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Early Warning System

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640275/protect-funding-for-us-earthquake-early-warning-system
#1
EDITORIAL
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 21, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638239/using-transfer-learning-for-improved-mortality-prediction-in-a-data-scarce-hospital-setting
#2
Thomas Desautels, Jacob Calvert, Jana Hoffman, Qingqing Mao, Melissa Jay, Grant Fletcher, Chris Barton, Uli Chettipally, Yaniv Kerem, Ritankar Das
Algorithm-based clinical decision support (CDS) systems associate patient-derived health data with outcomes of interest, such as in-hospital mortality. However, the quality of such associations often depends on the availability of site-specific training data. Without sufficient quantities of data, the underlying statistical apparatus cannot differentiate useful patterns from noise and, as a result, may underperform. This initial training data burden limits the widespread, out-of-the-box, use of machine learning-based risk scoring systems...
2017: Biomedical Informatics Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637090/early-warning-systems-and-rapid-response-to-the-deteriorating-patient-in-hospital-a-realist-evaluation
#3
Jennifer Mcgaughey, Peter O'Halloran, Sam Porter, John Trinder, Bronagh Blackwood
AIM: To identify those contexts and mechanisms that enable or constrain the implementation of Rapid Response Systems on acute general hospital wards to recognise and respond to patient deterioration. BACKGROUND: Rapid Response Systems allow deteriorating patients to be recognised using Early Warning Systems, referred early via escalation protocols and managed at the bedside by competent staff. DESIGN: Realist Evaluation. METHODS: The research design was an embedded multiple case study approach of four wards in two hospitals in Northern Ireland which followed the principles of Realist Evaluation...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635463/an-overview-of-the-evidence-based-practice-process-for-novice-researchers
#4
Emma Rowles, Amanda McNaughton
This article explores how nurses can use evidence-based practice to critique and evaluate the rationale and evidence for specific nursing procedures or practices. Through the development of a focused research question and search strategy, nurses can select and critique relevant research articles to answer the research question, which can support the provision of optimal practice and high-quality care. This article demonstrates the process of evidence-based practice, with the aim of increasing novice researchers' confidence in applying this process in practice...
June 21, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633120/heatwave-and-infants-hospital-admissions-under-different-heatwave-definitions
#5
Zhiwei Xu, James Lewis Crooks, Deborah Black, Wenbiao Hu, Shilu Tong
OBJECTIVES: Data on the health impacts of heatwaves in infants are limited, and this study aimed to examine how heatwaves affect hospital admissions in infants. METHODS: A quasi-Poisson generalized additive model was used to assess the effects of heatwaves on hospital admissions in infants from 1st January 2005 to 31st December 2015 in Brisbane, Australia, using a series of heatwave definitions after controlling for possible confounders. A case-only analysis was conducted to examine the possible modification effects of personal and community characteristics on the heatwaves effects on infants' hospital admissions...
June 17, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632912/surveillance-and-early-warning-systems-of-infectious-disease-in-china-from-2012-to-2014
#6
Honglong Zhang, Liping Wang, Shengjie Lai, Zhongjie Li, Qiao Sun, Peng Zhang
Appropriate surveillance and early warning of infectious diseases have very useful roles in disease control and prevention. In 2004, China established the National Notifiable Infectious Disease Surveillance System and the Public Health Emergency Event Surveillance System to report disease surveillance and events on the basis of data sources from the National Notifiable Infectious Disease Surveillance System, China Infectious Disease Automated-alert and Response System in this country. This study provided a descriptive summary and a data analysis, from 2012 to 2014, of these 3 key surveillance and early warning systems of infectious disease in China with the intent to provide suggestions for system improvement and perfection...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Health Planning and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625251/-a-novel-protein-peptide-associated-with-ischemic-heart-disease-dermcidin
#7
Hu Xia, Kai Feng
Dermcidin (DCD) was found in isolated human skin sweat glands with antimicrobial effect, and was defined as a kind of new small molecule antimicrobial peptide. It was a part of human sweat glands in the skin as the immune system's innate defense. With the studies of DCD, its extensive biological functions are gradually discovered. Since 2010, a number of studies have shown that DCD may be a new risk factor for atherosclerosis. And the role of DCD in ischemic heart disease has drawn increasing attention in particular its relationship with insulin secretion and glycemic control, nitric oxide (NO) synthesis and hypertension, platelet aggregation and acute myocardial infarction (AMI)...
June 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623745/a-new-air-quality-monitoring-and-early-warning-system-air-quality-assessment-and-air-pollutant-concentration-prediction
#8
Zhongshan Yang, Jian Wang
Air pollution in many countries is worsening with industrialization and urbanization, resulting in climate change and affecting people's health, thus, making the work of policymakers more difficult. It is therefore both urgent and necessary to establish amore scientific air quality monitoring and early warning system to evaluate the degree of air pollution objectively, and predict pollutant concentrations accurately. However, the integration of air quality assessment and air pollutant concentration prediction to establish an air quality system is not common...
June 14, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618548/probability-of-noise-and-rate-induced-tipping
#9
Paul Ritchie, Jan Sieber
We propose an approximation for the probability of tipping when the speed of parameter change and additive white noise interact to cause tipping. Our approximation is valid for small to moderate drift speeds and helps to estimate the probability of false positives and false negatives in early-warning indicators in the case of rate- and noise-induced tipping. We illustrate our approximation on a prototypical model for rate-induced tipping with additive noise using Monte Carlo simulations. The formula can be extended to close encounters of rate-induced tipping and is otherwise applicable to other forms of tipping...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612282/probing-of-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-anchoring-on-tnf-alpha-challenged-vascular-endothelia-in-an-in-vitro-model-of-the-retinal-microvascular
#10
Yuan Li, Yao Lu, Qiong Chen, Yuejun Kang, Ling Yu
Retinopathy is a complication of diabetes that affects the eyes; it stems from damage to the microvasculature of the retina and eventually compromises vision. The diagnosis of retinopathy is difficult to make because there are no early symptoms or warning signs. Dysfunction of the retina's microvascular networks is believed to be associated with inflammatory cytokines and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). To investigate the effect of these cytokines, such as TNF-α, a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)/glass hydride microfluidic device reflecting the physiological structure of the retina's microvasculature was developed...
September 2017: Biomedical Microdevices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606078/how-to-select-a-proper-early-warning-threshold-to-detect-infectious-disease-outbreaks-based-on-the-china-infectious-disease-automated-alert-and-response-system-cidars
#11
Ruiping Wang, Yonggen Jiang, Engelgau Michael, Genming Zhao
BACKGROUND: China Centre for Diseases Control and Prevention (CDC) developed the China Infectious Disease Automated Alert and Response System (CIDARS) in 2005. The CIDARS was used to strengthen infectious disease surveillance and aid in the early warning of outbreak. The CIDARS has been integrated into the routine outbreak monitoring efforts of the CDC at all levels in China. Early warning threshold is crucial for outbreak detection in the CIDARS, but CDCs at all level are currently using thresholds recommended by the China CDC, and these recommended thresholds have recognized limitations...
June 12, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602505/proposal-of-5-methoxy-n-methyl-n-isopropyltryptamine-consumption-biomarkers-through-identification-of-in-vivo-metabolites-from-mice
#12
D Fabregat-Safont, M Barneo-Muñoz, F Martinez-Garcia, J V Sancho, F Hernández, M Ibáñez
New psychoactive substances (NPS) are a new breed of synthetically produced substances designed to mimic the effects of traditional illegal drugs. Synthetic cannabinoids and synthetic cathinones are the two most common groups, which try to mimic the effects of the natural compounds (9)Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol and cathinone, respectively. Similarly, synthetic tryptamines are designer compounds which are based on the compounds psilocin, N,N-dimethyltryptamine and 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine found in some mushrooms...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599818/dealing-with-uncertainty-when-using-a-surveillance-system
#13
Gaëtan Texier, Liliane Pellegrin, Claire Vignal, Jean-Baptiste Meynard, Xavier Deparis, Hervé Chaudet
INTRODUCTION: Epidemiologists manage outbreak identification and confirmation by means of a "situation diagnosis", which involves validating (or invalidating) an alarm (signal identified as abnormal) as an alert (a real, characterized outbreak) and proposing the first countermeasures. This work investigates how uncertainty is materialized during this stage, and how experts develop strategies to address this uncertainty with the help of an early warning system. METHODS: We built an experiment using a simulation platform with a scenario involving both a natural and an intentional outbreak...
August 2017: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599813/google-dengue-trends-an-indicator-of-epidemic-behavior-the-venezuelan-case
#14
Ricardo A Strauss, Julio S Castro, Ralf Reintjes, Jaime R Torres
INTRODUCTION: Dengue Fever is a neglected increasing public health thread. Developing countries are facing surveillance system problems like delay and data loss. Lately, the access and the availability of health-related information on the internet have changed what people seek on the web. In 2004 Google developed Google Dengue Trends (GDT) based on the number of search terms related with the disease in a determined time and place. The goal of this review is to evaluate the accuracy of GDT in comparison with traditional surveillance systems in Venezuela...
August 2017: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598430/vegetation-recovery-in-tidal-marshes-reveals-critical-slowing-down-under-increased-inundation
#15
Jim van Belzen, Johan van de Koppel, Matthew L Kirwan, Daphne van der Wal, Peter M J Herman, Vasilis Dakos, Sonia Kéfi, Marten Scheffer, Glenn R Guntenspergen, Tjeerd J Bouma
A declining rate of recovery following disturbance has been proposed as an important early warning for impending tipping points in complex systems. Despite extensive theoretical and laboratory studies, this 'critical slowing down' remains largely untested in the complex settings of real-world ecosystems. Here, we provide both observational and experimental support of critical slowing down along natural stress gradients in tidal marsh ecosystems. Time series of aerial images of European marsh development reveal a consistent lengthening of recovery time as inundation stress increases...
June 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592360/clinical-study-of-a-new-modified-early-warning-system-scoring-system-some-lingering-doubts
#16
Xianshi Zhou, Ye Ye, Guanghua Tang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588951/cholera-in-the-time-of-war-implications-of-weak-surveillance-in-syria-for-the-who-s-preparedness-a-comparison-of-two-monitoring-systems
#17
Annie Sparrow, Khaled Almilaji, Bachir Tajaldin, Nicholas Teodoro, Paul Langton
BACKGROUND: Public health breakdown from the Syrian government's targeting of healthcare systems in politically unsympathetic areas has yielded a resurgence of infectious diseases. Suspected cholera recently reappeared but conflict-related constraints impede laboratory confirmation. Given the government's previous under-reporting of infectious outbreaks and the reliance of the WHO on government reporting, we sought to assess the reliability of current surveillance systems. METHODS: We compared weekly surveillance reports of waterborne diseases from the Syrian government's (WHO-associated) Early Warning and Response System (EWARS), based in Damascus, and the independent, non-governmental Early Warning and Response Network (EWARN) headquartered in Gaziantep, Turkey...
November 2016: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580508/economics-of-early-warning-scores-for-identifying-clinical-deterioration-a-systematic-review
#18
A Murphy, J Cronin, R Whelan, F J Drummond, E Savage, J Hegarty
AIM: In 2013, a National Early Warning System (EWS) was implemented in Ireland. Whilst evidence exists to support the clinical effectiveness of EWS in the acute health care setting, there is a paucity of information on their cost and cost effectiveness. The objective of this systematic literature review was to critically evaluate the economic literature on the use of EWS in adult patients in acute health care settings for the timely detection of physiological deterioration. METHODS: A systematic literature review was conducted to accumulate the economic evidence on the use of EWS in adult patients in acute health care settings...
June 3, 2017: Irish Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575035/effects-of-local-and-regional-climatic-fluctuations-on-dengue-outbreaks-in-southern-taiwan
#19
Ting-Wu Chuang, Luis Fernando Chaves, Po-Jiang Chen
BACKGROUND: Southern Taiwan has been a hotspot for dengue fever transmission since 1998. During 2014 and 2015, Taiwan experienced unprecedented dengue outbreaks and the causes are poorly understood. This study aims to investigate the influence of regional and local climate conditions on the incidence of dengue fever in Taiwan, as well as to develop a climate-based model for future forecasting. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Historical time-series data on dengue outbreaks in southern Taiwan from 1998 to 2015 were investigated...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572680/using-remote-sensing-environmental-data-to-forecast-malaria-incidence-at-a-rural-district-hospital-in-western-kenya
#20
Maquins Odhiambo Sewe, Yesim Tozan, Clas Ahlm, Joacim Rocklöv
Malaria surveillance data provide opportunity to develop forecasting models. Seasonal variability in environmental factors correlate with malaria transmission, thus the identification of transmission patterns is useful in developing prediction models. However, with changing seasonal transmission patterns, either due to interventions or shifting weather seasons, traditional modelling approaches may not yield adequate predictive skill. Two statistical models,a general additive model (GAM) and GAMBOOST model with boosted regression were contrasted by assessing their predictive accuracy in forecasting malaria admissions at lead times of one to three months...
June 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
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