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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250793/dietary-synbiotic-incorporation-as-an-alternative-to-antibiotic-improves-growth-performance-intestinal-morphology-immunity-and-antioxidant-capacity-of-broilers
#1
Y P Chen, C Wen, Y M Zhou
BACKGROUD: This study was conducted to investigate effects of dietary synbiotic supplementation as an alternative to antibiotic on growth performance, intestinal morphology, immunity and oxidative status of broilers. 1-day-old male chicks were allocated to 3 treatments, and given a basal diet free from antibiotic (Control group), and the basal diet supplemented with either chlortetracycline or synbiotic for 42 days, respectively. RESULTS: Compared with control group, the supplementation of synbiotic increased average daily gain and gain : feed ratio of broilers from 22 to 42 days and 1 to 42 days of age, and the relative weight of thymus and secretory immunoglobulin A level in the jejunum and ileum at 42 days of age, with the values of these parameters being similar to antibiotic group...
December 18, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196880/role-of-intestinal-hsp70-in-barrier-maintenance-contribution-of-milk-to-the-induction-of-hsp70-2
#2
Rebecca M Rentea, Yuee Guo, Xiaorong Zhu, Mark W Musch, Eugene B Chang, David M Gourlay, Jennifer L Liedel
BACKGROUND: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a gastrointestinal disease of complex etiology resulting in devastating systemic inflammation and often death in premature newborns. We previously demonstrated that formula feeding inhibits ileal expression of heat shock protein-70 (Hsp70), a critical stress protein within the intestine. Barrier function for the premature intestine is critical. We sought to determine whether reduced Hsp70 protein expression increases neonatal intestinal permeability...
December 1, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193800/suppression-of-circadian-secretion-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-by-the-saturated-fatty-acid-palmitate
#3
A Martchenko, R H Oh, S E Wheeler, P Gurges, J A Chalmers, P L Brubaker
AIM: Glucagon-like peptide-1 is an incretin hormone secreted by the intestinal L-cell with a circadian rhythm that parallels expression of the core clock gene, Bmal1. Although feeding rats a high-fat/high-sucrose Western diet impairs rhythmic glucagon-like peptide-1 release, the mechanisms underlying this effect remain unclear. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine the pathway(s) by which the saturated fat, palmitate, a major component of the Western diet, impairs circadian glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion...
November 29, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193328/transport-of-valine-across-the-small-intestinal-epithelium-in-pigs-fed-different-valine-levels-and-bacillus-subtilis
#4
K Blaabjerg, J V Nørgaard, B Nielsen, M D Cantor, P Derkx, J Sehested, H D Poulsen
Mutants of Bacillus subtilis overproducing valine (B. subtilis VAL) could be an approach to supply pigs dietary valine (Val). In the study, 18 gilts were fed: (i) negative diet with a standardized ileal digestible (SID) Val:Lys of 0.63:1 (Neg); (ii) Neg added B. subtilis VAL (1.28 × 1011  cfu/kg as-fed) or; (iii) Neg added L-Val to a Val:Lys of 0.69:1. Using the Ussing chamber method, the study aimed to investigate whether (i) the diets affect intestinal transport of additions of 0, 5, 10 or 20 mmol Val/L from the mucosal to the serosal side and (ii) the B...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170486/effects-of-lipid-emulsion-particle-size-on-satiety-and-energy-intake-a-randomised-cross-over-trial
#5
Sally D Poppitt, Stephanie C Budgett, Alastair K MacGibbon, Siew-Young Quek, Sophie Kindleysides, Katy R Wiessing
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Emulsified lipids, with central lipid core surrounded by polar lipid 'protective coat', have been proposed to stimulate the ileal brake, alter appetite, food intake and aid weight control. In addition to lipid composition, emulsion particle size may contribute to efficacy with small droplets providing a larger surface area for gastrointestinal (GI) lipase action and larger droplets prolonging and delaying digestion in the GI tract. Tube feeding studies delivering emulsions directly into the small intestine show clear effects of smaller particle size on appetite and food intake, but evidence from oral feeding studies is sparse...
November 24, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152793/effects-of-dietary-tryptophan-levels-on-performance-and-biochemical-variables-of-plasma-and-intestinal-mucosa-in-yellow-feathered-broiler-breeders
#6
S Q Jiang, Z Y Gou, X J Lin, L Li
The effects of dietary tryptophan (Trp) levels on performance and biochemical variables of plasma and intestinal mucosa in broiler breeder hens were investigated in this study. A total of 780 Lingnan yellow-feathered broiler breeder hens were randomly assigned in one of five dietary treatments with six replicates per treatment (26 birds per replicate). The breeder hens were fed either the basal diet (0.11% Trp) or the basal diet supplemented to 0.15%, 0.19%, 0.23% and 0.27% Trp, from 197 to 259 days of age...
November 19, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143703/dose-response-evaluation-of-the-standardized-ileal-digestible-tryptophan-lysine-ratio-to-maximize-growth-performance-of-growing-finishing-gilts-under-commercial-conditions
#7
M A D Gonçalves, M D Tokach, N M Bello, K J Touchette, R D Goodband, J M DeRouchey, J C Woodworth, S S Dritz
Environmental regulations as well as economic incentives have resulted in greater use of synthetic amino acids in swine diets. Tryptophan is typically the second limiting amino acid in corn-soybean meal-based diets. However, using corn-based co-products emphasizes the need to evaluate the pig's response to increasing Trp concentrations. Therefore, the objective of these studies was to evaluate the dose-response to increasing standardized ileal digestible (SID) Trp : Lys on growth performance of growing-finishing gilts housed under large-scale commercial conditions...
November 16, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141016/intestinal-microbiota-profiles-associated-with-low-and-high-residual-feed-intake-in-chickens-across-two-geographical-locations
#8
Sina-Catherine Siegerstetter, Stephan Schmitz-Esser, Elizabeth Magowan, Stefanie Urimare Wetzels, Qendrim Zebeli, Peadar G Lawlor, Niamh E O'Connell, Barbara U Metzler-Zebeli
Intestinal microbe-host interactions can affect the feed efficiency (FE) of chickens. As inconsistent findings for FE-associated bacterial taxa were reported across studies, the present objective was to identify whether bacterial profiles and predicted metabolic functions that were associated with residual feed intake (RFI) and performance traits in female and male chickens were consistent across two different geographical locations. At six weeks of life, the microbiota in ileal, cecal and fecal samples of low (n = 34) and high (n = 35) RFI chickens were investigated by sequencing the V3-5 region of the 16S rRNA gene...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140465/short-chain-arabinoxylans-prepared-from-enzymatically-treated-wheat-grain-exert-prebiotic-effects-during-the-broiler-starter-period
#9
N Yacoubi, L Saulnier, E Bonnin, E Devillard, V Eeckhaut, L Rhayat, R Ducatelle, F Van Immerseel
Carbohydrate-degrading multi-enzyme preparations (MEP) are used to improve broiler performances. Their mode of action is complex and not fully understood. In this study, we compared the effect of water-soluble fractions isolated at the pilot scale from wheat grain incubated with (WE) and without (WC) MEP. The fractions were incorporated in a wheat-based diet (0.1% w/w) to feed Ross PM3 broilers and compared with a non-supplemented control group (NC). The body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) until d 14 were determined...
November 10, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137145/dietary-pea-fiber-supplementation-improves-glycemia-and-induces-changes-in-the-composition-of-gut-microbiota-serum-short-chain-fatty-acid-profile-and-expression-of-mucins-in-glucose-intolerant-rats
#10
Zohre Hashemi, Janelle Fouhse, Hyun Seun Im, Catherine B Chan, Benjamin P Willing
Several studies have demonstrated the beneficial impact of dried peas and their components on glucose tolerance; however, the role of gut microbiota as a potential mediator is not fully examined. In this study, we investigated the effect of dietary supplementation with raw and cooked pea seed coats (PSC) on glucose tolerance, microbial composition of the gut, select markers of intestinal barrier function, and short chain fatty acid profile in glucose intolerant rats. Male Sprague Dawley rats were fed high fat diet (HFD) for six weeks to induce glucose intolerance, followed by four weeks of feeding PSC-supplemented diets...
November 12, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126320/screening-lactic-acid-bacteria-to-manufacture-two-stage-fermented-feed-and-pelleting-to-investigate-the-feeding-effect-on-broilers
#11
Ruei Han Yeh, Chia Wen Hsieh, Kuo Lung Chen
Bacillus subtilis var. natto N21 (BS) and different lactic acid bacteria were applied to produce two-stage fermented feeds. Broilers were fed these feeds to select the best fermented feed. The selected fermented feed was pelleted and investigated for its effects on growth performance, carcass traits, intestinal microflora, serum biochemical constituents, and apparent ileal nutrient digestibility. Trial 1 involved three hundred thirty-six 1-d-old broilers with equal numbers of each sex, randomly assigned into control, BS + Bacillus coagulans L12 (BBC), BS + Lactobacillus casei (BLC), BS + Lactobacillus acidophilus (BLA), BS + Lactobacillus acidophilus L15 (BLA15), BS + Lactobacillus delbruekckii (BLD), and BS + Lactobacillus reuteri P24 (BLR24) groups with 3 replicates per group...
November 4, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121338/efficacy-of-%C3%AE-mannanase-on-broiler-growth-performance-and-energy-utilization-in-the-presence-of-increasing-dietary-galactomannan
#12
R E Latham, M P Williams, H G Walters, B Carter, J T Lee
An experiment was conducted to investigate the impact of β-mannanase inclusion on growth performance, viscosity, and energy utilization in broilers fed diets varying in galactomannan (GM) concentrations. Treatments were arranged as a 3 (GM concentration) × 3 (β-mannanase inclusion) factorial randomized complete block design with 12 replicates of 29 male broilers per replicate for a 42-d experiment. Efforts were made to reduce the amount of soybean meal, and thus GM, in the basal diet with guar gum included at 0, 0...
November 7, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110578/effects-of-combined-%C3%AE-galactosidase-and-xylanase-supplementation-on-nutrient-digestibility-and-growth-performance-in-growing-pigs
#13
Shihai Zhang, Junjie Song, Zixiao Deng, Lin Cheng, Min Tian, Wutai Guan
Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of combined supplementation of α-galactosidase and xylanase on nutrient digestibility and growth performance in growing pigs. Experiment 1 had a 2 × 2 Latin square design, where eight barrows (45.0 ± 0.52 kg body weight [BW]) were fitted with a simple T-cannula in the distal ileum and received a basal diet without or with supplementation of α-galactosidase (12 U/kg diet) and xylanase (15 AXC/kg diet) within two periods of 10 d. The apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients, pH, viscosity of digesta and digestive enzyme activities were assessed...
December 2017: Archives of Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108062/detoxification-metabolism-and-glutathione-pathway-activity-of-aflatoxin-b1-by-dietary-lactic-acid-bacteria-in-broiler-chickens
#14
N Liu, K Ding, J Q Wang, S C Jia, J P Wang, T S Xu
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and the glutathione (GSH) pathway are protective against aflatoxin, but information on the effect of LAB on aflatoxin metabolism and GSH activity in farm animals is scarce. This study aimed to investigate the effects of LAB and aflatoxin B (AFB) on growth performance, aflatoxin metabolism, and GSH pathway activity using 480 male Arbor Acres broiler chickens from d 1 to 35 of age. Diets were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial design, including AFB at 0 or 40 µg/kg of feed and LAB at 0 or 3 × 10 cfu/kg of feed, and the LAB was a mixture of equal amounts of , , and ...
October 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079983/improving-growth-performance-and-health-status-of-meat-type-quail-by-supplementing-the-diet-with-black-cumin-cold-pressed-oil-as-a-natural-alternative-for-antibiotics
#15
Mohamed E Abd El-Hack, Samir A Mahgoub, Mohamed M A Hussein, Islam M Saadeldin
Using antibiotics in poultry diets as growth promoters was reported to have harmful effects on consumers, so the current study was done to monitor the impact of dietary supplementation of antimicrobial black cumin oil (BCO) on carcass traits, growth performance, biochemical components, and ileal microbial populations of growing Japanese quails. Three hundred growing Japanese quails were used with three different treatments (0, 0.50, and 1.0 g BCO/g diet). Birds fed diet supplemented with 0.5 g BCO/kg diet showed significant increase in body weight comparing with the control and other treatment group...
October 27, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077957/effects-of-a-high-level-of-phytase-on-broiler-performance-bone-ash-phosphorus-utilization-and-phytate-dephosphorylation-to-inositol
#16
A E Gautier, C L Walk, R N Dilger
An experiment was conducted to evaluate how the addition of microbial phytase influenced growth performance, bone mineralization, tissue P content, apparent digestibility and retention, and inositol phosphate (IP) concentrations in broilers fed diets with varying mineral matrices from 2 to 23 d of age. At 2 d of age, chicks were randomly allotted to receive 1 of 6 experimental diets arranged as a 3 × 2 factorial of mineral matrix [control diet with 1.0% Ca and 0.5% non-phytate phosphorus (NPP); mineral matrix 1 with 0...
October 25, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065938/review-pork-production-with-maximal-nitrogen-efficiency
#17
S Millet, M Aluwé, A Van den Broeke, F Leen, J De Boever, S De Campeneere
During growth, pigs convert plant protein into animal protein. The major part of the ingested protein is excreted via manure, with potential nitrogen (N) losses to the environment. To limit N losses and increase sustainability of pork production, the efficiency of protein conversion should be maximized. The aim of this paper is to critically evaluate diet and management strategies linked with N efficiency. Besides nutrition, we discuss three management strategies observed in science and in practice to be linked with improved N efficiency: genetic selection, castration and slaughter weight...
October 25, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058462/the-effect-of-eubiotic-feed-additives-on-the-performance-of-growing-pigs-and-the-activity-of-intestinal-microflora
#18
Piotr Nowak, Małgorzata Kasprowicz-Potocka, Anita Zaworska, Włodzimierz Nowak, Barbara Stefańska, Anna Sip, Włodzimierz Grajek, Wojciech Juzwa, Marcin Taciak, Marcin Barszcz, Anna Tuśnio, Katarzyna Grajek, Joanna Foksowicz-Flaczyk, Andrzej Frankiewicz
The aim of this study was to compare the effect of probiotic bacteria, prebiotics, phytobiotics and their combinations on performance and microbial activity in the digestive tract of growing pigs. The experiment was conducted over 28 d on 48 male pigs of about 12 kg body weight (BW), which were allocated to following treatments.: (1) Control Group (Con) without additive, (2) Group I, addition of a prebiotic (inulin), (3) Group Ph, a phytobiotic (herbal water extracts), (4) Group P, a probiotic composed of four strains of lactic acid bacteria, (5) Group PhP, phytobiotic and probiotic bacteria and (6) Group PhPI, a phytobiotic, probiotic bacteria and a prebiotic...
October 23, 2017: Archives of Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053831/effect-of-dietary-fiber-levels-on-performance-gizzard-development-intestinal-morphology-and-nutrient-utilization-in-meat-ducks-from-1-to-21-days-of-age
#19
H Y Han, K Y Zhang, X M Ding, S P Bai, Y H Luo, J P Wang, Q F Zeng
The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of dietary fiber levels on growth performance, gizzard development, intestinal morphology, and nutrient utilization in Cherry Valley meat ducks. In total, 720 1-day-old ducklings were fed with starter diets (120 ducklings, 8 pens of 15 ducklings, on each diet) containing 6 levels of crude fiber (CF, 1.46, 3.09, 4.15, 6.18, 7.52, and 9.03%, based on analysis) for 21 d. Then, on d 22, ducks fed all of the starter diets were transferred to a grower diet (containing 4% CF) to examine the residual effect of starter dietary fiber levels until 35 d...
October 10, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051826/apparent-and-standardized-ileal-nutrient-digestibility-of-broiler-diets-containing-varying-levels-of-raw-full-fat-soybean-and-microbial-protease
#20
Mammo M Erdaw, Rider A Perez-Maldonado, Paul A Iji
BACKGROUND: Although soybean meal (SBM) is excellent source of protein in diets for poultry, it is sometimes inaccessible, costly and fluctuates in supply. The SBM can partially be replaced by full-fat SBM, but the meals prepared from raw full-fat soybean contain antinutritional factors. To avoid the risk of antinutritional factors, heat treatment is always advisable, but either excessive or under heating the soybean could negatively affect the quality. However, the potential for further improvement of SBM by supplementing with microbial enzymes has been suggested by many researchers...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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