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Whole genome sequence microbiome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909134/the-influence-of-the-intestinal-microbiome-on-vaccine-responses
#1
REVIEW
Petra Zimmermann, Nigel Curtis
There is substantial variation between individuals in the immune response to vaccinations. The intestinal microbiome plays a crucial rule in the development and regulation of the immune system and therefore its composition might affect how individuals respond to vaccinations. In this review, we summarise studies that investigated the influence of the intestinal microbiome on humoral and cellular vaccine responses. To date, only four studies (three in infants and one in adults) have investigated the influence of the intestinal microbiome on vaccine responses...
June 13, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906260/the-comparative-genomics-of-bifidobacterium-callitrichos-reflects-dietary-carbohydrate-utilization-within-the-common-marmoset-gut
#2
Korin Albert, Asha Rani, David A Sela
Bifidobacterium is a diverse genus of anaerobic, saccharolytic bacteria that colonize many animals, notably humans and other mammals. The presence of these bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract represents a potential coevolution between the gut microbiome and its mammalian host mediated by diet. To study the relationship between bifidobacterial gut symbionts and host nutrition, we analyzed the genome of two bifidobacteria strains isolated from the feces of a common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), a primate species studied for its ability to subsist on host-indigestible carbohydrates...
June 15, 2018: Microbial Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896567/genomics-of-the-uncultivated-periodontitis-associated-bacterium-tannerella-sp-bu045-oral-taxon-808
#3
Clifford J Beall, Alisha G Campbell, Ann L Griffen, Mircea Podar, Eugene J Leys
Despite decades of research into the human oral microbiome, many species remain uncultivated. The technique of single-cell whole-genome amplification and sequencing provides a means of deriving genome sequences for species that can be informative on biological function and suggest pathways to cultivation. Tannerella forsythia has long been known to be highly associated with chronic periodontitis and to cause periodontitis-like symptoms in experimental animals, and Tannerella sp. BU045 (human oral taxon 808) is an uncultivated relative of this organism...
May 2018: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29889019/detecting-viral-genomes-in-the-female-urinary-microbiome
#4
Andrea Garretto, Krystal Thomas-White, Alan J Wolfe, Catherine Putonti
Viruses are the most abundant component of the human microbiota. Recent evidence has uncovered a rich diversity of viruses within the female bladder, including both bacteriophages and eukaryotic viruses. We conducted whole-genome sequencing of the bladder microbiome of 30 women: 10 asymptomatic 'healthy' women and 20 women with an overactive bladder. These metagenomes include sequences representative of human, bacterial and viral DNA. This analysis, however, focused specifically on viral sequences. Using the bioinformatic tool virMine, we discovered sequence fragments, as well as complete genomes, of bacteriophages and the eukaryotic virus JC polyomavirus...
June 11, 2018: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29872152/multidrug-resistant-pathogens-respond-differently-to-the-presence-of-co-pathogen-commensal-probiotic-and-host-cells
#5
Agnes P Chan, Yongwook Choi, Lauren M Brinkac, Radha Krishnakumar, Jessica DePew, Maria Kim, Mary K Hinkle, Emil P Lesho, Derrick E Fouts
In light of the ongoing antimicrobial resistance crisis, there is a need to understand the role of co-pathogens, commensals, and the local microbiome in modulating virulence and antibiotic resistance. To identify possible interactions that influence the expression of virulence or survival mechanisms in both the multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) and human host cells, unique cohorts of clinical isolates were selected for whole genome sequencing with enhanced assembly and full annotation, pairwise co-culturing, and transcriptome profiling...
June 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867857/distinct-microbial-signatures-associated-with-different-breast-cancer-types
#6
Sagarika Banerjee, Tian Tian, Zhi Wei, Natalie Shih, Michael D Feldman, Kristen N Peck, Angela M DeMichele, James C Alwine, Erle S Robertson
A dysbiotic microbiome can potentially contribute to the pathogenesis of many different diseases including cancer. Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in women. Thus, we investigated the diversity of the microbiome in the four major types of breast cancer: endocrine receptor (ER) positive, triple positive, Her2 positive and triple negative breast cancers. Using a whole genome and transcriptome amplification and a pan-pathogen microarray (PathoChip) strategy, we detected unique and common viral, bacterial, fungal and parasitic signatures for each of the breast cancer types...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29860637/discovery-of-a-novel-periodontal-disease-associated-bacterium
#7
Pedro J Torres, John Thompson, Jeffrey S McLean, Scott T Kelley, Anna Edlund
One of the world's most common infectious disease, periodontitis (PD), derives from largely uncharacterized communities of oral bacteria growing as biofilms (a.k.a. plaque) on teeth and gum surfaces in periodontal pockets. Bacteria associated with periodontal disease trigger inflammatory responses in immune cells, which in later stages of the disease cause loss of both soft and hard tissue structures supporting teeth. Thus far, only a handful of bacteria have been characterized as infectious agents of PD. Although deep sequencing technologies, such as whole community shotgun sequencing have the potential to capture a detailed picture of highly complex bacterial communities in any given environment, we still lack major reference genomes for the oral microbiome associated with PD and other diseases...
June 2, 2018: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778183/high-genetic-diversity-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamases-producing-escherichia-coli-in-feces-of-horses
#8
Syndia Sadikalay, Yann Reynaud, Stéphanie Guyomard-Rabenirina, Mélanie Falord, Célia Ducat, Laetitia Fabre, Simon Le Hello, Antoine Talarmin, Séverine Ferdinand
Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs), especially those of the CTX-M type, represent a major public health problem throughout the world. Although the carriage of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae (EPE) in feces of horses is now well recognized, little is known about the diversity of EPE after treatment of horses with antibiotics. We undertook this study to assess and follow the diversity of EP Escherichia coli isolated from horses after antibiotic treatment for an infection. Fecal samples from two horses treated and two that were untreated were tested for the presence of EPE on different days...
June 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715491/recent-updates-and-challenges-on-the-regulation-of-precision-medicine-the-united-states-in-perspective
#9
Lin-Chau Chang, Thomas E Colonna
The rapid progress in "omics", such as genomics, metabolomics, microbiomics, has paved the path for precision medicine and revolutionized the development of drugs and devices promising to meet unmet medical needs. The aim of the present study was to investigate the current regulatory framework established by the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) and to identify challenges and concerns through study of related literatures in the PubMed database. We found that efforts were made to facilitate the implementation of precision medicine through organizational reform, publication of guidance documents, and continuous post-market surveillance...
July 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696589/single-cell-metagenomics-challenges-and-applications
#10
REVIEW
Yuan Xu, Fangqing Zhao
With the development of high throughput sequencing and single-cell genomics technologies, many uncultured bacterial communities have been dissected by combining these two techniques. Especially, by simultaneously leveraging of single-cell genomics and metagenomics, researchers can greatly improve the efficiency and accuracy of obtaining whole genome information from complex microbial communities, which not only allow us to identify microbes but also link function to species, identify subspecies variations, study host-virus interactions and etc...
May 2018: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692798/the-presence-of-genotoxic-and-or-pro-inflammatory-bacterial-genes-in-gut-metagenomic-databases-and-their-possible-link-with-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#11
Abiel Roche-Lima, Kelvin Carrasquillo-Carrión, Ramón Gómez-Moreno, Juan M Cruz, Dayanara M Velázquez-Morales, Igor B Rogozin, Abel Baerga-Ortiz
Background: The human gut microbiota is a dynamic community of microorganisms that mediate important biochemical processes. Differences in the gut microbial composition have been associated with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and other intestinal disorders. In this study, we quantified and compared the frequencies of eight genotoxic and/or pro-inflammatory bacterial genes found in metagenomic Whole Genome Sequences (mWGSs) of samples from individuals with IBD vs. a cohort of healthy human subjects. Methods: The eight selected gene sequences were clbN, clbB, cif, cnf-1, usp, tcpC from Escherichia coli, gelE from Enterococcus faecalis and murB from Akkermansia muciniphila ...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669589/similarity-of-the-dog-and-human-gut-microbiomes-in-gene-content-and-response-to-diet
#12
Luis Pedro Coelho, Jens Roat Kultima, Paul Igor Costea, Coralie Fournier, Yuanlong Pan, Gail Czarnecki-Maulden, Matthew Robert Hayward, Sofia K Forslund, Thomas Sebastian Benedikt Schmidt, Patrick Descombes, Janet R Jackson, Qinghong Li, Peer Bork
BACKGROUND: Gut microbes influence their hosts in many ways, in particular by modulating the impact of diet. These effects have been studied most extensively in humans and mice. In this work, we used whole genome metagenomics to investigate the relationship between the gut metagenomes of dogs, humans, mice, and pigs. RESULTS: We present a dog gut microbiome gene catalog containing 1,247,405 genes (based on 129 metagenomes and a total of 1.9 terabasepairs of sequencing data)...
April 19, 2018: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624164/campylobacter-blaseri-sp-nov-isolated-from-common-seals-phoca-vitulina
#13
Maarten J Gilbert, Aldert L Zomer, Arjen J Timmerman, Mirlin P Spaninks, Ana Rubio-García, John W Rossen, Birgitta Duim, Jaap A Wagenaar
During a study to assess the faecal microbiome of common seals (Phoca vitulina) in a Dutch seal rehabilitation centre, 16S rRNA gene sequences of an unknown Campylobacter taxon were identified. Campylobacter isolates, which differed from the established Campylobacter taxa, were cultured and their taxonomic position was determined by a polyphasic study based on ten isolates. The isolates were characterized by 16S rRNA and atpA gene sequence analyses and by conventional phenotypic testing. Based on the whole genome sequences, the average nucleotide identity and core genome phylogeny were determined...
May 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572583/insights-into-the-human-oral-microbiome
#14
REVIEW
Digvijay Verma, Pankaj Kumar Garg, Ashok Kumar Dubey
Human oral cavity harbors the second most abundant microbiota after the gastrointestinal tract. The expanded Human Oral Microbiome Database (eHOMD) that was last updated on November 22, 2017, contains the information of approximately 772 prokaryotic species, where 70% is cultivable, and 30% belong to the uncultivable class of microorganisms along with whole genome sequences of 482 taxa. Out of 70% culturable species, 57% have already been assigned to their names. The 16S rDNA profiling of the healthy oral cavity categorized the inhabitant bacteria into six broad phyla, viz...
May 2018: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567068/dynamics-of-the-human-gut-phageome-during-antibiotic-treatment
#15
A Górska, S Peter, M Willmann, I Autenrieth, R Schlaberg, D H Huson
Bacterial viruses contribute to the dynamics of the microbiome communities, as they are involved in the horizontal gene transfer. Previously we studied changes in the gut microbiome of the two healthy individuals over the course of a 6-days antibiotics treatment and subsequent 28 days recovery time (Willmann et al., 2015). Now, from the same samples, the virus-like particles were isolated and sequenced. As the phage sequences are currently poorly represented in reference databases, the reads had to be assembled, annotated and their abundance had to be evaluated via reads mapping...
March 14, 2018: Computational Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548797/isolation-and-identification-of-the-follicular-microbiome-implications-for-acne-research
#16
Jacob B Hall, Zhaoyuan Cong, Yuka Imamura-Kawasawa, Brian A Kidd, Joel T Dudley, Diane M Thiboutot, Amanda M Nelson
Our understanding of the microbiome and the role of Propionibacterium acnes in skin homeostasis and acne pathogenesis is evolving. Multiple methods for sampling and identifying the skin's microbiome exist, and understanding the differences between the abilities of various methods to characterize the microbial landscape is warranted. This study compared the microbial diversity of samples obtained from the cheeks of 20 volunteers, collected by surface swab, pore strips, and cyanoacrylate glue follicular biopsy, all sequenced with 16S rRNA sequencing (V1-V3) and whole-genome metagenomic sequencing...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546356/clonal-emergence-of-invasive-multidrug-resistant-staphylococcus-epidermidis-deconvoluted-via-a-combination-of-whole-genome-sequencing-and-microbiome-analyses
#17
Xiqi Li, Cesar A Arias, Samuel L Aitken, Jessica Galloway Peña, Diana Panesso, Michael Chang, Lorena Diaz, Rafael Rios, Yazan Numan, Sammi Ghaoui, Sruti DebRoy, Micah M Bhatti, Dawn E Simmons, Isaam Raad, Ray Hachem, Stephanie A Folan, Pranoti Sahasarabhojane, Awdhesh Kalia, Samuel A Shelburne
Background: Pathobionts, bacteria that are typically human commensals but can cause disease, contribute significantly to antimicrobial resistance. Staphylococcus epidermidis is a prototypical pathobiont as it is a ubiquitous human commensal but also a leading cause of healthcare-associated bacteremia. We sought to determine the etiology of a recent increase in invasive S. epidermidis isolates resistant to linezolid. Methods: Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was performed on 176 S...
March 12, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535698/phylogenomic-based-comparative-studies-on-indian-and-american-commensal-staphylococcus-epidermidis-isolates
#18
Shikha Sharma, Vasvi Chaudhry, Sanjeet Kumar, Prabhu B Patil
Staphylococcus epidermidis is a prominent commensal member of human skin microbiome and an emerging nosocomial pathogen, making it a good model organism to provide genomic insights, correlating its transition between commensalism and pathogenicity. While there are numerous studies to understand differences in commensal and pathogenic isolates, systematic efforts to understand variation and evolutionary pattern in multiple strains isolated from healthy individuals are lacking. In the present study, using whole genome sequencing and analysis, we report presence of diverse lineages of S...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530467/tick-microbial-communities-within-enriched-extracts-of-amblyomma-maculatum
#19
A S Varela-Stokes, S H Park, J V Stokes, N A Gavron, S I Lee, G M Moraru, S C Ricke
Our objective of this study was to explore the bacterial microbiome in fresh or fresh-frozen adult Amblyomma maculatum (Gulf Coast ticks) using extracts enriched for microbial DNA. We collected 100 questing adult A. maculatum, surface disinfected them, and extracted DNA from individual ticks collected the same day or after storage at -80 °C. Because only extracts with microbial DNA concentrations above 2 ng/μL were considered suitable for individual analysis, we expected fewer samples to meet these requirements...
May 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515160/genomics-based-identification-of-microorganisms-in-human-ocular-body-fluid
#20
Philipp Kirstahler, Søren Solborg Bjerrum, Alice Friis-Møller, Morten la Cour, Frank M Aarestrup, Henrik Westh, Sünje Johanna Pamp
Advances in genomics have the potential to revolutionize clinical diagnostics. Here, we examine the microbiome of vitreous (intraocular body fluid) from patients who developed endophthalmitis following cataract surgery or intravitreal injection. Endophthalmitis is an inflammation of the intraocular cavity and can lead to a permanent loss of vision. As controls, we included vitreous from endophthalmitis-negative patients, balanced salt solution used during vitrectomy and DNA extraction blanks. We compared two DNA isolation procedures and found that an ultraclean production of reagents appeared to reduce background DNA in these low microbial biomass samples...
March 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
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