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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627036/validation-of-masks-for-determination-of-v%C3%AC-o2-max-in-horses-exercising-at-high-intensity
#1
R H Sides, R Kirkpatrick, E Renner, K Gough, L M Katz, D L Evans, W M Bayly
BACKGROUND: The need for a horse to be ridden while wearing a measurement device that allows unrestricted ventilation and gas exchange has hampered accurate measurement of its maximal oxygen consumption (V̇O2 max) under field conditions. OBJECTIVES: Design and validate a facemask with the potential to accurately measure V̇O2 max in the field. STUDY DESIGN: Experiment with 6 x 6 Latin square design. METHODS: Two variations of a mask and associated electronic control module (ECM) were designed to enable breath-by-breath measurement of airflows through two 7...
June 19, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625244/-establishment-of-porcine-model-of-prolonged-cardiac-arrest-and-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-electrically-induced-by-ventricular-fibrillation
#2
Cai Wen, Heng Li, Xiaozhu Zhai, Youde Ding, Huatao Zhou, Zhiming Ouyang, Zhengfei Yang, Longyuan Jiang, Wanchun Tang, Tao Yu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the optimal injury time point of cardiac arrest (CA) induced electrically, and establish a reproducible prolonged CA and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) model in pigs. METHODS: Forty healthy domestic male pigs were randomly divided into four groups, which were ventricular fibrillation (VF) 8, 10, 11, and 12 minutes groups, each group for 10 animals. In these groups, VF was induced by alternating current delivered to right ventricular endocardium and untreated for 8, 10, 11, and 12 minutes, respectively, followed by 6 minutes of CPR procedure...
June 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613960/the-effect-of-air-pollution-on-diurnal-variation-of-performance-in-anaerobic-tests-cardiovascular-and-hematological-parameters-and-blood-gases-on-soccer-players-following-the-yo-yo-intermittent-recovery-test-level-1
#3
Nesrin Boussetta, Salma Abedelmalek, Khouloud Aloui, Nizar Souissi
This study aimed to investigate the effect of air pollution on diurnal variation of performance in anaerobic tests, cardiovascular and hematological parameters, and blood gases on soccer players following the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level-1 (YYIRT1). In a randomized order, 11 healthy soccer players (mean age: 21.8 [range: 20-24] years; height: 178.00 [range: 1.64-1.83] cm; body mass index [BMI]: 23.57 [range: 20.45-28.03] kg.m(-2)) performed a YYIRT1 at two different times of day (TOD) (08:00 h and 18:00 h) in two areas (i...
June 14, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607126/mechanisms-and-treatment-of-halogen-inhalation-induced-pulmonary-and-systemic-injuries-in-pregnant-mice
#4
James A Lambert, Matthew A Carlisle, Adam Lam, Saurabh Aggarwal, Stephen Doran, Changchun Ren, Wayne E Bradley, Louis Dell'Italia, Namasivayam Ambalavanan, David A Ford, Rakesh P Patel, Tamas Jilling, Sadis Matalon
Inhalation of oxidant gases has been implicated in adverse outcomes in pregnancy, but animal models to address mechanisms and studies to identify potential pregnancy-specific therapies are lacking. Herein, we show that inhalation of bromine at 600 parts per million for 30 minutes by pregnant mice on the 15th day of embryonic development results in significantly lower survival after 96 hours than an identical level of exposure in nonpregnant mice. On the 19th embryonic day, bromine-exposed pregnant mice have increased systemic blood pressure, abnormal placental development, severe fetal growth restriction, systemic inflammation, increased levels of circulating antiangiogenic short fms-like tyrosine kinase-1, and evidence of pulmonary and cardiac injury...
June 12, 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606652/rocuronium-versus-suxamethonium-for-rapid-sequence-induction-of-general-anaesthesia-for-caesarean-section-influence-on-neonatal-outcomes
#5
M Kosinova, P Stourac, M Adamus, D Seidlova, T Pavlik, P Janku, I Krikava, Z Mrozek, M Prochazka, J Klucka, R Stoudek, I Bartikova, H Harazim, H Robotkova, K Hejduk, Z Hodicka, M Kirchnerova, J Francakova, L Obare Pyszkova, J Hlozkova, P Sevcik
BACKGROUND: In a previous study we compared rocuronium and suxamethonium for rapid-sequence induction of general anaesthesia for caesarean section and found no difference in maternal outcome. There was however, a significant difference in Apgar scores. As this was a secondary outcome, we extended the study to explore this finding on a larger sample. METHODS: We included 488 parturients of whom 240 were women from the original study. Women were randomly assigned to receive either rocuronium 1mg/kg (ROC n=245) or suxamethonium 1mg/kg (SUX n=243) after propofol 2mg/kg...
May 10, 2017: International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599888/cardiopulmonary-effects-of-pleural-insufflation-with-co2-during-two-lung-ventilation-in-dorsally-recumbent-anesthetized-horses
#6
Kaylee S Bohaychuk-Preuss, M Valentina Carrozzo, Tanya Duke-Novakovski
OBJECTIVE: To record the cardiopulmonary effects of pleural CO2 positive pressure insufflation in anesthetized horses. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study. ANIMALS: Seven horses (mean ± standard deviation, 530.9 ± 68.1 kg) undergoing terminal surgery. METHODS: Horses were sedated with xylazine. Anesthesia was induced with ketamine-propofol and maintained with isoflurane, positive pressure ventilation, detomidine infusion, and butorphanol with the horses in dorsal recumbency...
January 10, 2017: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578708/effects-of-neurally-adjusted-ventilatory-assist-on-air-distribution-and-dead-space-in-patients-with-acute-exacerbation-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#7
Qin Sun, Ling Liu, Chun Pan, Zhanqi Zhao, Jingyuan Xu, Airan Liu, Haibo Qiu
BACKGROUND: Neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA) could improve patient-ventilator interaction; its effects on ventilation distribution and dead space are still unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of varying levels of assist during NAVA and pressure support ventilation (PSV) on ventilation distribution and dead space in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). METHODS: Fifteen mechanically ventilated patients with AECOPD were included in the study...
June 2, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578633/early-pulmonary-compliance-increase-during-cardiac-surgery-predicted-post-operative-lung-dysfunction
#8
Yann Sacuto, Thierry Sacuto
INTRODUCTION: Lung dysfunction following cardiac surgery is currently viewed as the consequence of atelectasis and lung injury. While the mechanism of atelectasis has been largely detailed, the pathogenesis of lung injury after cardiopulmonary bypass is still unclear. Based upon clinical and experimental studies, we hypothesized that lungs could be injured through a mechanical phenomenon. METHODS: We recorded pulmonary compliance at six key moments of a heart operation in 62 adult patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery...
June 1, 2017: Perfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570147/estimating-arterial-partial-pressure-of-carbon-dioxide-in-ventilated-patients-how-valid-are-surrogate-measures
#9
Boulos S Nassar, Gregory A Schmidt
The arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) is an important parameter in critically ill, mechanically ventilated patients. To limit invasive procedures or for more continuous monitoring of PaCO2, clinicians often rely on venous blood gases, capnography, or transcutaneous monitoring. Each of these has advantages and limitations. Central venous Pco2 allows accurate estimation of PaCO2, differing from it by an amount described by the Fick principle. As long as cardiac output is relatively normal, central venous Pco2 exceeds the arterial value by approximately 4 mm Hg...
June 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559468/severity-of-hypoxemia-and-other-factors-that-influence-the-response-to-aerosolized-prostacyclin-in-ards
#10
Richard H Kallet, Gregory Burns, Hanjing Zhuo, Kelly Ho, Justin S Phillips, Lance P Pangilinan, Vivian Yip, Antonio Gomez, Michael S Lipnick
BACKGROUND: ARDS is characterized by decreased functional residual capacity (FRC), heterogeneous lung injury, and severe hypoxemia. Tidal ventilation is preferentially distributed to ventilated alveoli. Aerosolized prostaglandin I2 exploits this pathophysiology by inducing local vasodilation, thereby increasing ventilation-perfusion matching and reducing hypoxemia. Therefore, aerosolized prostaglandin I2 efficacy may depend upon FRC. Both PaO2 /FIO2 and compliance of the respiratory system (CRS) are indirect signifiers of FRC and thus may partly determine the response to aerosolized prostaglandin I2...
May 30, 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554935/the-accuracy-of-postoperative-non-invasive-air-test-to-diagnose-atelectasis-in-healthy-patients-after-surgery-a-prospective-diagnostic-pilot-study
#11
Carlos Ferrando, Carolina Romero, Gerardo Tusman, Fernando Suarez-Sipmann, Jaume Canet, Rosa Dosdá, Paola Valls, Abigail Villena, Ferran Serralta, Ana Jurado, Juan Carrizo, Jose Navarro, Cristina Parrilla, Jose E Romero, Natividad Pozo, Marina Soro, Jesús Villar, Francisco Javier Belda
OBJECTIVE: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of peripheral capillary oxygen saturation (SpO2) while breathing room air for 5 min (the 'Air-Test') in detecting postoperative atelectasis. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. Diagnostic accuracy was assessed by measuring the agreement between the index test and the reference standard CT scan images. SETTING: Postanaesthetic care unit in a tertiary hospital in Spain. PARTICIPANTS: Three hundred and fifty patients from 12 January to 7 February 2015; 170 patients scheduled for surgery under general anaesthesia who were admitted into the postsurgical unit were included...
May 29, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552594/plasma-concentration-and-cardiovascular-effects-of-intramuscular-medetomidine-combined-with-three-doses-of-the-peripheral-alpha2-antagonist-mk-467-in-dogs
#12
Flavia Restitutti, M Johanna Kaartinen, Marja R Raekallio, Otto Wejberg, Emmi Mikkola, Jerome R E Del Castillo, Mika Scheinin, Outi M Vainio
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the plasma concentrations and cardiovascular effects of intramuscularly (IM) administered medetomidine, administered alone or with three different doses of MK-467. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, open, crossover trial. ANIMALS: Eight purpose-bred healthy Beagle dogs. METHODS: Each dog was administered four treatments: medetomidine 20 μg kg(-1) IM alone or mixed in the same syringe with MK-467 (200 μg kg(-1), 400 μg kg(-1) or 600 μg kg(-1))...
January 11, 2017: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550912/does-metabolic-alkalosis-influence-cerebral-oxygenation-in-infantile-hypertrophic-pyloric-stenosis
#13
Matthias Nissen, Grigore Cernaianu, Rene Thränhardt, Mohammad R Vahdad, Karin Barenberg, Ralf-Bodo Tröbs
BACKGROUND: This pilot study focuses on regional tissue oxygenation (rSO2) in patients with infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis in a perioperative setting. To investigate the influence of enhanced metabolic alkalosis (MA) on cerebral (c-rSO2) and renal (r-rSO2) tissue oxygenation, two-site near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technology was applied. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Perioperative c-rSO2, r-rSO2, capillary blood gases, and electrolytes from 12 infants were retrospectively compared before and after correction of MA at admission (T1), before surgery (T2), and after surgery (T3)...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540790/hyperthermic-chemotherapy-intra-abdominal-laparoscopic-approach-development-of-a-laparoscopic-model-using-co2-recirculation-system-and-clinical-translation-in-peritoneal-carcinomatosis
#14
Susana Sánchez-García, David Padilla-Valverde, Pedro Villarejo-Campos, Esther P García-Santos, Jesús Martín-Fernández
INTRODUCTION: Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) is an effective treatment for peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC). Laparoscopic surgery is performed in the treatment of colorectal and appendiceal cancer, and PC from diverse origin in selected patients. HIPEC management by laparoscopic approach after cytoreductive surgery (CRS) completed locoregional treatment of PC, and may be feasible and safe after appropriate patient selection. OBJECTIVE: Development of an experimental model of HIPEC by laparoscopic approach, with CO2 recirculation...
April 2, 2017: International Journal of Hyperthermia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538439/nonlinear-imputation-of-pao2-fio2-from-spo2-fio2-among-mechanically-ventilated-patients-in-the-icu-a-prospective-observational-study
#15
Samuel M Brown, Abhijit Duggal, Peter C Hou, Mark Tidswell, Akram Khan, Matthew Exline, Pauline K Park, David A Schoenfeld, Ming Liu, Colin K Grissom, Marc Moss, Todd W Rice, Catherine L Hough, Emanuel Rivers, B Taylor Thompson, Roy G Brower
OBJECTIVES: In the contemporary ICU, mechanically ventilated patients may not have arterial blood gas measurements available at relevant timepoints. Severity criteria often depend on arterial blood gas results. Retrospective studies suggest that nonlinear imputation of PaO2/FIO2 from SpO2/FIO2 is accurate, but this has not been established prospectively among mechanically ventilated ICU patients. The objective was to validate the superiority of nonlinear imputation of PaO2/FIO2 among mechanically ventilated patients and understand what factors influence the accuracy of imputation...
May 22, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537493/the-relationship-between-cerebral-vasoreactivity-and-post-concussive-symptom-severity
#16
Tamadher Albalawi, Jason W Hamner, Matthew Lapointe, William Meehan, Can Ozan Tan
While pathophysiology underlying post-concussion symptom burden is unknown, data suggest that cerebrovascular dysfunction may be among the culprits. We sought to determine whether the degree of impairment in the ability of cerebrovasculature to buffer against changes in arterial gases (vasoreactivity) is associated with concussion symptoms. In 15 participants (19±5 years, 1 week to 1 year post-injury) diagnosed with concussion, we assessed vasoreactivity from the slope of the linear relationship of beat-by-beat middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity (transcranial Doppler ultrasound) to end-tidal CO<sub>2</sub> during progressive increases in end-tidal CO<sub>2</sub> (air rebreathing)...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535429/high-speed-video-analysis-of-forward-and-backward-spattered-blood-droplets
#17
P M Comiskey, A L Yarin, D Attinger
High-speed videos of blood spatter due to a gunshot taken by the Ames Laboratory Midwest Forensics Resource Center (MFRC) [1] are analyzed. The videos used in this analysis were focused on a variety of targets hit by a bullet which caused either forward, backward, or both types of blood spatter. The analysis process utilized particle image velocimetry (PIV) and particle analysis software to measure drop velocities as well as the distributions of the number of droplets and their respective side view area. The results of this analysis revealed that the maximal velocity in the forward spatter can be about 47±5m/s and for the backward spatter - about 24±8m/s...
May 1, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532814/control-aspects-of-the-human-cardiovascular-respiratory-system-under-a-nonconstant-workload
#18
Pio Gabrielle B Calderon, Mustafa Habib, Franz Kappel, Aurelio A de Los Reyes
The human cardiovascular system (CVS) and respiratory system (RS) work together in order to supply oxygen (O2) and other substrates needed for metabolism and to remove carbon dioxide (CO2). Global and local control mechanisms act on the CVS in order to adjust blood flow to the different parts of the body. This, in turn, affects the RS since the amount of O2 and CO2 transported, respectively to and away from the tissues depends on the cardiac output and blood flow in both the systemic and pulmonary circuits of the CVS...
May 19, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524229/exercise-induced-quadriceps-muscle-fatigue-in-men-and-women-effects-of-arterial-oxygen-content-and-respiratory-muscle-work
#19
Paolo B Dominelli, Yannick Molgat-Seon, Donald E G Griesdale, Carli M Peters, Jean-Sébastien Blouin, Mypinder Sekhon, Giulio S Dominelli, William R Henderson, Glen E Foster, Lee M Romer, Michael S Koehle, A William Sheel
Reducing the work of breathing or eliminating exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia (EIAH) during exercise decreases the severity of quadriceps fatigue in men. Women have a greater work of breathing during exercise, dedicate a greater fraction of whole-body V̇O2 towards their respiratory muscles, and demonstrate EIAH, suggesting women may be especially susceptible to quadriceps fatigue. Healthy subjects (8M, 8F) completed three constant load exercise tests over four days. During the first (control) test, subjects exercised at ∼85% of maximum while arterial blood gases and work of breathing were assessed...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521658/foetal-responses-to-dexmedetomidine-in-parturients-undergoing-caesarean-section-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
Jian Zhang, Haibin Zhou, Kaihua Sheng, Tian Tian, Anshi Wu
Objective This current meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate effects of dexmedetomidine on neonatal maternal factors. Methods The electronic databases of PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched. The primary outcomes were neonatal parameters, including umbilical blood gases and Apgar scores. The secondary outcomes were maternal parameters. Results We identified six randomized controlled trials (RCTs). No differences in neonatal umbilical blood gases, and Apgar scores at 1 min (WMD: -0...
January 1, 2017: Journal of International Medical Research
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