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Ileal feeding

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231702/effect-of-a-microbial-phytase-on-growth-performance-plasma-parameters-and-apparent-ileal-amino-acid-digestibility-in-youxian-sheldrake-fed-a-low-phosphorus-corn-soybean-diet
#1
Shaoping He, Rodolfo Frilles Medrano, Qifang Yu, Yixin Cai, Qiuzhong Dai, Jianhua He
Objective: This study investigated the effect of microbial phytase supplementation on growth performance, tibia ash, plasma parameters, apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of amino acid (AA) and apparent digestibility of nutrients in Youxian Sheldrakes fed with low-Phosphorus (P) corn-soybean diets. Methods: A total of 350 Youxian Sheldrakes (7d old) were randomly divided into 5 treatment groups: positive control (PC) group has adequate available P diet (0.42% and 0...
February 23, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201934/feeding-value-of-field-beans-vicia-faba-l-var-minor-with-and-without-enzyme-containing-tannase-pectinase-and-xylanase-activities-for-broilers
#2
Jalil Mahmwd Abdulla, Stephen Paul Rose, Alexander Mackay Mackenzie, Vasil Radoslavov Pirgozliev
Effects of field beans with various tannin content and exogenous enzyme mixture containing tannase, pectinase and xylanase activities on N-corrected dietary apparent metabolisable energy (AMEn), coefficients of dry matter (DMR) and nitrogen retention (NR), fat digestibility, gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development, jejunal villus morphometry, ileal digesta viscosity and sialic acid were examined. Birds' growth performance and energy conversion ratio (ECR) were also measured. Birds were fed one of eight mash diets...
April 2017: Archives of Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196137/effects-of-dietary-nutrient-levels-on-microbial-community-composition-and-diversity-in-the-ileal-contents-of-pregnant-huanjiang-mini-pigs
#3
Yujiao Ji, Xiangfeng Kong, Huawei Li, Qian Zhu, Qiuping Guo, Yulong Yin
The mammalian gut microbiota influences various metabolic and physiological processes. Substantial metabolic changes occur during a healthy pregnancy that may be related to microbiota composition dynamics. However, the effect of diet on intestinal microbiota composition and diversity during pregnancy remains unclear. We examined the ileal contents of Huanjiang mini-pigs at two pregnancy stages to determine the effects of dietary nutrient levels on such microbial communities. Animals received either a higher-nutrient (HN) diet formulated to meet US National Research Council requirements or a lower-nutrient (LN) diet that met the Chinese National Feeding Standard recommendations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188340/development-and-validation-of-a-new-dynamic-in-vitro-model-of-the-piglet-colon-pigutivm-application-to-the-study-of-probiotics
#4
Mickaël Alain Fleury, Olivier Le Goff, Sylvain Denis, Frédérique Chaucheyras-Durand, Eric Jouy, Isabelle Kempf, Monique Alric, Stéphanie Blanquet-Diot
For ethical, technical, regulatory, and cost reasons, in vitro methods are increasingly used as an alternative to in vivo experimentations. The aim of the present study was to validate, according to in vivo data in living animals, a new in vitro model of the piglet colon, the PigutIVM, under both control conditions and antibiotic disturbance by the widely used colistin. The PigutIVM reproduces the main biotic and abiotic parameters of the piglet colon: temperature, pH, retention time, supply of ileal effluents, complex, and metabolically active microbiota and self-maintained anaerobiosis...
February 10, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183153/effects-of-armillariella-tabescens-mycelia-on-the-growth-performance-and-intestinal-immune-response-and-microflora-of-early-weaned-pigs
#5
Wen-Bin Chen, Mao-Ji Cheng, Yun-Bo Tian, Qin-Hua Wang, Bing Wang, Mei-Jun Li, Re-Jun Fang
This study was performed to evaluate effects of Armillariella tabescens (A. tabescens) on the growth performance and intestinal immune response and microflora in early-weaned pigs when used as feed additive. A. tabescens mycelia were added to basal diets at concentrations of 0%, 0.1%, 0.3% or 0.9% (w/w). A total of 144 commercial cross-bred piglets were randomly allocated to one of these four diets and fed for 30 days. The growth performance of early-weaned piglets displayed improvement with diets containing 0...
February 9, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177384/effects-of-distillers-dried-grains-with-solubles-and-added-fat-fed-immediately-before-slaughter-on-growth-performance-and-carcass-characteristics-of-finishing-pigs
#6
K F Coble, J M DeRouchey, M D Tokach, S S Dritz, R D Goodband, J C Woodworth
The addition of dietary fat has been shown to increase HCW and carcass yield in pigs fed low-fiber corn-soy diets; however, data on added fat in high-fiber, low-energy diets is less available. Therefore, the potential for dietary fat to ameliorate the negative effect high-fiber diets have on carcass yield during the last 3 wk before slaughter is of high importance. This experiment was conducted to determine the interactive effects of 30% distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and 5% added fat fed before slaughter on growth performance and carcass characteristics...
January 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177374/influence-of-dietary-arginine-supplementation-of-sows-during-late-pregnancy-on-piglet-birth-weight-and-sow-and-litter-performance-during-lactation
#7
B E Bass, C L Bradley, Z B Johnson, C E Zier-Rush, R D Boyd, J L Usry, C V Maxwell, J W Frank
Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of feeding supplemental -Arg during late pregnancy on piglet birth weight and preweaning performance. In Exp. 1, 97 gilts and sows were allotted (gestation d 93) to receive a control diet (CON; 19.8 g standardized ileal digestible [SID] Arg/d) or the CON + 1.0% -Arg (ARG; 46.6 g SID Arg/d). Gilts and sows were weighed on gestation d 93 and 110, 48 h after farrowing, and at weaning. Data, including number born alive, number weaned, individual birth and weaning weight, and placenta weight, were recorded...
January 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177354/dietary-supplementation-with-tributyrin-prevented-weaned-pigs-from-growth-retardation-and-lethal-infection-via-modulation-of-inflammatory-cytokines-production-ileal-expression-and-intestinal-acetate-fermentation
#8
Y Gu, Y Song, H Yin, S Lin, X Zhang, L Che, Y Lin, S Xu, B Feng, D Wu, Z Fang
Weanling pigs, with an underdeveloped intestine and immature immune system, are usually subjected to depressed feed intake, growth retardation, and postweaning diarrhea. The aim of this study was to determine 1) the growth response of weaned pigs to supplemental tributyrin (TB) and 2) the potential effects and mechanisms of TB in modulating immune responses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged piglets. A total of 240 piglets (Duroc × Large White × Landrace) were weaned at 21 d of age to a control (basal diet), supplemented with antibiotics (AB; +AB), supplemented with TB (+TB), or with supplemental AB and TB (+AB+TB) diets, with 10 replicate pens (6 piglets/pen) per diet...
January 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177347/interactive-effect-of-dietary-protein-and-dried-citrus-pulp-levels-on-growth-performance-small-intestinal-morphology-and-hindgut-fermentation-of-weanling-pigs
#9
V V Almeida, A J C Nuñez, A P Schinckel, P V A Alvarenga, F R Castelini, Y V Silva-Guillen, M C Thomaz
Weanling pigs ( = 108, 21 d of age, 5.82 ± 0.16 kg initial BW) were assigned to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to evaluate the effects of dietary levels of CP (high- and low-CP diets) and dried citrus pulp (DCP; 0% and 7.5%) on growth performance, small intestinal morphology, and hindgut fermentation. Pigs were blocked by initial BW and allotted to 1 of 9 pens, each containing 3 pigs. The high-CP diets consisted of feeding 20% and 21% CP levels throughout phase 1 (0 to 14 d) and phase 2 (14 to 28 d), respectively...
January 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170426/chronic-social-stress-in-pigs-impairs-intestinal-barrier-and-nutrient-transporter-function-and-alters-neuro-immune-mediator-and-receptor-expression
#10
Yihang Li, Zehe Song, Katelyn A Kerr, Adam J Moeser
Psychosocial stress is a major factor driving gastrointestinal (GI) pathophysiology and disease susceptibility in humans and animals. The mechanisms governing susceptibility to stress-induced GI disease remain poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the influence of chronic social stress (CSS) in pigs, induced by 7 d of chronic mixing/crowding stress, on intestinal barrier and nutrient transport function, corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) signaling and immunological responses. Results from this study showed that CSS resulted in a significant impairment of ileal and colonic barrier function indicated by reduced transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) in the ileum and increased FD4 flux in the ileum (by 0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133825/influence-of-dietary-rapeseed-meal-levels-on-growth-performance-organ-health-and-standardized-ileal-amino-acid-digestibility-in-meat-ducks-from-15-to-35%C3%A2-days-of-age
#11
S Qin, G Tian, K Zhang, X Ding, S Bai, J Wang, G Jia, Q Zeng
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary rapeseed meal (RSM) inclusion levels on growth performance, organ health and standardized ileal amino acid digestibility (SIAAD) in meat ducks from 15 to 35 days of age. Six hundred and eighty 15-days-old ducks were randomly allotted to five treatments based on body weight. Five isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated on a digestible amino acid basis by replacing 0% (the control), 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% (based on fresh) of protein from soya bean meal (SBM) with protein from RSM...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066937/effect-of-dietary-dry-matter-intake-on-endogenous-nitrogen-flows-in-growing-lambs
#12
W Gao, X Gao, A Chen, F Zhang, D Chen, C Liu
The effect of dietary dry matter intake (DMI) on endogenous nitrogen (N) flows at different part of the digestive tract of growing lambs was determined using a (15) N isotope dilution technique. Three Kazakh male lambs (30 ± 2.75 kg of body weights and 4 months old, average daily gain 200 g/day) were fitted with ruminal, duodenal and ileal cannulae and raised in metabolic cage individually. The experiment was conducted in a 3 × 3 Latin square design with three lambs, three DMI levels (1100, 920 and 736 g/day respectively) and three periods...
January 8, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059513/o-methylisourea-can-react-with-the-%C3%AE-amino-group-of-lysine-implications-for-the-analysis-of-reactive-lysine
#13
Tetske G Hulshof, Shane M Rutherfurd, Stefano Sforza, Paul Bikker, Antonius F B van der Poel, Wouter H Hendriks
The specificity of O-methylisourea (OMIU) to bind to the ε-amino group of Lys, an important supposition for the OMIU-reactive Lys analysis of foods, feeds, ingredients, and digesta, was investigated. Crystalline l-Lys incubated under standard conditions with OMIU resulted in low homoarginine recoveries. The reaction of OMIU with the α-amino group of Lys was confirmed by MS analysis, with double derivatized Lys being identified. None of the changes in reaction conditions (OMIU pH, OMIU to Lys ratio, and reaction time) with crystalline l-Lys resulted in 100% recovery of homoarginine...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052453/comparison-of-calculated-and-experimentally-determined-sid-of-cp-and-aa-in-complex-diets-differing-in-aa-contents-for-grower-finisher-pigs
#14
K Büsing, A Berk, S Müller, S Kieckhäven, K Krüger, A Zeyner
In practice, the content of standardized ileal digestible AA in complex feeds for pigs is calculated on the basis of tabulated values for individual feedstuffs. It comes into question, however, whether this truly reflects an accurate content based upon the estimate made for the individual feedstuffs. The objective of this study was to compare standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein (CP) and selected AA in complex feeds for grower and finisher pigs either calculated or experimentally determined...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052409/effects-of-dietary-inclusion-of-silymarin-on-performance-intestinal-morphology-and-ileal-bacterial-count-in-aflatoxin-challenged-broiler-chicks
#15
E Jahanian, A H Mahdavi, S Asgary, R Jahanian
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of silymarin on performance, jejunal morphology and ileal bacterial population in broiler chicks intoxicated with a mix of aflatoxins. A total of three hundred thirty six 7-day-old Ross broiler chicks were randomly distributed between seven experimental groups with four replicates of 12 birds each. Experimental treatments consisted of a control group (unchallenged), and a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement, including two aflatoxin levels (0...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046181/increases-in-duodenal-glutamic-acid-supply-linearly-increase-small-intestinal-starch-digestion-but-not-nitrogen-balance-in-cattle
#16
E J Blom, D E Anderson, D W Brake
Small intestinal starch digestion (SISD) in cattle is often limited; however, greater postruminal flow of high-quality protein (e.g., casein) can increase SISD, and Glu can mimic responses to casein for SISD. We evaluated effects of increasing Glu flows to the duodenum on SISD and N retention in cattle. Cattle received (DM basis) continuous duodenal infusion of raw cornstarch (1.5 ± 0.08 kg/d) and 0, 30.9 ± 0.6, 62.4 ± 1.2, or 120.4 ± 3.4 g/d Glu or 387.9 ± 17.5 g/d casein. As expected, the positive control (i...
December 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045927/synbiotics-for-broiler-chickens-in-vitro-design-and-evaluation-of-the-influence-on-host-and-selected-microbiota-populations-following-in-ovo-delivery
#17
Aleksandra Dunislawska, Anna Slawinska, Katarzyna Stadnicka, Marek Bednarczyk, Piotr Gulewicz, Damian Jozefiak, Maria Siwek
Synbiotics are synergistic combinations of prebiotics and probiotics. In chickens, synbiotics can be delivered in ovo to expedite colonization of the gut by beneficial bacteria. We therefore aimed to design synbiotics in vitro and validate them in broiler chickens upon in ovo delivery. The probiotic components of the synbiotics were Lactobacillus salivarius and Lactobacillus plantarum. Their growth was assessed in MRS medium supplemented with different prebiotics. Based on in vitro results (hatchability and growth curve), two synbiotics were designed: S1 -Lactobacillus salivarius with galactooligosaccarides (GOS) and S2 -Lactobacillus plantarum with raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFO)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038359/green-tea-extract-treatment-reduces-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation-in-mice-with-diet-induced-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-by-lowering-tnfr1-and-tlr4-expression-and-ligand-availability
#18
Jinhui Li, Teryn N Sapper, Eunice Mah, Meredith V Moller, Joshua B Kim, Chureeporn Chitchumroonchokchai, Joshua D McDonald, Richard S Bruno
NFκB-mediated inflammation contributes to liver injury during nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). We hypothesized that antiinflammatory activities of green tea extract (GTE) during NASH would lower tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 (TNFR1)- and Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4)-mediated NFκB activation. Male C57BL6/J mice (6 weeks old) were fed a low-fat (LF) or high-fat (HF) diet for 12 weeks to induce NASH. They were then randomized to continue on these diets supplemented with 0 or 2% GTE (n=10/group) for an additional 8 weeks prior to evaluating NASH, NFκB inflammation and TNFR1 and TLR4 receptor complexes and their respective ligands, TNFα and endotoxin...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003537/ileal-digesta-nondietary-substrates-from-cannulated-pigs-are-major-contributors-to-in-vitro-human-hindgut-short-chain-fatty-acid-production
#19
Carlos A Montoya, Shane M Rutherfurd, Paul J Moughan
BACKGROUND: It has been assumed that short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in the colon originate mainly from dietary fiber fermentation. However, SCFAs in the colon are also produced from the fermentation of nondietary material. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to predict the relative contributions of dietary and nondietary substrates in the production of SCFAs with the use of a human fecal inoculum for diets containing kiwifruit as a model fiber. METHODS: Terminal ileal digesta were collected from ileal-cannulated male pigs [n = 7; mean ± SD: 41...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000223/western-diet-induces-colonic-nitrergic-myenteric-neuropathy-and-dysmotility-in-mice-via-saturated-fatty-acid-and-lipopolysaccharide-induced-tlr4-signalling
#20
François Reichardt, Benoit Chassaing, Behtash Ghazi Nezami, Ge Li, Sahar Tabatabavakili, Simon Mwangi, Karan Uppal, Bill Liang, Matam Vijay-Kumar, Dean Jones, Andrew T Gewirtz, Shanthi Srinivasan
KEY POINTS: A high-fat diet (60% kcal from fat) is associated with motility disorders inducing constipation and loss of nitrergic myenteric neurons in the proximal colon. Gut microbiota dysbiosis, which occurs in response to HFD, contributes to endotoxaemia. High levels of lipopolysaccharide lead to apoptosis in cultured myenteric neurons that express Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Consumption of a Western diet (WD) (35% kcal from fat) for 6 weeks leads to gut microbiota dysbiosis associated with altered bacterial metabolites and increased levels of plasma free fatty acids...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Physiology
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