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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549333/endoplasmic-reticulum-er-stress-and-camp-pka-pathway-mediated-zn-induced-hepatic-lipolysis
#1
Yu-Feng Song, Christer Hogstrand, Chuan-Chuan Wei, Kun Wu, Ya-Xiong Pan, Zhi Luo
The present study was performed to determine the effect of Zn exposure influencing endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, explore the underlying molecular mechanism of Zn-induced hepatic lipolysis in a fish species of significance for aquaculture, yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. We found that waterborne Zn exposure evoked ER stress and unfolded protein response (UPR), and activated cAMP/PKA pathway, and up-regulated hepatic lipolysis. The increase in ER stress and lipolysis were associated with activation of cAMP/PKA signaling pathway...
May 23, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549291/antidiabetogenic-efficiency-of-menthol-improves-glucose-homeostasis-and-attenuates-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-apoptosis-in-streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced-experimental-rats-through-ameliorating-glucose-metabolic-enzymes
#2
Udaiyar Muruganathan, Subramani Srinivasan, Veerasamy Vinothkumar
The phytochemical, menthol, has been reported to play many beneficial roles. However, under diabetic conditions, there is no detail mechanism of its beneficial action in the glucose homeostasis. The present study, we investigated to explore the role of menthol, on the glucose metabolic enzymes and pancreatic islet cell apoptosis of streptozotocin-nicotinamide (STZ-NA) induced diabetes in rats. Diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of STZ (50mg/kg/b.w.) and NA (110mg/kg/b.w.). Diabetic rats were treated with different dose of menthol (25, 50, and 100mg/kg/b...
May 23, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549191/maintenance-of-phosphate-homeostasis-and-root-development-are-coordinately-regulated-by-myb1-an-r2r3-type-myb-transcription-factor-in-rice
#3
Mian Gu, Jun Zhang, Huanhuan Li, Daqian Meng, Ran Li, Xiaoli Dai, Shichao Wang, Wei Liu, Hongye Qu, Guohua Xu
The adaptive responses of plants to phosphate (Pi) starvation stress are fine-tuned by an elaborate regulatory network. In this study, we identified and characterized a novel Pi starvation-responsive gene, MYB1, encoding an R2R3-type transcription factor in rice. MYB1 was transcriptionally induced in leaf sheaths and old leaf blades. It was localized to the nucleus and expressed mainly in vascular tissues. Mutation of MYB1 led to an increase in Pi uptake and accumulation, accompanied by altered expression of a subset of Pi transporters and several genes involved in Pi starvation signaling...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549128/atad3-gene-cluster-deletions-cause-cerebellar-dysfunction-associated-with-altered-mitochondrial-dna-and-cholesterol-metabolism
#4
Radha Desai, Ann E Frazier, Romina Durigon, Harshil Patel, Aleck W Jones, Ilaria Dalla Rosa, Nicole J Lake, Alison G Compton, Hayley S Mountford, Elena J Tucker, Alice L R Mitchell, Deborah Jackson, Abdul Sesay, Miriam Di Re, Lambert P van den Heuvel, Derek Burke, David Francis, Sebastian Lunke, George McGillivray, Simone Mandelstam, Fanny Mochel, Boris Keren, Claude Jardel, Anne M Turner, P Ian Andrews, Jan Smeitink, Johannes N Spelbrink, Simon J Heales, Masakazu Kohda, Akira Ohtake, Kei Murayama, Yasushi Okazaki, Anne Lombès, Ian J Holt, David R Thorburn, Antonella Spinazzola
Although mitochondrial disorders are clinically heterogeneous, they frequently involve the central nervous system and are among the most common neurogenetic disorders. Identifying the causal genes has benefited enormously from advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies; however, once the defect is known, researchers face the challenge of deciphering the underlying disease mechanism. Here we characterize large biallelic deletions in the region encoding the ATAD3C, ATAD3B and ATAD3A genes. Although high homology complicates genomic analysis of the ATAD3 defects, they can be identified by targeted analysis of standard single nucleotide polymorphism array and whole exome sequencing data...
June 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549095/klf4-plays-an-essential-role-in-corneal-epithelial-homeostasis-by-promoting-epithelial-cell-fate-and-suppressing-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition
#5
Anil Tiwari, Chelsea L Loughner, Sudha Swamynathan, Shivalingappa K Swamynathan
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that KLF4 promotes corneal epithelial (CE) cell fate by suppressing the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), using spatiotemporally regulated CE-specific ablation of Klf4 in Klf4Δ/ΔCE (Klf4LoxP/LoxP/Krt12rtTA/rtTA/Tet-O-Cre) mice. Methods: CE-specific ablation of Klf4 was achieved by feeding Klf4Δ/ΔCE mice with doxycycline chow. The wild-type (WT; normal chow-fed littermates) and the Klf4Δ/ΔCE histology was compared by hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections; EMT marker expression was quantified by quantitative PCR, immunoblots, and immunofluorescent staining; and wound healing rate was measured by CE debridement using Algerbrush...
May 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549066/alternative-exon-definition-events-control-the-choice-between-nuclear-retention-and-cytoplasmic-export-of-u11-u12-65k-mrna
#6
Jens Verbeeren, Bhupendra Verma, Elina H Niemelä, Karen Yap, Eugene V Makeyev, Mikko J Frilander
Cellular homeostasis of the minor spliceosome is regulated by a negative feed-back loop that targets U11-48K and U11/U12-65K mRNAs encoding essential components of the U12-type intron-specific U11/U12 di-snRNP. This involves interaction of the U11 snRNP with an evolutionarily conserved splicing enhancer giving rise to unproductive mRNA isoforms. In the case of U11/U12-65K, this mechanism controls the length of the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR). We show that this process is dynamically regulated in developing neurons and some other cell types, and involves a binary switch between translation-competent mRNAs with a short 3'UTR to non-productive isoforms with a long 3'UTR that are retained in the nucleus or/and spliced to the downstream amylase locus...
May 26, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548992/gut-microbiota-and-host-defense-in-critical-illness
#7
Max C Jacobs, Bastiaan W Haak, Floor Hugenholtz, W Joost Wiersinga
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review aims to discuss emerging evidence in the field of microbiome-dependent roles in host defense during critical illness with a focus on lung, kidney, and brain inflammation. RECENT FINDINGS: The gut microbiota of critical ill patients is characterized by lower diversity, lower abundances of key commensal genera, and in some cases overgrowth by one bacterial genera, a state otherwise known as dysbiosis. Increasing evidence suggests that microbiota-derived components can reach the circulatory system from the gut and modulate immune homeostasis...
May 25, 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548846/ambient-size-distributions-and-lung-deposition-of-aerosol-dithiothreitol-measured-oxidative-potential-a-contrast-between-soluble-and-insoluble-particles
#8
Ting Fang, Linghan Zeng, Dong Gao, Vishal Verma, Aleksandr B Stefaniak, Rodney J Weber
Ambient particulate matter (PM) may upset redox homeostasis leading to oxidative stress and adverse health effects. Size distributions of water-insoluble and water-soluble OP^DTT (dithiothreitol assay, measure of oxidative potential per air volume) are reported for a road-side and urban site. The average water-insoluble fractions were 23% and 51%, and 37% and 39% for fine and coarse mode at the road-side and urban site, respectively, measured during different periods. Water-soluble OP^DTT was unimodal peaked near 1-2...
May 26, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548387/a-quantitative-systems-physiology-model-of-renal-function-and-blood-pressure-regulation-model-description
#9
K M Hallow, Y Gebremichael
Renal function plays a central role in cardiovascular, kidney, and multiple other diseases, and many existing and novel therapies act through renal mechanisms. Even with decades of accumulated knowledge of renal physiology, pathophysiology, and pharmacology, the dynamics of renal function remain difficult to understand and predict, often resulting in unexpected or counterintuitive therapy responses. Quantitative systems pharmacology modeling of renal function integrates this accumulated knowledge into a quantitative framework, allowing evaluation of competing hypotheses, identification of knowledge gaps, and generation of new experimentally testable hypotheses...
May 26, 2017: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547895/review-of-flexible-temperature-sensing-networks-for-wearable-physiological-monitoring
#10
REVIEW
Qiao Li, Li-Na Zhang, Xiao-Ming Tao, Xin Ding
Physiological temperature varies temporally and spatially. Accurate and real-time detection of localized temperature changes in biological tissues regardless of large deformation is crucial to understand thermal principle of homeostasis, to assess sophisticated health conditions, and further to offer possibilities of building a smart healthcare and medical system. Additionally, continuous temperature mapping in flexible and stretchable formats opens up many other potential areas, such as artificially electronic skins and reflection of emotional changes...
May 26, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547871/sequence-based-analysis-of-protein-degradation-rates-a-computational-study-of-protein-degradation
#11
Miguel Correa Marrero, Aalt D J van Dijk, Dick de Ridder
Protein turnover is a key aspect of cellular homeostasis and proteome dynamics. However, there is little consensus on which properties of a protein determine its lifetime in the cell. In this work, we exploit two reliable datasets of experimental protein degradation rates to learn models and uncover determinants of protein degradation, with particular focus on properties that can be derived from the sequence. Our work shows that simple sequence features suffice to obtain predictive models of which the output correlates reasonably well with the experimentally measured values...
May 25, 2017: Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547848/effect-of-ceramic-calcium-phosphorus-ratio-on-chondrocyte-mediated-biosynthesis-and-mineralization
#12
Margaret K Boushell, Nora T Khanarian, Raquel Z LeGeros, Helen H Lu
The osteochondral interface functions as a structural barrier between cartilage and bone, maintaining tissue integrity post injury and during homeostasis. Regeneration of this calcified cartilage region is thus essential for integrative cartilage healing, and hydrogel-ceramic composite scaffolds have been explored for calcified cartilage formation. The objective of this study is to test the hypothesis that Ca/P ratio of the ceramic phase of the composite scaffold regulates chondrocyte biosynthesis and mineralization potential...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547758/ghrelin-receptors-mediate-ghrelin-induced-excitation-of-agrp-npy-but-not-pomc-neurons
#13
Shao-Rui Chen, Hong Chen, Jing-Jing Zhou, Geetali Pradhan, Yuxiang Sun, Hui-Lin Pan, De-Pei Li
Ghrelin increases food intake and body weight by stimulating orexigenic AgRP/NPY neurons and inhibiting anoexic POMC neurons in the hypothalamus. Growth hormone secretagogue receptor (Ghsr) mediates the effect of ghrelin on feeding behavior and energy homeostasis. However, the role of Ghsr in the ghrelin effect on these two populations of neurons is unclear. We hypothesized that Ghsr mediates the effect of ghrelin on AgRP and POMC neurons. In this study, we determined whether Ghsr similarly mediates the effects of ghrelin on AgRP/NPY and POMC neurons using cell type-specific Ghsr-knockout mice...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546856/epigenetic-regulation-of-runx2-transcription-and-osteoblast-differentiation-by-nicotinamide-phosphoribosyltransferase
#14
Min Ling, Peixin Huang, Shamima Islam, Daniel P Heruth, Xuanan Li, Li Qin Zhang, Ding-You Li, Zhaohui Hu, Shui Qing Ye
BACKGROUND: Bone degenerative disorders like osteoporosis may be initiated by age-related shifts in anabolic and catabolic responses that control bone homeostasis. Although there are studies suggesting that metabolic changes occur with stem cell differentiation, the molecular mechanisms governing energy metabolism and epigenetic modification are not understood fully. Here we reported the key role of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in the salvage pathway of NAD biosynthesis from nicotinamide, in the osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells...
2017: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546854/sirt1-inhibits-oxidative-stress-in-vascular-endothelial-cells
#15
REVIEW
Weijin Zhang, Qiaobing Huang, Zhenhua Zeng, Jie Wu, Yaoyuan Zhang, Zhongqing Chen
The vascular endothelium is a layer of cells lining the inner surface of vessels, serving as a barrier that mediates microenvironment homeostasis. Deterioration of either the structure or function of endothelial cells (ECs) results in a variety of cardiovascular diseases. Previous studies have shown that reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a key factor that contributes to the impairment of ECs and the subsequent endothelial dysfunction. The longevity regulator Sirt1 is a NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase that has a potential antioxidative stress activity in vascular ECs...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546765/vitamin-d-prohormone-in-the-treatment-of-secondary-hyperparathyroidism-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#16
REVIEW
Claudia Friedl, Emanuel Zitt
Secondary hyperparathyroidism (sHPT) represents the adaptive and very often, finally, maladaptive response of the organism to control the disturbed homeostasis of calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D metabolism caused by declining renal function in chronic kidney disease (CKD). sHPT leads to cardiovascular and extravascular calcifications and is directly linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality as well as excess all-cause mortality. Vitamin D plays an important role in the development of sHPT...
2017: International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546564/roles-of-intestinal-epithelial-cells-in-the-maintenance-of-gut-homeostasis
#17
REVIEW
Ryu Okumura, Kiyoshi Takeda
The intestine is a unique organ inhabited by a tremendous number of microorganisms. Intestinal epithelial cells greatly contribute to the maintenance of the symbiotic relationship between gut microbiota and the host by constructing mucosal barriers, secreting various immunological mediators and delivering bacterial antigens. Mucosal barriers, including physical barriers and chemical barriers, spatially segregate gut microbiota and the host immune system to avoid unnecessary immune responses to gut microbes, leading to the intestinal inflammation...
May 26, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546563/microbiota-in-t-cell-homeostasis-and-inflammatory-diseases
#18
REVIEW
Naeun Lee, Wan-Uk Kim
The etiology of disease pathogenesis can be largely explained by genetic variations and several types of environmental factors. In genetically disease-susceptible individuals, subsequent environmental triggers may induce disease development. The human body is colonized by complex commensal microbes that have co-evolved with the host immune system. With the adaptation to modern lifestyles, its composition has changed depending on host genetics, changes in diet, overuse of antibiotics against infection and elimination of natural enemies through the strengthening of sanitation...
May 26, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546545/extensive-phenotypic-characterization-of-a-new-transgenic-mouse-reveals-pleiotropic-perturbations-in-physiology-due-to-mesenchymal-hgh-minigene-expression
#19
Aimilios Kaklamanos, Jan Rozman, Manolis Roulis, Niki Karagianni, Maria Armaka, Moya Wu, Laura Brachthäuser, Julia Calzada-Wack, Marion Horsch, Johannes Beckers, Birgit Rathkolb, Thure Adler, Frauke Neff, Eckhard Wolf, Valerie Gailus-Durner, Helmut Fuchs, Martin Hrabe de Angelis, George Kollias
The human growth hormone (hGH) minigene used for transgene stabilization in mice has been recently identified to be locally expressed in the tissues where transgenes are active and associated with phenotypic alterations. Here we extend these findings by analyzing the effect of the hGH minigene in TgC6hp55 transgenic mice which express the human TNFR1 under the control of the mesenchymal cell-specific CollagenVI promoter. These mice displayed a fully penetrant phenotype characterized by growth enhancement accompanied by perturbations in metabolic, skeletal, histological and other physiological parameters...
May 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546541/protective-effect-of-low-dose-intra-articular-cadmium-on-inflammation-and-joint-destruction-in-arthritis
#20
Paola Bonaventura, Guillaume Courbon, Aline Lamboux, Fabien Lavocat, Hubert Marotte, Francis Albarède, Pierre Miossec
Synovium hyperplasia characterizes joint diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The cytotoxic effect of low-dose Cadmium (Cd) was tested in vitro and ex vivo on synoviocytes, the mesenchymal key effector cells of inflammation and proliferation in arthritis. The anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative effects of Cd were tested in vivo by intra-articular injection in the adjuvant induced arthritis rat joints, where the clinical scores and the consequences of arthritis were evaluated. Cell death through apoptosis was highly induced by Cd in inflammatory synoviocytes (80% reduction of cell viability, p < 0...
May 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
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