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Early Warning System

Jumadi Mabe Parenreng, Akio Kitagawa
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) with limited battery, central processing units (CPUs), and memory resources are a widely implemented technology for early warning detection systems. The main advantage of WSNs is their ability to be deployed in areas that are difficult to access by humans. In such areas, regular maintenance may be impossible; therefore, WSN devices must utilize their limited resources to operate for as long as possible, but longer operations require maintenance. One method of maintenance is to apply a resource adaptation policy when a system reaches a critical threshold...
May 17, 2018: Sensors
Axel R Heller, Sören T Mees, Benjamin Lauterwald, Christian Reeps, Thea Koch, Jürgen Weitz
BACKGROUND: The establishment of early warning systems in hospitals was strongly recommended in recent guidelines to detect deteriorating patients early and direct them to adequate care. Upon reaching predefined trigger criteria, Medical Emergency Teams (MET) should be notified and directed to these patients. The present study analyses the effect of introducing an automated multiparameter early warning score (MEWS)-based early warning system with paging functionality on 2 wards hosting patients recovering from highly complex surgical interventions...
May 16, 2018: Annals of Surgery
Jesavel A Iguchi, Xerxes T Seposo, Yasushi Honda
BACKGROUND: Dengue fever is a major public health concern in the Philippines, and has been a significant cause of hospitalizations and deaths among young children. Previous literature links climate change to dengue, and with increasingly unpredictable changing climate patterns, there is a need to understand how these meteorological variables affect dengue incidence in a highly endemic area. METHODS: Weekly dengue incidences (2011-2015) in Davao Region, Philippines were obtained from the Department of Health...
May 15, 2018: BMC Public Health
S Yoon, A V Goltsev, J F F Mendes
We explore structural stability of weighted and unweighted networks of positively interacting agents against a negative external field. We study how the agents support the activity of each other to confront the negative field, which suppresses the activity of agents and can lead to collapse of the whole network. The competition between the interactions and the field shape the structure of stable states of the system. In unweighted networks (uniform interactions) the stable states have the structure of k-cores of the interaction network...
April 2018: Physical Review. E
Mandana Amiri, Abolfazl Bezaatpour, Hamed Jafari, Rabah Boukherroub, Sabine Szunerits
Bacterial infections remain of the principal causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The number of death due to infections is declining every year by only 1% with a forecast of 13 million deaths in 2050. Among the 1400 recognized human pathogens, the majority of infectious diseases is caused by just a few, about 20 pathogens only. While the development of vaccinations and novel anti-bacterial drugs and treatments are at the forefront of research, and strongly financially supported by policy makers, another manner to limit and control infectious outbreaks is targeting the development and implementation of early warning systems, which indicate qualitatively and quantitatively the presence of a pathogen...
May 14, 2018: ACS Sensors
Sarah E Minson, Men-Andrin Meier, Annemarie S Baltay, Thomas C Hanks, Elizabeth S Cochran
The basic physics of earthquakes is such that strong ground motion cannot be expected from an earthquake unless the earthquake itself is very close or has grown to be very large. We use simple seismological relationships to calculate the minimum time that must elapse before such ground motion can be expected at a distance from the earthquake, assuming that the earthquake magnitude is not predictable. Earthquake early warning (EEW) systems are in operation or development for many regions around the world, with the goal of providing enough warning of incoming ground shaking to allow people and automated systems to take protective actions to mitigate losses...
March 2018: Science Advances
Dong Zhou, Ahmed Elmokashfi
This paper investigates the possibility of saving a network that is predicted to have a cascading failure that will eventually lead to a total collapse. We model cascading failures using the recently proposed KQ model. Then predict an impending total collapse by monitoring critical slowing down indicators and subsequently attempt to prevent the total collapse of the network by adding new nodes. To this end, we systematically evaluate five node addition rules, the effect of intervention delay and network degree heterogeneity...
May 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
Chao Zhou, Kunlong Yin, Ying Cao, Bayes Ahmed, Xiaolin Fu
Landslide displacement prediction is considered as an essential component for developing early warning systems. The modelling of conventional forecast methods requires enormous monitoring data that limit its application. To conduct accurate displacement prediction with limited data, a novel method is proposed and applied by integrating three computational intelligence algorithms namely: the wavelet transform (WT), the artificial bees colony (ABC), and the kernel-based extreme learning machine (KELM). At first, the total displacement was decomposed into several sub-sequences with different frequencies using the WT...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Emma Wates, James Higginson, Andre Kichenaradjou, Kieron McVeigh
A 62-year-old man with a background of type 2 diabetes mellitus presented to the emergency department (ED) with a 5-day history of dental pain, progressive right facial swelling, trismus, dysphagia and voice changes. The oropharynx could not be directly examined completely due to trismus. The patient had a National Early Warning Score of 0 and so was triaged into the 'minors' section of ED. Following assessment by the on-call oral and maxillofacial surgeon, an urgent contrast-enhanced CT demonstrated a large parapharyngeal collection, which required urgent anaesthetic and surgical intervention...
May 7, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Deborah L McBride
Pediatric early warning systems have been implemented in many children's hospitals in the hope that they would aid in the early identification of hospitalized children who are clinically deteriorating. A large, recently completed multicenter study found that the use of the Bedside Pediatric Early Warning System (BedsidePEWS) did not decrease all-cause mortality compared to usual care hospitals and did not support the use of the BedsidePEWS to reduce mortality. Earlier studies had found that the use of pediatric early warning systems removed communication barriers and empowered nurses to make independent clinical decisions based on a predetermined multidisciplinary plan...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
Hao Zheng, Jianfeng He, Li Wang, Rong Zhang, Zhen Ding, Wenbiao Hu
The epidemiological features of Cryptosporidium infection among school-age children in China still remain unclear. Hereby, a cross-sectional study of 1637 children aged 3⁻9 years was designed to investigate the risk factors and spatial clusters of Cryptosporidium infection in a rural region of Eastern China. Stool specimens collected from participants were examined using the auramine-phenol and modified acid-fast staining. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed to identify the risk factors of Cryptospordium infection...
May 6, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Ting-Yu Hsu, Ren-Cheng Yin, Yih-Min Wu
The earthquake early warning (EEW)-research group at National Taiwan University has been developing a microelectromechanical system-based accelerometer called “P-Alert”, designed for issuing EEWs. The main advantage of P-Alert is that it is a relatively economical seismometer. However, because of the expensive nature of commercial hardware for structural health monitoring (SHM) systems, the application of SHM to buildings remains limited. To determine the performance of P-Alert for evaluating post-earthquake building safety, we conducted a series of steel-frame shaking table tests with incremental damage...
May 5, 2018: Sensors
Goran Vižintin, Nataša Ravbar, Jože Janež, Eva Koren, Naško Janež, Luca Zini, Francesco Treu, Metka Petrič
Due to intrinsic characteristics of aquifers groundwater frequently passes between various types of aquifers without hindrance. The complex connection of underground water paths enables flow regardless of administrative boundaries. This can cause problems in water resources management. Numerical modelling is an important tool for the understanding, interpretation and management of aquifers. Useful and reliable methods of numerical modelling differ with regard to the type of aquifer, but their connections in a single hydrodynamic model are rare...
April 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
João Amorim, Miguel Fernandes, Isabel Abreu, Fernando Tavares, Luis Oliva-Teles
Traditional physico-chemical sensors are becoming an obsolete tool for environmental quality assessment. Biomonitoring techniques, such as biological early warning systems present the advantage of being sensitivity, fast, non-invasive and ecologically relevant. In this work, we applied a video tracking system, developed with zebrafish (Danio rerio), to detect microbiological contamination in water. Using the fishs' behavior response, the system was able to detect the presence of a non-pathogenic environmental strain of Escherichia coli, at three different levels of contamination: 600, 1800 and 5000 CFU/100 mL (colony forming units/100 mL)...
May 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Laith Hussain-Alkhateeb, Axel Kroeger, Piero Olliaro, Joacim Rocklöv, Maquins Odhiambo Sewe, Gustavo Tejeda, David Benitez, Balvinder Gill, S Lokman Hakim, Roberta Gomes Carvalho, Leigh Bowman, Max Petzold
BACKGROUND: Dengue outbreaks are increasing in frequency over space and time, affecting people's health and burdening resource-constrained health systems. The ability to detect early emerging outbreaks is key to mounting an effective response. The early warning and response system (EWARS) is a toolkit that provides countries with early-warning systems for efficient and cost-effective local responses. EWARS uses outbreak and alarm indicators to derive prediction models that can be used prospectively to predict a forthcoming dengue outbreak at district level...
2018: PloS One
Christopher Rowe, Eliza Wheeler, T Stephen Jones, Clement Yeh, Phillip O Coffin
This report documents a successful intervention by a community-based naloxone distribution program in San Francisco. The program and its partner organizations, working with participants who use drugs, first identified the appearance of illicitly made fentanyl and increased outreach and naloxone distribution. Distribution of naloxone and reported use of naloxone to reverse opioid-involved overdoses increased significantly while the number of opioid-involved and fentanyl-involved overdose deaths did not. Community-based programs that provide training and naloxone to people who use drugs can serve as an early warning system for overdose risk and adaptively respond to the rapidly changing overdose risk environment...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
Chee-Hon Chan, Ho-Kit Wong, Paul Siu-Fai Yip
BACKGROUND: Older adults usually have a higher suicide rate than the general population. There are helpline services provided to older adults but limited studies have examined the suicidal risks among the users, and how those services could be used as a platform to engage older adults in suicide prevention. METHODS: In regard to elderly suicide prevention, this study explored the potential usefulness and relevance of a telephone helpline service in Hong Kong, which had 106,583 users during 2012-2015...
April 22, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Alan J Hay, John W McCauley
In the centenary year of the devastating 1918-19 pandemic, it seems opportune to reflect on the success of the WHO Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System (GISRS) initiated 70 years ago to provide early warning of changes in influenza viruses circulating in the global population to help mitigate the consequences of such a pandemic and maintain the efficacy of seasonal influenza vaccines. Three pandemics later and in the face of pandemic threats from highly pathogenic zoonotic infections by different influenza A subtypes it continues to represent a model platform for global collaboration and timely sharing of viruses, reagents and information to forestall and respond to public health emergencies...
May 2, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Toshiaki Iba, Makoto Arakawa, Marcello Di Nisio, Satoshi Gando, Hideaki Anan, Koichi Sato, Yutaka Ueki, Jerrold H Levy, Jecko Thachil
BACKGROUND: Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) has been recognized as an urgent and critical condition in patients with sepsis. Therefore, unfamiliar and time-consuming tests or a complex scoring system are not suitable for diagnosis. Sepsis-induced coagulopathy (SIC), a newly proposed category delineated by a few global coagulation tests, has been established as an early warning sign for DIC. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the characteristics of SIC, especially in relation to the score of the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH) for overt DIC...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
Stacie Hodge, Sebastian Helliar, Hamish Ian Macdonald, Paul Mackey
Until now, there have been no published surgical triage tools. We have developed the first such tool with a tiered escalation policy, aiming to improve identification and management of critically unwell patients. The existing sheet which is used to track new referrals and admissions to the surgical assessment unit was reviewed. The sheet was updated and a traffic light triage tool generated using National Early Warning Scores (NEWS), sepsis criteria and user discretion. A tiered escalation policy to guide urgency of assessment was introduced and education sessions for all staff undertaken, to ensure understanding and compliance...
2018: BMJ Open Quality
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