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Executive function in ADHD

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033857/an-update-overview-on-brain-imaging-studies-of-internet-gaming-disorder
#1
REVIEW
Aviv M Weinstein
There are a growing number of studies on structural and functional brain mechanisms underlying Internet gaming disorder (IGD). Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging studies showed that IGD adolescents and adults had reduced gray matter volume in regions associated with attention motor coordination executive function and perception. Adolescents with IGD showed lower white matter (WM) integrity measures in several brain regions that are involved in decision-making, behavioral inhibition, and emotional regulation...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991147/transition-to-college-and-adherence-to-prescribed-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-medication
#2
Wendy N Gray, Jan Kavookjian, Steven K Shapiro, Scott T Wagoner, Megan R Schaefer, Alana Resmini Rawlinson, James B Hinnant
OBJECTIVE: As youth with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) transition to adulthood, they must learn how to manage their ADHD treatment independently. This may be challenging because many of the skills necessary to adhere to treatment (e.g., organization, planning) are impaired in those with ADHD. Using electronic monitoring, we examine trajectories of adherence to medication in a cohort of college students with ADHD. Further, we examine the effect of transitioning to college and executive functioning on adherence...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983327/evaluating-the-factor-validity-of-the-children-s-organizational-skills-scale-in-youth-with-adhd
#3
Stephen J Molitor, Joshua M Langberg, Steven W Evans, Melissa R Dvorsky, Elizaveta Bourchtein, Laura D Eddy, Zoe R Smith, Lauren E Oddo
Children and adolescents with ADHD often have difficulties with organization, time management, and planning (OTMP) skills, and these skills are a common target of intervention. A limited array of tools for measuring these abilities in youth is available, and one of the most prominent measures is the Children's Organizational Skills Scale (COSS). Although the COSS fills an important need, a replication of the COSS factor structure outside of initial measure development has not been conducted in any population...
June 2017: School Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956509/multiple-causal-pathways-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-do-emerging-executive-and-motivational-deviations-precede-symptom-development
#4
Ursula Pauli-Pott, Susan Schloß, Monika Heinzel-Gutenbrunner, Katja Becker
The multiple causal pathways model on the etiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is well established. However, developmental implications of the model are not yet sufficiently analyzed. The model implies that critical neural and neuropsychological deviations from normative development precede secondarily developing ADHD symptoms. Cognitive, "cool" inhibitory control (CIC) and reward-related, "hot" functions (RRF) are regarded as neuropsychological basic deficits that indicate independent causal pathways...
September 28, 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955142/executive-function-features-in-drug-naive-children-with-oppositional-defiant-disorder
#5
Manfei Xu, Wenqing Jiang, Yasong DU, Yan Li, Juan Fan
BACKGROUND: Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) that is characterized by markedly defiant, disobedient, and disruptive behavior in younger children has been regarded as disruptive behavior disorder (DBD), together with conduct disorder (CD). However, in contrast to CD, ODD does not include severe aggressive or antisocial behavior. AIM: This study aimed to examine executive function (EF) features of children with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). METHODS: Cross sectional design was used in this study...
August 25, 2017: Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941032/are-patients-with-bipolar-disorder-and-comorbid-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-more-neurocognitively-impaired
#6
Imma Torres, Brisa Sole, Montse Corrales, Esther Jiménez, Sofia Rotger, Juan Francisco Serra-Pla, Irene Forcada, Vanesa Richarte, Ester Mora, Carlos Jacas, Nuria Gómez, Maria Mur, Francesc Colom, Eduard Vieta, Miquel Casas, Anabel Martinez-Aran, Jose M Goikolea, Josep A Ramos-Quiroga
OBJECTIVE: Research on neurocognitive impairment in adult patients with comorbid bipolar disorder (BD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is very scarce. This study assessed the neurocognitive profile of a comorbid group (BD+ADHD) compared with that of pure BD (pBD) group, pure ADHD (pADHD) group and healthy controls (HCs). METHODS: This was a three-site study comprising 229 subjects: 70 patients with pBD, 23 with BD+ADHD, 50 with pADHD, and 86 HCs...
September 21, 2017: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938852/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-improves-executive-dysfunctions-in-adhd-implications-for-inhibitory-control-interference-control-working-memory-and-cognitive-flexibility
#7
Vahid Nejati, Mohammad Ali Salehinejad, Michael A Nitsche, Asal Najian, Amir-Homayoun Javadi
OBJECTIVE: This study examined effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) on major executive functions (EFs), including response inhibition, executive control, working memory (WM), and cognitive flexibility/task switching in ADHD. METHOD: ADHD children received (a) left anodal/right cathodal DLPFC tDCS and (b) sham stimulation in Experiment 1 and (a) left anodal DLPFC/right cathodal OFC tDCS, (b) left cathodal DLPFC/right anodal OFC tDCS, and (c) sham stimulation in Experiment 2...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921780/factors-associated-with-attrition-in-substance-using-patients-enrolled-in-an-intensive-outpatient-program
#8
James Mckowen, Nicholas Carrellas, Courtney Zulauf, Emin Nalan Ward, Ronna Fried, Timothy Wilens
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Data suggest individuals with substance use disorders (SUD) have high rates of attrition from treatment and exhibit impairments on measures of executive functioning (EF). The primary aim of this pilot study was to investigate if EF is associated with attrition from a 1 month intensive outpatient program (IOP) for SUD, and examine the feasibility of implementing the project. METHODS: Baseline neurocognitive functioning was assessed by the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) and the self-reported Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning (BRIEF-A) questionnaire...
September 18, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918685/executive-functions-and-attachment-relationships-in-children-with-adhd-links-to-externalizing-internalizing-problems-social-skills-and-negative-mood-regulation
#9
Michal Al-Yagon, Dovrat Forte, Lital Avrahami
OBJECTIVE: Theoretical models suggest multiple underlying pathways for ADHD and multiple risk factors' co-occurrence as impairing this population's affective, interpersonal, and behavioral adjustment. After comparing groups' executive functioning (EF) difficulties and attachment security with each parent, this study primarily aimed to examine four risk factors (ADHD, child-father attachment, child-mother attachment, EF) as possibly explaining children's socioemotional/behavioral measures (externalizing/internalizing behavior, social skills, negative mood regulation)...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901210/does-working-memory-impact-functional-outcomes-in-individuals-with-adhd-a-qualitative-and-comprehensive-literature-review
#10
Ronna Fried, Jessica Abrams, Anna Hall, Leah Feinberg, Amanda Pope, Joseph Biederman
OBJECTIVE: Working Memory (WM) is a domain of executive functioning often impaired in individuals with ADHD. Although assumed to cause difficulties across functioning, the scope of impairments from WM deficits in ADHD has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to examine outcomes associated with WM deficits in ADHD. METHOD: We conducted a search of the scientific literature on WM deficits, and Freedom From Distractibility (FFD), in ADHD using PubMed and PsycInfo databases...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898705/relationships-of-bullying-involvement-with-intelligence-attention-and-executive-function-in-children-and-adolescents-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#11
Tai-Ling Liu, Nai-Wen Guo, Ray C Hsiao, Huei-Fan Hu, Cheng-Fang Yen
This study investigated the relationship of bullying victimization and perpetration with the levels of intelligence, attention, and executive function in children who had received a diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The experiences of bullying involvement in 105 children with ADHD were assessed using the Chinese version of the School Bullying Experience Questionnaire. Their scores for four intelligence indexes on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children 4th Edition-Chinese version were determined...
September 8, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866911/cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-adult-adhd-a-randomized-clinical-trial-in-china
#12
Fang Huang, Yi-Lang Tang, Mengjie Zhao, Yanfei Wang, Meirong Pan, Yufeng Wang, Qiujin Qian
OBJECTIVE: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is effective for adult ADHD, and booster sessions may improve long-term outcome. This study was designed to investigate the effects of group CBT and its booster sessions for Chinese adult patients with ADHD. METHOD: There were CBT only group ( n = 43), CBT +booster group ( n = 43), and control group with patients on the waiting list ( n = 22). The primary outcome was the score of the ADHD-Rating Scale (ADHD-RS). Secondary outcomes included emotion, executive function (EF), impulsivity, self-esteem, and life quality at 12th and 24th week...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857804/social-responsiveness-scale-assessment-of-the-preterm-behavioral-phenotype-in-10-year-olds-born-extremely-preterm
#13
Steven J Korzeniewski, Robert M Joseph, So Hyun Kim, Elizabeth N Allred, T Michael OʼShea, Alan Leviton, Karl C K Kuban
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the correlates of a clinically significant high score on the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) in 10-year-old children who were born extremely preterm and who did not meet criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). METHODS: After excluding 61 participants diagnosed with ASD, we grouped children by IQ < or ≥85 and then compared the prevalence of neurocognitive and other deficits between those who had SRS total and component scores ≥65 and their peers who had lower scores...
August 28, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856932/working-memory-training-for-adults-with-adhd
#14
Amélie Dentz, Marie-Claude Guay, Véronique Parent, Lucia Romo
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of Cogmed training on working memory in adults with ADHD, including the generalization of effects to nonverbal reasoning, executive function in daily life, and ADHD symptoms. METHOD: Adults of ages 18 to 63 with ADHD were randomly assigned to an experimental group that received the working memory training or to a placebo group that received a low-intensity comparison version of the training. RESULTS: participants in the experimental group showed greater improvement in verbal and visuospatial working memory capacity...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855799/review-of-lisdexamfetamine-dimesylate-in-adults-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#15
REVIEW
Jadwiga Najib, Dexter Wimer, Julie Zeng, Kristina W Lam, Natalya Romanyak, Eva Paige Morgan, Anu Thadavila
Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) is the first prodrug stimulant used for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) dosed once daily. Due to its long-acting properties, LDX remains pharmacologically inactive until an enzymatic process predominantly associated with red blood cells converts it to the active ingredient, d-amphetamine and the amino acid lysine. The efficacy of LDX over placebo has been demonstrated in several studies in adults with moderate to severe ADHD with significant improvements noted in ADHD rating scales, Clinical Global Improvement scores, and assessments of executive function, for all doses of LDX (30-70 mg daily)...
2017: Journal of Central Nervous System Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854841/psychosocial-and-executive-function-recovery-trajectories-one-year-after-pediatric-traumatic-brain-injury-the-influence-of-age-and-injury-severity
#16
Heather T Keenan, Amy E Clark, RIchard Holubkov, Charles S Cox, Linda Ewing-Cobbs
Time since traumatic brain injury (TBI) and developmental stage at injury may affect the trajectory of outcomes associated with adjustment and school success. We prospectively enrolled a cohort of 519 children with either TBI or orthopedic injury (OI) aged 2.5 - 15 years to examine children's psychosocial and executive function outcomes at 3 and 12-months post-injury. Outcome measures included the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) ratings...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853328/the-feasibility-effectiveness-and-process-of-change-of-mindfulness-based-cognitive-therapy-for-adults-with-adhd-a-mixed-method-pilot-study
#17
Lotte Janssen, Alicia M de Vries, Sevket Hepark, Anne E M Speckens
OBJECTIVE: Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) is a promising psychosocial intervention for adult ADHD. The feasibility and effectiveness of an adapted MBCT program is explored, together with the possible process of change. METHOD: Mixed-method study with 31 ADHD patients participating in an adapted MBCT program. Self-report questionnaires on ADHD symptoms, executive functioning, mindfulness skills, self-compassion, patient functioning, and health status were administered before and after MBCT...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829775/novel-subgroups-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-identified-by-topological-data-analysis-and-their-functional-network-modular-organizations
#18
Sunghyon Kyeong, Jae-Jin Kim, Eunjoo Kim
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a clinically heterogeneous condition and identification of clinically meaningful subgroups would open up a new window for personalized medicine. Thus, we aimed to identify new clinical phenotypes in children and adolescents with ADHD and to investigate whether neuroimaging findings validate the identified phenotypes. Neuroimaging and clinical data from 67 children with ADHD and 62 typically developing controls (TDCs) from the ADHD-200 database were selected...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809852/the-snp-set-based-association-study-identifies-itga1-as-a-susceptibility-gene-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-han-chinese
#19
L Liu, L Zhang, H M Li, Z R Wang, X F Xie, J P Mei, J L Jin, J Shi, L Sun, S C Li, Y L Tan, L Yang, J Wang, H M Yang, Q J Qian, Y F Wang
Genome-wide association studies, which detect the association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and disease susceptibility, have been extensively applied to study attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but genome-wide significant associations have not been found yet. Genetic heterogeneity and insufficient genomic coverage may account for the missing heritability. We performed a two-stage association study for ADHD in the Han Chinese population. In the discovery stage, 1033 ADHD patients and 950 healthy controls were genotyped using both the Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human SNP Array 6...
August 15, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809658/impact-of-the-cognitive-functional-cog-fun-intervention-on-executive-functions-and-participation-among-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
Jeri Hahn-Markowitz, Itai Berger, Iris Manor, Adina Maeir
OBJECTIVE: We examined the effect of the Cognitive-Functional (Cog-Fun) occupational therapy intervention on executive functions and participation among children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHOD: We used a randomized, controlled study with a crossover design. One hundred and seven children age 7-10 yr diagnosed with ADHD were allocated to treatment or wait-list control group. The control group received treatment after a 3-mo wait. Outcome measures included the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM)...
September 2017: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
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