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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425611/a-simple-assessment-tool-for-evaluation-of-cadaveric-temporal-bone-dissection
#1
Sarah E Mowry, Erika Woodson, Samuel Gubbels, Matt Carfrae, Marlan R Hansen
EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVE: Objective metrics in skilled-based educational courses allow trainees and instructors to assess performance and monitor progress. The objective is to validate a concise, easy-to-use instrument for assessment of resident skill during a timed cadaveric temporal-bone (CTB) dissection. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective analysis. METHODS: An instrument was developed to assess resident performance on a yearly timed microdissection of CTB...
April 20, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424657/magnetic-vestibular-stimulation-mvs-as-a-technique-for-understanding-the-normal-and-diseased-labyrinth
#2
REVIEW
Bryan K Ward, Jorge Otero-Millan, Prem Jareonsettasin, Michael C Schubert, Dale C Roberts, David S Zee
Humans often experience dizziness and vertigo around strong static magnetic fields such as those present in an MRI scanner. Recent evidence supports the idea that this effect is the result of inner ear vestibular stimulation and that the mechanism is a magnetohydrodynamic force (Lorentz force) that is generated by the interactions between normal ionic currents in the inner ear endolymph and the strong static magnetic field of MRI machines. While in the MRI, the Lorentz force displaces the cupula of the lateral and anterior semicircular canals, as if the head was rotating with a constant acceleration...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417110/kawasaki-disease-and-labyrinthitis-an-underdiagnosed-complication
#3
Kyu Yeun Kim, Ki Hwan Kim, Yoon Ah Park, Young Joon Seo
Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) that is seldom cited as a Kawasaki disease (KD) complication is known as an additional, potentially severe, and frequently irreversible sequel. Furthermore the vestibular functions of KD have been underestimated and it could be an important complication combined with SNHL in KD. We described a case that a 4 year-old boy who developed vestibular loss with SNHL has recovered successfully with a combined treatment.
April 2017: Journal of Audiology & Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414277/waardenburg-syndrome-an-unusual-indication-of-cochlear-implantation-experienced-in-11-patients
#4
Feda Bayrak, Tolgahan Çatlı, Görkem Atsal, Taşkın Tokat, Levent Olgun
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to present the surgical findings of children with Waardenburg syndrome (WS) and investigate speech development after cochlear implantation in this unique group of patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective chart review of the patients diagnosed with WS and implanted between 1998 and 2015 was performed. Categories of auditory performance (CAP) test were used to assess the auditory skills of these patients. CAP is a nonlinear hierarchical scale used to rate a child's developing auditory abilities...
April 17, 2017: Journal of International Advanced Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413721/aspects-of-gorgonopsian-paleobiology-and-evolution-insights-from-the-basicranium-occiput-osseous-labyrinth-vasculature-and-neuroanatomy
#5
Ricardo Araújo, Vincent Fernandez, Michael J Polcyn, Jörg Fröbisch, Rui M S Martins
Synapsida, the clade including therapsids and thus also mammals, is one of the two major branches of amniotes. Organismal design, with modularity as a concept, offers insights into the evolution of therapsids, a group that experienced profound anatomical transformations throughout the past 270 Ma, eventually leading to the evolution of the mammalian bauplan. However, the anatomy of some therapsid groups remains obscure. Gorgonopsian braincase anatomy is poorly known and many anatomical aspects of the brain, cranial nerves, vasculature, and osseous labyrinth, remain unclear...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408764/fossil-climbing-perch-and-associated-plant-megafossils-indicate-a-warm-and-wet-central-tibet-during-the-late-oligocene
#6
Feixiang Wu, Desui Miao, Mee-Mann Chang, Gongle Shi, Ning Wang
Understanding the Tibetan Plateau's palaeogeography and palaeoenvironment is critical for reconstructing Asia's climatic history; however, aspects of the plateau's uplift history remain unclear. Here, we report a fossil biota that sheds new light on these issues. It comprises a fossil climbing perch (Anabantidae) and a diverse subtropical fossil flora from the Chattian (late Oligocene) of central Tibet. The fish, Eoanabas thibetana gen. et sp. nov., is inferred to be closely related to extant climbing perches from tropical lowlands in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa...
April 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402512/defective-trophoblast-invasion-underlies-fetal-growth-restriction-and-pre-eclampsia-like-symptoms-in-the-stroke-prone-spontaneously-hypertensive-rat
#7
G Barrientos, M Pussetto, M Rose, A C Staff, S M Blois, J E Toblli
STUDY QUESTION: What is the impact of chronic hypertension on placental development, fetal growth and maternal outcome in the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHRSP)? SUMMARY ANSWER: SHRSP showed an impaired remodeling of the spiral arteries and abnormal pattern of trophoblast invasion during placentation, which were associated with subsequent maternal glomerular injury and increased baseline hypertension as well as placental insufficiency and asymmetric fetal growth restriction...
April 11, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390093/understanding-the-role-of-the-gut-ecosystem-in-diabetes-mellitus
#8
REVIEW
Wanping Aw, Shinji Fukuda
Diabetes mellitus is a type of metabolic disorder patients are unable to regulate glycemia. It is currently worldwide public health issue and is a burden to society due to its disabling and common complications. Diabetes is multi-factorial and also induces the onset of other diseases. In this report, we will review the labyrinth encompassing the gut microbiota and gut microbiota derived metabolites on type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes pathogenesis. There has been exceptional improvements in Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequencing and mass spectrometry technologies throughout these years and this has allowed the comprehensive collection of information on our unique gut ecosystem...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386500/diagnostic-bedside-vestibuloocular-reflex-evaluation-in-the-setting-of-a-false-negative-fistula-test-in-cholesteatoma-of-the-middle-ear
#9
Ricardo D'Albora, Ligia Silveira, Sergio Carmona, Nicolas Perez-Fernandez
Background. False negative fistula testing in patients with chronic suppurative otitis media is a dilemma when proceeding to surgery. It is imperative to rule out a dead labyrinth or a mass effect secondary to the cholesteatoma in an otherwise normally functioning inner ear. We present a case series of three patients in whom a bedside vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) evaluation using a head impulse test was used successfully for further evaluation prior to surgery. Results. In all three cases with a false negative fistula test we were able to further evaluate at the bedside and were not only able to register the abnormal VOR but also localize its deterioration to a particular semicircular canal eroded by the fistula...
2017: Case Reports in Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386414/a-morphometric-analysis-of-vegetation-patterns-in-dryland-ecosystems
#10
Luke Mander, Stefan C Dekker, Mao Li, Washington Mio, Surangi W Punyasena, Timothy M Lenton
Vegetation in dryland ecosystems often forms remarkable spatial patterns. These range from regular bands of vegetation alternating with bare ground, to vegetated spots and labyrinths, to regular gaps of bare ground within an otherwise continuous expanse of vegetation. It has been suggested that spotted vegetation patterns could indicate that collapse into a bare ground state is imminent, and the morphology of spatial vegetation patterns, therefore, represents a potentially valuable source of information on the proximity of regime shifts in dryland ecosystems...
February 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384958/application-of-curved-mpr-algorithm-to-high-resolution-3-dimensional-t2-weighted-ciss-images-for-virtual-uncoiling-of-membranous-cochlea-as-an-aid-for-cochlear-morphometry
#11
Joish Upendra Kumar, Y Kavitha
INTRODUCTION: With the use of various surgical techniques, types of implants, the preoperative assessment of cochlear dimensions is becoming increasingly relevant prior to cochlear implantation. High resolution CISS protocol MRI gives a better assessment of membranous cochlea, cochlear nerve, and membranous labyrinth. Curved Multiplanar Reconstruction (MPR) algorithm provides better images that can be used for measuring dimensions of membranous cochlea. AIM: To ascertain the value of curved multiplanar reconstruction algorithm in high resolution 3-Dimensional T2 Weighted Gradient Echo Constructive Interference Steady State (3D T2W GRE CISS) imaging for accurate morphometry of membranous cochlea...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375248/migration-of-silver-on-the-nanoporous-glasses-surface-under-the-action-of-an-electric-field
#12
A S Pshenova, D A Klyukin, A V Nashchekin, A I Sidorov
Experimentally, the formation of micro- and nano-labyrinths in grained silver film on the surface of nanoporous glass was shown. The movement of silver ions from the bulk of the nanoporous glass towards the glass surface gradually occurs under direct current application. A similar effect was observed under direct electron irradiation of grained silver film. The proposed mechanism assumes that observed effects are caused by the formation of "hot spots" with a strong electric field, by ionic field emission of positive silver ions from the small charged nanoparticles and by trapping these ions by large nanoparticles...
April 1, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369636/maternal-fenvalerate-exposure-induces-fetal-intrauterine-growth-restriction-through-disrupting-placental-thyroid-hormone-receptor-signaling
#13
Bo Wang, Ji-Jie Liu, Yan Wang, Lin Fu, Ru Shen, Zhen Yu, Hua Wang, Yuan-Hua Chen, Cheng Zhang, Xiu-Hong Meng, De-Xiang Xu
Fenvalerate is an environmental endocrine disruptor that disrupts testosterone and estradiol synthesis. Nevertheless, whether fenvalerate disturbs placental TR signaling remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate whether maternal fenvalerate exposure causes fetal intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and to explore the role of placental thyroid hormone receptor (TR) signaling. Pregnant mice except controls were orally administered to fenvalerate (0.2, 2.0 or 20 mg/kg) daily throughout pregnancy...
March 23, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351841/maternofetal-transport-of-vitamin-b12-role-of-tcblr-cd320-and-megalin
#14
Kaveri Arora, Jeffrey M Sequeira, Edward V Quadros
Vitamin B12 deficiency causes megaloblastic anemia and neurologic disorder in humans. Gene defects of transcobalamin (TC) and the transcobalamin receptor (TCblR), needed for cellular uptake of the TC-bound B12, do not confer embryonic lethality. TC deficiency can produce the hematologic and neurologic complications after birth, whereas TCblR/CD320 gene defects appear to produce mild metabolic changes. Alternate maternofetal transport mechanisms appear to provide adequate B12 to the fetus. To understand this mechanism, we evaluated the role of TC, TCblR/CD320, and megalin in maternofetal transport of B12 in a TCblR/CD320 knockout (KO) mouse...
March 28, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349737/pediatric-acute-otitis-media-in-the-era-of-pneumococcal-vaccination
#15
Kareem O Tawfik, Stacey L Ishman, Mekibib Altaye, Jareen Meinzen-Derr, Daniel I Choo
Objectives (1) Describe longitudinal trends in annual prevalence of hospital admission for pediatric acute otitis media (AOM) and complications of AOM (CAOM) since introduction of pneumococcal vaccination in 2000 and (2) describe the longitudinal trend of prevalence of hospital admission for pneumococcal meningitis in children with AOM-related diagnoses in the postvaccination era. Study Design Retrospective analysis of Kids' Inpatient Database from 2000 to 2012. Setting Community, nonrehabilitation hospitals...
March 1, 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346292/bilateral-labyrinthine-and-internal-auditory-canal-enhancement-in-an-infant-with-severe-labyrinthine-dysplasia-a-previously-unreported-phenomenon
#16
Charles L Anzalone, Mai Lan Ho, Neil S Patel, Lisa A Schimmenti, Melissa D DeJong, Matthew L Carlson
OBJECTIVE: To describe a novel case of congenital profound bilateral sensorineural hearing loss in a patient with bilateral nodular internal auditory canal and labyrinthine enhancement and temporal bone dysplasia. PATIENTS: A 76-day-old female was referred to the authors' center for evaluation of congenital deafness. Behavioral observations and objective audiometric evaluation demonstrated bilateral profound sensorineural hearing loss and a comprehensive multidisciplinary evaluation identified compound heterozygous pathogenic variants in MYO7A, a gene associated with Usher Syndrome Type 1B or DFNB2...
March 24, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345247/functional-morphological-adaptations-of-the-bony-labyrinth-in-marsupials-mammalia-theria
#17
Cathrin Pfaff, Stefan Czerny, Doris Nagel, Jürgen Kriwet
Diprotodontia represents the largest and ecologically most distinct order of marsupials occurring in Australasian being highly divers in size, locomotion, habitat preferences, feeding, and activity pattern. The spatial orientation in the habitat and therefore the three-dimensional space is detected by the vestibular system of the inner ear, more precisely by the three semicircular canals. In this study, we investigated the bony labyrinth of diprotodontian and selected non-diprotodontian marsupial mammals of almost all genera with noninvasive micro-CT scanning and 3D-reconstructions...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335289/copper-micro-labyrinth-with-graphene-skin-new-transparent-flexible-electrodes-with-ultimate-low-sheet-resistivity-and-superior-stability
#18
Hak Ki Yu
We have developed self-assembled copper (Cu) micro-labyrinth (ML) with graphene skin for transparent flexible electrodes of optoelectronic devices. The Cu ML is simply formed by heating a thin Cu film with a 100-nm thickness on a SiO₂/Si substrate at 950 °C under hydrogen ambient to block the oxidation. Moreover, the Cu ML can have graphene skin at the surface by inserting carbo-hydroxyl molecules (CxHy) during heating due to the catalytic decomposition of C-H bonds on the Cu surface. The Cu ML with graphene skin (Cu ML-G) has superior sheet resistivity below 5 Ω/sq and mechanical flexibility without cracks at the bending radius of 0...
September 1, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333724/a-beacon-in-the-labyrinth-of-the-indian-health-service
#19
Dalia Sofer
The success of a diabetes program offers hope.
April 2017: American Journal of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332771/prenatal-high-fat-diet-alters-placental-morphology-nutrient-transporter-expression-and-mtorc1-signaling-in-rat
#20
Lin Song, Bo Sun, Gretha J Boersma, Zachary A Cordner, Jianqun Yan, Timothy H Moran, Kellie L K Tamashiro
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine how the rat placenta and fetus respond to maternal high-fat (HF) diet during gestation and to identify the possible mechanisms. METHODS: Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with standard chow (13.5% fat) or HF (60% fat) diet during gestation. Placentas were collected on gestation day 21. RESULTS: HF dams had greater fat mass, higher plasma leptin, lower plasma adiponectin, and impaired glucose tolerance during pregnancy...
March 23, 2017: Obesity
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