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Ileal feeding

Xiao Ya Zhang, Xiangfang Zeng, Xutong Liu, Hongmin Jia, Pingli He, Shiyan Qiao, Xiangbing Mao
The objective of this study was to investigate whether valine (Val) supplementation in a reduced protein (RP) diet regulates growth performance associated with the changes in plasma amino acids (AAs) profile, metabolism, endocrine and neural system in piglets. Piglets or piglets with a catheter in the precaval vein were randomly assigned to two treatments, including two RP diets with standardized ileal digestible (SID) Val: Lysine (Lys) ratio of 0.45 and 0.65, respectively. The results indicated that piglets in the higher Val:Lys ratio treatment had higher average daily feed intake (ADFI) (P < 0...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
C Chen, M Pérez de Nanclares, J F Kurtz, M P Trudeau, L Wang, D Yao, M Saqui-Salces, P E Urriola, L Torunn Mydland, G C Shurson, M Overland
Rapeseed (RS) is an abundant and inexpensive source of energy and AA in diets for monogastrics and a sustainable alternative to soybean meal. It also contains diverse bioactive phytochemicals that could have antinutritional effects at high dose. When the RS-derived feed ingredients (RSF) are used in swine diets, the uptake of these nutrients and phytochemicals is expected to affect the metabolic system. In this study, two groups of young pigs (17.8 ± 2.7 kg initial BW) were equally fed a soybean meal-based control diet and a RSF-based diet, respectively, for 3 wk...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Sunhye Lee, Katherine I Keirsey, Rebecca Kirkland, Zachary I Grunewald, Joan G Fischer, Claire B de La Serre
Background: Gut microbiota dysbiosis has been linked to obesity-associated chronic inflammation. Microbiota manipulation may therefore affect obesity-related comorbidities. Blueberries are rich in anthocyanins, which have anti-inflammatory properties and may alter the gut microbiota. Objective: We hypothesized that blueberry supplementation would alter the gut microbiota, reduce systemic inflammation, and improve insulin resistance in high-fat (HF)-diet-fed rats...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Ricardo Mitsuo Hayashi, Mariana Camargo Lourenço, Antônio Leonardo Kraieski, Raquel Bighetti Araujo, Ricardo Gonzalez-Esquerra, Eduardo Leonardecz, Anderson Ferreira da Cunha, Marcelo Falsarella Carazzolle, Paulo Sérgio Monzani, Elizabeth Santin
Salmonellosis is a poultry industry and public health concern worldwide. Recently, Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg (SH) has been reported in broilers in Brazil. The effect of feeding a blend of three strains of Bacillus subtilis (PRO) was studied in broilers orally challenged (107 CFU/chick) or not with a SH isolated in south of Brazil (UFPR1 strain). Twelve male Cobb 500 broilers per pen were randomly assigned to six treatments in a 3 × 2 factorial experiment where PRO was added at 0, 250, or 500 g/ton of broiler feed and fed to either SH-challenged (SH Control, SH + PRO 250, and SH + PRO 500) or non-challenged birds (Control, PRO 250, and PRO 500)...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Monica A Newman, Renée M Petri, Dietmar Grüll, Qendrim Zebeli, Barbara U Metzler-Zebeli
Dietary inclusion of resistant starches can promote host health through modulation of the gastrointestinal microbiota, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) profiles, and lipid metabolism. This study investigated the impact of a transglycosylated cornstarch (TGS) on gastric, ileal, cecal, proximal-colonic, and mid-colonic bacterial community profiles and fermentation metabolites using a growing pig model. It additionally evaluated the effect of TGS on the expression of host genes related to glucose and SCFA absorption, incretins, and satiety in the gut as well as host genes related to lipid metabolism in hepatic and adipose tissue...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
M M Erdaw, R A Perez-Maldonado, P A Iji
A 3 × 3 + 1 factorial, involving three levels of protease (0, 15,000 or 30,000 PROT/kg) and three levels of phytase (1,000, 2,000 or 3,000 FYT/kg), was used to evaluate the effect of replacing commercial soybean meal (SBM) with raw, full-fat soybean (RFSB) at 75 g/kg of diet for broilers. A control diet was used for comparison. Each treatment was replicated six times, with nine birds per replicate. The concentration of trypsin inhibitors (TIs) in the test diets was approximately 10,193.4 TIU/kg. Regardless of enzyme supplementation, feed intake (FI) and body weight gain (BWG) of birds in the control group were superior to those on the test diets...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
S A Lee, M R Bedford, C L Walk
A meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the effect of mono-component proteases on performance and apparent ileal amino acid digestibility (AIAAD, %) in monogastrics. A total of 67 experimental trials were included in the meta-analysis from published and internal reports, contributing 467 lines of data. Poultry and swine data accounted for 81 and 19% of the dataset, respectively. Forty-four different proteases were included in the meta-analysis, accounting for commercial and non-commercial products. Mixed Model analysis was used to assess protease effect and the influence of inherent characteristics of the control on protease response...
February 14, 2018: Poultry Science
H N Hall, H V Masey O'Neill, D Scholey, E Burton, M Dickinson, E C Fitches
Work was undertaken to investigate the potential use of housefly (Musca domestica) larvae reared on broiler manure as a source of nutrition for poultry production in the United Kingdom. Nutritional analysis showed that larvae have a high (>45% dry wt.) protein content and a favorable amino acid profile that is rich in key amino acids, such as lysine and methionine. A broiler digestibility trial was carried out to determine the apparent ileal digestibility coefficients (AIDC) and true ileal digestibility coefficients (TIDC) of amino acids (AA) from insect larval meal (ILM) from M...
February 14, 2018: Poultry Science
Aleix Gavaldà-Navarro, Jose J Pastor, Alessandro Mereu, Francesc Villarroya, Ignacio R Ipharraguerre
Fibroblast growth factor-19 (FGF19) is an emerging endocrine factor involved in the regulation of bile acid homeostasis and energy metabolism in rodents and humans. In pigs, however, the FGF19 system remains largely unexplored. This study was designed to investigate the developmental regulation of the FGF19 system in domestic pigs. Samples of intestinal sections, liver, and plasma were collected from 24 pigs (n = 6) at four developmental stages (birth, pre-weaning, post-weaning, and adulthood). In the intestine, expression of the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and FGF19 showed a congruent time- and region-dependent regulation, beginning soon after birth to achieve maximal expression in ileum during adulthood...
February 15, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
H Furbeyre, J van Milgen, T Mener, M Gloaguen, E Labussière
Weaning of piglets is associated with important changes in gut structure and function resulting from stressful events such as separation from the sow, moving to a new facility and dietary transition from a liquid to a solid feed. This may result in post-weaning diarrhoea and a decrease in feed intake and growth. In humans, the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis (SP) and the freshwater microalga Chlorella vulgaris (CV) are known for their beneficial health effects. This study aimed to determine the effects of early oral administration of Spirulina and Chlorella in piglets on mucosal architecture and cytokine expression in the intestine around weaning, and consequences on growth performance and diarrhoea incidence...
February 15, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Sanjay Kumar, Chongxiao Chen, Nagaraju Indugu, Gabriela Orosco Werlang, Manpreet Singh, Woo Kyun Kim, Harshavardhan Thippareddi
Development of antibiotic resistance in foodborne pathogens, Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter, is a public health concern. Public demand to reduce the use of sub-therapeutic antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) in poultry feeding has resulted in greater adoption of antibiotic-free poultry production systems. There is a need to understand the effects of AGP removal from poultry feed on gut microbiota and its impact on prevalence of foodborne pathogens. The effect of antibiotic withdrawal from poultry feed on gut microbial community, host performance and immunity, and prevalence of Salmonella and Campylobacter was evaluated...
2018: PloS One
J L Landero, L F Wang, E Beltranena, C J Bench, R T Zijlstra
Brassica (B.) napus and B. juncea canola meal (CM) may replace soybean meal (SBM) in pig diets, but differ in fiber, glucosinolates content and profile. Preference of weaned pigs provided double-choice selections to diets containing 20% SBM, B. napus CM, or B. juncea CM was evaluated in 2 studies. In Exp. 1, 216 pigs (9.4 ± 1.6 kg initial BW) were housed in 27 pens of 8 pigs (4 gilts and 4 barrows). In Exp. 2, 144 pigs (8.9 ± 1.1 kg) were housed in 36 pens of 4 pigs (2 gilts and 2 barrows). Pigs were offered 3 dietary choices: B...
January 27, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
D M D L Navarro, E M A M Bruininx, L de Jong, H H Stein
An experiment was conducted to quantify nutrient and fiber fractions of feed ingredients and to determine in vitro apparent ileal digestibility (IVAID) and in vitro apparent total tract digestibility (IVATTD) of DM and OM in each ingredient. Ten ingredients that vary in fiber concentration and composition were used: corn, wheat, soybean meal, canola meal, distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), corn germ meal, copra expellers, sugar beet pulp (SBP), synthetic cellulose (SF), and pectin. Correlations between chemical and physical characteristics of ingredients and IVAID and IVATTD of DM and OM were determined...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
B Keimer, S Kröger, I Röhe, R Pieper, A Simon, J Zentek
Two feeding trials were conducted to investigate the effects of hydrolyzed (HY) or non-hydrolyzed (NHY) yeast (Kluyveromyces fragilis) in isoenergetic and isonitrogeneous diets in the post-weaning period. In Exp. 1, a total of 550 unsexed pigs (6.5 ± 0.5 kg BW), weaned at 24 ± 2 d of age, were allocated to 5 treatment groups, receiving either a control diet (CON) or diets with 1, 3 and 5 % HY (groups HY1, HY3, HY5, respectively), or a diet with 3% NHY (group NHY3). In Exp. 2, a total of 48 male and female pigs (6...
January 27, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
T A Woyengo, R Patterson, C L Levesque
Cold-pressed camelina cake (CPCC) is a fibrous co-product of camelina seed pressing and available for livestock feeding. However, information is lacking on the effect of supplementing fiber-degrading enzymes to CPCC-based diets on nutrient utilization by pigs. Experiment 1 determined the effect of multi-enzyme supplementation on standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA and NE value of CPCC for pigs. Six ileal-cannulated barrows (average initial BW = 36 kg) were fed 5 diets in 5 × 5 Latin square design with 1 added column to give 6 replicates per diet...
January 27, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
E Y Zong, P F Huang, H S Yang, W Zhang, J Z Li, Y L Li, X Q Ding, X Xiong, Y L Yin
Early weaning results in intestinal dysfunction in piglets while sulfur amino acids (SAA) are involved in improving intestinal functions. We tested a hypothesis that dietary supplementation with SAA can improve intestinal functions of weaning piglets and analyzed the effects of different dietary SAA levels on intestinal functions. A total of 80 piglets (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire) were weaned at 21 d of age and randomly assigned to one of five diets that contained 0.53, 0.63, 0.74, 0.85, or 0.96% SAA, which corresponded to 70, 85, 100, 115 or, 130% of the SAA:Lys ratio recommended by the NRC (2012)...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
S M Waititu, N Sanjayan, M M Hossain, P Leterme, C M Nyachoti
Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of replacing soybean meal (SBM) with a high-protein sunflower meal (HiSFM) without or with multi-enzyme mixtures on growth performance, nutrient utilization, jejunal digesta viscosity, and excreta moisture in broiler chickens. In experiment 1, 400 chicks were divided into 40 replicates of 10 birds and fed for 35 d a corn-soybean meal (CSBM) control diet or CSBM with 25 (HiSFM25), 50 (HiSFM50), 75 (HiSFM75), or 100% (HiSFM100) of total SBM replaced by HiSFM...
January 20, 2018: Poultry Science
A Santos, C Valdés, F J Giráldez, S López, J France, J Frutos, M Fernández, S Andrés
The present study was designed to describe the effects of early feed restriction of Merino lambs on feed efficiency during the fattening period by examining ruminal microbiota and fermentation parameters, gastrointestinal morphology, digestibility or liver proteome. In total, 24 male Merino lambs were randomly assigned to two experimental treatments (n=12 per treatment). Lambs of the first group (ad libitum (ADL)) were kept permanently with the dams, whereas the other 12 lambs (restricted (RES)) were milk restricted...
January 24, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Nishchal K Sharma, Mingan Choct, Mehdi Toghyani, Yan C S M Laurenson, C K Girish, Robert A Swick
A 3-factor, 3-level Box-Behnken design was used to investigate the interaction effect of dietary digestible lysine (dLys, 9.5, 10.5, 11.5 g/kg), apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn, 12.77, 13.19, 13.61 MJ/kg) and available P (avP, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0 g/kg) levels on performance and amino acid (AA) digestibility of Ross 308 male broilers (n = 1,050) from d 14 to 34. The design consisted of 15 treatments each replicated 5 times with 12 birds per replicate. On d 34, 3 birds were sampled from each pen to collect ileal digesta (pooled per pen) to analyze AA...
January 11, 2018: Poultry Science
S K Kheravii, R A Swick, M Choct, S-B Wu
Improving diet digestibility is important to the broiler industry. Therefore, this study focused on optimizing the physical structure of feed ingredients and addition of dietary fiber as strategies to improve nutrient digestibility in low and high sodium diets. A total of 672 day-old Ross 308 male broilers was allocated to 48 pens using a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with 2 particle sizes of corn (coarse 3,576 μm or fine 1,113 μm geometric mean diameter), 2 levels of sugarcane bagasse (SB) (0 or 2%), and 2 levels of Na (0...
January 11, 2018: Poultry Science
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