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Early Warning System

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346299/meteo-and-hydrodynamic-measurements-to-detect-physical-processes-in-confined-shallow-seas
#1
Francesca De Serio, Michele Mossa
Coastal sites with typical lagoon features are extremely vulnerable, often suffering from scarce circulation. Especially in the case of shallow basins subjected to strong anthropization and urban discharges, it is fundamental to monitor their hydrodynamics and water quality. The proper detection of events by high performance sensors and appropriate analysis of sensor signals has proved to be a necessary tool for local authorities and stakeholders, leading to early warning and preventive measures against environmental degradation and related hazards...
January 18, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324266/collision-risk-analysis-based-train-collision-early-warning-strategy
#2
Si-Hui Li, Bai-Gen Cai, Jiang Liu, Jian Wang
A Train Collision Early Warning System (TCEWS) has been developed for collision avoidance. However, there are few studies regarding how to evaluate the collision risk and provide an early warning concerning a preceding train on the railway. In this paper, we have found that the time for collision avoidance is constrained by the timing of events, such as wireless communication latency, driver reaction, safety protection distance and deceleration rate. Considering these timing components, the time to avoid a collision is calculated accurately...
January 8, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322500/seizure-onset-predicts-its-type
#3
Cristian Donos, Mihai Dragos Maliia, Matthias Dümpelmann, Andreas Schulze-Bonhage
OBJECTIVE: Epilepsy is characterized by transient alterations in brain synchronization resulting in seizures with a wide spectrum of manifestations. Seizure severity and risks for patients depend on the evolution and spread of the hypersynchronous discharges. With standard visual inspection and pattern classification, this evolution could not be predicted early on. It is still unclear to what degree the seizure onset zone determines seizure severity. Such information would improve our understanding of ictal epileptic activity and the existing electroencephalogram (EEG)-based warning and intervention systems, providing specific reactions to upcoming seizure types...
January 11, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322097/toward-a-leading-indicator-of-catastrophic-shifts-in-complex-systems-assessing-changing-conditions-in-nation-states
#4
Leisha Vance, Tarsha Eason, Heriberto Cabezas, Michael E Gorman
The 20th century was characterized by substantial change on a global scale. There were multiple wars and unrest, social and political transitions, technological innovation and widespread development that impacted every corner of the earth. In order to assess the sustainability implications of these changes, we conducted a study of three advanced nations particularly affected during this time: France, Germany and the United States (USA). All three nation states withstood these changes and yet continued to thrive, which speaks to their resilience...
December 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321796/heart-rate-variability-a-new-tool-to-predict-complications-in-adult-cardiac-surgery
#5
Antonio Nenna, Mario Lusini, Cristiano Spadaccio, Francesco Nappi, Salvatore Matteo Greco, Raffaele Barbato, Elvio Covino, Massimo Chello
Heart rate variability (HRV) refers to the variations between consecutive heartbeats, which depend on the continuous modulation of the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system. HRV has been shown to be effective as a predictor of risk after myocardial infarction and an early warning sign of diabetic neuropathy, and in the cardiology setting is now recognized to be a useful tool for risk-stratification after hospital admission and after discharge. Recent evidences suggest that HRV analysis might predict complications even in patients undergoing cardiac surgery, and the present review summarizes the importance of HRV analysis in adult cardiac surgery and the perspectives for HRV use in current clinical practice...
November 2017: Journal of Geriatric Cardiology: JGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315023/sepsis-screening-current-evidence-and-available-tools
#6
Natacha Villegas, Laura J Moore
BACKGROUND: Early recognition of sepsis is challenging, especially in the surgical patient. Because of the non-specific nature of the initial signs and symptoms, delays in recognition are all too common. To improve the early identification of sepsis, screening tools have been developed, and several papers have described their results. This article reviews the available sepsis screening tools. METHODS: A PubMed search was performed using the search terms "sepsis" and "shock," "electronic alert," "clinical decision support," and "early warning systems...
January 9, 2018: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304812/the-cradle-vital-signs-alert-qualitative-evaluation-of-a-novel-device-designed-for-use-in-pregnancy-by-healthcare-workers-in-low-resource-settings
#7
Hannah L Nathan, Helena Boene, Khatia Munguambe, Esperança Sevene, David Akeju, Olalekan O Adetoro, Umesh Charanthimath, Mrutyunjaya B Bellad, Annemarie de Greeff, John Anthony, David R Hall, Wilhelm Steyn, Marianne Vidler, Peter von Dadelszen, Lucy C Chappell, Jane Sandall, Andrew H Shennan
BACKGROUND: Vital signs measurement can identify pregnant and postpartum women who require urgent treatment or referral. In low-resource settings, healthcare workers have limited access to accurate vital signs measuring devices suitable for their environment and training. The CRADLE Vital Signs Alert (VSA) is a novel device measuring blood pressure and pulse that is accurate in pregnancy and designed for low-resource settings. Its traffic light early warning system alerts healthcare workers to the need for escalation of care for women with hypertension, haemorrhage or sepsis...
January 5, 2018: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303555/an-optical-biosensor-based-quantification-of-microcystin-synthetase-a-gene-early-warning-of-toxic-cyanobacterial-blooming
#8
Jinchuan Liu, Xiaohong Zhou, Hanchang Shi
Monitoring and controlling of toxic cyanobacterial strains, which can produce microcystins, is critical to protect human and ecological health. We herein reported an optical biosensor-based quantification of microcystin synthetase A (mcyA) gene so as to discriminate microcystins-producing from non-producing strains. In this assay, the mcyA-specific ssDNA probes were designed in silico with an online tool and then synthesized to be covalently immobilized on an optical fiber surface. Production of fluorescently modified target DNA fragment amplicons was accomplished through the use of Cy5-tagged deoxycytidine triphosphates (dCTPs) in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method, which resulted in copies with internally labelled multiple sites per DNA molecule and delivered the great sensitivity...
January 5, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302776/epidemiological-situation-of-transboundary-animal-diseases-in-north-african-countries-proposition-of-a-regional-control-strategy
#9
REVIEW
Moustafa Kardjadj
The Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) defined transboundary animal diseases (TADs) as those that are of significant economic, trade, and food security importance for a considerable number of countries. TADs can easily spread to other countries, reach epidemic proportions, and where control, management, or exclusion is required cooperation between several countries. The North African countries are vulnerable to several TADs by virtue of its geographical location, its borders with the Sahel region, and peculiar control constraints on the budgets of the national veterinary services of each country and on the livelihoods of livestock owners across the region...
January 5, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290372/signs-of-severity-sos-ed-escalation-guide-bridging-the-experience-gap
#10
Marcia Schram, Vivian Fuentes, Brenda Rojas, Martha Tijerino, Michelle Thomas, Christine Williams, Eve Butler, Andrea Prentiss
INTRODUCTION: This study evaluated the introduction of an ED Escalation Guide (EDEG) as an early warning system for the many new graduate nurses in the emergency department. The EDEG is a chart that provides ED-appropriate parameters to prioritize both vital signs and critical symptoms. Scenario quizzes were used to evaluate its usefulness. METHODS: Comparative quizzes that required prioritizing the urgency of patient symptoms were given to emergency nurses with varying levels of experience, with and without the use of the EDEG...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Emergency Nursing: JEN: Official Publication of the Emergency Department Nurses Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289044/effects-of-stressor-characteristics-on-early-warning-signs-of-critical-transitions-and-critical-coupling-in-complex-dynamical-systems
#11
Steffen O P Blume, Giovanni Sansavini
Complex dynamical systems face abrupt transitions into unstable and catastrophic regimes. These critical transitions are triggered by gradual modifications in stressors, which push the dynamical system towards unstable regimes. Bifurcation analysis can characterize such critical thresholds, beyond which systems become unstable. Moreover, the stochasticity of the external stressors causes small-scale fluctuations in the system response. In some systems, the decomposition of these signal fluctuations into precursor signals can reveal early warning signs prior to the critical transition...
December 2017: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288498/enhanced-early-warning-system-impact-on-nursing-practice-a-phenomenological-study
#12
Kathleen A Burns, Tracey Reber, Karen Theodore, Brenda Welch, Debra Roy, Sandra L Siedlecki
AIM: To determine how an enhanced early warning system has an impact on nursing practice. BACKGROUND: Early warning systems score physiologic measures and alert nurses to subtle changes in patient condition. Critics of early warning systems have expressed concern that nurses would rely on a score rather than assessment skills and critical thinking to determine the need for intervention. Enhancing early warning systems with innovative technology is still in its infancy so the impact of an enhanced early warning system on nursing behaviors or practice has not yet been studied...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286297/spatiotemporal-risk-of-bacillary-dysentery-and-sensitivity-to-meteorological-factors-in-hunan-province-china
#13
Chengdong Xu, Gexin Xiao, Jinfeng Wang, Xiangxue Zhang, Jinjun Liang
Bacillary dysentery remains a public health concern in the world. Hunan Province is one of the provinces having the highest risk of bacillary dysentery in China, however, the spatial-temporal distribution, variation of bacillary dysentery and sensitivity to meteorological factors in there are unclear. In this paper, a Bayesian space-time hierarchical model (BSTHM) was used to detect space-time variation, and effects of meteorological factors between 2010 and 2015. The risk of bacillary dysentery showed apparent spatial-temporal heterogeneity...
December 29, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283412/design-and-implementation-of-a-coastal-mounted-sensor-for-oil-film-detection-on-seawater
#14
Yongchao Hou, Ying Li, Bingxin Liu, Yu Liu, Tong Wang
The routine surveillance of oil spills in major ports is important. However, existing techniques and sensors are unable to trace oil and micron-thin oil films on the surface of seawater. Therefore, we designed and studied a coastal-mounted sensor, using ultraviolet-induced fluorescence and fluorescence-filter systems (FFSs), to monitor oil spills and overcome the disadvantages of traditional surveillance systems. Using seawater from the port of Lingshui (Yellow Sea, China) and six oil samples of different types, we found that diesel oil's relative fluorescence intensity (RFI) was significantly higher than those of heavy fuel and crude oils in the 180-300 nm range-in the 300-400 nm range, the RFI value of diesel is far lower...
December 28, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280509/screening-for-mental-health-needs-of-new-zealand-youth-in-secure-care-facilities-using-the-maysi-2
#15
Sean McArdle, Ian Lambie
BACKGROUND: Young people admitted to secure facilities generally have particularly high rates of mental, emotional and behavioural problems, but little is known about the mental health needs of this group in New Zealand. AIMS: To describe prevalence of probable mental health disorder and related needs among young people in secure facilities in New Zealand. METHODS: Massachusetts youth screening instrument - second version (MAYSI-2) data were obtained from the records of young people admitted to one secure care facility (n = 204) within a 12 month period...
December 27, 2017: Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health: CBMH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277622/national-early-warning-score-accurately-discriminates-the-risk-of-serious-adverse-events-in-patients-with-liver-disease
#16
Theresa J Hydes, Paul Meredith, Paul E Schmidt, Gary B Smith, David R Prytherch, Richard J Aspinall
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The National Early Warning Score (NEWS) is used to identify deteriorating adult hospital inpatients. However, it includes physiological parameters frequently altered in patients with cirrhosis. We aimed to assess the performance of the NEWS in acute and chronic liver diseases. METHODS: We collected vital signs, recorded in real time, from completed consecutive admissions of patients 16 years or older to a large acute-care hospital in Southern England, from January 1, 2010 through October 31, 2014...
December 22, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275255/weather-variables-and-the-el-ni%C3%A3-o-southern-oscillation-may-drive-the-epidemics-of-dengue-in-guangdong-province-china
#17
Jianpeng Xiao, Tao Liu, Hualiang Lin, Guanghu Zhu, Weilin Zeng, Xing Li, Bing Zhang, Tie Song, Aiping Deng, Meng Zhang, Haojie Zhong, Shao Lin, Shannon Rutherford, Xiaojing Meng, Yonghui Zhang, Wenjun Ma
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the periodicity of dengue and the relationship between weather variables, El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and dengue incidence in Guangdong Province, China. METHODS: Guangdong monthly dengue incidence and weather data and El Niño index information for 1988 to 2015 were collected. Wavelet analysis was used to investigate the periodicity of dengue, and the coherence and time-lag phases between dengue and weather variables and ENSO. The Generalized Additive Model (GAM) approach was further employed to explore the dose-response relationship of those variables on dengue...
December 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275086/a-game-theory-approach-for-assessing-risk-value-and-deploying-search-and-rescue-resources-after-devastating-tsunamis
#18
Cheng-Kuang Wu
The current early-warning system and tsunami protection measures tend to fall short because they always underestimate the level of destruction, and it is difficult to predict the level of damage by a devastating tsunami on uncertain targets. As we know, the key to minimizing the total number of fatalities after a disaster is the deployment of search and rescue efforts in the first few hours. However, the resources available to the affected districts for emergency response may be limited. This study proposes two game theoretic models that are designed for search-and-rescue resource allocation...
December 21, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274170/the-impact-of-early-warning-score-and-rapid-response-systems-on-nurses-competence-an-integrative-literature-review-and-synthesis
#19
REVIEW
Jørghild Karlotte Jensen, Randi Skår, Bodil Tveit
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: This paper is an integrative review that seeks to describe, interpret and synthesise the current research findings on the impact of the Early Warning Score and Rapid Response Systems on nurses' competence in identifying and managing deteriorating patients in general hospital wards. BACKGROUND: As patient safety initiatives designed to ensure the early identification and management of deteriorating patients, the Early Warning Score and Rapid Response Systems have broad appeal...
December 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248856/efficacy-of-dust-aerosol-forecasts-for-east-asia-using-the-adjoint-of-geos-chem-with-ground-based-observations
#20
Jaein I Jeong, Rokjin J Park
Asian dust storms occur often and have a great impact on East Asia and the western Pacific in spring. Early warnings based on reliable forecasts of dust storms thus are crucial for protecting human health and industry. Here we explore the efficacy of 4-D variational method-based data assimilation in a chemical transport model for dust storm forecasts in East Asia. We use a 3-D global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) and its adjoint model with surface PM10 mass concentration observations. We evaluate the model for several severe dust storm events, which occurred in May 2007 and March 2011 in East Asia...
December 14, 2017: Environmental Pollution
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