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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924705/long-term-air-pollution-and-traffic-noise-exposures-and-cognitive-function-a-cross-sectional-analysis-of-the-heinz-nixdorf-recall-study
#1
Lilian Tzivian, Martha Dlugaj, Angela Winkler, Frauke Hennig, Kateryna Fuks, Dorothee Sugiri, Tamara Schikowski, Hermann Jakobs, Raimund Erbel, Karl-Heinz Jöckel, Susanne Moebus, Barbara Hoffmann, Christian Weimar
Investigations of adverse effects of air pollution (AP) and ambient noise on cognitive functions are apparently scarce, and findings seem to be inconsistent. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of long-term exposure to AP and traffic noise with cognitive performance. At the second examination of the population-based Heinz Nixdorf Recall study (2006-2008), cognitive performance was evaluated in 4086 participants. Long-term residential exposure to size-specific particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) with land use regression, to and traffic noise (weighted 24-h (LDEN) and nighttime (LNIGHT) means), was assessed according to the European Union (EU) Directive 2002/49/EC...
2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919803/germ-cell-proliferation-and-cluster-behavior-in-ovarioles-of-sialis-flavilatera-megaloptera-sialidae-during-larval-growth
#2
Ralph Rübsam, Jürgen Büning
Telotrophic meroistic insect ovaries are assigned to four different types. The Sialis type is found in Sialidae (Megaloptera), Raphidioptera and a coleopteran subgroup (Myxophaga: Hydroscaphidae). King and Büning (1985) proposed a hypothetical model for the development of this ovariole type, a detailed description of ovarian development in Sialis was missing so far. Using light and electron microscopy, we investigated developing ovaries of Sialis flavilatera starting in the 10(th) month of the biennial larval phase until adulthood...
December 2, 2016: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892860/microvascular-lesions-and-changes-in-cell-proliferation-and-death-and-cytokine-expression-in-the-placentas-of-mice-experimentally-infected-with-equid-herpesvirus-1
#3
C N Zanuzzi, M E Bravi, M R Scrochi, F Nishida, N A Fuentealba, M E Diessler, H G Sguazza, C I Muglia, E J Gimeno, E L Portiansky, C G Barbeito, C M Galosi
This study describes the changes observed in the placentas of mice experimentally infected with an abortigenic strain of EHV-1 at mid-pregnancy and euthanized at days 3 and 4 post-infection. We analyzed microscopic vascular alterations, cell proliferation and death by immunohistochemistry, and the expression of IFN-γ, TNF-α and the IL-10 by qPCR and flow cytometry. Infected mice showed slight respiratory signs and ruffled fur during the first two days post-infection. Virus isolation and DNA detection were positive only in the lungs of the infected mice...
September 14, 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889918/inner-ear-labyrinth-anatomy-of-monotremes-and-implications-for-mammalian-inner-ear-evolution
#4
Julia A Schultz, Ulrich Zeller, Zhe-Xi Luo
The monophyletic clade Monotremata branches early from the rest of the mammalian crown group in the Jurassic and members of this clade retain many ancestral mammalian traits. Thus, accurate and detailed anatomical descriptions of this group can offer unique insight into the early evolutionary history of Mammalia. In this study, we examine the inner ear anatomy of two extant monotremes, Ornithorhynchus anatinus and Tachyglossus aculeatus, with the primary goals of elucidating the ancestral mammalian ear morphology and resolving inconsistencies found within previous descriptive literature...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881797/deterioration-of-vestibular-cells-in-labyrinthitis
#5
Serdar Kaya, Patricia A Schachern, Vladimir Tsuprun, Michael M Paparella, Sebahattin Cureoglu
OBJECTIVE: To quantitatively assess the effect of serous labyrinthitis, suppurative labyrinthitis, and labyrinthitis ossificans on vestibular hair cells, dark cells, and transitional cells. METHODS: We examined human temporal bone specimens with serous labyrinthitis, suppurative labyrinthitis, and labyrinthitis ossificans, then compared them with age-matched control groups without labyrinthitis. We evaluated the density of type I and II vestibular hair cells, dark cells, and transitional cells in the peripheral sensorial organs...
November 22, 2016: Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878818/virtual-reconstruction-of-the-skeletal-labyrinth-of-two-lamnid-sharks-elasmobranchii-lamniformes
#6
L Schnetz, J Kriwet, C Pfaff
The first virtual reconstruction of the skeletal labyrinth of the porbeagle shark Lamna nasus and the shortfin mako shark Isurus oxyrinchus is presented here using high-resolution micro-computed tomography. The results, in comparison with previously published information, suggest relationships between skeletal labyrinth morphology and locomotion mode in chondrichthyans, but also show that further studies are required to establish such connections. Nevertheless, this study adds to the knowledge of the skeletal labyrinth morphology in two apex elasmobranch species...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873426/developing-a-pragmatic-medical-curriculum-for-the-21st-century
#7
Nicholas R Evans, Ben Warne, Diana F Wood
Medical education within a hospital setting presents both opportunities and challenges. The range of educational experiences on offer is often vast, though may be lost in the overworked and convoluted environment of a tertiary centre. As our learners are increasingly consumed by the literal and figurative labyrinths of hospitals and electronic learning logs, are we failing to train them in the skills they need to deliver 21st century health care? In response to this problem we propose a FARCICAL approach: Fostering A Relevant Curriculum that Is Closer to Actual Life...
December 2016: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872606/an-exploratory-study-to-detect-m%C3%A3-ni%C3%A3-re-s-disease-in-conventional-mri-scans-using-radiomics
#8
E L van den Burg, M van Hoof, A A Postma, A M L Janssen, R J Stokroos, H Kingma, R van de Berg
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this exploratory study was to investigate whether a quantitative image analysis of the labyrinth in conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans using a radiomics approach showed differences between patients with Ménière's disease (MD) and the control group. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective study, MRI scans of the affected labyrinths of 24 patients with MD were compared to the MRI scans of labyrinths of 29 patients with an idiopathic asymmetrical sensorineural hearing loss...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871459/morphology-histochemistry-and-glycosylation-of-the-placenta-and-associated-tissues-in-the-european-hedgehog-erinaceus-europaeus
#9
Carolyn J P Jones, A M Carter, W R Allen, Sandra A Wilsher
INTRODUCTION: There are few descriptions of the placenta and associated tissues of the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) and here we present findings on a near-term pregnant specimen. METHODS: Tissues were examined grossly and then formalin fixed and wax-embedded for histology and immunocytochemistry (cytokeratin) and resin embedded for lectin histochemistry. RESULTS: Each of four well-developed and near term hoglets displayed a discoid, haemochorial placenta with typical labyrinth and spongy zones...
December 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866146/hearing-preservation-after-penetrating-cochlear-injury
#10
George S Tarasidis, Richard H Wiggins, Richard K Gurgel
OBJECTIVES: To share results and recommendations for management of penetrating cochlear injury. METHODS: A patient underwent repair of a penetrating cochlear injury after a projectile led to a traumatic cochleostomy with a narrow miss of the facial nerve and intracranial carotid artery. RESULTS: Postoperatively, the patient's audiogram demonstrated a pure tone average of 47.5 dB for air conduction and 35 dB for bone conduction, worse in the high frequencies, with a Word Recognition Score of 76%...
November 19, 2016: Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861194/cochlear-implantation-in-m%C3%A3-ni%C3%A3-re-s-disease-with-and-without-labyrinthectomy
#11
Payal Mukherjee, Kate Eykamp, Daniel Brown, Ian Curthoys, Sean Flanagan, Nigel Biggs, Celene McNeill, William Gibson
OBJECTIVE: To investigate outcomes of cochlear implantation (CI) in patients with Ménière's disease (MD) with and without surgical labyrinthectomy. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Multiple tertiary referral centers. SUBJECTS: Thirty one ears from 27 patients (17 men, 10 women, aged 42-84) with CI in ipsilateral MD ear. INTERVENTION: CI in ears with intact labyrinths (Group 1), CI with simultaneous surgical labyrinthectomy (Group 2), and CI sequential to surgical labyrinthectomy (Group 3)...
November 16, 2016: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859764/differential-expression-and-activity-of-matrix-metalloproteinases-2-and-9-in-canine-early-placenta
#12
M Diessler, M Ventureira, R Hernandez, C Sobarzo, L Casas, C Barbeito, E Cebral
The zonary and endotheliochorial dog placenta is the most invasive placenta of carnivores. The importance of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) in placenta invasiveness has been determined in several mammals including species with haemochorial, epitheliochorial and endotheliochorial placentation. Regarding the latter, the expression of MMP enzymes has been studied in the cat and the mature canine placenta. The aim of this study was to analyse the expression and activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in the early dog placenta...
November 11, 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859593/placental-specific-overexpression-of-sflt-1-alters-trophoblast-differentiation-and-nutrient-transporter-expression-in-an-iugr-mouse-model
#13
E Kühnel, V Kleff, V Stojanovska, S Kaiser, R Waldschütz, F Herse, T Plösch, E Winterhager, A Gellhaus
Since it is known that placental overexpression of the human anti-angiogenic molecule sFlt-1, the main candidate in the progression of preeclampsia, lead to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) in mice by lentiviral transduction of mouse blastocysts, we hypothesize that sFlt-1 influence placental morphology and physiology resulting in fetal IUGR. We therefore examined the effect of sFlt-1 on placental morphology and physiology at embryonic day 18.5 with histologic and morphometric analyses, transcript analyses, immunoblotting, and methylation studies...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851656/does-otosclerosis-affect-dark-and-transitional-cells-in-the-human-vestibular-labyrinth
#14
Serdar Kaya, Michael M Paparella, Sebahattin Cureoglu
HYPOTHESIS: The density of vestibular dark cells (DCs) and vestibular transitional cells (TCs) can be quantitatively decreased in human temporal bones with otosclerosis. BACKGROUND: Previous reports have shown that otosclerosis can lead to vestibular symptoms. METHODS: We examined 61 human temporal bone specimens from 52 deceased donors with otosclerosis group-with and without endosteal involvement (EI), and with and without endolymphatic hydrops (EH)-versus 25 specimens from 18 age-matched controls...
November 15, 2016: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849305/treatment-of-chronic-atrial-fibrillation-during-surgery-for-rheumatic-mitral-valve-disease
#15
Flavio Donizete Gonçalves, Valdir Gonçalves Leite, Vanusa Gonçalves Leite, Marcelo Alves Maia, Otoni Moreira Gomes, Melchior Luiz Lima, Evandro César Vidal Osterne, Elias Kallás
Introduction: The result of surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation remains controversial, although prospective and randomized studies have shown significant differences in the return to sinus rhythm in patients treated with ablation versus control group. Surgery of the Labyrinth, proposed by Cox and colleagues, is complex and increases the morbidity rate. Therefore, studies are needed to confirm the impact on clinical outcomes and quality of life of these patients. Objective: To analyze the results obtained in the treatment of atrial fibrillation by surgical approach, by Gomes procedure, for mitral valve surgery in patients with rheumatic heart disease associated with chronic atrial fibrillation...
July 2016: Brazilian Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844138/-seeking-ariadne-s-thread-in-the-labyrinth-of-guidelines
#16
EDITORIAL
R Dörr, B Maisch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Herz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836639/insights-into-inner-ear-specific-gene-regulation-epigenetics-and-non-coding-rnas-in-inner-ear-development-and-regeneration
#17
REVIEW
Angelika Doetzlhofer, Karen B Avraham
The vertebrate inner ear houses highly specialized sensory organs, tuned to detect and encode sound, head motion and gravity. Gene expression programs under the control of transcription factors orchestrate the formation and specialization of the non-sensory inner ear labyrinth and its sensory constituents. More recently, epigenetic factors and non-coding RNAs emerged as an additional layer of gene regulation, both in inner ear development and disease. In this review, we provide an overview on how epigenetic modifications and non-coding RNAs, in particular microRNAs (miRNAs), influence gene expression and summarize recent discoveries that highlight their critical role in the proper formation of the inner ear labyrinth and its sensory organs...
November 9, 2016: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826119/the-plant-in-the-labyrinth-adaptive-growth-and-branching-in-heterogeneous-environments
#18
Beáta Oborny, Veronika Benedek, Péter Englert, Máté Gulyás, András G Hubai
The "ant in the labyrinth" problem describes spatial constraints upon a moving agent in a disordered medium. In contrast with an animal-like agent (an "ant"), a clonal plant can stay in a place and move at the same time: some parts develop roots, while others continue moving by horizontal growth and branching. Hereby we present a spatially explicit, dynamic model for the study of percolation by plant growth rules in lattices that consist of open and closed sites. Growth always starts from a single seed in an open percolation cluster (patch)...
November 5, 2016: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821915/histopathological-localization-of-cadmium-in-rat-placenta-by-la-icp-ms-analysis
#19
Yoshikazu Yamagishi, Satoshi Furukawa, Ayano Tanaka, Yoshiyuki Kobayashi, Akihiko Sugiyama
In order to clarify the histological localization of cadmium (Cd) in the placenta, we analyzed paraffin sections of placentas from rats with a single Cd exposure on gestation day 18 by the LA-ICP-MS imaging method compared with the histopathological changes. The placentas were sampled at 1 hour, 2 hours, 3 hours, 6 hours, and 24 hours after treatment. Histopathologically, the trophoblasts in the labyrinth zone of the Cd group showed swelling at 1 hour. At 2 and 3 hours, the trophoblasts showed swelling and vacuolar degeneration...
October 2016: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821667/obeticholic-acid-protects-against-lipopolysaccharide-induced-fetal-death-and-intrauterine-growth-restriction-through-its-anti-inflammatory-activity
#20
Yuan-Hua Chen, Xiao-Guang Hu, Yan Zhou, Zhen Yu, Lin Fu, Gui-Bin Zhang, Qing-Li Bo, Hua Wang, Cheng Zhang, De-Xiang Xu
Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is expressed in human and rodent placentas. Nevertheless, its function remains obscure. This study investigated the effects of obeticholic acid (OCA), a novel synthetic FXR agonist, on LPS-induced fetal death and intrauterine growth restriction. All pregnant mice except controls were i.p. injected with LPS (100 μg/kg) daily from gestational day (GD) 15 to GD17. Some pregnant mice were orally administered with OCA (5 mg/kg) daily from GD13 to GD17. As expected, placental FXR signaling was activated by OCA...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
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