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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166367/smoke-free-policies-in-the-world-s-50-busiest-airports-august-2017
#1
Michael A Tynan, Elizabeth Reimels, Jennifer Tucker, Brian A King
Exposure to secondhand smoke from burning tobacco products causes premature death and disease, including coronary heart disease, stroke, and lung cancer among nonsmoking adults and sudden infant death syndrome, acute respiratory infections, middle ear disease, exacerbated asthma, respiratory symptoms, and decreased lung function in children (1,2). The U.S. Surgeon General has concluded that there is no risk-free level of exposure to secondhand smoke (1). Previous CDC reports on airport smoke-free policies found that most large-hub airports in the United States prohibit smoking (3); however, the extent of smoke-free policies at airports globally has not been assessed...
November 24, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166194/the-effects-of-music-therapy-on-the-physiological-response-of-asthmatic-children-receiving-inhalation-therapy
#2
Riau Roslita, Nani Nurhaeni, Dessie Wanda
The clinical manifestation of asthma in children can interfere with their daily activities. Music therapy may become one of the alternative approaches to making children feel comfortable during inhalation therapy. The aim of the study was to identify the effects of music therapy on the physiological response of asthmatic preschool and school-age children receiving inhalation therapy. This study used a quasi-experimental, nonequivalent control group with a pre-test-post-test design. The 44 respondents consisted of preschool and school-age children assigned to intervention and control groups...
2017: Compr Child Adolesc Nurs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165754/current-views-of-pediatric-asthma
#3
C-X Qu, Z-K Zhang
Childhood asthma is influenced by multiple factors including genetic, socioeconomic, socio demographic and environmental factors. The symptoms of childhood asthma are observed to be variable. Some studies reported that asthma prevalence is disproportionately high among socially disadvantaged children. On the other hand, some reports found weak or no association between social disadvantage and childhood asthma. Recent literature showed that growth of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) instruments in the management of childhood asthma...
October 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165157/the-hokkaido-birth-cohort-study-on-environment-and-children-s-health-cohort-profile-updated-2017
#4
Reiko Kishi, Atsuko Araki, Machiko Minatoya, Tomoyuki Hanaoka, Chihiro Miyashita, Sachiko Itoh, Sumitaka Kobayashi, Yu Ait Bamai, Keiko Yamazaki, Ryu Miura, Naomi Tamura, Kumiko Ito, Houman Goudarzi
The Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children's Health is an ongoing study consisting of two birth cohorts of different population sizes: the Sapporo cohort and the Hokkaido cohort. Our primary study goals are (1) to examine the effects of low-level environmental chemical exposures on birth outcomes, including birth defects and growth retardation; (2) to follow the development of allergies, infectious diseases, and neurobehavioral developmental disorders and perform a longitudinal observation of child development; (3) to identify high-risk groups based on genetic susceptibility to environmental chemicals; and (4) to identify the additive effects of various chemicals, including tobacco smoking...
May 18, 2017: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164080/the-incidence-and-short-term-outcomes-of-acute-respiratory-illness-with-cough-in-children-from-a-socioeconomically-disadvantaged-urban-community-in-australia-a-community-based-prospective-cohort-study
#5
Kerry K Hall, Anne B Chang, Jennie Anderson, Daniel Arnold, Vikas Goyal, Melissa Dunbar, Michael Otim, Kerry-Ann F O'Grady
Background: Acute respiratory illnesses with cough (ARIwC) are predominant causes of morbidity in Australian Indigenous children; however, data on disease burden in urban communities are scarce. This study aimed to determine the incidence of ARIwC, the predictors of recurrent (≥4 episodes) ARIwC, and development of chronic cough following an ARIwC in urban, predominantly Indigenous, children aged <5 years from northern Brisbane, Australia. Methods: Prospective cohort study of children aged <5 years registered with a primary healthcare center...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162718/delay-between-actuation-and-shaking-of-a-hydrofluoroalkane-fluticasone-pressurized-metered-dose-inhaler
#6
Ariel Berlinski, Dirk von Hollen, John N Pritchard, Ross Hm Hatley
BACKGROUND: Inhaled corticosteroids are used to treat pediatric asthma. The shaking of a pressurized metered-dose inhaler (pMDI) is required to ensure consistency of emitted dose. Delays between shaking and actuating the pMDI are frequent during administration of aerosols to children where a valved holding chamber is used. METHODS: In a recent clinical trial, we used a monitoring device to record shaking and actuation of the pMDI and the inhalation profiles of children with asthma while they were inhaling fluticasone hydrofluoroalkane from a valved holding chamber onto an external filter...
November 21, 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161086/potential-role-of-the-lung-microbiome-in-shaping-asthma-phenotypes
#7
Kian Fan Chung
The introduction of 16s ribosomal RNA sequencing as a nonculture technique has led to the discovery of the presence of microbiota in the lower airways of healthy individuals. These bacterial communities may originate from the mouth and nasopharynx or from the environment by inhalation. The microbial composition of the lower airways may be modulated by dietary factors, antibiotic therapy, and microbial infections, particularly in early life. In addition, circulatory products from gut microbiota may influence the lung microbiota to maintain mucosal immunity...
November 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161080/microbial-insights-into-asthmatic-immunopathology-a-forward-looking-synthesis-and-commentary
#8
Rozlyn C T Boutin, Charisse Petersen, B Brett Finlay
Asthma is an aberrant inflammatory condition of the airways affecting approximately 1 in 10 children in affluent countries. An increasing body of evidence suggests that microbial exposures during a "critical window" of development in early life play a central role in determining future asthma susceptibility. However, like the disease itself, considerable heterogeneity exists among studies in which researchers have investigated the associations between particular microbial taxa and asthma immunology. As our understanding of asthmatic pathology evolves to enable clearer definition of asthma endotypes, it will be important to consider the impact of various environmental factors on each endotype...
November 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161075/metabolic-dysregulation-systemic-inflammation-and-pediatric-obesity-related-asthma
#9
Deepa Rastogi, Fernando Holguin
Obesity-related asthma is a distinct pediatric asthma phenotype. It is associated with higher disease burden, lower pulmonary function, and suboptimal response to current asthma medications. Recent studies have made inroads into elucidating its pathophysiology. Systemic immune responses in obese children with asthma are skewed to a nonatopic T-helper cell type 1 (Th1) pattern that correlates with pulmonary function deficits. The prevalence of metabolic dysregulation is also higher among obese children with asthma than among normal-weight children with asthma...
November 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161054/great-flood-and-aeroallergen-sensitization-in-children-with-asthma-and-or-allergic-rhinitis
#10
Nualanong Visitsunthorn, Wanwipa Chaimongkol, Kittipos Visitsunthorn, Punchama Pacharn, Orathai Jirapongsananuruk
BACKGROUND: Flooding may affect aeroallergen sensitization. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate aeroallergen sensitization in children with asthma and/or allergic rhinitis (AR) by skin prick test (SPT) before and after the great flood of 2011 in Bangkok, Thailand. METHODS: The study was performed retrospectively in asthma and/or AR children (aged 0-18 years) in Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand from 2009 to 2013. All of the cases received SPT with common aeroallergens...
November 22, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160726/gene-environment-interactions-associated-with-the-severity-of-acute-asthma-exacerbation-in-children
#11
David B Kantor, Wanda Phipatanakul, Joel N Hirschhorn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 21, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160411/spirometry-in-schoolchildren-for-field-studies-does-testing-on-different-days-change-the-result-of-the-exam
#12
Janaina Cristina Scalco, Rafaela Coelho Minsky, Camila Isabel Santos Schivinski
OBJECTIVE: To analyze if there is variation in the results of spirometry performed by healthy schoolchildren on different days. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with healthy schoolchildren aged 7 to 12 years old, in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil. Prepubescent children, non-athletes, born at full term, without cardiorespiratory, rheumatic, musculoskeletal, neurological and visual or hearing deficit were included. The child's health was assessed by a health questionnaire and by the survey International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood...
November 13, 2017: Revista Paulista de Pediatria: Orgão Oficial da Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159833/maternal-hypothyroidism-in-the-perinatal-period-and-childhood-asthma-in-the-offspring
#13
Xiaoqin Liu, Stine Linding Andersen, Jørn Olsen, Esben Agerbo, Vivi Schlünssen, Shyamali Chandrika Dharmage, Trine Munk-Olsen
BACKGROUND: There is increasing interest in the possible link between maternal hypothyroidism in the perinatal period and childhood asthma risk. We explored this in the present study while accounting for the timing of hypothyroidism diagnosis. Further, we evaluated whether the risk was moderated by thyroid hormone treatment during pregnancy. METHODS: We conducted a population-based cohort study using Danish national registers. All liveborn singletons in Denmark from 1998 to 2007 were identified...
November 21, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159184/acute-asthma-in-the-pediatric-emergency-department-infections-are-the-main-triggers-of-exacerbations
#14
Arianna Dondi, Elisabetta Calamelli, Valentina Piccinno, Giampaolo Ricci, Ilaria Corsini, Carlotta Biagi, Marcello Lanari
Background: Asthma exacerbations are a common reason for Emergency Department (ED) visits in children. Aim: To analyze differences among age groups in terms of triggering factors and seasonality and to identify those with higher risk of severe exacerbations. Methods: We retrospectively revised the files of children admitted for acute asthma in 2016 in our Pediatric ED. Results: Visits for acute asthma were 603/23197 (2...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157860/advances-in-rhinitis-models-and-mechanisms
#15
REVIEW
Anne K Ellis, Mark W Tenn
OBJECTIVE: To summarize studies highlighting recent advances in rhinitis-related research in the past 2 years. DATA SOURCES: Original research articles were procured and examined from the Rhinitis and Upper Airway Disease section of the 2015 to 2017 Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology issues. Additional original research articles were identified from PubMed and Google Scholar using the following search terms: allergic rhinitis, rhinitis, chronic rhinosinusitis, environmental exposure unit, and nasal allergen challenge...
November 18, 2017: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154202/polymorphisms-in-inflammasome-genes-and-risk-of-asthma-in-brazilian-children
#16
Vinicius Nunes Cordeiro Leal, Isabel Rugue Genov, Márcia C Mallozi, Dirceu Solé, Alessandra Pontillo
Considering its role in inflammation and recently described "alternative" roles in epithelial homeostasis and Th1/Th2 balance, we hypothesize that inflammasome genetics could contribute to the development of asthma. Selected functional polymorphisms in inflammasome genes are evaluated in a cohort of asthmatic children and their families. Gain-of-function NLRP1 variants rs11651270, rs12150220 and rs2670660 resulted significantly associated to asthma in trios (TDT) analysis; and rs11651270 and rs2670660 also with asthma severity and total IgE level in asthmatic children...
November 15, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153880/food-allergy-is-an-important-risk-factor-for-childhood-asthma-irrespective-of-whether-it-resolves
#17
Evelien M Vermeulen, Jennifer J Koplin, Shyamali C Dharmage, Lyle C Gurrin, Rachel L Peters, Vicki McWilliam, Anne-Louise Ponsonby, Terence Dwyer, Adrian J Lowe, Mimi L K Tang, Katrina J Allen
BACKGROUND: The risk of developing asthma in those with early food allergy is unknown, particularly when early life food allergy has resolved. OBJECTIVE: To understand whether challenge-proven food allergy in infancy increases the risk of asthma at age 4 years, using data from a population-based cohort. METHODS: A total of 5,276 12-month-old infants were recruited using a population-based sampling frame. Infants underwent skin prick test to egg, peanut, and sesame and those with a detectable skin prick test result had oral food challenges...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153857/predicting-the-atopic-march-results-from-the-canadian-healthy-infant-longitudinal-development-study
#18
Maxwell M Tran, Diana L Lefebvre, Christoffer Dharma, David Dai, Wendy Y W Lou, Padmaja Subbarao, Allan B Becker, Piush J Mandhane, Stuart E Turvey, Malcolm R Sears
BACKGROUND: The atopic march describes the progression from atopic dermatitis during infancy to asthma and allergic rhinitis in later childhood. In a Canadian birth cohort we investigated whether concomitant allergic sensitization enhances subsequent development of these allergic diseases at age 3 years. METHODS: Children completed skin prick testing at age 1 year. Children were considered sensitized if they produced a wheal 2 mm or larger than that elicited by the negative control to any of 10 inhalant or food allergens...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153727/lifetime-exposure-to-particulate-air-pollutants-is-negatively-associated-with-lung-function-in-non-asthmatic-children
#19
Hung-Chang Tsui, Chi-Hsien Chen, Ying-Hsuan Wu, Hung-Che Chiang, Bing-Yu Chen, Yue Leon Guo
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary function is known to be affected by acute and subacute exposure to ambient air pollution. However, the impacts of lifetime exposure to air pollution on the pulmonary function of children have been inconsistent. The present study investigated the impact of lifetime residential exposure to intermediate levels of air pollution on the pulmonary function of schoolchildren. METHODS: In 2011, a survey of children aged 6-15 years was conducted in 44 schools in Taiwan...
November 16, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153708/pathophysiology-of-il-33-and-il-17-in-allergic-disorders
#20
REVIEW
Rinkesh Kumar Gupta, Kriti Gupta, Premendra D Dwivedi
Allergic diseases are among common clinical conditions, affecting millions of children and adults throughout the world. Food allergies, skin allergies (atopic dermatitis), and respiratory allergies (allergic rhinitis and asthma) are the common types of allergies. Recently discovered cytokines IL-17 and IL-33 have been found to play an important role in the pathogenicity of various hypersensitive disorders. After exposure to allergens or infection with parasites or viruses, IL-17 and IL-33 producing cells, such as Th17 and specialized epithelial cells respectively, become activated and trigger the pathogenic immune responses in different susceptible conditions...
November 11, 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
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