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Shixiang Hu, Weilu Wang, Mufei Yue, Guangjia Wang, Wenliang Gao, Rihong Cong, Tao Yang
Heterogeneous solid base catalysis is valuable and promising in chemical industry, however is insufficiently developed compared to solid acid catalysis, due to the lack of satisfied solid base catalysts. To gain the strong basicity, the previous strategy was to basify oxides with alkaline metals to create surficial vacancies or defects, which suffers from the instability under catalytic conditions. Mono-component basic oxides like MgO are literally stable but deficient in electron-withdrawing ability. Here we prove a special connectivity of atoms could enhance the Lewis basicity of oxygen in mono-component solids exemplified by Ga4B2O9...
April 24, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Fahad Alkhudhairy, Abdulaziz AlKheraif, Mohammed Bin-Shuwaish, Sulieman Al-Johany, Mustafa Naseem, Fahim Vohra
BACKGROUND: The available evidence of Er,Cr:YSGG lasers on bleached enamel is limited and controversial. It is assumed that Er,Cr:YSGG laser will be effective in reversing the effect of bleaching on adhesive bond integrity of enamel to resin composite. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Er,Cr:YSGG laser on bond strength and microleakage of bleached enamel. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From the 80 samples, 60 samples were bleached (40% hydrogen peroxide) and divided into three subgroups...
April 23, 2018: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery
Jeong Woo Park, Young Jun Tak, Jae Won Na, Heesoo Lee, Won-Gi Kim, Hyun Jae Kim
We suggest thermal treatment with static magnetic fields (SMFs) or rotating magnetic fields (RMFs) as a new technique for the activation of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin film transistors (a-IGZO TFTs). Magnetic interactions between metal atoms in a-IGZO films and oxygen atoms in air by SMFs or RMFs can be expected to enhance metal-oxide (M-O) bonds, even at low temperature (150°C), through attraction of metal and oxygen atoms having their magnetic moments aligned in the same direction. Compared with a-IGZO TFTs with only thermal treatment at 300°C, a-IGZO TFTs under an RMF (1,150 rpm) at 150°C show superior or comparable characteristics: field effect mobility of 12...
April 23, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Shi-Yang Tang, Ruirui Qiao, Sheng Yan, Dan Yuan, Qianbin Zhao, Guolin Yun, Thomas P Davis, Weihua Li
Functional nanoparticles comprised of liquid metals, such as eutectic gallium indium (EGaIn) and Galinstan, present exciting opportunities in the fields of flexible electronics, sensors, catalysts, and drug delivery systems. Methods used currently for producing liquid metal nanoparticles have significant disadvantages as they rely on both bulky and expensive high-power sonication probe systems, and also generally require the use of small molecules bearing thiol groups to stabilize the nanoparticles. Herein, an innovative microfluidics-enabled platform is described as an inexpensive, easily accessible method for the on-chip mass production of EGaIn nanoparticles with tunable size distributions in an aqueous medium...
April 22, 2018: Small
Sangwon Han, Sungmin Woo, Yeon Joo Kim, Chong Hyun Suh
CONTEXT: 68 Gallium prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography (68 Ga-PSMA PET) is an emerging imaging modality for assessment of prostate cancer. Recent studies show promising results regarding its ability to detect recurrent or metastatic prostate cancer superior to that of conventional imaging modalities. However, the impact of 68 Ga-PSMA PET on management of patients with prostate cancer has not been well established. OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the impact of 68 Ga-PSMA PET on management of patients with prostate cancer...
April 17, 2018: European Urology
Jae Hwa Seo, Young Jun Yoon, In Man Kang
The Ge/GaAs-based heterojunction gate-all-around (GAA) arch-shaped tunneling field-effect transistor (A-TFET) have been designed and optimized using technology computer-aided design (TCAD) simulations. In our previous work, the silicon-based A-TFET was designed and demonstrated. However, to progress the electrical characteristics of A-TFET, the III-V compound heterojunction structures which has enhanced electrical properties must be adopted. Thus, the germanium with gallium arsenide (Ge/GaAs) is considered as key materials of A-TFET...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Taewoo Eom, Jeong Eun Park, Sang Yong Park, Jeong Hoon Park, Jackson Bweupe, Donggun Lim
Copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) thin film solar cells have been regarded as a candidate for energy conversion devices owing to their high absorption coefficient, high temperature stability, and low cost. ZnO:Al thin film is commonly used in CIGS solar cells as a window layer. In this study, ZnO:Al films were deposited on glass under various post-heat temperature using RF sputtering to observe the characteristics of ZnO:Al films such as Hall mobility, carrier concentration, and resistivity; subsequently, the ZnO:Al films were applied to a CIGS solar cell as a window...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Tae Kyoung Kim, Yeo Jin Yoon, Seung Kyu Oh, Yu-Jung Cha, In Yeol Hong, Moon Uk Cho, Chan-Hwa Hong, Hong Kyw Choi, Joon Seop Kwak
In order to improve EQE, we have investigated on the role of multilayer graphene (MLG) on the electrical and optical properties of GaN based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with ultrathin ITO (5 nm or 10 nm)/p-GaN contacts. The MLG was transferred on the ITO/p-GaN to decrease sheet resistance of thin ITO p-electrode and improve the current spreading of LEDs. The LEDs with the ITO 5 nm and MLG/ITO 5 nm structures showed 3.25 and 3.06 V at 20 mA, and 11.69 and 13.02 mW/sr at 400 mA, respectively. After forming MLG on ITO 5 nm, the electro-optical properties were enhanced...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Xianghe Meng, Fei Liang, Mingjun Xia, Zheshuai Lin
Two gallium-based borates, K3 Ba3 Li2 Ga4 B6 O20 F (I) and Rb3 Ba3 Li2 Ga4 B6 O20 F (II), have been successfully grown in the M2 O (M = K, Rb)-LiF-B2 O3 flux. They can be recognized as the element cosubstitutions of Sr for K/Rb and Ba and of Be for Li and Ga from Sr2 Be2 (BO3 )2 O (SBBO), which uses poisonous beryllium oxide during the synthesis and crystal growth process and also exhibits the problem of structural instability. The isostructural borates crystallize into the noncentrosymmetric space group P6̅2 c, with a = 8...
April 20, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Jeong Hyun Kwon, Jun Hong Park, Myung Keun Lee, Jeong Woo Park, Yongmin Jeon, Jeong Bin Shin, Minwoo Nam, Choong-Ki Kim, Yang-Kyu Choi, Kyung Cheol Choi
The lack of reliable, transparent, and flexible electrodes and insulators for application in TFTs makes it difficult to commercialize transparent, flexible thin film transistors (TF-TFTs). More specifically, conventional high process temperatures and the brittleness of these elements have been hurdles in developing flexible substrates vulnerable to heat. Here, we propose electrode and insulator fabrication techniques considering process temperature, transmittance, flexibility, and environmental stability. A transparent and flexible ITO/Ag/ITO (IAI) electrode and an Al2O3/MgO (AM) laminated insulator were optimized at the low temperature of 70 ℃ for the fabrication of TF-TFTs on a PET substrate...
April 19, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Tim Shay, Orlin D Velev, Michael D Dickey
Soft and stretchable materials play an important role in the emerging fields of soft robotics, human-machine interfaces, and stretchable electronics. Hydrogels are compelling materials because they are soft, chemically tunable, biocompatible, and ionically conductive. Hydrogels have been used as components of skin mountable sensors, such as electrocardiogram (ECG) electrodes, and show promise in emerging devices as stretchable, transparent electrodes. Ultimately, these types of devices interface the hydrogel with rigid metallic electrodes to connect with electronic circuitry...
April 19, 2018: Soft Matter
Yu Zhou, Ziyu Wang, Abdullah Rasmita, Sejeong Kim, Amanuel Berhane, Zoltán Bodrog, Giorgio Adamo, Adam Gali, Igor Aharonovich, Wei-Bo Gao
On-demand, single-photon emitters (SPEs) play a key role across a broad range of quantum technologies. In quantum networks and quantum key distribution protocols, where photons are used as flying qubits, telecom wavelength operation is preferred because of the reduced fiber loss. However, despite the tremendous efforts to develop various triggered SPE platforms, a robust source of triggered SPEs operating at room temperature and the telecom wavelength is still missing. We report a triggered, optically stable, room temperature solid-state SPE operating at telecom wavelengths...
March 2018: Science Advances
Tomoya Uehara, Miki Yokoyama, Hiroyuki Suzuki, Hirofumi Hanaoka, Yasushi Arano
PURPOSE: This study was undertaken to evaluate the renal radioactivity levels of a newly designed 67 Ga-labeled antibody fragment with a linkage cleaved by enzymes present on the brush border membrane (BBM) lining the lumen of the renal tubule. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: 67 Ga-labeled S-2-(4-isothiocyanatobenzyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (SCN-Bn-NOTA) was conjugated with an antibody Fab fragment through a Met-Val-Lys linkage (67 Ga-NOTA-MVK-Fab) considering that a Met-Val sequence is a substrate of enzymes on the renal BBM and 67 Ga-NOTA-Met is excreted from the kidney into the urine...
April 17, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Sarah Pfaff, Cecile Philippe, Verena Pichler, Marcus Hacker, Markus Mitterhauser, Wolfgang Wadsak
Positron emission tomography (PET) as a tool for molecular imaging of cancer has gained huge interest in the last few years. Gallium-68 is a popular PET nuclide due to its favorable characteristics, like advantageous half-life (68 min) and independency of a cyclotron on-site for its production. Accordingly, several 68Ga-complexes for cancer imaging via PET have been made available during the last few years. In this work, 68Ga-labeled compounds were synthesized applying a commercially available microfluidic device for the first time...
April 17, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Qing Liu, Jianghui Duan, Yumin Zheng, Jie Luo, Xiaopin Cai, Huangying Tan
Here, we report the diagnosis and treatment of a very rare case of malignant insulinoma derived from ectopic pancreas. A middle-aged woman presented with a 6-year history of recurrent hypoglycemia with multiple lesions in liver. Admission workup revealed elevated serum insulin and C-peptide, as well as multiple lesions in the liver (largest being 4.3 cm), enlarged lymph nodes around the pancreas, and a lesion (of 3.5 cm) at the proximal jejunum, as shown by contrast computed tomography (CT). Liver biopsy showed the lesions to be well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors, grade G1...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
Zhen Li, Henrik Persson, Karl Adolfsson, Stina Oredsson, Christelle N Prinz
Vertical nanowire arrays are increasingly investigated for their applications in steering cell behavior. The geometry of the array is an important parameter, which influences the morphology and adhesion of cells. Here, we investigate the effects of array geometry on the morphology of MCF7 cancer cells and MCF10A normal-like epithelial cells. Different gallium phosphide nanowire array-geometries were produced by varying the nanowire density and diameter. Our results show that the cell size is smaller on nanowires compared to flat gallium phosphide...
April 2, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
Bryan W Stuart, Colin A Grant, George E Stan, Adrian C Popa, Jeremy J Titman, David M Grant
The osteogenic ions Ca2+ , P5+ , Mg2+ , and antimicrobial ion Ga3+ were homogenously dispersed into a 1.45 µm thick phosphate glass coating by plasma assisted sputtering onto commercially pure grade titanium. The objective was to deliver therapeutic ions in orthopaedic/dental implants such as cementeless endoprostheses or dental screws. The hardness 4.7 GPa and elastic modulus 69.7 GPa, of the coating were comparable to plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite/dental enamel, whilst superseding femoral cortical bone...
March 30, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Fatih Sari, Ozlem Ustun, Omer Kirmali
OBJECTIVE: This in vitro study evaluated the shear bond strength (SBS) of heat-cured denture base resin (PMMA) to acrylic resin teeth treated with different pretreatments, especially laser irradiation of different powers (1-4 W). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The acrylic resin teeth were separated into seven groups (n = 10) for the following different pretreatments: control group (no surface treatment) (G1), grinding with a tungsten carbide bur (G2), sandblasting (G3), and erbium, chromium: yttrium, scandium, gallium, garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser irradiation at 1 W, 2 W, 3 W, 4 W output powers in (G4-7), respectively...
April 2018: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery
Xiao-Ke Liu, Feng Gao
Recently, lead halide perovskite materials have attracted extensive interest, in particular, in the research field of solar cells. These materials are fascinating "soft" materials with semiconducting properties comparable to the best inorganic semiconductors like silicon and gallium arsenide. As one of the most promising perovskite family members, organic-inorganic hybrid Ruddlesden-Popper perovskites (HRPPs) offer rich chemical and structural flexibility for exploring excellent properties for optoelectronic devices, such as solar cells and light-emitting diodes (LEDs)...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Joel Cutinho, Boyce S Chang, Stephanie Oyola-Reynoso, Jiahao Chen, S Sabrina Akhter, Ian D Tevis, Nelson J Bello, Andrew Martin, Michelle C Foster, Martin M Thuo
Droplets capture an environment-dictated equilibrium state of a liquid material. Equilibrium, however, often necessitates nanoscale interface organization, especially with formation of a passivating layer. Herein, we demonstrate that this kinetics-driven organization may predispose a material to autonomous thermal-oxidative composition inversion (TOCI) and texture reconfiguration under felicitous choice of trigger. We exploit inherent structural complexity, differential reactivity, and metastability of the ultrathin (∼0...
April 16, 2018: ACS Nano
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