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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141016/intestinal-microbiota-profiles-associated-with-low-and-high-residual-feed-intake-in-chickens-across-two-geographical-locations
#1
Sina-Catherine Siegerstetter, Stephan Schmitz-Esser, Elizabeth Magowan, Stefanie Urimare Wetzels, Qendrim Zebeli, Peadar G Lawlor, Niamh E O'Connell, Barbara U Metzler-Zebeli
Intestinal microbe-host interactions can affect the feed efficiency (FE) of chickens. As inconsistent findings for FE-associated bacterial taxa were reported across studies, the present objective was to identify whether bacterial profiles and predicted metabolic functions that were associated with residual feed intake (RFI) and performance traits in female and male chickens were consistent across two different geographical locations. At six weeks of life, the microbiota in ileal, cecal and fecal samples of low (n = 34) and high (n = 35) RFI chickens were investigated by sequencing the V3-5 region of the 16S rRNA gene...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140465/short-chain-arabinoxylans-prepared-from-enzymatically-treated-wheat-grain-exert-prebiotic-effects-during-the-broiler-starter-period
#2
N Yacoubi, L Saulnier, E Bonnin, E Devillard, V Eeckhaut, L Rhayat, R Ducatelle, F Van Immerseel
Carbohydrate-degrading multi-enzyme preparations (MEP) are used to improve broiler performances. Their mode of action is complex and not fully understood. In this study, we compared the effect of water-soluble fractions isolated at the pilot scale from wheat grain incubated with (WE) and without (WC) MEP. The fractions were incorporated in a wheat-based diet (0.1% w/w) to feed Ross PM3 broilers and compared with a non-supplemented control group (NC). The body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) until d 14 were determined...
November 10, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137145/dietary-pea-fiber-supplementation-improves-glycemia-and-induces-changes-in-the-composition-of-gut-microbiota-serum-short-chain-fatty-acid-profile-and-expression-of-mucins-in-glucose-intolerant-rats
#3
Zohre Hashemi, Janelle Fouhse, Hyun Seun Im, Catherine B Chan, Benjamin P Willing
Several studies have demonstrated the beneficial impact of dried peas and their components on glucose tolerance; however, the role of gut microbiota as a potential mediator is not fully examined. In this study, we investigated the effect of dietary supplementation with raw and cooked pea seed coats (PSC) on glucose tolerance, microbial composition of the gut, select markers of intestinal barrier function, and short chain fatty acid profile in glucose intolerant rats. Male Sprague Dawley rats were fed high fat diet (HFD) for six weeks to induce glucose intolerance, followed by four weeks of feeding PSC-supplemented diets...
November 12, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126320/screening-lactic-acid-bacteria-to-manufacture-two-stage-fermented-feed-and-pelleting-to-investigate-the-feeding-effect-on-broilers
#4
Ruei Han Yeh, Chia Wen Hsieh, Kuo Lung Chen
Bacillus subtilis var. natto N21 (BS) and different lactic acid bacteria were applied to produce two-stage fermented feeds. Broilers were fed these feeds to select the best fermented feed. The selected fermented feed was pelleted and investigated for its effects on growth performance, carcass traits, intestinal microflora, serum biochemical constituents, and apparent ileal nutrient digestibility. Trial 1 involved three hundred thirty-six 1-d-old broilers with equal numbers of each sex, randomly assigned into control, BS + Bacillus coagulans L12 (BBC), BS + Lactobacillus casei (BLC), BS + Lactobacillus acidophilus (BLA), BS + Lactobacillus acidophilus L15 (BLA15), BS + Lactobacillus delbruekckii (BLD), and BS + Lactobacillus reuteri P24 (BLR24) groups with 3 replicates per group...
November 4, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121338/efficacy-of-%C3%AE-mannanase-on-broiler-growth-performance-and-energy-utilization-in-the-presence-of-increasing-dietary-galactomannan
#5
R E Latham, M P Williams, H G Walters, B Carter, J T Lee
An experiment was conducted to investigate the impact of β-mannanase inclusion on growth performance, viscosity, and energy utilization in broilers fed diets varying in galactomannan (GM) concentrations. Treatments were arranged as a 3 (GM concentration) × 3 (β-mannanase inclusion) factorial randomized complete block design with 12 replicates of 29 male broilers per replicate for a 42-d experiment. Efforts were made to reduce the amount of soybean meal, and thus GM, in the basal diet with guar gum included at 0, 0...
November 7, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110578/effects-of-combined-%C3%AE-galactosidase-and-xylanase-supplementation-on-nutrient-digestibility-and-growth-performance-in-growing-pigs
#6
Shihai Zhang, Junjie Song, Zixiao Deng, Lin Cheng, Min Tian, Wutai Guan
Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of combined supplementation of α-galactosidase and xylanase on nutrient digestibility and growth performance in growing pigs. Experiment 1 had a 2 × 2 Latin square design, where eight barrows (45.0 ± 0.52 kg body weight [BW]) were fitted with a simple T-cannula in the distal ileum and received a basal diet without or with supplementation of α-galactosidase (12 U/kg diet) and xylanase (15 AXC/kg diet) within two periods of 10 d. The apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients, pH, viscosity of digesta and digestive enzyme activities were assessed...
December 2017: Archives of Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108062/detoxification-metabolism-and-glutathione-pathway-activity-of-aflatoxin-b1-by-dietary-lactic-acid-bacteria-in-broiler-chickens
#7
N Liu, K Ding, J Q Wang, S C Jia, J P Wang, T S Xu
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and the glutathione (GSH) pathway are protective against aflatoxin, but information on the effect of LAB on aflatoxin metabolism and GSH activity in farm animals is scarce. This study aimed to investigate the effects of LAB and aflatoxin B (AFB) on growth performance, aflatoxin metabolism, and GSH pathway activity using 480 male Arbor Acres broiler chickens from d 1 to 35 of age. Diets were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial design, including AFB at 0 or 40 µg/kg of feed and LAB at 0 or 3 × 10 cfu/kg of feed, and the LAB was a mixture of equal amounts of , , and ...
October 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079983/improving-growth-performance-and-health-status-of-meat-type-quail-by-supplementing-the-diet-with-black-cumin-cold-pressed-oil-as-a-natural-alternative-for-antibiotics
#8
Mohamed E Abd El-Hack, Samir A Mahgoub, Mohamed M A Hussein, Islam M Saadeldin
Using antibiotics in poultry diets as growth promoters was reported to have harmful effects on consumers, so the current study was done to monitor the impact of dietary supplementation of antimicrobial black cumin oil (BCO) on carcass traits, growth performance, biochemical components, and ileal microbial populations of growing Japanese quails. Three hundred growing Japanese quails were used with three different treatments (0, 0.50, and 1.0 g BCO/g diet). Birds fed diet supplemented with 0.5 g BCO/kg diet showed significant increase in body weight comparing with the control and other treatment group...
October 27, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077957/effects-of-a-high-level-of-phytase-on-broiler-performance-bone-ash-phosphorus-utilization-and-phytate-dephosphorylation-to-inositol
#9
A E Gautier, C L Walk, R N Dilger
An experiment was conducted to evaluate how the addition of microbial phytase influenced growth performance, bone mineralization, tissue P content, apparent digestibility and retention, and inositol phosphate (IP) concentrations in broilers fed diets with varying mineral matrices from 2 to 23 d of age. At 2 d of age, chicks were randomly allotted to receive 1 of 6 experimental diets arranged as a 3 × 2 factorial of mineral matrix [control diet with 1.0% Ca and 0.5% non-phytate phosphorus (NPP); mineral matrix 1 with 0...
October 25, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065938/review-pork-production-with-maximal-nitrogen-efficiency
#10
S Millet, M Aluwé, A Van den Broeke, F Leen, J De Boever, S De Campeneere
During growth, pigs convert plant protein into animal protein. The major part of the ingested protein is excreted via manure, with potential nitrogen (N) losses to the environment. To limit N losses and increase sustainability of pork production, the efficiency of protein conversion should be maximized. The aim of this paper is to critically evaluate diet and management strategies linked with N efficiency. Besides nutrition, we discuss three management strategies observed in science and in practice to be linked with improved N efficiency: genetic selection, castration and slaughter weight...
October 25, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058462/the-effect-of-eubiotic-feed-additives-on-the-performance-of-growing-pigs-and-the-activity-of-intestinal-microflora
#11
Piotr Nowak, Małgorzata Kasprowicz-Potocka, Anita Zaworska, Włodzimierz Nowak, Barbara Stefańska, Anna Sip, Włodzimierz Grajek, Wojciech Juzwa, Marcin Taciak, Marcin Barszcz, Anna Tuśnio, Katarzyna Grajek, Joanna Foksowicz-Flaczyk, Andrzej Frankiewicz
The aim of this study was to compare the effect of probiotic bacteria, prebiotics, phytobiotics and their combinations on performance and microbial activity in the digestive tract of growing pigs. The experiment was conducted over 28 d on 48 male pigs of about 12 kg body weight (BW), which were allocated to following treatments.: (1) Control Group (Con) without additive, (2) Group I, addition of a prebiotic (inulin), (3) Group Ph, a phytobiotic (herbal water extracts), (4) Group P, a probiotic composed of four strains of lactic acid bacteria, (5) Group PhP, phytobiotic and probiotic bacteria and (6) Group PhPI, a phytobiotic, probiotic bacteria and a prebiotic...
October 23, 2017: Archives of Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053831/effect-of-dietary-fiber-levels-on-performance-gizzard-development-intestinal-morphology-and-nutrient-utilization-in-meat-ducks-from-1-to-21-days-of-age
#12
H Y Han, K Y Zhang, X M Ding, S P Bai, Y H Luo, J P Wang, Q F Zeng
The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of dietary fiber levels on growth performance, gizzard development, intestinal morphology, and nutrient utilization in Cherry Valley meat ducks. In total, 720 1-day-old ducklings were fed with starter diets (120 ducklings, 8 pens of 15 ducklings, on each diet) containing 6 levels of crude fiber (CF, 1.46, 3.09, 4.15, 6.18, 7.52, and 9.03%, based on analysis) for 21 d. Then, on d 22, ducks fed all of the starter diets were transferred to a grower diet (containing 4% CF) to examine the residual effect of starter dietary fiber levels until 35 d...
October 10, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051826/apparent-and-standardized-ileal-nutrient-digestibility-of-broiler-diets-containing-varying-levels-of-raw-full-fat-soybean-and-microbial-protease
#13
Mammo M Erdaw, Rider A Perez-Maldonado, Paul A Iji
BACKGROUND: Although soybean meal (SBM) is excellent source of protein in diets for poultry, it is sometimes inaccessible, costly and fluctuates in supply. The SBM can partially be replaced by full-fat SBM, but the meals prepared from raw full-fat soybean contain antinutritional factors. To avoid the risk of antinutritional factors, heat treatment is always advisable, but either excessive or under heating the soybean could negatively affect the quality. However, the potential for further improvement of SBM by supplementing with microbial enzymes has been suggested by many researchers...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050432/dietary-sugarcane-bagasse-and-coarse-particle-size-of-corn-are-beneficial-to-performance-and-gizzard-development-in-broilers-fed-normal-and-high-sodium-diets
#14
S K Kheravii, R A Swick, M Choct, Shu-Biao Wu
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of sugarcane bagasse (SB) and particle size on broiler performance, gizzard development, ileal microflora, litter quality, and bird welfare under a wet litter challenge model. A total of 672 one-day-old Ross 308 male broilers was allocated to 48 pens using a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with corn particle size-coarse 3,576 μm (CC) or fine 1,113 μm (FC) geometric mean diameter, SB - 0 or 2% and sodium (Na) - 0.16 or 0.40% with increased Na level to induce wet litter...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032782/pelleting-and-extrusion-can-ameliorate-negative-effects-of-toasting-of-rapeseed-meal-on-protein-digestibility-in-growing-pigs
#15
S Salazar-Villanea, E M A M Bruininx, H Gruppen, W H Hendriks, P Carré, A Quinsac, A F B van der Poel
Toasting time (TT) of rapeseed meal (RSM), the diet processing (DP) method and the interaction between both on the apparent CP digestion along the gastrointestinal tract and the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of amino acids of growing pigs were investigated. The experiment consisted of a 3×3 factorial design of TT of RSM (0, 60 and 120 min) and DP method (mash, pelleting and extrusion). In total, 81 boars with a starting BW of 20 kg were euthanized 4 h after their last feeding. The gastrointestinal tract was dissected and the small intestine divided in three sections of similar length...
October 16, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032780/prediction-of-the-amino-acid-digestibility-of-legume-seeds-in-growing-pigs-a-meta-analysis-approach
#16
F Messad, M P Létourneau-Montminy, E Charbonneau, D Sauvant, F Guay
On pig farms, a high proportion of the cost of production comes from feed costs. However, the use of alternative ingredients such as legume seeds may help to reduce this cost. In fact, legume seeds are an important source of essential amino acids (EAA) and can therefore be an alternative to oilseed meals. However, the accurate use of these legume seeds requires a precise knowledge of the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of EAA, which may vary depending on its botanical variety. A meta-analysis was performed on a database compiling data from 41 studies published between 1981 and 2013 and 178 dietary treatments...
October 16, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992026/amino-acid-and-phosphorus-digestibility-of-fermented-corn-soybean-meal-mixed-feed-with-bacillus-subtilis-and-enterococcus-faecium-fed-to-pigs
#17
C Shi, Y Zhang, Y Yin, C Wang, Z Lu, F Wang, J Feng, Y Wang
In the present study, a 2-stage solid-state fermentation process using followed by was performed with the purpose of improving the nutritional quality of corn and soybean meal (SBM) mixed feed (MF). The matrix of native MF and fermented MF (FMF) was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy to determine external structures after solid-state fermentation. Results of the present study indicated that the FMF had a greater concentration of CP and total P compared with the unfermented feed, whereas the contents of β-conglycinin, glycinin, phytate P, raffinose, stachyose, and NDF in FMF declined by 77...
September 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990262/effect-of-feed-intake-level-and-dietary-protein-content-on-the-body-temperature-of-pigs-housed-under-thermo-neutral-conditions
#18
A Morales, N Ibarra, M Chávez, T Gómez, A Suárez, J A Valle, R L Camacho, M Cervantes
Feed intake and diet composition appear to affect the body temperature of pigs. Two trials were conducted to analyse the effect of feed intake level and dietary protein content on the intestinal temperature (IT) of pigs housed under thermo neutral conditions. Ten pigs (64.1 ± 1.3 kg initial body weight) fitted with an ileal cannula were used. A thermometer set to register the IT at 5-min intervals was implanted into the ileum through the cannula. In both trials, the ambient temperature ranged from 19.1 to 21...
October 8, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944963/standardized-ileal-digestibility-and-digestible-indispensable-amino-acid-score-of-porcine-and-bovine-hydrolyzates-in-pigs
#19
Yugal Raj Bindari, Helle Nygaard Laerke, Jan Vaerum Nørgaard
BACKGROUND: Using protein hydrolyzates in food and feed ingredients is a growing area of interest. The present study was conducted to determine the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) and to evaluate protein quality of porcine and bovine hydrolyzates. The SID values were determied in pigs, and these values were used to calculate DIAAS values. RESULTS: The SID of crude protein of hydrolyzates of porcine plasma, bovine muscle, bovine collagen, porcine heart, and porcine muscle was 0...
September 25, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938774/evaluation-of-encapsulated-sodium-butyrate-on-growth-performance-energy-digestibility-gut-development-and-salmonella-colonization-in-broilers
#20
J D Liu, H O Bayir, D E Cosby, N A Cox, S M Williams, J Fowler
Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of an encapsulated sodium butyrate (Na-B) with targeted releasing times on broiler performance, energy digestibility, intestinal morphology, and ceca Salmonella colonization. In experiment 1, 3 different Na-B products (CMA, CMP, and CMS) were evaluated following a challenge with a nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella typhimurium (STNAR). Cobb-Cobb male birds were placed 8 per pen into 6 replicates for each treatment. Treatments included 6 Na-B treatments (500 and 1,000 ppm of each product) plus 2 control (non-challenged and challenged)...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
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