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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925870/pollution-and-sun-exposure-a-deleterious-synergy-mechanisms-and-opportunities-for-skin-protection
#1
Laurent Marrot
Pollutants are highly diverse chemical entities, including gases such as ozone or nitrogen and sulphur oxides and particulate matter of different sizes and with different chemical constituents. PM2.5 is composed of particles that are sometimes about ten nanometres or so in size (ultrafine particles) which can be deposited in lung alveoli, translocated into capillaries and then distributed to all organs through blood circulation. PM2.5 is often associated with toxic chemicals such as heavy metals or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and some photo-reactive PAHs can induce strong oxidative stress under UVA exposure...
September 18, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915219/intrabronchial-catheter-resuscitation-for-respiratory-and-cardiorespiratory-arrest
#2
Jeffrey S Wolf, Andrea Hebert, Pablo Sanchez, Marniker Wijesinha, Scott Shapiro, Robert Morales, Aldo T Iacono
INTRODUCTION: We sought to determine whether intrabronchial oxygenation would provide adequate gas exchange during both anesthesia induced apneic and cardiopulmonary arrest and cardiac massage (CPR). METHODS: Ten pigs underwent general anesthesia with mechanical ventilation. Blood gases were measured in each animal at 4 min intervals for up to 28 min. An intrabronchial catheter (4 L/min O2) was inserted through an endotracheal tube after respirator cessation. Group A animals (6) were resuscitated with the catheter but without CPR...
September 14, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914421/acid-base-safety-during-the-course-of-a-very-low-calorie-ketogenic-diet
#3
Diego Gomez-Arbelaez, Ana B Crujeiras, Ana I Castro, Albert Goday, Antonio Mas-Lorenzo, Ana Bellon, Cristina Tejera, Diego Bellido, Cristobal Galban, Ignacio Sajoux, Patricio Lopez-Jaramillo, Felipe F Casanueva
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Very low-calorie ketogenic (VLCK) diets have been consistently shown to be an effective obesity treatment, but the current evidence for its acid-base safety is limited. The aim of the current work was to evaluate the acid-base status of obese patients during the course of a VLCK diet. METHOD: Twenty obese participants undertook a VLCK diet for 4 months. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters, and venous blood gases were obtained on four subsequent visits: visit C-1 (baseline); visit C-2, (1-2 months); maximum ketosis; visit C-3 (2-3 months), ketosis declining; and visit C-4 at 4 months, no ketosis...
September 15, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914359/changes-in-acid-base-and-ion-balance-during-exercise-in-normoxia-and-normobaric-hypoxia
#4
Olaf Lühker, Marc Moritz Berger, Alexander Pohlmann, Lorenz Hotz, Tilmann Gruhlke, Marcel Hochreiter
PURPOSE: Both exercise and hypoxia cause complex changes in acid-base homeostasis. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether during intense physical exercise in normoxia and hypoxia, the modified physicochemical approach offers a better understanding of the changes in acid-base homeostasis than the traditional Henderson-Hasselbalch approach. METHODS: In this prospective, randomized, crossover trial, 19 healthy males completed an exercise test until voluntary fatigue on a bicycle ergometer on two different study days, once during normoxia and once during normobaric hypoxia (12% oxygen, equivalent to an altitude of 4500 m)...
September 15, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904080/pressure-and-stretch-differentially-affect-proliferation-of-renal-proximal-tubular-cells
#5
Diane Felsen, Bianca J Diaz, Jie Chen, Juana Gonzalez, Marie Louise V Kristensen, Anja B Bohn, Brendan T Roth, Dix P Poppas, Rikke Nørregaard
Renal obstruction is frequently found in adults and children. Mechanical stimuli, including pressure and stretch in the obstructed kidney, contribute to damage; animal models of obstruction are characterized by increased cellular proliferation. We were interested in the direct effects of pressure and stretch on renal tubular cell proliferation. Human HKC-8 or rat NRK-52E proximal tubule cells were subjected to either pressure [0, 60 or 90 mmHg] or static stretch [0 or 20%] for 24 or 48 h. Cell proliferation was measured by cell counting, cell cycle analyzed by flow cytometry, and PCNA and Skp2 expression were determined by qPCR or western blot...
September 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893316/intraosseous-blood-samples-for-point-of-care-analysis-agreement-between-intraosseous-and-arterial-analyses
#6
Milla Jousi, Simo Saikko, Jouni Nurmi
BACKGROUND: Point-of-care (POC) testing is highly useful when treating critically ill patients. In case of difficult vascular access, the intraosseous (IO) route is commonly used, and blood is aspirated to confirm the correct position of the IO-needle. Thus, IO blood samples could be easily accessed for POC analyses in emergency situations. The aim of this study was to determine whether IO values agree sufficiently with arterial values to be used for clinical decision making. METHODS: Two samples of IO blood were drawn from 31 healthy volunteers and compared with arterial samples...
September 11, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868035/a-novel-stress-diathesis-model-to-predict-risk-of-post-operative-delirium-implications-for-intra-operative-management
#7
Renée El-Gabalawy, Ronak Patel, Kayla Kilborn, Caitlin Blaney, Christopher Hoban, Lawrence Ryner, Duane Funk, Regina Legaspi, Joseph A Fisher, James Duffin, David J Mikulis, W Alan C Mutch
Introduction: Risk assessment for post-operative delirium (POD) is poorly developed. Improved metrics could greatly facilitate peri-operative care as costs associated with POD are staggering. In this preliminary study, we develop a novel stress-diathesis model based on comprehensive pre-operative psychiatric and neuropsychological testing, a blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) carbon dioxide (CO2) stress test, and high fidelity measures of intra-operative parameters that may interact facilitating POD...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863039/extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-for-end-stage-interstitial-lung-disease-with-secondary-pulmonary-hypertension-at-rest-and-exercise-insights-from-simulation-modeling
#8
Scott Chicotka, Daniel Burkhoff, Marc L Dickstein, Matthew Bacchetta
Interstitial lung disease (ILD) represents a collection of lung disorders with a lethal trajectory with few therapeutic options with the exception of lung transplantation. Various extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) configurations have been used for bridge to transplant (BTT), yet no optimal configuration has been clearly demonstrated. Using a cardiopulmonary simulation, we assessed different ECMO configurations for patients with end-stage ILD to assess the physiologic deficits and help guide the development of new long-term pulmonary support devices...
August 31, 2017: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860770/early-predictors-of-brain-damage-in-full-term-newborns-with-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy
#9
Usama M Alkholy, Nermin Abdalmonem, Ahmed Zaki, Yasser F Ali, Soma Abdalla Mohamed, Nasser I Abdelsalam, Mustafa Ismail Abu Hashim, Mohamed Abou Sekkien, Yasser Makram Elsherbiny
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the value of serum creatine phosphokinase-brain specific (CK-BB) and urinary lactate/creatinine (L/C) ratio as early indicators of brain damage in full-term newborns with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A case-control study including 25 full-term new-born infants with perinatal asphyxia who were admitted to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) with a proven diagnosis of HIE, compared to 20 healthy age- and sex-matched full-term newborns...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857852/effects-of-high-flow-nasal-cannula-on-the-work-of-breathing-in-patients-recovering-from-acute-respiratory-failure
#10
Mathieu Delorme, Pierre-Alexandre Bouchard, Mathieu Simon, Serge Simard, François Lellouche
OBJECTIVES: High-flow nasal cannula is increasingly used in the management of respiratory failure. However, little is known about its impact on respiratory effort, which could explain part of the benefits in terms of comfort and efficiency. This study was designed to assess the effects of high-flow nasal cannula on indexes of respiratory effort (i.e., esophageal pressure variations, esophageal pressure-time product/min, and work of breathing/min) in adults. DESIGN: A randomized controlled crossover study was conducted in 12 patients with moderate respiratory distress (i...
August 28, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857280/dynamic-thiol-disulphide-homeostasis-in-operating-theater-personnel-exposed-to-anesthetic-gases
#11
Betul Kozanhan, Ikbal Inanlı, Cigdem Damla Deniz, Mehmet Sinan Iyisoy, Salim Neselioğlu, Osman Sahin, Fatma Akin, Mahmut Sami Tutar, Ibrahim Eren, Ozcan Erel
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between dynamic thiol/disulphide homeostasis and occupational exposure to volatile anesthetic gases in operating theater personnel. Decreased blood thiol levels and raised blood disulphide levels serve as biomarkers of oxidative stress. METHODS: We included 65 subjects occupationally exposed and 55 unexposed healthy medical professionals into the study. A novel method enabled separate measurements of components involved in dynamic thiol/disulphide homeostasis (native thiol, disulphide, and total thiol)...
August 30, 2017: American Journal of Industrial Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855978/a-case-of-shunting-postoperative-patent-foramen-ovale-under-mechanical-ventilation-controlled-by-different-ventilator-settings
#12
Claudio Pragliola, Sara Di Michele, Domenico Galzerano
A 56-year old male with ischemic heart disease and an unremarkable preoperative echocardiogram underwent surgical coronary revascularization. An intraoperative post pump trans-esophageal echocardiogram (TOE) performed while the patient was being ventilated at a positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) of 8 cm H2O demonstrated a right to left interatrial shunt across a patent foramen ovale (PFO). Whereas oxygen saturation was normal, a reduction of the PEEP to 3 cm H2O led to the complete resolution of the shunt with no change in arterial blood gases...
June 7, 2017: Clinics and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854537/prognostic-significance-of-central-venous-to-arterial-carbon-dioxide-difference-during-the-first-24-hours-of-septic-shock-in-patients-with-and-without-impaired-cardiac-function
#13
G Muller, E Mercier, P Vignon, M Henry-Lagarrigue, T Kamel, A Desachy, V Botoc, G Plantefève, J P Frat, F Bellec, J P Quenot, P F Dequin, T Boulain
Objective: To investigate the prognostic significance of central venous-to-arterial carbon dioxide difference (cv-art CO 2 gap) during septic shock in patients with and without impaired cardiac function. Methods: We performed a prospective cohort study in 10 French intensive care units. Patients suffering from septic shock were assigned to the impaired cardiac function group ('cardiac group', n =123) if they had atrial fibrillation (AF) and/or left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <50% at study entry and to the non-cardiac group ( n =240) otherwise...
August 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854513/preoperative-metabolic-acidosis-in-infants-with-gastroschisis
#14
W El-Naggar, A Almudeer, M Vincer, N L Yanchar
INTRODUCTION: There is little in literature regarding preoperative management of infants with gastroschisis. It is unclear if these infants develop metabolic acidosis as a consequence of prolonged intrauterine gut compromise or dehydration secondary to increased fluid loss. AIM: To assess the frequency of preoperative metabolic acidosis in infants with gastroschisis and investigate whether this acidosis reflects degree of gut compromise. METHODS: All infants with gastroschisis born between May 2005 and April 2013 in a single tertiary care center were reviewed...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Neonatal-perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846437/oxygen-administration-improves-survival-but-worsens-cardiopulmonary-functions-in-chlorine-exposed-rats
#15
Obiefuna C Okponyia, Matthew D McGraw, Marilyn M Dysart, Rhonda B Garlick, Jacqueline S Rioux, Angela L Murphy, Gates B Roe, Carl W White, Livia A Veress
RATIONALE: Chlorine is a highly reactive gas that can cause significant injury when inhaled. Unfortunately, its use as a chemical weapon has increased in recent years. Massive chlorine inhalation can cause death within 4h of exposure. Survivors usually require hospitalization after massive exposure. No countermeasures exist for massive chlorine exposure, and supportive care measures lack controlled trials. METHODS: Adult rats were exposed to chlorine gas (LD58-67) in a whole-body exposure chamber, and given oxygen (0...
August 28, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841877/influence-of-resting-lung-diffusion-on-exercise-capacity-in-patients-with-copd
#16
Mehrdad Behnia, Courtney Wheatley, Alberto Avolio, Bruce Johnson
BACKGROUND: Lung diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) gives an overall assessment of functional lung surface area for gas exchange and can be assessed using various methods. DLCO is an important factor in exercise intolerance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We investigated if the intra-breath (IBDLCO) method may give a more sensitive measure of available gas exchange surface area than the more typical single breath (SBDLCO) method and if COPD subjects with the largest resting DLCO relative to pulmonary blood flow (Qc) would have a more preserved exercise capacity...
August 25, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839932/the-impact-of-alteplase-on-pulmonary-graft-function-in-donation-after-circulatory-death-an-experimental-study
#17
Annika Liersch-Nordqvist, Mohammed Fakhro, Leif Pierre, Joanna Hlebowicz, Malin Malmsjo, Richard Ingemansson, Sandra Lindstedt
OBJECTIVE: Lung transplantation is hampered by the lack of organs resulting in deaths on the waiting list. The usage of donation after circulatory death (DCD) lungs would dramatically increase donor availability. The most optimal organ preservation method, and the need for antithrombotic and fibrinolytic treatment to prevent thrombosis in the donor lungs is currently on debate. The present study investigated, in a simulated clinical DCD situation, whether the addition of alteplase in the flush-perfusion solution at the time of pulmonary graft harvesting could prevent thrombosis in the donor lung and thereby improve pulmonary graft function...
October 2017: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838589/early-mobilization-reduces-the-atelectasis-and-pleural-effusion-in-patients-undergoing-coronary-artery-bypass-graft-surgery-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#18
Seyed Tayeb Moradian, Mohammad Najafloo, Hosein Mahmoudi, Mohammad Saeid Ghiasi
Atelectasis and pleural effusion are common after coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). Longer stay in the bed is one of the most important contributing factors in pulmonary complications. Some studies confirm the benefits of early mobilization (EM) in critically ill patients, but the efficacy of EM on pulmonary complications after CABG is not clear. This study was designed to examine the effect of EM on the incidence of atelectasis and pleural effusion in patients undergoing CABG. In a single-blinded randomized clinical trial, 100 patients who were undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery were randomly assigned into two groups each consisted of 50 patients...
September 2017: Journal of Vascular Nursing: Official Publication of the Society for Peripheral Vascular Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836153/agreement-between-venous-and-arterial-blood-gas-analysis-of-acid-base-status-in-critical-care-and-ward-patients-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#19
Claudio M Martin, Fran Priestap
PURPOSE: To determine whether the use of venous blood gases can be a suitable alternative to arterial sampling to evaluate acid-base status. METHODS: The database of the clinical laboratory in a large academic hospital was searched for records of venous blood gas analysis and an arterial sample taken within ten minutes from the same patient. Bland-Altman analyses of pH, pCO2, and lactate were performed for samples obtained from patients separately from within and outside the intensive care unit (ICU)...
August 23, 2017: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832707/erratum-acute-effects-of-intradialytic-aerobic-exercise-on-solute-removal-blood-gases-and-oxidative-stress-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#20
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article doi: 10.5935/0101-2800.20170022].
August 17, 2017: Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia: ʹorgão Oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia
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