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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235376/plasma-assisted-atomic-layer-deposition-of-high-density-ni-nanoparticles-for-amorphous-in-ga-zn-o-thin-film-transistor-memory
#1
Shi-Bing Qian, Yong-Ping Wang, Yan Shao, Wen-Jun Liu, Shi-Jin Ding
For the first time, the growth of Ni nanoparticles (NPs) was explored by plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique using NiCp2 and NH3 precursors. Influences of substrate temperature and deposition cycles on ALD Ni NPs were studied by field emission scanning electron microscope and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. By optimizing the process parameters, high-density and uniform Ni NPs were achieved in the case of 280 °C substrate temperature and 50 deposition cycles, exhibiting a density of ~1...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231503/ecotoxicity-assessment-of-ionic-as-iii-as-v-in-iii-and-ga-iii-species-potentially-released-from-novel-iii-v-semiconductor-materials
#2
Chao Zeng, Adrian Gonzalez-Alvarez, Emily Orenstein, Jim A Field, Farhang Shadman, Reyes Sierra-Alvarez
III-V materials such as indium arsenide (InAs) and gallium arsenide (GaAs) are increasingly used in electronic and photovoltaic devices. The extensive application of these materials may lead to release of III-V ionic species during semiconductor manufacturing or disposal of decommissioned devices into the environment. Although arsenic is recognized as an important contaminant due to its high toxicity, there is a lack of information about the toxic effects of indium and gallium ions. In this study, acute toxicity of As(III), As(V), In(III) and Ga(III) species was evaluated using two microbial assays testing for methanogenic activity and O2 uptake, as well as two bioassays targeting aquatic organisms, including the marine bacterium Aliivibrio fischeri (bioluminescence inhibition) and the crustacean Daphnia magna (mortality)...
February 20, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226943/using-liquid-metal-alloy-egain-to-electrochemically-enhance-ss-stimulation-electrodes-for-biobotic-applications
#3
Tahmid Latif, Fengyuan Gong, Michael Dickey, Mihail Sichitiu, Alper Bozkurt, Tahmid Latif, Fengyuan Gong, Michael Dickey, Mihail Sichitiu, Alper Bozkurt, Michael Dickey, Tahmid Latif, Fengyuan Gong, Alper Bozkurt, Mihail Sichitiu
Biobotics is an emerging and useful advent in the field of robotics which harnesses the mechanical power of live invertebrates and benefits from them as "working" animals. Most biobotic applications rely on neural or muscular stimulation through implanted electrodes for achieving direct control of their locomotory behavior. Degradation of stimulation efficiency is often noticed through extended usage, partly owing to incompatibility of implanted electrodes to the application. Our previous achievements in biobotics utilized commercially available stainless steel wires as stimulation electrodes due to its availability and lower cost...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225135/liquid-metal-enabled-microfluidics
#4
Khashayar Khoshmanesh, Shi-Yang Tang, Jiu Yang Zhu, Samira Schaefer, Arnan Mitchell, Kourosh Kalantar-Zadeh, Michael D Dickey
Several gallium-based liquid metal alloys are liquid at room temperature. As 'liquid', such alloys have a low viscosity and a high surface tension while as 'metal', they have high thermal and electrical conductivities, similar to mercury. However, unlike mercury, these liquid metal alloys have low toxicity and a negligible vapor pressure, rendering them much safer. In comparison to mercury, the distinguishing feature of these alloys is the rapid formation of a self-limiting atomically thin layer of gallium oxide over their surface when exposed to oxygen...
February 22, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218495/design-and-evaluation-of-a-variable-stiffness-manual-operating-platform-for-laparoendoscopic-single-site-surgery-less
#5
Jinhua Li, Xuejie Li, Jianchen Wang, Yuan Xing, Shuxin Wang, Xiangyun Ren
BACKGROUND: Most of the existing robotic platforms for LESS have workspace and load capacity weaknesses, because of the limitation of one single incision. We have developed a LESS manual operating platform of which the stiffness of the insertion tube is controllable. METHODS: The system included two dexterous tool manipulators, a stereo-vision module and a variable stiffness insertion tube (VSIT), which was designed using phase-change material (mixed indium, gallium and stannum)...
February 20, 2017: International Journal of Medical Robotics + Computer Assisted Surgery: MRCAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216940/epididymal-metastasis-from-prostate-adenocarcinoma-an-unusual-and-challenging-diagnosis-suspected-in-gallium-68-prostate-specific-membrane-antigen-positron-emission-tomography-computed-tomography-and-histologically-confirmed
#6
Sofia Santos-Lopes, João Lobo, Rui Henrique, Jorge Oliveira
A few cases of prostate adenocarcinoma (PCa) metastases to the epididymis have been documented in literature. We report a case of a 69-year-old man with a left epididymal metastasis, 6 years after radical prostatectomy and adjuvant radiation therapy for PCa. Although he developed biochemical recurrence, only gallium-68 prostate-specific membrane antigen-positron emission tomography/computed tomography revealed high uptake in the left testis and retrovesical space. An unrecognized painless firm nodule was palpable on the left epididymis...
January 2017: Urology Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212099/high-density-high-radiance-%C3%AE-led-matrix-for-optogenetic-retinal-prostheses-and-planar-neural-stimulation
#7
Ahmed Soltan, Brian McGovern, Emmanuel Drakakis, Mark Neil, Pleun Maaskant, Mahbub Akhter, Jun Su Lee, Patrick Degenaar
Optical neuron stimulation arrays are important for both in-vitro biology and retinal prosthetic biomedical applications. Hence, in this work, we present an 8100 pixel high radiance photonic stimulator. The chip module vertically combines custom made gallium nitride μLEDs with a CMOS application specific integrated circuit. This is designed with active pixels to ensure random access and to allow continuous illumination of all required pixels. The μLEDs have been assembled on the chip using a solder ball flip-chip bonding technique which has allowed for reliable and repeatable manufacture...
February 13, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211538/wafer-scale-two-dimensional-semiconductors-from-printed-oxide-skin-of-liquid-metals
#8
Benjamin J Carey, Jian Zhen Ou, Rhiannon M Clark, Kyle J Berean, Ali Zavabeti, Anthony S R Chesman, Salvy P Russo, Desmond W M Lau, Zai-Quan Xu, Qiaoliang Bao, Omid Kevehei, Brant C Gibson, Michael D Dickey, Richard B Kaner, Torben Daeneke, Kourosh Kalantar-Zadeh
A variety of deposition methods for two-dimensional crystals have been demonstrated; however, their wafer-scale deposition remains a challenge. Here we introduce a technique for depositing and patterning of wafer-scale two-dimensional metal chalcogenide compounds by transforming the native interfacial metal oxide layer of low melting point metal precursors (group III and IV) in liquid form. In an oxygen-containing atmosphere, these metals establish an atomically thin oxide layer in a self-limiting reaction...
February 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205420/tetrabutylammonium-salts-of-aluminum-iii-and-gallium-iii-phthalocyanine-radical-anions-bonded-with-fluoren-9-olato%C3%AF-anions-and-indium-iii-bromide-phthalocyanine-radical-anions
#9
Dmitri Konarev, Salavat Khasanov, Manabu Ishikawa, Yoshiaki Nakano, Akihiro Otsuka, Hideki Yamochi, Gunzi Saito, Rimma N Lyubovskaya
Reduction of aluminum(III), gallium(III) and indium(III) chloride phthalocyanines by sodium fluorenone ketyl in the presence of tetrabutylammonium cations yielded crystalline salts (Bu4N+)2[M(III)(HFl-O-)(Pc*3-)](*-)(Br-).1.5C6H4Cl2 (M = Al (1), Ga(2), HFl-O- = Fluoren-9-olato- anion) and (Bu4N+)[In(III)Br(Pc*3-)]*-.0.875C6H4Cl2.0.125C6H14 (3). The salts contain Pc(*3-) radical anions with negatively charged phthalocyanine macrocycles evidenced by the presence of intense bands of (Pc*3-) in the NIR range and noticeable blue shift of both Q- and Soret bands of phthalocyanine...
February 15, 2017: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205062/gallium-ferredoxin-as-a-tool-to-study-the-effects-of-ferredoxin-binding-to-photosystem-i-without-ferredoxin-reduction
#10
Clara Mignée, Risa Mutoh, Anja Krieger-Liszkay, Genji Kurisu, Pierre Sétif
Reduction of ferredoxin by photosystem I (PSI) involves the [4Fe-4S] clusters FA and FB harbored by PsaC, with FB being the direct electron transfer partner of ferredoxin (Fd). Binding of the redox-inactive gallium ferredoxin to PSI was investigated by flash-absorption spectroscopy, studying both the P700(+) decay and the reduction of the native iron Fd in the presence of FdGa. FdGa binding resulted in a faster recombination between P700(+) and (FA, FB)(-), a slower electron escape from (FA, FB)(-) to exogenous acceptors, and a decreased amount of intracomplex FdFe reduction, in accordance with competitive binding between FdFe and FdGa...
February 15, 2017: Photosynthesis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198608/high-throughput-continuous-hydrothermal-synthesis-of-transparent-conducting-aluminium-and-gallium-co-doped-zinc-oxides
#11
Dougal Peter Howard, Peter Marchand, Liam McCafferty, Claire J Carmalt, Ivan P Parkin, Jawwad A Darr
High-throughput continuous hydrothermal flow synthesis was used to generate a library of aluminium and gallium co-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles of specific atomic ratios. Resistivities of the materials were determined by Hall Effect measurements on heat-treated pressed discs and the results collated into a resistivity-composition map. Optimal resis-tivities of ca. 9 x 10-3 Ω cm were reproducibly achieved for several samples e.g. co-doped ZnO with 2 at% Ga and 1 at% Al. The optimum sample on balance of performance and cost was deemed to be ZnO co-doped with 3 at% Al and 1 at% Ga...
February 15, 2017: ACS Combinatorial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197764/new-frontiers-in-prostate-cancer-imaging-clinical-utility-of-prostate-specific-membrane-antigen-positron-emission-tomography
#12
REVIEW
Asim Afaq, Deepak Batura, Jamshed Bomanji
Prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography (PSMA PET) is a relatively new method of imaging prostate cancer that increases diagnostic accuracy in detecting and guiding management in various stages of the disease pathway. Gallium-68-labelled PSMA PET has increased the sensitivity of detection of disease recurrence at low PSA levels, thus allowing an optimal window for salvage treatment. Apart from its use in disease recurrence, PSMA PET has the potential for increasing sensitivity and specificity for primary tumour localisation and in detecting lymph node disease, leading to a more accurate initial staging of the condition...
February 14, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196974/the-efficacy-of-different-anti-microbial-metals-at-preventing-the-formation-of-and-eradicating-bacterial-biofilms-of-pathogenic-indicator-strains
#13
Natalie Gugala, Joe A Lemire, Raymond J Turner
The emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogens and the prevalence of biofilm-related infections have generated a demand for alternative anti-microbial therapies. Metals have not been explored in adequate detail for their capacity to combat infectious disease. Metal compounds can now be found in textiles, medical devices and disinfectants-yet, we know little about their efficacy against specific pathogens. To help fill this knowledge gap, we report on the anti-microbial and antibiofilm activity of seven metals: silver, copper, titanium, gallium, nickel, aluminum and zinc against three bacterial strains, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195721/gallium-iii-and-indium-iii-complexes-with-meso-monophosphorylated-porphyrins-synthesis-and-structure-a-first-example-of-dimers-formed-by-the-self-assembly-of-meso-porphyrinylphosphonic-acid-monoester
#14
Yulia Yu Enakieva, Marina V Volostnykh, Sergey E Nefedov, Gayane A Kirakosyan, Yulia G Gorbunova, Aslan Yu Tsivadze, Alla G Bessmertnykh-Lemeune, Christine Stern, Roger Guilard
The synthesis and structural characterization, both in solution by means of (1)H and (31)P NMR and UV-vis spectroscopies and in the solid state by X-ray diffraction on single crystal, of a series of gallium(III) and indium(III) meso-mono(diethoxyphosphoryl)porphyrins bearing different peripheral substituents as well as the corresponding monoesters and phosphonic acids are reported. This work describes the first example of the X-ray structure of a self-assembled dimer formed via strong binding between the oxygen atom of the phosphonate substituent and the gallium(III) cations of adjacent porphyrin molecules [Ga-O = 1...
February 14, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194631/development-of-a-new-folate-derived-ga-68-based-pet-imaging-agent
#15
Christian Brand, Valerie A Longo, Mike Groaning, Wolfgang A Weber, Thomas Reiner
PURPOSE: The folate receptor (FR) has emerged as an interesting diagnostic and therapeutic drug target with many potential applications in oncologic and inflammatory disorders. It was therefore the aim of this study to develop a folate-derived Ga-68-based positron emission tomography (PET) imaging tracer that is straightforward to radiolabel and could be broadly used in clinical studies. We validated its target binding affinity and specificity and compared it to [(99m)Tc]EC20, the folate single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging tracer that has been most extensively studied clinically so far...
February 13, 2017: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192978/in-vitro-functional-quality-characterization-of-nota-modified-somatropins
#16
Nathalie Bracke, Han Yao, Evelien Wynendaele, Frederick Verbeke, Xiaolong Xu, Bert Gevaert, Alex Maes, Christophe Van de Wiele, Mike Sathekge, Sarah De Saeger, Bart M J De Spiegeleer
Chemical modifications on protein biopharmaceuticals introduce extra variability in addition to their inherent complexity, hence require more comprehensive analytical and functional characterization during their discovery, development and manufacturing. Somatropin (i.e. recombinant human growth hormone, rhGH) modified with the chelating agent S-2-(4-isothiocyanatobenzyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (p-SCN-Bn-NOTA) allows the incorporation of radiometals for research and possible theranostic purposes...
January 31, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189031/water-soluble-metalloporphyrinates-with-excellent-photo-induced-anticancer-activity-resulting-from-high-tumor-accumulation
#17
Xiaojun Hu, Kazuma Ogawa, Tatsuto Kiwada, Akira Odani
To develop a water-soluble and tumor-targeted photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy (PDT), a porphyrin framework containing the metal ion gallium(III) was combined with platinum(II)-based groups to produce two new pentacationic metalloporphyrinates, Ga-4cisPtTPyP (5,10,15,20-tetrakis{cis-diammine-chloro-platinum(II)}(4-pyridyl)-porphyrinato gallium(III) hydroxide tetranitrate) and Ga-4transPtTPyP (5,10,15,20-tetrakis{trans-diammine-chloro-platinum(II)} (4-pyridyl)-porphyrinato gallium(III) hydroxide tetranitrate)...
February 4, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186747/beyond-oxidation-states-distinguishing-chemical-states-of-gallium-in-compounds-with-multiple-gallium-centers
#18
Linju Yang, Jeremy L Bourque, John A McLeod, Pengfei Shen, Kim M Baines, Lijia Liu
The electronic structures of a series of gallium complexes are examined using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) in combination with ab initio calculations. The chemical states of Ga are strongly affected by the ligands and the bonding environment. For complexes containing multiple gallium sites, we demonstrate that XAS can identify the chemical state of each unique gallium center. A reliable understanding of the chemical nature of the core element in a coordination complex with strong core-ligand interaction can be obtained only when both experimental and theoretical approaches are combined...
February 10, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184354/gallium-protoporphyrin-ix-inhibits-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-growth-by-targeting-cytochromes
#19
Sarah Hijazi, Paolo Visca, Emanuela Frangipani
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a challenging pathogen due to both innate and acquired resistance to antibiotics. It is capable of causing a variety of infections, including chronic lung infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Given the importance of iron in bacterial physiology and pathogenicity, iron-uptake and metabolism have become attractive targets for the development of new antibacterial compounds. P. aeruginosa can acquire iron from a variety of sources to fulfill its nutritional requirements both in the environment and in the infected host...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182414/the-planar-cyclooctatetraene-bridge-in-bis-metallic-macrocycles-isolating-or-conjugating
#20
Susovan Bhowmik, Monica Kosa, Amir Mizrahi, Natalia Fridman, Magal Saphier, Amnon Stanger, Zeev Gross
A minor modification of the reported procedure for the synthesis of a corrole dimer that is fused by the cyclooctatetraene (COT) unit, (H3tpfc)2COT, allowed for its isolation in 18% yield. Of the two redox isomers that this interesting macrocycle does form, the current focus is on the reduced form, in which each subunit resembles that of monomeric corroles with a trianionic N4 coordination core. The corresponding bis-gallium(III) complex was prepared as an entry into the potentially rich coordination chemistry of (H3tpfc)2COT...
February 20, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
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