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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900734/lithium-side-effects-and-toxicity-prevalence-and-management-strategies
#1
REVIEW
Michael Gitlin
Despite its virtually universal acceptance as the gold standard in treating bipolar disorder, prescription rates for lithium have been decreasing recently. Although this observation is multifactorial, one obvious potential contributor is the side effect and toxicity burden associated with lithium. Additionally, side effect concerns assuredly play some role in lithium nonadherence. This paper summarizes the knowledge base on side effects and toxicity and suggests optimal management of these problems. Thirst and excessive urination, nausea and diarrhea and tremor are rather common side effects that are typically no more than annoying even though they are rather prevalent...
December 2016: International Journal of Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894067/quenching-the-thirst-for-hunger
#2
Paul Lee
Maintenance of energy and water balance is fundamental to survival across organisms. A recent study reveals a unique neuroendocrine node in Drosophila that simultaneously surveys systemic caloric and osmotic fluctuations to fine-tune food and water consumption, shedding new neuronal mechanistic insight on anti-diabetes therapeutics with dual glucose/osmolality modulatory actions.
November 15, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878773/ramadan-fasting-in-patients-with-adrenal-insufficiency
#3
Mélika Chihaoui, Fatma Chaker, Meriem Yazidi, Wafa Grira, Zohra Ben Amor, Ons Rejeb, Hedia Slimane
AIM: The risks of fasting during Ramadan in patients with adrenal insufficiency are unknown. The aims of this study were to evaluate these risks in such patients, to determine the risk factors and finally to set some recommendations. METHODS: It is a cross-sectional study about 180 patients with known and treated adrenal insufficiency. The patients responded to a 14-item questionnaire concerning their knowledge about the disease and fasting during the last month of Ramadan...
November 23, 2016: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860325/safety-and-effectiveness-of-mirabegron-in-patients-with-overactive-bladder-in-a-real-world-clinical-setting-a-japanese-post-marketing-study
#4
Yumiko Nozawa, Daisuke Kato, Hiromi Tabuchi, Kentarou Kuroishi
OBJECTIVES: To provide real-world data on Japanese patients with overactive bladder (OAB) initiating treatment with the β3 -adrenoceptor agonist, mirabegron. This study examined prescribing patterns, adverse drug reaction (ADR) incidence, and treatment effectiveness. METHODS: Full medical histories, including prior/concomitant drug use, were collected before initiating mirabegron treatment. After 12 weeks mirabegron, physicians assessed ADR incidence and treatment effectiveness...
November 17, 2016: Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27850188/548-translating-research-into-practice-palliation-of-thirst-in-intensive-care-unit-patients
#5
Ann Leemhuis, Kathleen Puntillo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849390/adverse-effects-of-tempol-on-hidrosaline-balance-in-rats-with-acute-sodium-overload
#6
N M Kouyoumdzian, Nl Rukavina Mikusic, G Cao, M R Choi, Sl Della Penna, B E Fernández, J E Toblli, M I Rosón
We studied the effects of tempol, an oxygen radical scavenger, on hydrosaline balance in rats with acute sodium overload. Male rats with free access to water were injected with isotonic (control group) or hypertonic saline solution (0.80 mol/l NaCl) either alone (Na group) or with tempol (Na-T group). Hydrosaline balance was determined during a 90 min experimental period. Protein expressions of aquaporin 1 (AQP1), aquaporin 2 (AQP2), angiotensin II (Ang II) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) were measured in renal tissue...
November 2016: Biotechnic & Histochemistry: Official Publication of the Biological Stain Commission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825957/dose-response-effects-of-water-supplementation-on-cognitive-performance-and-mood-in-children-and-adults
#7
Caroline J Edmonds, Laura Crosbie, Fareeha Fatima, Maryam Hussain, Nicole Jacob, Mark Gardner
Water supplementation has been found to facilitate visual attention and short-term memory, but the dose required to improve performance is not yet known. We assessed the dose response effect of water on thirst, mood and cognitive performance in both adults and children. Participants were offered either no water, 25 ml or 300 ml water to drink. Study 1 assessed 96 adults and in Study 2, data are presented from 60 children aged 7-9 years. In both studies, performance was assessed at baseline and 20 min after drinking (or no drink); on thirst and mood scales, letter cancellation and a digit span test...
November 5, 2016: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819212/review-drinking-water-for-liquid-fed-pigs
#8
M-C Meunier-Salaün, J Chiron, F Etore, A Fabre, A Laval, F Pol, A Prunier, Y Ramonet, B L Nielsen
Liquid feeding has the potential to provide pigs with sufficient water to remain hydrated and prevent prolonged thirst. However, lack of permanent access to fresh water prevents animals from drinking when they are thirsty. Moreover, individual differences between pigs in a pen may result in uneven distribution of the water provided by the liquid feed, leading to some pigs being unable to meet their water requirements. In this review, we look at the need for and provision of water for liquid-fed pigs in terms of their production performance, behaviour, health and welfare...
November 7, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808120/ethanol-extract-of-lophatheri-herba-exhibits-anti-cancer-activity-in-human-cancer-cells-by-suppression-of-metastatic-and-angiogenic-potential
#9
Aeyung Kim, Minju Im, Min Jung Gu, Jin Yeul Ma
Lophatheri Herba (LH), dried leaf of Lophatherum gracile Brongn, has long been used to reduce thirst and treat fever and inflammation in Chinese medicine. Recent studies have shown that LH has anti-viral, anti-bacterial, anti-cancer, anti-oxidant, diuretic, and hyperglycemic properties. However, the effects of an ethanol extract of L. herba (ELH), at non-cytotoxic doses, on the metastatic and angiogenic abilities of malignant tumor cells have not been reported. We found that ELH significantly suppressed p38, JNK, and NF-κB activation and proteolytic activities under phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) stimulation, thus leading to a decrease in metastatic potential, including migration and invasion...
November 3, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796152/an-open-label-long-term-phase-iii-extension-trial-of-duloxetine-in-japanese-patients-with-fibromyalgia
#10
Masato Murakami, Kenichi Osada, Hisao Ichibayashi, Hiromichi Mizuno, Toshimitsu Ochiai, Mitsuhiro Ishida, Levent Alev, Kusuki Nishioka
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of duloxetine 60 mg in Japanese patients with fibromyalgia enrolled from a preceding randomized, placebo-controlled, phase III duloxetine trial. METHODS: This was a long-term, open-label extension study. Patients received oral duloxetine once daily at a dose of 20 mg for 1 week, followed by 40 mg for 1 week, and then 60 mg for 48 weeks. The primary outcome was the frequency of adverse events (AEs) and adverse drug reactions (ADRs) of duloxetine...
October 31, 2016: Modern Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791015/overdrinking-swallowing-inhibition-and-regional-brain-responses-prior-to-swallowing
#11
Pascal Saker, Michael J Farrell, Gary F Egan, Michael J McKinley, Derek A Denton
In humans, drinking replenishes fluid loss and satiates the sensation of thirst that accompanies dehydration. Typically, the volume of water drunk in response to thirst matches the deficit. Exactly how this accurate metering is achieved is unknown; recent evidence implicates swallowing inhibition as a potential factor. Using fMRI, this study investigated whether swallowing inhibition is present after more water has been drunk than is necessary to restore fluid balance within the body. This proposal was tested using ratings of swallowing effort and measuring regional brain responses as participants prepared to swallow small volumes of liquid while they were thirsty and after they had overdrunk...
October 25, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771456/lotus-leaf-alkaloid-fraction-can-strongly-inhibit-cyp2d6-isoenzyme-activity
#12
Lin-Hu Ye, Ling-Ti Kong, Ming-Zhu Yan, Fang-Rui Cao, Li-Sha Wang, Yong-Hong Liao, Rui-Le Pan, Qi Chang
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The Chinese herbal medicine He-Ye, the leaves of the lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) plant, is traditionally used in China for the treatment of sunstroke, thirst, diarrhea, and fever. Currently, the leaf is used not only as an herbal tea to reduce lipid level and control body weight, but also as a major ingredient in some lipid-lowering Chinese patented medicines. Our previous study demonstrated that the alkaloid fraction (AF) of the herb has a strong inhibitory effect on CYP2D6 isoenzyme activity in vitro...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769948/protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-1b-and-%C3%AE-glucosidase-inhibitory-activities-of-pueraria-lobata-root-and-its-constituents
#13
Su Hui Seong, Anupom Roy, Hyun Ah Jung, Hee Jin Jung, Jae Sue Choi
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Pueraria lobata root was used to treat wasting-thirst regarded as diabetes mellitus and was included in the composition of Okcheonsan, which is prescribed for thirst-waste in traditional Chinese medicine. AIM OF THE STUDY: The objective of this study was to evaluate the anti-diabetic potential of the root of Pueraria lobata and its constituents via protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, anti-diabetic activities of the 70% ethanolic (EtOH) extract from P...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768399/coconut-water-does-not-improve-markers-of-hydration-during-sub-maximal-exercise-and-performance-in-a-subsequent-time-trial-compared-to-water-alone
#14
Daniel J Peart, Andy Hensby, Matthew P Shaw
The purpose of this study was to compare markers of hydration during sub-maximal exercise and subsequent time trial performance when consuming water (PW) or coconut water (CW). There was also a secondary aim to assess the palatability of CW during exercise and voluntary intake during intense exercise. 10 males (age 27.9 + 4.9 years, body mass 78.1 + 10.1kg, average max minute power 300.2 + 28.2W) completed 60-min of sub-maximal cycling followed by a 10-km time trial on two occasions. During these trials participants consumed either PW or CW in a randomised manner, drinking a 250 ml of the assigned drink between 10-15 min, 25-30 min and 40-45 min, and then drinking ad libitum from 55-min until the end of the time trial...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766511/the-efficacy-and-safety-of-tolvaptan-in-patients-with-hyponatremia-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#15
Benlei Li, Dong Fang, Cheng Qian, Hongliang Feng, Yanggan Wang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Comprehensive evaluations regarding the benefits of tolvaptan in the treatment of hyponatremia are lacking. The objective of this meta-analysis was to assess the efficacy and safety of tolvaptan in patients with hyponatremia. METHODS: Pertinent studies were identified by searching PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library for articles published between their respective inception dates and 31 April 2016. Summary relative risks (RRs) or weighted mean differences (WMDs) with their 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using fixed-effects or randomized-effects models, depending on the degree of heterogeneity noted among the studies included in the analysis...
October 21, 2016: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761927/hypercalcaemia-induced-kidney-injury-caused-by-the-vitamin-d-analogue-calcitriol-for-psoriasis-a-note-of-caution-when-prescribing-topical-treatment
#16
E Corden, E Higgins, C Smith
A 55-year-old man with severe plaque psoriasis presented with a 2-week history of feeling generally unwell with lethargy and thirst. His symptoms had developed 6 weeks after commencement of the topical vitamin D3 analogue calcitriol. Investigations revealed hypercalcaemia and acute-on-chronic kidney injury, probably directly induced by systemic absorption of vitamin D3 following extensive topical use. Topical calcitriol had been started as a steroid-sparing agent to reduce the patient's liberal potent corticosteroid usage during anti-tumour necrosis factor-alfa therapy...
October 20, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734823/-ibogaine-structure-influence-on-human-body-clinical-relevance
#17
Zygmunt Zdrojewicz, Bartłomiej Kuszczak, Natalia Olszak
Ibogaine is a natural chemical compound, which belongs to the indole alkaloid family. It can be naturally found within the root bark of african plant Tabernanthe iboga. Ibogaine plays a significant role among tribal cultures. Ibogaine, in small amount, causes reduction of hunger, thirst and exhaustion. In bigger amount, however, it can cause intensive visions. Other effects include reduction or complete disappearance of absitnence symptoms visible in people addicted to the nicotine, alcohol, methamphetamine, cocaine or opioids, what has been scientifically proven after the tests on animals and small groups of people...
July 29, 2016: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27727452/hydromorphone-for-cancer-pain
#18
REVIEW
Yan J Bao, Wei Hou, Xiang Y Kong, Liping Yang, Jun Xia, Bao J Hua, Roger Knaggs
BACKGROUND: Cancer pain is an important and distressing symptom that tends to increase in frequency and intensity as the cancer advances. For people with advanced cancer, the prevalence of pain can be as high as 90%. It has been estimated that 30% to 50% of people with cancer categorise their pain as moderate to severe, with between 75% and 90% of people with cancer experiencing pain that they describe as having a major impact on their daily life. Epidemiological studies suggest that approximately 15% of people with cancer pain fail to experience acceptable pain relief with conventional management...
October 11, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27710151/exertional-hyponatremia-and-serum-sodium-change-during-ultraendurance-cycling
#19
Lawrence E Armstrong, Elaine C Lee, Douglas Casa, Evan C Johnson, Matthew S Ganio, Brendon McDermott, Jakob Vingren, Hymn M Oh, Keith H Williamson
Although case reports of exertional hyponatremia (EH) during prolonged exercise implicate retention of excess fluid, athletes with EH experience either loss, gain, or no change of body weight. Thus, the etiology and predisposing factors of EH may not be the same in all athletes. The present field investigation evaluated two unacquainted recreational cyclists (LC, 31y and AM, 39y) who began exercise with normal serum electrolytes but finished a summer 164-km ride (ambient, 34±5°C) with a serum [Na+] of 130 mmol/L...
October 6, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27710148/fluid-retention-and-utility-of-practical-hydration-markers-to-detect-3-levels-of-recovery-fluid-intake-in-male-runners
#20
Mary Caitlin Stevenson Wilcoxson, Samantha Louise Johnson, Veronika Pribyslavska, James Mathew Green, Eric Kyle O'Neal
Runners are unlikely to consume fluid during training bouts increasing the importance of recovery rehydration efforts. This study assessed urine specific gravity (USG) responses following runs in the heat with different recovery fluid intake volumes. Thirteen male runners completed 3 evening running sessions resulting in approximately 2,200±300 mL of sweat loss (3.1±0.4% body mass) followed by a standardized dinner and breakfast. Beverage fluid intake (pre/post-breakfast) equaled 1,565/2,093 mL (low; L), 2,065/2,593 mL (moderate; M) and 2,565/3,356 mL (high; H)...
October 6, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
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