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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431146/response-of-broiler-chickens-fed-wheat-based-diets-to-xylanase-supplementation
#1
G Gonzalez-Ortiz, D Sola-Oriol, M Martinez-Mora, J F Perez, M R Bedford
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of xylanase supplementation on performance, footpad score (FPS), nutrient digestibility, and intestinal morphometry in broiler chickens. Two-hundred-eighty-eight Ross 308 broiler chicks (one d old) were placed in one of 3 experimental treatments: positive control (PC), negative control (NC) (-150 kcal/kg), and XYL (NC supplemented with xylanase). Each treatment had 8 replicates with 12 animals each. Starter (zero to 21 d) and grower (21 to 42 d) diets, based on wheat and soy-bean meal, were available ad libitum...
April 18, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429994/ileal-endogenous-losses-in-pigs-feeding-a-protein-free-diet-or-diets-with-different-contents-of-casein-or-crystalline-amino-acids
#2
Matej Brestenský, Soňa Nitrayová, Peter Patráš
The common usage of protein-free diets to estimate unspecific AA losses has been criticised as unphysiological and incorrect. Therefore, in this study different diets were tested for the determination of endogenous losses (EL) of amino acids (AA) and nitrogen (N) assuming a complete absorption in the small intestine. Seven cannulated gilts received a protein-free diet (Diet PF) or diets with 3%, 6% or 10% crude protein (CP) from crystalline AA (Diets CA) or casein (Diets CAS) according to a 7 × 7 Latin square design...
June 2017: Archives of Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429993/interactive-effects-of-protein-and-carbohydrates-on-production-of-microbial-metabolites-in-the-large-intestine-of-growing-pigs
#3
Marcin Taciak, Marcin Barszcz, Ewa Święch, Anna Tuśnio, Ilona Bachanek
The study aimed at determining the effect of protein type and indigestible carbohydrates on the concentration of microbial metabolites in the large intestine of pigs. The experiment involved 36 pigs (15 kg initial body weight) divided into six groups, fed cereal-based diets with highly digestible casein (CAS) or potato protein concentrate (PPC) of lower ileal digestibility. Each diet was supplemented with cellulose, raw potato starch or pectin. After 2 weeks of feeding, pigs were sacrificed and samples of caecal and ascending, transverse and descending colon digesta were collected for analyses of microbial metabolites...
June 2017: Archives of Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425258/assessment-of-developmental-and-radiological-long-term-outcomeof-children-with-surgically-treated-midgut-volvulus
#4
Ahmet Murat Çakmak, Özlem Boybeyi Türer, Gülnur Göllü Bahadir, Bilge Türedi, Ufuk Ateş, Adalet Elçin Yildiz, Gönül Küçük, Ömer Suat Fitöz, Betül Ulukol, Mustafa Kemal Aslan, Tutku Soyer, Hüseyin Dindar
BACKGROUND/AIM: The aim is to evaluate the long-term outcome of asymptomatic patients who underwent surgical correction for midgut volvulus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seven patients managed surgically for midgut volvulus in the last 3 years were included. Demographic features, symptoms at presentation, diagnoses, surgical procedures, and complications were recorded. Patients were then contacted for follow-up and evaluation of long-term outcomes. General physical conditions, anthropometric parameters, feeding habits, and defecation histories were evaluated...
April 18, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421423/the-effects-of-direct-fed-microbial-supplementation-as-an-alternative-to-antibiotics-on-growth-performance-intestinal-immune-status-and-epithelial-barrier-gene-expression-in-broiler-chickens
#5
U Gadde, S T Oh, Y S Lee, E Davis, N Zimmerman, T Rehberger, Hyun S Lillehoj
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of Bacillus subtilis-based probiotic supplementation in broiler chicken diets on growth performance, feed efficiency, intestinal cytokine, and tight junction (TJ) protein mRNA expression. Zero-day-old broiler chicks (n = 140) were randomly assigned to one of five dietary treatments: basal diet (CON); basal diet supplemented with either antibiotic bacitracin methylene disalicylate (BMD); or probiotics, namely, B. subtilis strain 1781 (PB1), a combination of B...
April 18, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419372/nutrient-and-fiber-utilization-responses-of-supplemental-xylanase-in-broiler-chickens-fed-wheat-based-diets-are-independent-of-the-adaptation-period-to-test-diets2
#6
E Kiarie, M C Walsh, L F Romero, S Arent, V Ravindran
The effects of adaptation (AD) to xylanase-supplemented diets on nutrient and fiber utilization in 21-d-old broilers were investigated. Six treatments, arranged in two levels of AD (starting at d 0 or d 14 of age) and three levels of xylanase (0 or 2,500 or 5,000 xylanase units/kg feed) were used. All diets had 500 phytase U/kg and 0.3% TiO2 as indigestible marker. A total of 384 d old male broiler (Ross 308) chicks were divided into two groups. The first group was assigned on weight basis to 24 cages (8 chicks per cage) and randomly allocated to the diets from d 0...
April 17, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419329/effects-of-the-inclusion-of-a-bacillus-direct-fed-microbial-on-performance-parameters-bone-quality-recovered-gut-microflora-and-intestinal-morphology-in-broilers-consuming-a-grower-diet-containing-corn-distillers-dried-grains-with-solubles
#7
J D Latorre, X Hernandez-Velasco, J L Vicente, R Wolfenden, B M Hargis, G Tellez
Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) have increasingly been used in poultry diets as a consequence of rising grain costs. Some, but not all, sources of DDGS have a variable compositional value, and a high inclusion of this by-product could be considered a risk factor for presentation of enteric diseases. Presently, 2 experiments were conducted using a starter corn-soybean diet (zero to 7 d) and a corn-DDGS-soybean grower diet (8 to 28 d) with or without inclusion of a Bacillus-direct-fed microbial (DFM)...
April 17, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416038/the-effects-of-fermentation-and-enzymatic-treatment-of-pea-on-nutrient-digestibility-and-growth-performance-of-broilers
#8
F Goodarzi Boroojeni, M Senz, K Kozłowski, D Boros, M Wisniewska, D Rose, K Männer, J Zentek
The present study examined the impacts of native, fermented or enzymatically treated peas (Pisum sativum L.) inclusion in broiler diets, on growth performance and nutrient digestibility. For the fermentation process, Madonna pea was mixed with water (1/1) containing 2.57×108 Bacillus subtilis (GalliPro®) spores/kg pea and then, incubated for 48 h at 30 °C. For the enzymatic treatment process, the used water for dough production contained three enzymes, AlphaGalTM (α-galactosidase), RONOZYME® ProAct and VP (protease and pectinases respectively - DSM, Switzerland) and the pea dough incubated for 24 h at 30°C...
April 18, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400412/western-diet-consumption-induces-alteration-of-barrier-function-mechanisms-in-the-ileum-that-correlates-with-metabolic-endotoxemia-in-rats
#9
Mathilde Guerville, Anaïs Leroy, Annaëlle Sinquin, Fabienne Laugerette, Marie-Caroline Michalski, Gaëlle Boudry
Obesity and its related disorders have been associated to the presence in the blood of gut bacteria-derived lipopolysaccharides (LPS). However, the factors underlying this low-grade elevation in plasma LPS, so-called metabolic endotoxemia, are not fully elucidated. We aimed to investigate the effects of Western diet (WD) feeding on intestinal and hepatic LPS handling mechanisms in a rat model of diet-induced obesity (DIO). Rats were fed either a standard chow diet (C) or a Western Diet (WD, 45% fat) for 6 weeks...
April 11, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398093/increased-iron-level-in-phytase-supplemented-diets-reduce-performance-and-nutrient-utilisation-in-broiler-chickens
#10
M Akter, P A Iji, H Graham
1. The effect of different levels of dietary iron on phytase activity and its subsequent effect on broiler performance was investigated in a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement. A total of 360 day-old Ross 308 male broiler chicks were distributed to 6 experimental diets, formulated with three levels of Fe (60, 80 and 100 mg/kg) and two levels of phytase (0, 500 FTU/kg). 2. Phytase supplemented to mid-Fe diets increased feed consumption more than the non-supplemented diet at d 24. From hatch to d 35, Fe x phytase interaction significantly influenced the FI, BWG and FCR...
April 11, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380619/effects-of-ileal-digesta-collection-time-on-standardized-ileal-digestibility-of-amino-acids-in-corn-soybean-meal-and-distiller-s-dried-grains-with-solubles-fed-to-growing-pigs
#11
B G Kim, Y Liu, H H Stein
The objective of this experiment was to determine the minimum collection time needed to obtain representative samples of ileal digesta from pigs fed different types of diets. Eight barrows with an initial BW of 34.6 kg (SD 2.1) were individually fitted with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and randomly allotted to a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 4 diets and 4 periods per square. Three diets contained corn, soybean meal (SBM), or distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as the sole source of CP...
February 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380613/influence-of-wet-heating-and-autoclaving-on-chemical-composition-and-standardized-ileal-crude-protein-and-amino-acid-digestibility-in-full-fat-soybeans-for-pigs
#12
C Kaewtapee, M Eklund, M Wiltafsky, H-P Piepho, R Mosenthin, P Rosenfelder
One batch each of eight full-fat soybeans (FFSB) was used to determine the effect of different heat treatments including wet heating (WH) and autoclaving (AC) on chemical composition and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA in growing pigs. The raw FFSB (K0) were either treated by WH at 80°C for 1 min (K1), at 100°C for 6 min (K2), or at 100°C for 16 min (K3). Thereafter, these batches were expanded at 125°C for 15 s. A further heat treatment included AC at 110°C for 15 (Z1), 30 (Z2), 45 (Z3), or 60 (Z4) min of FFSB that were subjected to the same WH treatment as K3...
February 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380608/performance-intestinal-microflora-and-amino-acid-digestibility-altered-by-exogenous-enzymes-in-broilers-fed-wheat-or-sorghum-based-diets
#13
D Wu, S B Wu, M Choct, R A Swick
The objective of the current study was to compare the effects of dietary enzymes and nutrient restriction on performance and bone mineralization in birds fed wheat- or sorghum-based diets. A total of 720 d-old male broiler chicks were randomly allocated to 8 treatments, with 6 replicates per treatment and 15 birds per replicate. Birds were reared in floor pens from 0 to 35 d. The study used a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement with 2 grains (sorghum or wheat) and 4 diets: positive control (no enzyme and ME, digestible Lys, Ca, and P sufficient, negative control (NC; no enzyme and reduced ME [-100 kcal/kg], digestible AA [-2%], Ca [-0...
February 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380593/alginate-increases-water-stability-whilst-maintaining-diet-digestibility-in-farmed-saltwater-crocodiles
#14
Magdalene Francis, Patrick C H Morel, Brian H P Wilkinson, Timothy J Wester
Saltwater crocodile () farming in Papua New Guinea is an emerging industry that supplies high-quality skins to the fashion industry. Crocodiles are semiaquatic and fed high-quality feed made from extrudated animal byproducts (i.e., forced through a die at low pressure but not heat treated); however, it disintegrates on contact with water, and this leads to low utilization. Alginate is used extensively in food and pharmaceutical processes because it quickly forms a gel at room temperature; however, its effects on nutrient availability are equivocal, and its utility in crocodile diets is unknown...
February 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371891/supplementing-the-feeds-of-layer-pullets-at-different-ages-with-two-different-fiber-sources-improves-immune-function
#15
Sherzad M Hussein, Johnny S Yokhana, Theresa L Frankel
Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of lignocellulose supplementation on immune function in layer pullets at different stages of growth. Four-wk-old pullets (Experiment 1) were fed a control, diet (Diet C); Diet C plus 1% mixed soluble/insoluble fiber (Diet MF), or plus 1% insoluble fiber (Diet IF). At 7.5 wk-of-age, heterophil phagocytosis, and oxidative burst in Groups MF (328.5 beads/100 cells; 4,330.0 ΔRFU; relative fluorescent units) and IF (350.3; 5,264.4) were greater (P < 0.05) than Controls (303...
March 24, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365118/effect-of-increasing-the-proportion-of-dietary-concentrate-on-gastrointestinal-tract-measurements-and-brush-border-enzyme-activity-in-holstein-steers
#16
P Górka, B L Schurmann, M E Walpole, A Błońska, S Li, J C Plaizier, Z M Kowalski, G B Penner
The aim of this study was to determine the time course for adaptation of the reticulo-rumen, omasum, abomasum, and small intestine in response to an abrupt increase in the proportion of grain in the diet. Adaptive responses include tissue and digesta mass, small intestinal length, and brush border enzyme activity in the duodenum, proximal jejunum, and ileum. Twenty-five Holstein steers (213 ± 23 kg; 5 to 7 mo of age) were blocked by body weight, and within block were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 treatments: the control diet (CTRL; 92% chopped grass hay and 8% mineral and vitamin supplement on a dry matter basis) or a moderate grain diet (MGD; 50% chopped grass hay, 42% rolled barley grain, and 8% mineral and vitamin supplement) that was fed for 3 (MGD3), 7 (MGD7), 14 (MGD14), or 21 d (MGD21)...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348052/bile-acid-administration-elicits-an-intestinal-antimicrobial-program-and-reduces-the-bacterial-burden-in-two-mouse-models-of-enteric-infection
#17
Sarah Tremblay, Guillaume Romain, Mélisange Roux, Xi-Lin Chen, Kirsty Brown, Deanna L Gibson, Sheela Ramanathan, Alfredo Menendez
In addition to their chemical antimicrobial nature, bile acids (BA) are thought to have other functions in the homeostatic control of gastrointestinal immunity. However, those functions have remained largely undefined. In this work, we used ileal explants and mouse models of BA administration to investigate the role of BA in the regulation of the intestinal antimicrobial response. Mice fed on a diet supplemented with 0.1% chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) showed an upregulated expression of Paneth cell α-defensins as well as an increased synthesis of the type-C lectins Reg3b and Reg3g by the ileal epithelium...
March 27, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346507/olive-oil-bioactives-protect-pigs-against-experimentally-induced-chronic-inflammation-independently-of-alterations-in-gut-microbiota
#18
Martin Liehr, Alessandro Mereu, Jose Javier Pastor, Jose Carlos Quintela, Stefanie Staats, Gerald Rimbach, Ignacio Rodolfo Ipharraguerre
Subclinical chronic inflammation (SCI) is associated with impaired animal growth. Previous work has demonstrated that olive-derived plant bioactives exhibit anti-inflammatory properties that could possibly counteract the growth-depressing effects of SCI. To test this hypothesis and define the underlying mechanism, we conducted a 30-day study in which piglets fed an olive-oil bioactive extract (OBE) and their control counterparts (C+) were injected repeatedly during the last 10 days of the study with increasing doses of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharides (LPS) to induce SCI...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339948/effects-of-dietary-coarsely-ground-corn-and-3-bedding-floor-types-on-broiler-live-performance-litter-characteristics-gizzard-and-proventriculus-weight-and-nutrient-digestibility
#19
Y Xu, Y M Lin, C R Stark, P R Ferket, C M Williams, J Brake
The effects of zero or 50% dietary coarsely ground corn (CC) in pelleted and screened grower and finisher diets on broilers reared on 3 bedding floor types (plastic net [NET], new pine wood shavings litter [NEW], or old pine wood shavings litter [OLD]) on broiler live performance, litter characteristics, gizzard and proventriculus weight, and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) were studied in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments. Fine corn was produced with a hammermill (271 μm) and CC with a roller mill (1145 μm)...
March 2, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339933/effect-of-heat-stress-on-amino-acid-digestibility-and-transporters-in-meat-type-chickens
#20
W S Habashy, M C Milfort, K Adomako, Y A Attia, R Rekaya, S E Aggrey
The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of heat stress (HS) on performance, digestibility, and molecular transporters of amino acids in broilers. Cobb 500 chicks were raised from hatch till 13 d in floor pens. At d 14, 48 birds were randomly and equally divided between a control group (25°C) and a HS treatment group (35°C). Birds in both treatment classes were individually caged and fed ad libitum on a diet containing 18.7% CP and 3,560 Kcal ME/Kg. Five birds per treatment at one and 12 d post treatment were euthanized and the Pectoralis major (P...
March 2, 2017: Poultry Science
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