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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918147/invited-review-effects-of-heat-stress-on-dairy-cattle-welfare
#1
Liam Polsky, Marina A G von Keyserlingk
The effects of high ambient temperatures on production animals, once thought to be limited to tropical areas, has extended into northern latitudes in response to the increasing global temperature. The number of days where the temperature-humidity index (THI) exceeds the comfort threshold (>72) is increasing in the northern United States, Canada, and Europe. Compounded by the increasing number of dairy animals and the intensification of production, heat stress has become one of the most important challenges facing the dairy industry today...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914872/-the-efficacy-of-desmopressin-in-the-treatment-of-central-diabetes-insipidus-after-resection-of-chiasmo-sellar-region-tumors
#2
L I Astaf'eva
Central diabetes insipidus (CDI) is a neuroendocrine disease, the pathogenesis of which is associated with abnormal secretion of the antidiuretic hormone. One of the specific causes of CDI is neurosurgical resection of chiasmatic-sellar region tumors. AIM: to study the efficacy and safety of desmopressin in CDI patients after resection of chiasmatic-sellar region (CSR) tumors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Examination and treatment of patients were performed at a hospital for 7-14 days after surgery and then were continued after discharge...
2017: Zhurnal Voprosy Neĭrokhirurgii Imeni N. N. Burdenko
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912243/thirst-associated-preoptic-neurons-encode-an-aversive-motivational-drive
#3
William E Allen, Laura A DeNardo, Michael Z Chen, Cindy D Liu, Kyle M Loh, Lief E Fenno, Charu Ramakrishnan, Karl Deisseroth, Liqun Luo
Water deprivation produces a drive to seek and consume water. How neural activity creates this motivation remains poorly understood. We used activity-dependent genetic labeling to characterize neurons activated by water deprivation in the hypothalamic median preoptic nucleus (MnPO). Single-cell transcriptional profiling revealed that dehydration-activated MnPO neurons consist of a single excitatory cell type. After optogenetic activation of these neurons, mice drank water and performed an operant lever-pressing task for water reward with rates that scaled with stimulation frequency...
September 15, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912228/neurons-that-drive-and-quench-thirst
#4
Claire Gizowski, Charles W Bourque
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 15, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906402/barriers-and-facilitators-to-participation-in-clinical-trial-among-lymphoma-patients-from-sun-yat-sen-university-cancer-center-in-china-an-observation-study
#5
Qiuhuan Kong, Hua Mei, Yuerong Lai, Simei Shi, Yaner Li, Lianzhu He, Hui-Ying Qin
Recruitment rate of clinical trials in cancer patients is pretty low in China. Little is known about factors influencing trial recruitment in Chinese cancer patients. The aim of present study is to evaluate the barriers and facilitators to participation in clinical trials among lymphoma patients in China.From December 2014 to August 2015, the survey was carried out in the Department of Medical Oncology in Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center. A self-made questionnaire was used among lymphoma patients (N = 331) to evaluate their attitude toward clinical trials...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895881/de-novo-assembly-and-analysis-of-polygonatum-sibiricum-transcriptome-and-identification-of-genes-involved-in-polysaccharide-biosynthesis
#6
Shiqiang Wang, Bin Wang, Wenping Hua, Junfeng Niu, Kaikai Dang, Yi Qiang, Zhezhi Wang
Polygonatum sibiricum polysaccharides (PSPs) are used to improve immunity, alleviate dryness, promote the secretion of fluids, and quench thirst. However, the PSP biosynthetic pathway is largely unknown. Understanding the genetic background will help delineate that pathway at the molecular level so that researchers can develop better conservation strategies. After comparing the PSP contents among several different P. sibiricum germplasms, we selected two groups with the largest contrasts in contents and subjected them to HiSeq2500 transcriptome sequencing to identify the candidate genes involved in PSP biosynthesis...
September 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893666/physiological-and-behavioral-responses-to-salinity-in-coastal-dice-snakes
#7
François Brischoux, Yurii V Kornilev, Harvey B Lillywhite
Secondarily marine tetrapods have evolved adaptations to maintain their osmotic balance in a hyperosmotic environment. During the transition to a marine habitat, the evolution of a euryhaline physiology likely encompassed successive changes in behavior and physiology that released organisms from regular access to fresh water. Deciphering these key steps is a complicated task. In this study, we investigated a species of freshwater natricine snake in which some populations are known to use marine environments...
September 8, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891499/astroglial-hydro-ionic-waves-guided-by-the-extracellular-matrix-an-exploratory-model
#8
Alfredo Pereira
Calcium waves are generated from the astrocyte endoplasmatic reticulum, in response to neuronal electrochemical stimulation. The waves feed back on neurons, modulating (reinforcing or depressing) their activity and the resulting behavior. How do these waves propagate from the astrocyte endoplasmatic reticulum to the synaptic space and reach neuron membrane channels? An exploratory model is elaborated, on the basis of complex interactions of ions, water negative exclusion zones and charged sites of proteins...
2017: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887630/ncb5or-deficiency-in-the-cerebellum-and-midbrain-leads-to-dehydration-and-alterations-in-thirst-response-fasted-feeding-behavior-and-voluntary-exercise-in-mice
#9
Matthew A Stroh, Michelle K Winter, Kenneth E McCarson, John P Thyfault, Hao Zhu
Cytosolic NADH-cytochrome-b5-oxidoreductase (NCB5OR) is ubiquitously expressed in animal tissues. We have previously reported that global ablation of NCB5OR in mice results in early-onset lean diabetes with decreased serum leptin levels and increased metabolic and feeding activities. The conditional deletion of NCB5OR in the mouse cerebellum and midbrain (conditional knock out, CKO mice) results in local iron dyshomeostasis and altered locomotor activity. It has been established that lesion to or removal of the cerebellum leads to changes in nutrient organization, visceral response, feeding behavior, and body weight...
September 8, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870473/short-term-effects-of-a-low-glycemic-index-carob-containing-snack-on-energy-intake-satiety-and-glycemic-response-in-normal-weight-healthy-adults-results-from-two-randomized-trials
#10
Emilia Papakonstantinou, Nickolaos Orfanakos, Paul Farajian, Anastasia E Kapetanakou, Ifigenia P Makariti, Nikolaos Grivokostopoulos, Marie-Ann Ha, Panagiotis N Skandamis
OBJECTIVES: The potential positive health effects of carob-containing snacks are largely unknown. Therefore, the aims of these studies were to determine the glycemic index (GI) of a carob snack compared with chocolate cookie containing equal amounts of available carbohydrates and to compare the effects of a carob versus chocolate cookie preload consumed as snack before a meal on (a) short-term satiety response measured by subsequent ad libitum meal intake, (b) subjective satiety as assessed by visual analog scales and (c) postprandial glycemic response...
October 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864261/the-efficacy-of-naltrexone-on-alcohol-preference-and-seeking-behaviour-is-dependent-on-light-cycle
#11
Jonathan Henry W Jacobsen, Femke Ta Buisman-Pijlman, Sanam Mustafa, Kenner C Rice, Mark R Hutchinson
Circadian rhythm affects drug-induced reward behaviour and the innate immune system. Peaks in reward-associated behaviour and immune responses typically occur during the active (dark) phase of rodents. While the role of the immune system, specifically, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4, an innate immune receptor) in drug-induced reward is becoming increasingly appreciated, it is unclear whether its effects vary according to light-cycle. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterise the effects of the phase of the light-cycle and the state of the innate immune system on alcohol reward behaviour and subsequently determine whether the efficacy of targeting the immune component of drug reward depends upon the light-cycle...
August 29, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858055/thermoregulatory-and-perceptual-effects-of-a-percooling-garment-worn-underneath-an-american-football-uniform
#12
Megan L Keen, Kevin C Miller, Micah N Zuhl
American football athletes are at the highest risk of developing exertional heat illness (EHI). We investigated whether percooling (i.e., cooling during exercise) garments affected perceptual or physiological variables in individuals exercising in the heat while wearing football uniforms. Twelve males (age=24±4y, mass=80.1±8.5kg, height=182.5±10.4cm) completed this cross-over, counterbalanced study. On day 1, we measured peak oxygen consumption (V[Combining Dot Above]O2). On days 2 and 3, participants wore percooling garments with (ICE) or without (CON) ice packs over the femoral and brachial arteries...
August 26, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845765/role-of-green-tea-flavonoids-and-other-related-contents-in-cancer-prevention
#13
REVIEW
Muhammad Imran Qadir
Green tea is made from Camellia sinensis and leaves through the oxidation process. It mainly originates in China and has been used traditionally throughout Asia. In the West, black tea has been used mostly, but green tea has become the most popular beverage throughout the world. It is also used as a raw material in cosmetics, health foods, and as an added ingredient in various beverages. Different varieties of green tea are available. The main differences between the varieties are due to harvesting time, production procedures, and horticulture...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838260/development-and-psychometric-evaluation-of-the-thirst-distress-scale-for-patients-with-heart-failure
#14
Nana Waldréus, Tiny Jaarsma, Martje Hl van der Wal, Naoko P Kato
BACKGROUND: Patients with heart failure can experience thirst distress. However, there is no instrument to measure this in patients with heart failure. The aim of the present study was to develop the Thirst Distress Scale for patients with Heart Failure (TDS-HF) and to evaluate psychometric properties of the scale. METHODS AND RESULTS: The TDS-HF was developed to measure thirst distress in patients with heart failure. Face and content validity was confirmed using expert panels including patients and healthcare professionals...
August 1, 2017: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833692/central-angiotensin-1-7-increases-osmotic-thirst
#15
Raoni Conceição Dos-Santos, Lívia da Rocha Natalino Monteiro, Bruno Paes-Leme, Danilo Lustrino, José Antunes-Rodrigues, André Souza Mecawi, Luís Carlos Reis
INTRODUCTION: Angiotensin 1-7 (ANG 1-7) is generated by type 2 angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE 2) and binds to MAS receptor. Although it is well known that angiotensin 1-7 functionally antagonizes the effects of the classical renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in several situations, the role of ANG 1-7 in hydromineral homeostasis is not clear. This study aimed to assess the role of ANG 1-7 on neuroendocrine responses to hyperosmolality in rats. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into the following three groups: control, 24 hours of water deprivation (WD) and 24 hours of salt loading (SL, 1...
August 22, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819576/pitfall-in-the-diagnosis-of-diabetes-insipidus-and-pregnancy
#16
Melissa Sum, Jessica B Fleischer, Alexander G Khandji, Sharon L Wardlaw
Diabetes insipidus (DI) during pregnancy and the perinatal period is an uncommon medical problem characterized by polyuria and excessive thirst. Diagnosis of DI may be overlooked in the setting of pregnancy, a time when increased water intake and urine output are commonly reported. We report two cases: one of transient DI in a young woman during her third trimester of twin pregnancy in association with acute fatty liver and hypertension and one of postpartum DI secondary to Sheehan syndrome from rupture of a splenic artery aneurysm...
2017: Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811190/how-to-quench-your-thirst-the-effect-of-water-based-products-varying-in-temperature-and-texture-flavour-and-sugar-content-on-thirst
#17
L van Belzen, E M Postma, S Boesveldt
The sensation of thirst plays an important role in the consumption of water or other fluids to rehydrate the body in order to keep bodily functions working properly. An increase in saliva secretion, wetting the mouth by ingestion of liquids, and cooling and sour components in products can alleviate this sensation already before absorption of fluids by the body. This study aimed to investigate the thirst-quenching ability of water-based products differing in temperature and texture (cold solids and cool liquids), flavour (flavoured and non-flavoured) and sugar content in two consecutive experiments...
August 12, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805235/how-do-singapore-patients-view-post-anaesthesia-adverse-outcomes-a-single-centre-willingness-to-pay-study
#18
Xinqi Look, May Un Sam Mok, Yan Sheng Tay, Hairil Rizal Abdullah
INTRODUCTION: Knowing how patients value quality of anaesthesia helps anaesthesiologists to customise their service. However, generalising findings from Western population-based willingness-to-pay (WTP) studies across different cultures and societies might overlook several important contextualised understandings of anaesthesia experience for Singapore patients. This study aimed to capture the Singapore perspective of undesired post-anaesthesia outcomes. METHODS: 132 patients recruited in the pre-anaesthetic evaluation clinic were given questionnaires describing ten possible post-anaesthetic outcomes to rank for undesirability and assign relative value through proportioning hypothetical SGD 100 to avoid their occurrence...
August 14, 2017: Singapore Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789843/the-thirsty-dropsy-early-descriptions-in-medical-and-non-medical-authors-of-thirst-as-symptom-of-chronic-heart-failure
#19
M A Riva, F Cesana, F Achilli, F Scordo, G Cesana
BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic heart failure may suffer from severe thirst, even if mechanisms that cause thirst in subjects affected by this condition are not clear. Medical and non-medical authors may have already recognized this symptom during the classical age. METHODS: We analyzed association between thirst and dropsy (an ancient medical term used to indicate different conditions including chronic heart failure) in past medical and non-medical literature...
August 3, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762228/-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-the-pros-and-cons-of-consuming-liquids-preoperatively
#20
Fang-Tzu Lin, Tsai-Rung Lin, Chia-Wei Liao, Shu-Hui Chen
BACKGROUND: Preoperative anesthesia long time fasting, may increase patient hemodynamic instability during surgery and may affect the patient's post-surgery electrolyte balance. No meta-analysis has been conducted to explore the effects of preoperative liquid intake amount on gastric fluid PH, gastric fluid volume, surgery inhalation of pulmonary complications, and patient self-perceptions quality of care systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature. PURPOSE: To assess the pros and cons of preoperative liquid intake using a systematic review of the literature...
August 2017: Hu Li za Zhi the Journal of Nursing
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