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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436383/influence-of-point-defects-and-impurities-on-the-dynamical-stability-of-delta-plutonium
#1
Boris Dorado, Jordan Bieder, Marc Torrent
We use first-principles calculations to provide direct evidence of the effect of aluminum, gallium, iron, and uranium on the dynamical stability of delta-plutonium. We first show that the delta phase is dynamically unstable at low temperature, as seen in experiments, and that this stability directly depends on the plutonium 5f orbital occupancies. Then, we demonstrate that both aluminum and gallium stabilize the delta phase, contrary to iron. As for uranium, which is created during self-irradiation and whose effect on plutonium has yet to be understood, we show that it leaves a few unstable vibrational modes and that higher concentrations lead to an almost complete stabilization...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435765/chronic-nephropathy-from-dietary-hyperoxaluria-sustained-improvement-of-renal-function-after-dietary-intervention
#2
Yijuan Sun, Bruce L Horowitz, Karen S Servilla, Joanna R Fair, Darlene Vigil, Kavitha Ganta, Larry Massie, Antonios H Tzamaloukas
A 56-year-old man with stable chronic kidney disease (CKD) for two years following a single episode of calcium oxalate urolithiasis developed progressive elevation of his serum creatinine concentration. Urinalysis revealed pyuria and white cell casts, a few red blood cells, minimal proteinuria, and no crystals. Urine culture was sterile. Gallium scintigraphy was consistent with interstitial nephritis. Proton pump inhibitor intake was discontinued, and a short course of oral corticosteroids was initiated. Percutaneous kidney biopsy, performed because of the continued deterioration of renal function to a minimum estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) value of 15 mL/min per 1...
March 20, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427865/dynamics-and-energetics-of-cyanobacterial-photosystem-i-ferredoxin-complexes-in-different-redox-states
#3
Pierre Sétif, Risa Mutoh, Genji Kurisu
Fast turnover of ferredoxin/Fd reduction by photosystem-I/PSI requires that it dissociates rapidly after it has been reduced by PSI:Fd intracomplex electron transfer. The rate constants of Fd dissociation from PSI have been determined by flash-absorption spectroscopy with different combinations of cyanobacterial PSIs and Fds, and different redox states of Fd and of the terminal PSI acceptor (FAFB). Newly obtained values were derived firstly from the fact that the dissociation constant between PSI and redox-inactive gallium-substituted Fd increases upon (FAFB) reduction and secondly from the characterization and elucidation of a kinetic phase following intracomplex Fd reduction to binding of oxidized Fd to PSI, a process which is rate-limited by the foregoing dissociation of reduced Fd from PSI...
April 17, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423865/peald-grown-crystalline-aln-films-on-si-100-with-sharp-interface-and-good-uniformity
#4
Sanjie Liu, Mingzeng Peng, Caixia Hou, Yingfeng He, Meiling Li, Xinhe Zheng
Aluminum nitride (AlN) thin films were deposited on Si (100) substrates by using plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition method (PEALD). Optimal PEALD parameters for AlN deposition were investigated. Under saturated deposition conditions, the clearly resolved fringes are observed from X-ray reflectivity (XRR) measurements, showing the perfectly smooth interface between the AlN film and Si (100). It is consistent with high-resolution image of the sharp interface analyzed by transmission electron microscope (TEM)...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422657/phased-array-ultrasound-system-for-planar-flow-mapping-in-liquid-metals
#5
Kevin Mader, Richard Nauber, Vladimir Galindo, Hannes Beyer, Lars Buttner, Sven Eckert, Jurgen Czarske
Controllable magnetic fields can be used to optimize flows in technical and industrial processes involving liquid metals in order to improve quality and yield. However, experimental studies in magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) often involve complex, turbulent flows and require planar, two-component velocity measurements through only one acoustical access. We present the phased array ultrasound Doppler velocimeter (PAUDV) as a modular research platform for flow mapping in liquid metals. It combines the pulse wave Doppler method with the phased array technique to adaptively focus the ultrasound beam...
April 12, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418175/from-bidentate-gallium-lewis-acids-to-supramolecular-complexes
#6
Jan Horstmann, Mentor Hyseni, Andreas Mix, Beate Neumann, Hans-Georg Stammler, Norbert W Mitzel
Bidentate gallium Lewis acids were prepared by the reaction of diethynyldiphenylsilane with neat trimethyl- or triethylgallium. Bis[(dimethylgallyl)ethynyl]diphenylsilane (1) and diethylgallyl derivative 2 were characterized as Et2 O or pyridine adducts by NMR spectroscopy; 2⋅2Py was isolated. Lewis acids 1 and 2 form host-guest adducts with bidentate nitrogen bases, but defined cyclic 1:1 adducts are only formed between 1 and bases with matching N⋅⋅⋅N distances: 4,4'-dimethyl-3,3'-bipyridinylacetylene (3), bis[(pyridin-3-yl)ethynyl]diphenylsilane (4), and bis[(2-methylpyridin-5-yl)ethynyl]diphenylsilane (5)...
April 18, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417536/stretchable-and-soft-electronics-using-liquid-metals
#7
REVIEW
Michael D Dickey
The use of liquid metals based on gallium for soft and stretchable electronics is discussed. This emerging class of electronics is motivated, in part, by the new opportunities that arise from devices that have mechanical properties similar to those encountered in the human experience, such as skin, tissue, textiles, and clothing. These types of electronics (e.g., wearable or implantable electronics, sensors for soft robotics, e-skin) must operate during deformation. Liquid metals are compelling materials for these applications because, in principle, they are infinitely deformable while retaining metallic conductivity...
April 18, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414077/hypotensive-acute-effect-of-photobiomodulation-therapy-on-hypertensive-rats
#8
J C Oishi, T F De Moraes, T C Buzinari, E C Cárnio, N A Parizotto, G J Rodrigues
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the acute effect of photobiomodulation therapy (PBM) on arterial pressure in hypertensive and normotensive rats with application in an abdominal region. Normotensive (2K) and hypertensive (2K-1C) wistar rats were treated with PBM. Systolic arterial pressure (SAP), diastolic arterial pressure (DAP), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were measured before, during and after PBM application. The nitric oxide (NO) serum concentration was measured before and after PBM application...
April 14, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408526/gallium-68-or-fluorine-18-for-prostate-cancer-imaging
#9
Claudia Kesch, Clemens Kratochwil, Walter Mier, Klaus Kopka, Frederik L Giesel
The introduction of prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-positron emission tomography (PET) using (68)Ga revolutionized prostate cancer imaging. Outperforming standard imaging, it allows complete staging of the local tumor and possible lymph nodes, visceral or bone metastases with high accuracy in only one examination (1,2). Sensitivities of 66% and specificities of 99% were observed for primary lymph node staging. Moreover, it has become an excellent staging tool for recurrent prostate cancer even at early stage and low PSA levels...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407497/temperature-effects-on-gallium-arsenide-63-ni-betavoltaic-cell
#10
S Butera, G Lioliou, A M Barnett
A GaAs (63)Ni radioisotope betavoltaic cell is reported over the temperature range 70°C to -20°C. The temperature effects on the key cell parameters were investigated. The saturation current decreased with decreased temperature; whilst the open circuit voltage, the short circuit current, the maximum power and the internal conversion efficiency values decreased with increased temperature. A maximum output power and an internal conversion efficiency of 1.8pW (corresponding to 0.3μW/Ci) and 7% were observed at -20°C, respectively...
April 3, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403890/distinct-activity-of-the-bone-targeted-gallium-compound-kp46-against-osteosarcoma-cells-synergism-with-autophagy-inhibition
#11
Bernd Kubista, Thomas Schoefl, Lisa Mayr, Sushilla van Schoonhoven, Petra Heffeter, Reinhard Windhager, Bernhard K Keppler, Walter Berger
BACKGROUND: Osteosarcoma is the most frequent primary malignant bone tumor. Although survival has distinctly increased due to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in the past, patients with metastatic disease and poor response to chemotherapy still have an adverse prognosis. Hence, development of new therapeutic strategies is still of utmost importance. METHODS: Anticancer activity of KP46 against osteosarcoma cell models was evaluated as single agent and in combination approaches with chemotherapeutics and Bcl-2 inhibitors using MTT assay...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396543/a-topical-hydrogel-with-deferiprone-and-gallium-protoporphyrin-targets-bacterial-iron-metabolism-and-has-antibiofilm-activity
#12
Katharina Richter, Nicky Thomas, Jolien Claeys, Jonathan McGuane, Clive A Prestidge, Tom Coenye, Peter-John Wormald, Sarah Vreugde
Many infectious diseases are associated with multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria residing in biofilms that require high antibiotic concentrations. Whilst oral drug-delivery is frequently ineffective, topical treatments have the potential to deliver higher drug concentrations to the infection-site while reducing systemic side-effects.This study determined the antibiofilm activity of a surgical wound-gel loaded with the iron-chelator deferiprone (Def) and the heme-analogue gallium-protoporphyrin (GaPP), alone and in combination with ciprofloxacin...
April 10, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394240/effect-of-laser-activated-irrigations-on-smear-layer-removal-from-the-root-canal-wall
#13
Xiaoli Wang, Xiaogang Cheng, Baogang Liu, Xin Liu, Qing Yu, Wenxi He
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of laser-activated irrigations (LAI) by using the Erbium: Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (Er:YAG) laser and the Erbium Chromium: Yttrium Scandium Gallium Garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser on removing smear layer (SL) from the root canal wall. BACKGROUND DATA: LAI has been proposed as an adjuvant to conventional protocols of endodontic treatment to enhance the disinfection, which is a promising protocol for SL removal...
April 5, 2017: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394122/embedding-free-method-for-preparation-of-cross-sections-of-organic-materials-for-micro-chemical-analysis-using-gas-cluster-ion-beam-sputtering
#14
Ichiro Mihara, Rasmus Havelund, Ian S Gilmore
We present a novel in situ mask method for the preparation of cross-sections of organic materials such as polymer multilayer films suitable for chemical imaging of buried interfaces. We demonstrate this method on a model buried interface system consisting of a piece of Scotch tape adhered to a PET substrate and a protective film used in consumer packaging. A high dose of gallium from a focused ion beam (FIB) was used to produce a damaged overlayer on the surface of the organic sample. The damaged layer has a significantly slower sputter rate compared to the native undamaged organic material...
April 13, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387463/stretchable-light-emitting-diodes-with-organometal-halide-perovskite-polymer-composite-emitters
#15
Sri Ganesh R Bade, Xin Shan, Phong Tran Hoang, Junqiang Li, Thomas Geske, Le Cai, Qibing Pei, Chuan Wang, Zhibin Yu
Intrinsically stretchable light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are demonstrated using organometal-halide-perovskite/polymer composite emitters. The polymer matrix serves as a microscale elastic connector for the rigid and brittle perovskite and induces stretchability to the composite emissive layers. The stretchable LEDs consist of poly(ethylene oxide)-modified poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate as a transparent and stretchable anode, a perovskite/polymer composite emissive layer, and eutectic indium-gallium as the cathode...
April 7, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385306/detection-of-atherosclerotic-inflammation-by-68-ga-dotatate-pet-compared-to-18-f-fdg-pet-imaging
#16
Jason M Tarkin, Francis R Joshi, Nicholas R Evans, Mohammed M Chowdhury, Nichola L Figg, Aarti V Shah, Lakshi T Starks, Abel Martin-Garrido, Roido Manavaki, Emma Yu, Rhoda E Kuc, Luigi Grassi, Roman Kreuzhuber, Myrto A Kostadima, Mattia Frontini, Peter J Kirkpatrick, Patrick A Coughlin, Deepa Gopalan, Tim D Fryer, John R Buscombe, Ashley M Groves, Willem H Ouwehand, Martin R Bennett, Elizabeth A Warburton, Anthony P Davenport, James H F Rudd
BACKGROUND: Inflammation drives atherosclerotic plaque rupture. Although inflammation can be measured using fluorine-18-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ([(18)F]FDG PET), [(18)F]FDG lacks cell specificity, and coronary imaging is unreliable because of myocardial spillover. OBJECTIVES: This study tested the efficacy of gallium-68-labeled DOTATATE ((68)Ga-DOTATATE), a somatostatin receptor subtype-2 (SST2)-binding PET tracer, for imaging atherosclerotic inflammation...
April 11, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385242/gallium-modified-chitosan-poly-acrylic-acid-bilayer-coatings-for-improved-titanium-implant-performances
#17
Maria A Bonifacio, Stefania Cometa, Manuela Dicarlo, Federico Baruzzi, Silvia de Candia, Antonio Gloria, Maria M Giangregorio, Monica Mattioli-Belmonte, Elvira De Giglio
A gallium-modified chitosan/poly(acrylic acid) bilayer was obtained by electrochemical techniques on titanium to reduce orthopaedic and/or dental implants failure. The bilayer in vitro antibacterial properties and biocompatibility were evaluated against Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and on MG63 osteoblast-like cells, respectively. Gallium loading into the bilayer was carefully tuned by the electrochemical deposition time to ensure the best balance between antibacterial activity and cytocompatibility...
June 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383028/3d-lattice-distortions-and-defect-structures-in-ion-implanted-nano-crystals
#18
Felix Hofmann, Edmund Tarleton, Ross J Harder, Nicholas W Phillips, Pui-Wai Ma, Jesse N Clark, Ian K Robinson, Brian Abbey, Wenjun Liu, Christian E Beck
Focussed Ion Beam (FIB) milling is a mainstay of nano-scale machining. By manipulating a tightly focussed beam of energetic ions, often gallium (Ga(+)), FIB can sculpt nanostructures via localised sputtering. This ability to cut solid matter on the nano-scale revolutionised sample preparation across the life, earth and materials sciences. Despite its widespread usage, detailed understanding of the FIB-induced structural damage, intrinsic to the technique, remains elusive. Here we examine the defects caused by FIB in initially pristine objects...
April 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380951/near-infrared-spectro-interferometer-using-femtosecond-laser-written-gls-embedded-waveguides-and-nano-scatterers
#19
G Martin, M Bhuyan, J Troles, C D'Amico, R Stoian, E Le Coarer
Guided optics spectrometers can be essentially classified into two main families: based on Fourier transform or dispersion. In the first case, an interferogram generated inside an optical waveguide and containing the spectral information is sampled using spatially distributed nanodetectors. These scatter quasi-non-perturbingly light into the detector that is in contact with the waveguide, helping to reconstruct the stationary wave. A dedicated FFT processing is needed in order to recover the spectrum with high resolution but limited spectral range...
April 3, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377468/positron-emission-tomography-and-single-photon-emission-computed-tomography-imaging-in-the-diagnosis-of-cardiac-implantable-electronic-device-infection-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
Daniel Juneau, Mohammad Golfam, Samir Hazra, Lionel S Zuckier, Shady Garas, Calum Redpath, Jordan Bernick, Eugene Leung, Sharon Chih, George Wells, Rob S B Beanlands, Benjamin J W Chow
BACKGROUND: The use of cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIED) is increasing, and their associated infections result in significant morbidity and mortality. The introduction of better cardiac imaging techniques could be useful for diagnosing this condition and guiding therapy. Our objective was to systematically assess the diagnostic accuracy of Fluor-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and computed tomography, labeled leukocyte scintigraphy (LS), and Gallium-67 citrate scintigraphy for the diagnosis of CIED infection...
April 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
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