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E Corden, E Higgins, C Smith
A 55-year-old man with severe plaque psoriasis presented with a 2-week history of feeling generally unwell with lethargy and thirst. His symptoms had developed 6 weeks after commencement of the topical vitamin D3 analogue calcitriol. Investigations revealed hypercalcaemia and acute-on-chronic kidney injury, probably directly induced by systemic absorption of vitamin D3 following extensive topical use. Topical calcitriol had been started as a steroid-sparing agent to reduce the patient's liberal potent corticosteroid usage during anti-tumour necrosis factor-alfa therapy...
October 20, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
Zygmunt Zdrojewicz, Bartłomiej Kuszczak, Natalia Olszak
Ibogaine is a natural chemical compound, which belongs to the indole alkaloid family. It can be naturally found within the root bark of african plant Tabernanthe iboga. Ibogaine plays a significant role among tribal cultures. Ibogaine, in small amount, causes reduction of hunger, thirst and exhaustion. In bigger amount, however, it can cause intensive visions. Other effects include reduction or complete disappearance of absitnence symptoms visible in people addicted to the nicotine, alcohol, methamphetamine, cocaine or opioids, what has been scientifically proven after the tests on animals and small groups of people...
July 29, 2016: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Yan J Bao, Wei Hou, Xiang Y Kong, Liping Yang, Jun Xia, Bao J Hua, Roger Knaggs
BACKGROUND: Cancer pain is an important and distressing symptom that tends to increase in frequency and intensity as the cancer advances. For people with advanced cancer, the prevalence of pain can be as high as 90%. It has been estimated that 30% to 50% of people with cancer categorise their pain as moderate to severe, with between 75% and 90% of people with cancer experiencing pain that they describe as having a major impact on their daily life. Epidemiological studies suggest that approximately 15% of people with cancer pain fail to experience acceptable pain relief with conventional management...
October 11, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Lawrence E Armstrong, Elaine C Lee, Douglas Casa, Evan C Johnson, Matthew S Ganio, Brendon McDermott, Jakob Vingren, Hymn M Oh, Keith H Williamson
Although case reports of exertional hyponatremia (EH) during prolonged exercise implicate retention of excess fluid, athletes with EH experience either loss, gain, or no change of body weight. Thus, the etiology and predisposing factors of EH may not be the same in all athletes. The present field investigation evaluated two unacquainted recreational cyclists (LC, 31y and AM, 39y) who began exercise with normal serum electrolytes but finished a summer 164-km ride (ambient, 34±5°C) with a serum [Na+] of 130 mmol/L...
October 6, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Mary Caitlin Stevenson Wilcoxson, Samantha Louise Johnson, Veronika Pribyslavska, James Mathew Green, Eric Kyle O'Neal
Runners are unlikely to consume fluid during training bouts increasing the importance of recovery rehydration efforts. This study assessed urine specific gravity (USG) responses following runs in the heat with different recovery fluid intake volumes. Thirteen male runners completed 3 evening running sessions resulting in approximately 2,200±300 mL of sweat loss (3.1±0.4% body mass) followed by a standardized dinner and breakfast. Beverage fluid intake (pre/post-breakfast) equaled 1,565/2,093 mL (low; L), 2,065/2,593 mL (moderate; M) and 2,565/3,356 mL (high; H)...
October 6, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
C Joseph Burnett, Chia Li, Emily Webber, Eva Tsaousidou, Stephen Y Xue, Jens C Brüning, Michael J Krashes
Behavioral choice is ubiquitous in the animal kingdom and is central to goal-oriented behavior. Hypothalamic Agouti-related peptide (AgRP) neurons are critical regulators of appetite. Hungry animals, bombarded by multiple sensory stimuli, are known to modify their behavior during times of caloric need, rapidly adapting to a consistently changing environment. Utilizing ARC(AgRP) neurons as an entry point, we analyzed the hierarchical position of hunger related to rival drive states. Employing a battery of behavioral assays, we found that hunger significantly increases its capacity to suppress competing motivational systems, such as thirst, anxiety-related behavior, innate fear, and social interactions, often only when food is accessible...
October 5, 2016: Neuron
Catherine Peyrot des Gachons, Julie Avrillier, Michael Gleason, Laure Algarra, Siyu Zhang, Emi Mura, Hajime Nagai, Paul A S Breslin
Fluid ingestion is necessary for life, and thirst sensations are a prime motivator to drink. There is evidence of the influence of oropharyngeal stimulation on thirst and water intake in both animals and humans, but how those oral sensory cues impact thirst and ultimately the amount of liquid ingested is not well understood. We investigated which sensory trait(s) of a beverage influence the thirst quenching efficacy of ingested liquids and the perceived amount ingested. We deprived healthy individuals of liquid and food overnight (> 12 hours) to make them thirsty...
2016: PloS One
C Gizowski, C Zaelzer, C W Bourque
Circadian rhythms have evolved to anticipate and adapt animals to the constraints of the earth's 24-hour light cycle. Although the molecular processes that establish periodicity in clock neurons of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) are well understood, the mechanisms by which axonal projections from the central clock drive behavioural rhythms are unknown. Here we show that the sleep period in mice (Zeitgeber time, ZT0-12) is preceded by an increase in water intake promoted entirely by the central clock, and not motivated by physiological need...
2016: Nature
Aurora Van de Loo, Marlou Mackus, Gerdien Korte-Bouws, Karel Brookhuis, Johan Garssen, Joris Verster
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between urine ethanol concentration and alcohol hangover severity. METHODS: N = 36 healthy social drinkers participated in a naturalistic study, comprising a hangover day and a control day. N = 18 of them have regular hangovers (the hangover group), while the other N = 18 claim to be hangover immune (hangover-immune group). On each test day at 9.30 am, urine samples were collected. Participants rated their overall hangover severity on a scale from 0 (absent) to 10 (extreme), as well as 18 individual hangover symptoms...
September 28, 2016: Psychopharmacology
Scott C Hutchings, Katy M Horner, Victoria A Dible, John M V Grigor, Dolores O'Riordan
This research investigated the effect of modifying the aftertaste of potato crisps on (1) temporal sensory perception and (2) appetite using three mouthwash conditions (no mouthwash, a water mouthwash, and a menthol mouthwash). For the sensory study, 17 screened female subjects were trained on the Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS) methodology. Subjects undertook TDS to monitor all sensory attributes during the mastication of a 2 g crisp until swallowing (at 20s), then conducted the mouthwash, and then continued the TDS task to monitor aftertaste until 90s...
September 20, 2016: Appetite
Sheena Sharma, Jennifer M Kalish, Ethan M Goldberg, Francis Jeshira Reynoso, Madhura Pradhan
Background. Oral-facial-digital syndrome type 1 (OFD1) is a rare condition with X-linked dominant inheritance caused by mutations in the Cxorf5 (OFD1) gene. This gene encodes the OFD1 protein located within centrosomes and basal bodies of primary cilia. Approximately 15-50% of patients with OFD1 progress to end-stage kidney disease following development of polycystic changes within the kidneys. This condition almost always causes intrauterine lethality in males. Description of Case Diagnosis and Treatment. A Caucasian male aged 9 years and 9 months presented with increased urinary frequency, increased thirst, and decreased appetite...
2016: Case Reports in Nephrology
Ehab Mudher Mikhael
Hypoglycemia is the most common side effects for most glucose-lowering therapies. It constitutes a serious risk that faces diabetic patients who fast during Ramadan (the 9th month in the Islamic calendar). New glucose-lowering classes like dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RA), and sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors are efficacious in controlling blood glucose level with less tendency to induce hypoglycemia and thus may constitute a good choice for diabetic patients during Ramadan...
2016: Journal of Diabetes Research
Kristien Boelaert
Extract: I am the oldest of three girls in a Belgian family. I was born in the US in 1970, whilst my parents were studying at the University of Wisconsin. Upon completion of their postgraduate studies, my parents returned to their native country Belgium when I was aged one. From a young age I was fascinated by medicine and in secondary school, human biology was my favourite subject. Whilst neither of my parents is medically trained, they always encouraged me and my sisters to have an inquisitive spirit and fuelled a thirst for knowledge and discovery...
September 15, 2016: Endocrine-related Cancer
Tatiane Vilhena-Franco, André Souza Mecawi, Lucila Leico Kagohara Elias, José Antunes-Rodrigues
Water deprivation (WD) induces changes in plasma volume and osmolality, which in turn activate several responses, including thirst, the activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OT) secretion. These systems seem to be influenced by oestradiol, as evidenced by the expression of its receptor in brain areas that control fluid balance. Thus, we investigated the effects of oestradiol treatment on behavioural and neuroendocrine changes of ovariectomized rats in response to WD...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
Jochen G Raimann, Antonios H Tzamaloukas, Nathan W Levin, Todd S Ing
Since the beginning of life of the first multicellular organisms, the preservation of a physiologic milieu for every cell in the organism has been a critical requirement. A particular range of osmolality of the body fluids is essential for the maintenance of cell volume. In humans the stability of electrolyte concentrations and their resulting osmolality in the body fluids is the consequence of complex interactions between cell membrane functions, hormonal control, thirst, and controlled kidney excretion of fluid and solutes...
September 9, 2016: Seminars in Dialysis
William M Adams, Lesley W Vandermark, Luke N Belval, Rachel M VanScoy, Sarah M Attanasio, Douglas J Casa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Lawrence E Armstrong, Stavros A Kavouras, Neil P Walsh, William O Roberts
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of the review is to provide recommendations to improve clinical decision-making based on the strengths and weaknesses of commonly used hydration biomarkers and clinical assessment methods. RECENT FINDINGS: There is widespread consensus regarding treatment, but not the diagnosis of dehydration. Even though it is generally accepted that a proper clinical diagnosis of dehydration can only be made biochemically rather than relying upon clinical signs and symptoms, no gold standard biochemical hydration index exists...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Honglin Dong, Laura J Sargent, Yianna Chatzidiakou, Caroline Saunders, Laura Harkness, Nicolas Bordenave, Ian Rowland, Jeremy P E Spencer, Julie A Lovegrove
Dietary fibre has been shown to increase subjective satiating ratings. However data from human trials has produced mixed results, possibly due to different types of fibre which have diverse physicochemical properties and gastrointestinal transit behaviour. The aim of the study 1 was to investigate whether orange juice (OJ) with 5.5 g of added orange pomace fibre (OPF) was as satiating as whole orange (WO, chopped AND blended to a liquid form) compared with OJ. Study 2 was to evaluate the dose-dependent satiating effect of OPF delivered in an orange-flavoured beverage...
August 27, 2016: Appetite
Supawon Srettabunjong, Wiratchaya Limgitisupasin
INTRODUCTION: Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an uncommon disease with a wide clinical course varying from mild and self-limiting to severe with eventual death. However, death caused by AP is rare. Most cases of AP reported in the English-language literature are based on clinical data; few are medico-legal studies. CASE PRESENTATION: The author recently experienced a case of sudden unexpected death in a young man caused by extensive severe hemorrhagic AP secondary to cholelithiasis, not chronic alcoholism, which is a much more prominent etiology of AP in medico-legal perspectives...
August 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Ian Blatchford
There is a fascinating tradition of depicting solar eclipses in Western art, although these representations have changed over time. Eclipses have often been an important feature of Christian iconography, but valued as much for their biblical significance as for the splendour of the physical event. However, as Western culture passed through the Renaissance and Enlightenment the depictions of eclipses came to reflect new astronomical knowledge and a thirst for rational learning well beyond the confines of the church and other elites...
September 28, 2016: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
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