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Executive function in ADHD

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539944/the-behavior-rating-inventory-of-executive-function-and-continuous-performance-test-in-preschoolers-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#1
H Tuna Çak, S Ebru Çengel Kültür, Bahar Gökler, Ferhunde Öktem, Candan Taşkıran
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to examine performance-based measures and behavioral ratings of executive functions (EF) as a component of preschool attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: Twenty-one 4-to-6-year-old children with ADHD and 52 children with no psychopathology, matched on age, gender, socioeconomic status, and parental education, were enrolled. Parents were interviewed with the use of The Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children Present and Lifetime version...
May 2017: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536846/time-on-task-effects-in-children-with-and-without-adhd-depletion-of-executive-resources-or-depletion-of-motivation
#2
Tycho J Dekkers, Joost A Agelink van Rentergem, Alette Koole, Wery P M van den Wildenberg, Arne Popma, Anika Bexkens, Reino Stoffelsen, Anouk Diekmann, Hilde M Huizenga
Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are characterized by deficits in their executive functioning and motivation. In addition, these children are characterized by a decline in performance as time-on-task increases (i.e., time-on-task effects). However, it is unknown whether these time-on-task effects should be attributed to deficits in executive functioning or to deficits in motivation. Some studies in typically developing (TD) adults indicated that time-on-task effects should be interpreted as depletion of executive resources, but other studies suggested that they represent depletion of motivation...
May 23, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523385/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-symptoms-in-children-adopted-from-poland-and-their-atypical-association-patterns-a-bayesian-approach
#3
Donna A de Maat, Sandra Knuiman, Catharina H A M Rijk, René A C Hoksbergen, Anneloes L van Baar
Although high rates of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms have been observed among internationally adopted children, research on these symptoms in Polish adoptees is lacking. Therefore, we examined ADHD symptoms in Polish adoptees and their relationship to pre-adoptive risk factors, that is, time in institutional care, early deprivation, and prenatal alcohol exposure. We further compared the association patterns and gender distribution of ADHD symptoms in children adopted from Poland to those reported in the literature for ADHD symptoms in non-adopted children...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497641/adult-executive-functioning-inventory-adexi-validity-reliability-and-relations-to-adhd
#4
Ylva Holst, Lisa B Thorell
This study examined the psychometric properties of the Adult Executive Functioning Inventory (ADEXI). This new executive functioning (EF) rating instrument has the advantage of being brief (14 items) and focusing specifically on working memory and inhibitory control. Results showed that scores on the ADEXI had high internal consistency and adequate test-retest reliability, but low concurrence between self-ratings and other ratings. High and statistically significant correlations were found between ADEXI scores and scores from another EF rating instrument, whereas the correlations between ADEXI scores and neuropsychological test scores were weak and often non-significant...
May 12, 2017: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494131/neuropsychological-functioning-in-college-students-who-misuse-prescription-stimulants
#5
Timothy E Wilens, Nicholas W Carrellas, MaryKate Martelon, Amy M Yule, Ronna Fried, Rayce Anselmo, Sean Esteban McCabe
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Relatively little is known about the neuropsychological profiles of college students who misuse prescription stimulant medications. METHODS: Data presented are from college students aged 18-28 years who misused prescription stimulants prescribed for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and controls (no prescription stimulant misuse). Students were assessed neuropsychologically using the self-report Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning (BRIEF-A), the Cambridge Automated Neuropsychological Test and Battery (CANTAB), and other tests of cognitive functioning...
June 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483638/linking-adhd-to-the-neural-circuitry-of-attention
#6
REVIEW
Adrienne Mueller, David S Hong, Steven Shepard, Tirin Moore
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a complex condition with a heterogeneous presentation. Current diagnosis is primarily based on subjective experience and observer reports of behavioral symptoms - an approach that has significant limitations. Many studies show that individuals with ADHD exhibit poorer performance on cognitive tasks than neurotypical controls, and at least seven main functional domains appear to be implicated in ADHD. We discuss the underlying neural mechanisms of cognitive functions associated with ADHD, with emphasis on the neural basis of selective attention, demonstrating the feasibility of basic research approaches for further understanding cognitive behavioral processes as they relate to human psychopathology...
June 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480824/-for-some-reason-i-find-it-hard-to-work-quickly-introduction-to-the-special-issue-on-sluggish-cognitive-tempo
#7
Stephen P Becker
The body of research investigating the sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) construct continues to accumulate at a rapid pace. This article provides an introduction to the Special Issue on SCT, which includes 10 empirical studies that collectively make a major contribution to the SCT knowledge base. Notably, the studies in this Special Issue include participants spanning in age from 4 to 64 years and from four continents, helping to move the field toward a life span, transcultural understanding of SCT. Together, these studies demonstrate that SCT symptoms can be distinguished from ADHD symptoms as early as preschool and that SCT does not fall under the overarching umbrella of ADHD...
June 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446885/the-impact-of-inattention-hyperactivity-impulsivity-symptoms-and-executive-functions-on-learning-behaviors-of-children-with-adhd
#8
Carla Colomer, Carmen Berenguer, Belén Roselló, Inmaculada Baixauli, Ana Miranda
Children diagnosed with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at risk of experiencing lower academic achievement compared to their peers without ADHD. However, we have a limited understanding of the mechanisms underlying this association. Both the symptoms of the disorder and the executive functions can negatively influence learning behaviors, including motivation, attitude toward learning, or persistence, key aspects of the learning process. The first objective of this study was to compare different components of learning behaviors in children diagnosed with ADHD and typically developing (TD) children...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424381/-the-relationship-between-physical-activity-and-executive-functions-among-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#9
Martina Miklós, Judit Futó, Judit Balázs
The connection between physical activity and executive functions has recently started to emerge as a new focus of research within the field of attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder (ADHD). In the present paper we summarise the major findings of these studies concentrating specifically on paediatric population. We present the results of six studies that focus on the connection between acute physical activity and executive functions and seven others that examine the relationship between chronic physical activity and executive functions in children with ADHD...
2017: Psychiatria Hungarica: A Magyar Pszichiátriai Társaság Tudományos Folyóirata
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410255/neurocognitive-correlates-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-symptoms-in-children-born-at-extremely-low-gestational-age
#10
Megan N Scott, Scott J Hunter, Robert M Joseph, Thomas Michael OʼShea, Stephen R Hooper, Elizabeth N Allred, Alan Leviton, Karl Kuban
OBJECTIVE: Compared with children born near term, those born extremely preterm (EP) are at much higher risk for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Little information is available about differences in neuropsychological outcomes among EP children with and without ADHD. Our analyses aimed to evaluate the neuropsychological correlates of ADHD symptoms in extremely low gestational age newborns (ELGANs). METHODS: We obtained Child Symptom Inventory-4 reports from parents (n = 871) and teachers (n = 634) of 10-year-old children born before the 28th week of gestation...
May 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405786/maternal-responsiveness-as-a-predictor-of-self-regulation-development-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-symptoms-across-preschool-ages
#11
Ursula Pauli-Pott, Susan Schloß, Katja Becker
Preschool-age "hot" executive function capacity (i.e. reward-related effortful control) represents an early kind of self-regulation that is involved in social adjustment development as well as the development of subtypes of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Early self-regulation development might be malleable by responsive parenting. We analyzed whether maternal responsiveness/sensitivity predicts reward-related control (RRC) development within the preschool period, and whether RRC mediates a negative link between maternal responsiveness and ADHD symptoms...
April 12, 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395578/changing-relations-among-cognitive-abilities-across-development-implications-for-measurement-and-research
#12
Jala Rizeq, David B Flora, Maggie E Toplak
OBJECTIVE: The constructs of intelligence and executive function (EF) are commonly used in neuropsychological, cognitive, and developmental research, and in the context of clinical assessment. Yet, we have a limited understanding of the changing age-related associations among these cognitive constructs and the implications for measurement and research. The objectives of this study were to compare hypothetical models using intellectual abilities (non-age corrected scores of intelligence or IQ) and experimental measures of EF and to better understand the role of age in determining the associations between these cognitive abilities at two different periods of development...
April 11, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388850/auditory-and-visual-executive-functions-in-children-and-response-to-methylphenidate-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Yaffa Hadar, Shraga Hocherman, Oren Lamm, Emanuel Tirosh
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to assess auditory and visually based executive functions (EFs) and the effect of methylphenidate (MPH) in children with ADHD. METHODS: Thirty-six boys between the ages of 8.3 and 9.7 years with ADHD and 36 matched controls were included. The study group was randomized into MPH and placebo for 7 days each in a crossover design. A Cued Choice Reaction Time (CCRT) test that included incongruent cuing was administered at baseline and following 1 and 2 weeks...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383930/sluggish-cognitive-tempo-in-adults-psychometric-validation-of-the-adult-concentration-inventory
#14
Stephen P Becker, G Leonard Burns, Annie A Garner, Matthew A Jarrett, Aaron M Luebbe, Jeffery N Epstein, Erik G Willcutt
As interest in sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) increases, a primary limitation for the field is the lack of a unified set of symptoms for assessing SCT. No existing SCT measure includes all items identified in a recent meta-analysis as optimal for distinguishing between SCT and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) inattention. This study evaluates a new self-report measure for assessing SCT in adulthood, the Adult Concentration Inventory (ACI), which was developed in response to the meta-analytic findings for assessing SCT...
April 6, 2017: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377393/does-a-brief-behavioural-intervention-delivered-by-paediatricians-or-psychologists-improve-sleep-problems-for-children-with-adhd-protocol-for-a-cluster-randomised-translational-trial
#15
E Sciberras, M Mulraney, H Heussler, N Rinehart, T Schuster, L Gold, N Hayes, H Hiscock
INTRODUCTION: Up to 70% of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) experience sleep problems. We have demonstrated the efficacy of a brief behavioural intervention for children with ADHD in a large randomised controlled trial (RCT) and now aim to examine whether this intervention is effective in real-life clinical settings when delivered by paediatricians or psychologists. We will also assess the cost-effectiveness of the intervention. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Children aged 5-12 years with ADHD (n=320) are being recruited for this translational cluster RCT through paediatrician practices in Victoria and Queensland, Australia...
April 4, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365744/normative-data-for-a-comprehensive-neuropsychological-test-battery-used-in-the-assessment-of-sports-related-concussion
#16
Victoria C Merritt, Jessica E Meyer, Margaret H Cadden, Cristina A F Roman, Dede M Ukueberuwa, Michael D Shapiro, Peter A Arnett
Objective: The use of normative data is a hallmark of the neuropsychological assessment process. Within the context of sports-related concussion, utilizing normative data is especially essential when individualized baseline data are unavailable for comparison. The primary purpose of this study was to establish normative data for a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery used in the assessment of sports-related concussion. A secondary aim was to provide normative data for pertinent demographic variables relevant to the assessment of college athletes, including sex, previous head injuries (PHI), and history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)/learning disability (LD)...
March 1, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363086/phenomenology-of-hoarding-in-children-with-comorbid-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-the-perceptions-of-parents
#17
Fiona A Lynch, Richard Moulding, Jane A McGillivray
Individuals with ADHD and comorbid hoarding disorder are vulnerable to severe consequences from hoarding symptoms. Despite this, and the early onset of hoarding disorder, the nature of hoarding symptoms in children with comorbid ADHD is unknown. We therefore explored the phenomenology of hoarding symptoms among ten 8-12year olds with ADHD and clinically significant hoarding symptoms through parental perceptions. Parents completed in-depth semi-structured interviews. The data was analyzed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis...
March 16, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361338/maternal-executive-functioning-and-scaffolding-in-families-of-children-with-and-without-parent-reported-adhd
#18
Heather Mazursky-Horowitz, Sharon R Thomas, Kelsey E Woods, Jeffrey S Chrabaszcz, Kirby Deater-Deckard, Andrea Chronis-Tuscano
Parental scaffolding robustly predicts child developmental outcomes, including improved self-regulation and peer relationships and fewer externalizing behaviors. However, few studies have examined parental characteristics associated with a parent's ability to scaffold. Executive functioning (EF) may be an important individual difference factor associated with maternal scaffolding that has yet to be examined empirically. Scaffolding may be particularly important for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) symptoms due to their core difficulties with inattention, disorganization, EF, and self-regulation, their need for greater parental structure, and higher-than-average rates of parental EF deficits...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360811/evaluation-of-the-relationship-between-brain-derived-neurotropic-factor-levels-and-the-stroop-interference-effect-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#19
Şeref Şimşek, Salih Gençoğlan, Tuğba Yüksel, İbrahim Kaplan, Hüseyin Aktaş, Rümeysa Alaca
INTRODUCTION: Brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) has been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In addition, impairment in executive functions has been reported in children with ADHD. This study investigated the presence of a relationship between Stroop test scores and BDNF levels in children with ADHD. METHODS: The study was conducted in the Department of Child Psychiatry at Dicle University. The study included 49 children between 6 and 15 years of age (M/F: 42/7), who were diagnosed with ADHD according to DSM-IV, and who did not receive previous therapy...
December 2016: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358274/comparison-of-two-approaches-to-prevention-of-mental-health-problems-in-college-students-enhancing-coping-and-executive-function-skills
#20
Alexandra H Bettis, Mary Jo Coiro, Jessica England, Lexa K Murphy, Rachel L Zelkowitz, Leandra Dejardins, Rachel Eskridge, Laura Hieber Adery, Janet Yarboi, Daniel Pardo, Bruce E Compas
OBJECTIVE: College students face a significant number of stressors, increasing risk for internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. The current study examines two promising avenues of intervention aimed to reduce stress and prevent psychopathology in this population: a coping skills group and a cognitive training program. PARTICIPANTS: 62 undergraduate students from two universities were recruited from 2013 to 2015. METHODS: Students were randomized to a 6-week coping skills group or cognitive training program and completed measures of stress, coping, executive function, and symptoms of anxiety, depression and Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) at pre- and post-intervention...
March 30, 2017: Journal of American College Health: J of ACH
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