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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194422/pharmacokinetic-properties-of-adenosine-amine-congener-in-cochlear-perilymph-after-systemic-administration
#1
Hao Chang, Ravindra S Telang, Sreevalsan Sreebhavan, Malcolm Tingle, Peter R Thorne, Srdjan M Vlajkovic
Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a global health problem affecting over 5% of the population worldwide. We have shown previously that acute noise-induced cochlear injury can be ameliorated by administration of drugs acting on adenosine receptors in the inner ear, and a selective A1 adenosine receptor agonist adenosine amine congener (ADAC) has emerged as a potentially effective treatment for cochlear injury and resulting hearing loss. This study investigated pharmacokinetic properties of ADAC in rat perilymph after systemic (intravenous) administration using a newly developed liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry detection method...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188328/neurons-in-the-pontomedullary-reticular-formation-receive-converging-inputs-from-the-hindlimb-and-labyrinth
#2
Derek M Miller, William M DeMayo, George H Bourdages, Samuel R Wittman, Bill J Yates, Andrew A McCall
The integration of inputs from vestibular and proprioceptive sensors within the central nervous system is critical to postural regulation. We recently demonstrated in both decerebrate and conscious cats that labyrinthine and hindlimb inputs converge onto vestibular nucleus neurons. The pontomedullary reticular formation (pmRF) also plays a key role in postural control, and additionally participates in regulating locomotion. Thus, we hypothesized that like vestibular nucleus neurons, pmRF neurons integrate inputs from the limb and labyrinth...
February 10, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177062/critical-neuropsychobiological-analysis-of-panic-attack-and-anticipatory-anxiety-like-behaviors-in-rodents-confronted-with-snakes-in-polygonal-arenas-and-complex-labyrinths-a-comparison-to-the-elevated-plus-and-t-maze-behavioral-tests
#3
Norberto C Coimbra, Tatiana Paschoalin-Maurin, Gabriel S Bassi, Alexandre Kanashiro, Audrey F Biagioni, Tatiana T Felippotti, Daoud H Elias-Filho, Joyce Mendes-Gomes, Jade P Cysne-Coimbra, Rafael C Almada, Bruno Lobão-Soares
Objective: To compare prey and snake paradigms performed in complex environments to the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and T-maze (ETM) tests for the study of panic attack- and anticipatory anxiety-like behaviors in rodents. Methods: PubMed was reviewed in search of articles focusing on the plus maze test, EPM, and ETM, as well as on defensive behaviors displayed by threatened rodents. In addition, the authors' research with polygonal arenas and complex labyrinth (designed by the first author for confrontation between snakes and small rodents) was examined...
February 6, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165178/experience-of-providing-cultural-safety-in-mental-health-to-aboriginal-patients-a-grounded-theory-study
#4
Shirley McGough, Dianne Wynaden, Michael Wright
The need for mental health clinicians to practice cultural safety is vital in ensuring meaningful care and in moving towards improving the mental health outcomes for Aboriginal people. The concept of cultural safety is particularly relevant to mental health professionals as it seeks to promote cultural integrity and the promotion of social justice, equity and respect. A substantive theory that explained the experience of providing cultural safety in mental health care to Aboriginal patients was developed using grounded theory methodology...
February 6, 2017: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28136130/integrin-%C3%AE-8-is-abundant-in-human-rat-and-mouse-trophoblasts
#5
Sebastian Herdl, Hanna Huebner, Gudrun Volkert, Ines Marek, Carlos Menendez-Castro, Stephanie C Noegel, Matthias Ruebner, Wolfgang Rascher, Andrea Hartner, Fabian B Fahlbusch
OBJECTIVE: Integrins exert regulatory functions in placentogenesis. Null mutation of certain integrin α subunits leads to placental defects with subsequent fetal growth restriction or embryonic lethality in mice. So far, the placental role of α8 integrin remains to be determined. METHODS: Localization of α8 integrin and its ligands, fibronectin (FN) and osteopontin (OPN), was studied by immunohistochemistry in human, rat, and mouse placenta. The vascularization of the placental labyrinth layer of α8 integrin-deficient mice was determined by CD31 staining...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135158/tikkun-a-journey-through-a-labyrinth-of-narrow-spaces-and-darkness
#6
Merle Molofsky
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Psychoanalytic Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111885/severe-damage-to-the-placental-fetal-capillary-network-causes-mid-to-late-fetal-lethality-and-reduction-in-placental-size-in-peg11-rtl1-ko-mice
#7
Moe Kitazawa, Masaru Tamura, Tomoko Kaneko-Ishino, Fumitoshi Ishino
Paternally expressed 11/Retrotransposon-like 1 (Peg11/Rtl1) knockout (KO) mice show mid- to late fetal lethality or late fetal growth retardation associated with frequent neonatal lethality. The lethal phenotype is largely dependent on genetic background and becomes more severe with each succeeding generation in the course of backcross experiments to C57BL/6 (B6). We previously suggested that these lethal and growth phenotypes in the fetal stages were due to severe defects in placental fetal capillaries in the labyrinth layer...
January 23, 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087417/culture-media-based-selection-of-endothelial-cells-pericytes-and-perivascular-resident-macrophage-like-melanocytes-from-the-young-mouse-vestibular-system
#8
Jinhui Zhang, Songlin Chen, Jing Cai, Zhiqiang Hou, Xiaohan Wang, Allan Kachelmeier, Xiaorui Shi
The vestibular blood-labyrinth barrier (BLB) is comprised of perivascular-resident macrophage-like melanocytes (PVM/Ms) and pericytes (PCs), in addition to endothelial cells (ECs) and basement membrane (BM), and bears strong resemblance to the cochlear BLB in the stria vascularis. Over the past few decades, in vitro cell-based models have been widely used in blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-retina barrier (BRB) research, and have proved to be powerful tools for studying cell-cell interactions in their respective organs...
January 11, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081216/real-time-monitoring-of-placental-oxygenation-during-maternal-hypoxia-and-hyperoxygenation-using-photoacoustic-imaging
#9
Chloé J Arthuis, Anthony Novell, Florian Raes, Jean-Michel Escoffre, Stéphanie Lerondel, Alain Le Pape, Ayache Bouakaz, Franck Perrotin
PURPOSE: This preclinical study aimed to evaluate placental oxygenation in pregnant rats by real-time photoacoustic (PA) imaging on different days of gestation and to specify variations in placental oxygen saturation under conditions of maternal hypoxia and hyperoxygenation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Placentas of fifteen Sprague-Dawley rats were examined on days 14, 17, and 20 of pregnancy with a PA imaging system coupled to high-resolution ultrasound imaging. Pregnant rats were successively exposed to hyperoxygenated and hypoxic conditions by changing the oxygen concentration in inhaled gas...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074268/cognitive-deficits-in-patients-with-a-chronic-vestibular-failure
#10
Pauline Popp, Melanie Wulff, Kathrin Finke, Maxine Rühl, Thomas Brandt, Marianne Dieterich
Behavioral studies in rodents and humans have demonstrated deficits of spatial memory and orientation in bilateral vestibular failure (BVF). Our aim was to explore the functional consequences of chronic vestibular failure on different cognitive domains including spatial as well as non-spatial cognitive abilities. Sixteen patients with a unilateral vestibular failure (UVF), 18 patients with a BVF, and 17 healthy controls (HC) participated in the study. To assess the cognitive domains of short-term memory, executive function, processing speed and visuospatial abilities the following tests were used: Theory of Visual Attention (TVA), TAP Alertness and Visual Scanning, the Stroop Color-Word, and the Corsi Block Tapping Test...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072927/artificial-induction-of-native-aquaporin-1-expression-in-human-salivary-cells
#11
Z Wang, S Pradhan-Bhatt, M C Farach-Carson, M J Passineau
Gene therapy for dry mouth disorders has transitioned in recent years from theoretical to clinical proof of principle with the publication of a first-in-man phase I/II dose escalation clinical trial in patients with radiation-induced xerostomia. This trial used a prototype adenoviral vector to express aquaporin-1 (AQP1), presumably in the ductal cell layer and/or in surviving acinar cells, to drive transcellular flux of interstitial fluid into the labyrinth of the salivary duct. As the development of this promising gene therapy continues, safety considerations are a high priority, particularly those that remove nonhuman agents (i...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068300/early-postoperative-imaging-of-the-labyrinth-by-cone-beam-ct-after-stapes-surgery-for-otosclerosis-with-correlation-to-audiovestibular-outcome
#12
Aurélie Vandevoorde, Marc T Williams, Elsa Ukkola-Pons, Mary Daval, Denis Ayache
BACKGROUND: Sensorineural complications of stapes surgery are rare but potentially serious. Imaging is usually performed to identify an underlying cause, such as excessive intravestibular penetration of the prosthesis or pneumolabyrinth suggesting perilymphatic fistula. Unfortunately, there is very little data in an unselected series of uneventful patients.The aim of this study was to analyze the depth of prosthesis penetration within the vestibule and the rate of pneumolabyrinth the day or the day after the procedure by performing a cone beam computed tomography of the temporal bone in a cohort of unselected patients, and to correlate imaging findings to clinical outcome...
February 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052054/a-symmoriiform-chondrichthyan-braincase-and-the-origin-of-chimaeroid-fishes
#13
Michael I Coates, Robert W Gess, John A Finarelli, Katharine E Criswell, Kristen Tietjen
Chimaeroid fishes (Holocephali) are one of the four principal divisions of modern gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates). Despite only 47 described living species, chimaeroids are the focus of resurgent interest as potential archives of genomic data and for the unique perspective they provide on chondrichthyan and gnathostome ancestral conditions. Chimaeroids are also noteworthy for their highly derived body plan. However, like other living groups with distinctive anatomies, fossils have been of limited use in unravelling their evolutionary origin, as the earliest recognized examples already exhibit many of the specializations present in modern forms...
January 4, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046002/competition-for-materno-fetal-resource-partitioning-in-a-rabbit-model-of-undernourished-pregnancy
#14
Jorge Lopez-Tello, Maria Arias-Alvarez, Maria Angeles Jimenez-Martinez, Rosa Maria Garcia-Garcia, Maria Rodriguez, Pedro Luis Lorenzo Gonzalez, Ruben Bermejo-Poza, Antonio Gonzalez-Bulnes, Pilar Garcia Rebollar
The major goal of animal production is to obtain abundant and healthy meat for consumers. Maternal food restriction (MFR) is often applied in farms to reduce production costs. However, the suitability of MFR in livestock animals is questionable, as this management may compromise maternal fitness due to a severe negative energetic balance and can induce Intrauterine Growth Restriction (IUGR) and prenatal programming in the offspring. Here, we sought to determine, using pregnant rabbits, the consequences of MFR on maternal endocrine and metabolic status and conceptus development...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043617/bedaquiline-in-the-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-treatment-belarus-experience
#15
Alena Skrahina, Hennadz Hurevich, Dennis Falzon, Liudmila Zhilevich, Valiantsin Rusovich, Masoud Dara, Svetlana Setkina
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Outcomes of treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) remain poor worldwide. Among patients with MDR-TB in Belarus who started treatment in 2012, only 54% completed it successfully, with treatment failure reported in 22% of the patients; additionally, 11% died and 13% were lost to follow-up or remained unevaluated. In Belarus, to improve outcomes, bedaquiline was introduced in MDR-TB treatment in June 2015. The national TB program developed measures to monitor safety and effectiveness of bedaquiline-containing regimens in line with the World Health Organization recommendations...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034444/improvement-in-imaging-common-temporal-bone-pathologies-at-3-t-mri-small-structures-benefit-from-a-small-field-of-view
#16
M Schulze, K Reimann, A Seeger, U Klose, U Ernemann, T K Hauser
AIM: To compare image quality and evaluate its clinical importance in common temporal bone pathologies of a pTX-SPACE (parallel transmit [pTX] three-dimensional turbo spin-echo with variable flip angle [SPACE]) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequence improved for spatial resolution to a standard-SPACE sequence exhibiting the same scan time at 3 T. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-four patients were examined using a standard-SPACE and resolution improved pTX-SPACE sequence at 3 T MRI...
March 2017: Clinical Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981350/the-role-of-bone-resorption-in-the-etiopathogenesis-of-acquired-middle-ear-cholesteatoma
#17
REVIEW
Shumin Xie, Xiaoli Wang, Jihao Ren, Wei Liu
Cholesteatoma is a destructive squamous epithelial lesion of the temporal bone which gradually expands and leads to serious complications by destruction of nearby bony structures. Erosion caused by bone resorption of the ossicular chain and bony labyrinth may result in hearing loss, vestibular dysfunction, facial paralysis, labyrinthine fistulae and intracranial complications. The exact underlying cellular and molecular mechanism of bone resorption in acquired cholesteatoma still remains unexplained. Pubmed database and China National Knowledge Infrastructure were screened for articles focusing on bone resorption in acquired cholesteatoma...
December 16, 2016: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977131/the-striosome-and-matrix-compartments-of-the-striatum-a-path-through-the-labyrinth-from-neurochemistry-toward-function
#18
Katherine R Brimblecombe, Stephanie J Cragg
The striatum is a heterogeneous structure with a diverse range of neuron types and neuromodulators. Three decades of anatomical and biochemical studies have established that the neurochemical organization of striatum is not uniformly heterogeneous, but rather, can be differentiated into neurochemically discrete compartments known as striosomes (also known as patches) and matrix. These compartments are well understood to differ in their expression of neurochemical markers, with some differences in afferent and efferent connectivity and have also been suggested to have different involvement in a range of neurological diseases...
December 15, 2016: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965054/arid3a-is-required-for-mammalian-placenta-development
#19
Catherine Rhee, Melissa Edwards, Christine Dang, June Harris, Mark Brown, Jonghwan Kim, Haley O Tucker
Previous studies in the mouse indicated that ARID3A plays a critical role in the first cell fate decision required for generation of trophectoderm (TE). Here, we demonstrate that ARID3A is widely expressed during mouse and human placentation and essential for early embryonic viability. ARID3A localizes to trophoblast giant cells and other trophoblast-derived cell subtypes in the junctional and labyrinth zones of the placenta. Conventional Arid3a knockout embryos suffer restricted intrauterine growth with severe defects in placental structural organization...
February 15, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956250/maternal-di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate-exposure-during-pregnancy-causes-fetal-growth-restriction-in-a-stage-specific-but-gender-independent-manner
#20
Ru Shen, Ling-Li Zhao, Zhen Yu, Cheng Zhang, Yuan-Hua Chen, Hua Wang, Zhi-Hui Zhang, De-Xiang Xu
Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is male developmental toxicant that impairs testis development with reduced anogenital distance. The present study aimed to investigate whether maternal DEHP exposure during pregnancy causes intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) in a gender-specific manner and to identify the critical window of DEHP-induced fetal IUGR. Pregnant mice were administered with DEHP (0, 50 or 200mg/kg) by gavage. Fetal IUGR was observed not only in males but also in females when litters were exposed to DEHP on gestational day (GD)0-GD17...
December 9, 2016: Reproductive Toxicology
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