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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909574/the-possible-antidiabetic-effects-of-vitamin-d-receptors-agonist-in-rat-model-of-type-2-diabetes
#1
Wafaa M Abdel-Rehim, Rasha A El-Tahan, Mennatullah A El-Tarawy, Rowaida R Shehata, Maher A Kamel
Vitamin D3 deficiency was found to be tightly linked to many health problems including metabolic syndrome, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In our study, we tested the possible antidiabetic effects of one of vitamin D3 analogs, alfacalcidol, solely or in a combination with metformin on type 2 diabetic rats. Type 2 diabetic model rats were induced by feeding high-fat diet for 4 weeks followed by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. In addition to the control group, the diabetic rats were divided into four groups: untreated, metformin-treated, alfacalcidol-treated, and combination-treated group (metformin + alfacalcidol) for 4 weeks...
June 16, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909547/modulation-of-mg-2-influx-and-cytoplasmic-free-mg-2-concentration-in-rat-ventricular-myocytes
#2
Michiko Tashiro, Hana Inoue, Masato Konishi
To examine whether TRPM7, a member of the melastatin family of transient receptor potential channels, is a physiological pathway for Mg2+ entry in mammalian cells, we studied the effect of TRPM7 regulators on cytoplasmic free Mg2+ concentration ([Mg2+ ]i ) of rat ventricular myocytes. Acutely isolated single cells were AM-loaded with the fluorescent indicator furaptra, and [Mg2+ ]i was estimated at 25 °C. After [Mg2+ ]i was lowered by soaking the cells with a high-K+ and Mg2+ -Ca2+ -free solution, [Mg2+ ]i was recovered by extracellular perfusion of Ca2+ -free Tyrode's solution that contained 1 mM Mg2+ ...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909493/an-overview-of-mast-cell-pattern-recognition-receptors
#3
REVIEW
Justyna Agier, Joanna Pastwińska, Ewa Brzezińska-Błaszczyk
BACKGROUND: Mast cells (MCs) are long-lived immune cells of the connective tissue which play a key role in development and amplification of inflammatory process initiated inter alia by allergic reactions or microbial infections. They reside in strategic locations in the body that are notably exposed to deleterious factors disturbing homeostasis, which enables them to become one of the first-line defense strategy. MCs have developed a wide range of various mechanisms to deal with invading intruders and harmful endogenic factors...
June 16, 2018: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909460/modulation-of-brain-ace-and-ace2-may-be-a-promising-protective-strategy-against-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-an-experimental-trial-in-rats
#4
Maha Mohammed Abdel-Fattah, Basim Anwar Shehata Messiha, Ahmed Mohamed Mansour
The brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is considered a crucial regulator for physiological homeostasis and disease progression. We evaluated the protective effects of the angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) telmisartan and the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) activator xanthenone on experimental cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Rats were divided into a sham control, a cerebral I/R control, a standard treatment (nimodipine, 10 mg/kg/day, 15 days, p.o.), three telmisartan treatments (1, 3, and 10 mg/kg/day, 15 days, p...
June 17, 2018: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909440/thrombospondin-1-interactions-regulate-eicosanoid-metabolism-and-signaling-in-cancer-related-inflammation
#5
Manuel U Ramirez, Elizabeth R Stirling, Nancy J Emenaker, David D Roberts, David R Soto-Pantoja
The metabolism of arachidonic acid and other polyunsaturated fatty acids produces eicosanoids, a family of biologically active lipids that are implicated in homeostasis and in several pathologies that involve inflammation. Inflammatory processes mediated by eicosanoids promote carcinogenesis by exerting direct effects on cancer cells and by affecting the tumor microenvironment. Therefore, understanding how eicosanoids mediate cancer progression may lead to better approaches and chemopreventive strategies for the treatment of cancer...
June 16, 2018: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909367/regulatory-t-cell-subsets-are-differentially-dependent-on-cd28-for-their-proliferation
#6
Ei Wakamatsu, Hiroki Omori, Shizuka Ohtsuka, Shuhei Ogawa, Jonathan M Green, Ryo Abe
It is thought that CD28 plays a crucial role in the maintenance of regulatory T cell (Treg) pool size through promoting the development and proliferation of these cells. However, recently we found that the dependency on CD28 co-stimulation for their development is different between Treg subsets, thymus-derived Tregs (tTregs, CD28-dependent) and peripherally-derived Tregs (pTregs, CD28-independent), suggesting that CD28 may also have differential influences on the homeostasis of each Treg subset. Here, we demonstrated that both Treg subsets were reduced in secondary lymphoid organs of CD28 deficient mice, and that this reduction was due to impaired proliferation in both Treg subsets by the intrinsic CD28 defect...
June 14, 2018: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909279/the-kank-family-proteins-in-adhesion-dynamics
#7
REVIEW
Nan-Peng Chen, Zhiqi Sun, Reinhard Fässler
Integrin-mediated cell adhesion plays key roles for cell movement during development and tissue homeostasis. The dynamic life cycle of various integrin adhesions structures is required for the cell movements and regulated by the coordinated actions of both actomyosin and the microtubule (MT) cytoskeleton. The evolutionarily conserved Kank family proteins have emerged as regulators of adhesion dynamics by coordinating integrin-mediated force transmission with the recruitment of microtubules to integrins. These novel functions may play important roles in vivo and in human diseases...
June 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909242/initial-characterization-of-newly-identified-mitochondrial-and-chloroplast-small-hsps-from-sugarcane-shows-that-these-chaperones-have-different-oligomerization-states-and-substrate-specificities
#8
Glaucia M S Pinheiro, Carlos H I Ramos
Chaperones belonging to the small heat shock protein (sHSP) family are ubiquitous and exhibit elevated expression under stresses conditions to protect proteins against aggregation, thereby contributing to the stress tolerance of the organism. Tropical plants are constantly exposed to high temperatures, and the mechanisms by which these plants tolerate heat stress are of foremost importance to basic science as well as applied agrobiotechnology. Therefore, this study aims to characterize sHSPs from different organelles from sugarcane, an important crop that is associated with sugar and bioenergy production...
June 4, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909238/autophagy-as-an-emerging-target-in-cardiorenal-metabolic-disease-from-pathophysiology-to-management
#9
REVIEW
Yingmei Zhang, Adam T Whaley-Connell, James R Sowers, Jun Ren
Although advances in medical technology and health care have improved the early diagnosis and management for cardiorenal metabolic disorders, the prevalence of obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and kidney disease remains high. Findings from numerous population-based studies, clinical trials, and experimental evidence have consolidated a number of theories for the pathogenesis of cardiorenal metabolic anomalies including resistance to the metabolic action of insulin, abnormal glucose and lipid metabolism, oxidative and nitrosative stress, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, apoptosis, mitochondrial damage, and inflammation...
June 15, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909117/corrigendum-to-complex-ii-phosphorylation-is-triggered-by-unbalanced-redox-homeostasis-in-cells-lacking-complex-iii-biochim-biophys-acta-2018-1859-3-182-190
#10
Concetta Valentina Tropeano, Jessica Fiori, Valerio Carelli, Leonardo Caporali, Fevzi Daldal, Anna Maria Ghelli, Michela Rugolo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 14, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909048/serotonin-in-the-gut-blessing-or-a-curse
#11
REVIEW
Suhrid Banskota, Jean-Eric Ghia, Waliul I Khan
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT) once most extensively studied as a neurotransmitter of the central nervous system, is seen to be predominantly secreted in the gut. About 95% of 5-HT is estimated to be found in gut mainly within the enterochromaffin cells whereas about 5% is found in the brain. 5-HT is an important enteric signaling molecule and is well known for playing a key role in sensory-motor and secretory functions in the gut. In recent times studies uncovering various new functions of gut-derived 5-HT indicate that many more are yet to be discovered in coming days...
June 14, 2018: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908907/modulation-of-human-th17-cell-responses-through-complement-receptor-3-cd11-b-cd18-ligation-on-monocyte-derived-dendritic-cells
#12
Johannes Nowatzky, Olivier Manches, Shaukat Ali Khan, Emmanuelle Godefroy, Nina Bhardwaj
OBJECTIVE: Apoptotic cell receptors contribute to the induction of tolerance by modulating dendritic cell function following the uptake of apoptotic cells or microparticles. Dendritic cells that have bound or ingested apoptotic cells produce only low amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines and fail to prime effector T cell responses. Specifically, ligation of the apoptotic cell receptor CR3 (CD11 b/CD18) on human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDC) down-modates proinflammatory cytokine secretion, but the consequences for human Th17 cell homeostasis and effector responses remain unknown...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908831/a-new-method-for-neonatal-rat-ventricular-myocyte-purification-using-superparamagnetic-iron-oxide-particles
#13
Duomeng Yang, Junmin Xi, Yun Xing, Xiangxu Tang, Xiaomeng Dai, Kaiying Li, Hongmei Li, Xiuxiu Lv, Daxiang Lu, Huadong Wang
BACKGROUND: Neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs) have proven to be an ideal research model for cardiac disease. However, the current methods to purify NRVMs have a limitation to obtain high purity. The purpose of this study was to develop a NRVM purification method by using superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (SIOP). METHODS: NRVMs were purified by using SIOP (SIOP group). The differential attachment with or without bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) treatment served as control and BrdU groups, respectively...
June 3, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908817/insights-into-mechanism-and-functional-consequences-of-heme-binding-to-hemolysin-activating-lysine-acyltransferase-hlyc-from-escherichia-coli
#14
Sandra Peherstorfer, Hans Henning Brewitz, Ajay Abisheck Paul George, Amelie Wißbrock, Jana Maria Adam, Lutz Schmitt, Diana Imhof
BACKGROUND: Tight regulation of heme homeostasis is a critical mechanism in pathogenic bacteria since heme functions as iron source and prosthetic group, but is also toxic at elevated concentrations. Hemolysin-activating lysine-acyltransferase (HlyC) from Escherichia coli is crucial for maturation of hemolysin A, which lyses several mammalian cells including erythrocytes liberating large amounts of heme for bacterial uptake. A possible impact and functional consequences of the released heme on events employing bacterial HlyC have remained unexplored...
June 14, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908754/bile-acids-and-fxr-in-functional-gastrointestinal-disorders
#15
REVIEW
Paula Mosińska, Adrian Szczepaniak, Jakub Fichna
Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs), such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and chronic constipation (CC), are commonly diagnosed conditions in clinical practice which create a substantial global burden. Since the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and bile acids (BAs) are responsible for maintaining homeostasis in the GI tract, any disturbances in the expression of FXR or the composition of BAs may contribute to the development of the GI symptoms. Alterations in the mechanism of action of FXR directly affect the BAs pool and account for increased intestinal permeability and changes in abundance and diversity of gut microbiota leading to intestinal dysmotility...
May 30, 2018: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908368/tag-synthesis-and-storage-under-osmotic-stress-a-requirement-for-preserving-membrane-homeostasis-in-renal-cells
#16
Karen Weber, Cecilia Casali, Virginia Gaveglio, Susana Pasquaré, Emanuel Morel Gómez, Leandro Parra, Luciana Erjavec, Cecilia Perazzo, María C Fernández Tome
Hyperosmolarity is a controversial signal for renal cells. It can induce cell stress or differentiation and both require an active lipid metabolism. We showed that hyperosmolarity upregulates phospholipid (PL) de novo synthesis in renal cells. PL synthesis requires fatty acids (FA), usually stored as triglycerides (TAG). PL and TAG de novo synthesis utilize the same initial biosynthetic route: sn-glycerol 3P (G3P) → phosphatidic acid (PA) → diacylglycerol (DAG). In the present work, we evaluate how such pathway contributes to PL and TAG synthesis in renal cells subjected to hyperosmolarity...
June 13, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908298/hydrogen-sulfide-epigenetically-mitigates-bone-loss-through-opg-rankl-regulation-during-hyperhomocysteinemia-in-mice
#17
Jyotirmaya Behera, Akash K George, Michael J Voor, Suresh C Tyagi, Neetu Tyagi
Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) is a novel gasotransmitter produced endogenously in mammalian cells, which works by mediating diverse physiological functions. An imbalance in H2 S metabolism is associated with defective bone homeostasis. However, it is unknown whether H2 S plays any epigenetic role in bone loss induced by hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy). We demonstrate that diet-induced HHcy, a mouse model of metabolite induced osteoporosis, alters homocysteine metabolism by decreasing plasma levels of H2 S. Treatment with NaHS (H2 S donor), normalizes the plasma level of H2 S and further alleviates HHcy induced trabecular bone loss and mechanical strength...
June 13, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908255/genetic-overexpression-of-glutathione-peroxidase-1-attenuates-microcystin-leucine-arginine-induced-memory-impairment-in-mice
#18
Eun-Joo Shin, Yeong Gwang Hwang, Duc Toan Pham, Ji Won Lee, Yu Jeung Lee, Dongjin Pyo, Xin Gen Lei, Ji Hoon Jeong, Hyoung-Chun Kim
Microcystin-leucine-arginine (MCLR) is the most common form of microcystins, which are environmental toxins produced by cyanobacteria, and its hepatotoxicity has been well-documented. However, the neurotoxic potential of MCLR remains to be further elucidated. In the present study, we investigated whether intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion of MCLR induces mortality and neuronal loss in the hippocampus of mice. Because we found that MCLR impairs memory function in the hippocampus at a low dose (4 ng/μl/mouse, i...
June 13, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908201/back-to-homeostasis-negative-regulation-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-immune-signaling-in-insects
#19
REVIEW
Fei Wang, Qingyou Xia
Maintenance of homeostasis requires prompt activation and down-regulation of immune signaling pathways. This review attempts to summarize our current knowledge regarding the negative regulation of two NF-κB signaling pathways in insects, Toll and IMD pathway, which are mostly essential for host defense against bacteria and fungus. Various types of negative regulators and their mechanisms are discussed here with the emphasis on the prominent roles of ubiquitination. The counterbalance between these two pathways, the crosstalk with other physiological pathways, and the difference in their repertoires of negative regulators are also discussed...
June 13, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908181/ppar-gamma-pathways-attenuate-pulmonary-granuloma-formation-in-a-carbon-nanotube-induced-murine-model-of-sarcoidosis
#20
Matthew McPeek, Anagha Malur, Debra A Tokarz, Gina Murray, Barbara P Barna, Mary Jane Thomassen
Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), a ligand activated nuclear transcription factor, is constitutively expressed in alveolar macrophages of healthy individuals. PPARγ deficiencies have been noted in several lung diseases including the alveolar macrophages of pulmonary sarcoidosis patients. We have previously described a murine model of multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) induced pulmonary granulomatous inflammation which bears striking similarities to pulmonary sarcoidosis, including the deficiency of alveolar macrophage PPARγ...
June 13, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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