraza, Sanweda Mahagabin, Jeffrey H Newcorn
BACKGROUND: Prefrontal-limbic circuits that form the neural architecture for emotion to influence behavior have been implicated in the pathophysiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and represent a potentially important target of medication treatment that has not been substantively evaluated. This study tested the effect of the psychostimulant prodrug lisdexamfetamine dimesylate on amygdala activation and connectivity during the emotional bias of response execution and inhibition...
March 19, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660590/detection-of-neurodevelopmental-diversity-in-memory-clinics-validation-of-a-self-report-measure
#19
Alon Seifan, Chiashin Shih, Katherine Hackett, Max J Pensack, Matthew W Schelke, Michael Lin, Hemali Patel, Christine A Ganzer, Mahreen Ahmed, Robert Krikorian, Peter Tamboer, Adolfo M Henriquez, Richard S Isaacson, Sheila Steinhof
BACKGROUND: Neurodevelopmental learning and attentional disorders (NLAD) such as dyslexia, dyscalculia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affect at least 6% of the adult population or more. They are associated with atypical cognitive patterns in early and adult life. The cognitive patterns of affected individuals in late life have never been described. One main challenge is detecting individuals in clinical settings during which mild cognitive changes could be confounding the clinical presentation...
June 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658934/using-brain-activation-nir-heg-q-eeg-and-execution-measures-cpts-in-a-adhd-assessment-protocol
#20
Debora Areces, Marisol Cueli, Trinidad García, Paloma González-Castro, Celestino Rodríguez
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a problem that impacts academic performance and has serious consequences that result in difficulties in scholastic, social and familial contexts. One of the most common problems in the identification of this disorder relates to the apparent over diagnosis of the disorder due to the absence of global protocols for assessment. The research group of School Learning, Difficulties and Academic Performance (ADIR) from the University of Oviedo, has developed a complete protocol that suggests the existence of certain patterns of cortical activation and executive control for identifying ADHD more objectively...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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