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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102401/the-effect-of-substituents-on-the-stability-of-triply-bonded-gallium-triple-bond-length-as-m-dash-antimony-molecules-a-new-target-for-synthesis
#1
Jia-Syun Lu, Ming-Chung Yang, Ming-Der Su
The effect of substitution on the potential energy surfaces of RGa(-)[triple bond, length as m-dash]Sb(+)R (R = F, OH, H, CH3, SiH3, SiMe(SitBu3)2, SiiPrDis2 and NHC) is studied using density functional theory (M06-2X/Def2-TZVP, B3PW91/Def2-TZVP and B3LYP/LANL2DZ + dp). The computational results show that all of the triply bonded RGa(-)[triple bond, length as m-dash]Sb(+)R molecules have a preference for a bent geometry (i.e., ∠RGaSb ≈ 180° and ∠GaSbR ≈ 90°), which can be described using a valence bond model...
January 19, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102031/dual-nano-sized-contrast-agents-in-pet-mri-a-systematic-review
#2
REVIEW
Afsaneh Lahooti, Saeed Sarkar, Sophie Laurent, Saeed Shanehsazzadeh
Nowadays molecular imaging plays a vital role in achieving a successful targeted and personalized treatment. Hence, the approach of combining two or more medical imaging modalities was developed. The objective of this review is to systematically compare recent dual contrast agents in Positron Emission Tomography (PET)/Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and in some cases Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/MRI in terms of some their characteristics, such as tumor uptake, and reticuloendothelial system uptake (especially liver) and their relaxivity rates for early detection of primary cancer tumor...
November 2016: Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098259/wafer-scale-thermodynamically-stable-gan-nanorods-via-two-step-self-limiting-epitaxy-for-optoelectronic-applications
#3
Hyun Kum, Han-Kyu Seong, Wantae Lim, Daemyung Chun, Young-Il Kim, Youngsoo Park, Geonwook Yoo
We present a method of epitaxially growing thermodynamically stable gallium nitride (GaN) nanorods via metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) by invoking a two-step self-limited growth (TSSLG) mechanism. This allows for growth of nanorods with excellent geometrical uniformity with no visible extended defects over a 100 mm sapphire (Al2O3) wafer. An ex-situ study of the growth morphology as a function of growth time for the two self-limiting steps elucidate the growth dynamics, which show that formation of an Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier and preferential growth in the c-plane direction governs the growth process...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094990/bridging-the-gap-between-dielectric-nanophotonics-and-the-visible-regime-with-effectively-lossless-gap-antennas
#4
Javier Cambiasso, Gustavo Grinblat, Yi Li, Aliaksandra Rakovich, Emiliano Cortés, Stefan A Maier
We present all-dielectric gallium phosphide (GaP) nanoantennas as an efficient nanophotonic platform for surface-enhanced second harmonic generation (SHG) and fluorescence (SEF), showing negligible losses in the visible range. Employing single GaP nanodisks, we observe an increase of more than three orders of magnitude in the SHG signal in comparison with the bulk. This constitutes an SHG efficiency as large as 0.0002%, which is, to the best of our knowledge, the highest yet achieved value produced by a single nano-object in the optical region...
January 17, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091950/nanorods-on-surface-of-gan-based-thin-film-leds-deposited-by-post-annealing-after-photo-assisted-chemical-etching
#5
Lung-Chien Chen, Wun-Wei Lin, Te-Yu Liu
This study investigates the optoelectronic characteristics of gallium nitride (GaN)-based thin-film light-emitting diodes (TF-LEDs) that are formed by a two-step transfer process that involves wet etching and post-annealing. In the two-step transfer process, GaN LEDs were stripped from sapphire substrates by the laser lift-off (LLO) method using a KrF laser and then transferred onto ceramic substrates. Ga-K nanorods were formed on the surface of the GaN-based TF-LEDs following photo-assisted chemical etching and photo-enhanced post-annealing at 100 °C for 1 min...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089397/challenges-for-critical-raw-material-recovery-from-weee-the-case-study-of-gallium
#6
Maximilian Ueberschaar, Sarah Julie Otto, Vera Susanne Rotter
Gallium and gallium compounds are more frequently used in future oriented technologies such as photovoltaics, light diodes and semiconductor technology. In the long term the supply risk is estimated to be critical. Germany is one of the major primary gallium producer, recycler of gallium from new scrap and GaAs wafer producer. Therefore, new concepts for a resource saving handling of gallium and appropriate recycling strategies have to be designed. This study focus on options for a possible recycling of gallium from waste electric and electronic equipment...
January 12, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088849/effect-of-gallium-exposure-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-is-similar-to-aluminum-stress
#7
Hsin-Fang Chang, Shan-Li Wang, Kuo-Chen Yeh
Although gallium (Ga) is a rare element, it is widely used in semiconductor devices. Ga contamination of the environment has been found in semiconductor-producing countries. Here, the physiological and molecular impacts of Ga in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana were investigated in medium culture. The primary symptom of Ga toxicity is inhibition of root growth. The increased production of malondialdehyde (MDA) suggests that Ga stress could cause oxidative damage in plants. Roots were the main Ga accumulating sites...
January 15, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088107/gaas-laser-therapy-reestablishes-the-morphology-of-the-nmj-and-nachrs-after-injury-due-to-bupivacaine
#8
Cristiane Neves Alessi Pissulin, Paula Aiello Tomé de Souza Castro, Flávio Codina, Carina Guidi Pinto, Ivan Jose Vechetti-Junior, Selma Maria Michelin Matheus
BACKGROUND: Local anesthetics are used to relieve pre- and postoperative pain, acting on both sodium channels and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Bupivacaine acts as a non-competitive antagonist and has limitations, such as myotoxicity, neurotoxicity, and inflammation. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has anti-inflammatory, regenerative, and analgesic effects. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a gallium arsenide laser (GaAs) on the morphology of the NMJ and nAChRs after application of bupivacaine in the sternomastoid muscle...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079305/gallium-enhances-reconstructive-properties-of-a-calcium-phosphate-bone-biomaterial
#9
Ivana Strazic Geljic, Nicolas Melis, Florian Boukhechba, Sébastien Schaub, Charlotte Mellier, Pascal Janvier, Jean-Pierre Laugier, Jean-Michel Bouler, Elise Verron, Jean-Claude Scimeca
Calcium phosphate-based (CaP) biomaterials are commonly used in bone reconstructive surgery to replace the damaged tissue, and can also serve as vectors for local drug delivery. Due to its inhibitory action on osteoclasts, the semi-metallic element gallium (Ga) is used for the systemic treatment of disorders associated with accelerated bone resorption. As it was demonstrated that Ga could be incorporated in the structure of CaP biomaterials, we investigated in the present work the biological properties of Ga-loaded CaP biomaterials...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076498/the-efficacy-of-low-level-940-nm-laser-therapy-with-different-energy-intensities-on-bone-healing
#10
Kerem Turgut Atasoy, Yavuz Tolga Korkmaz, Ersan Odaci, Hatice Hanci
The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of low-level 940 nm laser therapy with energy intensities of 5, 10 and 20 J/cm2 on bone healing in an animal model. A total of 48 female adult Wistar rats underwent surgery to create bone defects in the right tibias. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) was applied immediately after surgery and on post-operative days 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 in three study groups with energy intensities of 5 J/cm2, 10 J/cm2 and 20 J/cm2 using a 940 nm Gallium-Aluminium-Arsenide (Ga-Al-As) laser, while one control group underwent only the tibia defect surgery...
January 5, 2017: Brazilian Oral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075350/hydroxypyridinone-chelators-from-iron-scavenging-to-radiopharmaceuticals-for-pet-imaging-with-gallium-68
#11
REVIEW
Ruslan Cusnir, Cinzia Imberti, Robert C Hider, Philip J Blower, Michelle T Ma
Derivatives of 3,4-hydroxypyridinones have been extensively studied for in vivo Fe(3+) sequestration. Deferiprone, a 1,2-dimethyl-3,4-hydroxypyridinone, is now routinely used for clinical treatment of iron overload disease. Hexadentate tris(3,4-hydroxypyridinone) ligands (THP) complex Fe(3+) at very low iron concentrations, and their high affinities for oxophilic trivalent metal ions have led to their development for new applications as bifunctional chelators for the positron emitting radiometal, (68)Ga(3+), which is clinically used for molecular imaging in positron emission tomography (PET)...
January 8, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074197/azido-and-amido-substituted-gallium-hydrides-supported-by-n-heterocyclic-carbenes
#12
Anindya K Swarnakar, Michael J Ferguson, Robert McDonald, Eric Rivard
Despite recent advances in main group N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) coordination chemistry, gallium hydrides remain, in large part, an unexplored area of research. In this paper we outline efficient routes to azide- and amido-functionalized gallium hydrides such as NHC·GaH2N3 and NHC·GaH2N(SiMe3)2 and explore these species as potential precursors to HGaNH complexes and bulk gallium nitride (GaN).
January 11, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073276/interlaced-nanostructured-interface-with-graphene-buffer-layer-reduces-thermal-boundary-resistance-in-nano-microelectronic-systems
#13
Lei Tao, Sreeprasad Theruvakkattil Sreenivasan, Rouzbeh Shahsavari
Improving heat transfer in hybrid nano/microelectronic systems is a challenge, mainly due to the high thermal boundary resistance (TBR) across the interface. Herein, we focus on gallium nitride (GaN)/diamond interface-as a model system with various high power, high temperature, and optoelectronic applications-and perform extensive reverse nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, decoding the interplay between the pillar length, size, shape, hierarchy, density, arrangement, system size, and the interfacial heat transfer mechanisms to substantially reduce TBR in GaN-on-diamond devices...
January 11, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070586/magnesium-zinc-aluminium-and-gallium-hydride-complexes-of-the-transition-metals
#14
Michael J Butler, Mark R Crimmin
The preparation and applications of heterobimetallic complexes continue to occupy researchers in the fields of organometallic, main group, and coordination chemistry. This interest stems from the promise these complexes hold as precursors to materials, reagents in synthesis and as new catalysis. Here we survey and organise the state-of-the-art understanding of the TM-H-M linkage (M = Mg, Zn, Al, Ga). We discuss the structure and bonding in these complexes, their known reactivity, and their largely unrealised potential in catalysis...
January 10, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068542/cost-effective-surface-modification-for-galinstan%C3%A2-lyophobicity
#15
Shantanu Shrikant Kadlaskar, Jun Hyeon Yoo, Abhijeet, Jeong Bong Lee, Wonjae Choi
In this paper we investigate the feasibility of using a cost-effective fabrication method based on sandblasting, chemical etching and spray coating processes, to render common surfaces to be non-wettable by Galinstan®. Although Galinstan® is a non-toxic liquid metal alternative to mercury, the viscoelastic and extremely wetting characteristics of Galinstan® have been the major bottleneck limiting the wide applicability of the gallium-based liquid metal. This paper tries to accomplish non-wettability to Galinstan® by combining surface texture and chemistry with the unique property of Galinstan®, that is, its high surface tension and yield strength that prevent the penetration of the liquid metal into surface asperities...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067460/donor-acceptor-control-in-grown-in-glass-ga-oxide-nanocrystals-by-crystallization-driven-heterovalent-doping
#16
Alberto Paleari, Nikita V Golubev, Elena S Ignat'eva, Vladimir N Sigaev, Angelo Monguzzi, Roberto Lorenzi
Incorporation of doping ions in nanocrystals is a strategy for providing nanophases with functions directly related to ion features. At the nanoscale, however, doping can also activate more complex effects mediated by perturbation of nanophase size and structure. Here we report a paradigmatic case in which we modify grown-in-glass γ-Ga2O3 nanophases via nickel or titanium doping of the starting glass, so as to control the concentration of oxygen and gallium vacancies responsible for the light emission. Optical absorption and luminescence show that Ni2+ and Ti4+ ions enter into the nanophase, but differential-scanning-calorimetry and x-ray-diffraction indicate that Ni and Ti also work as modifiers of nanocrystal growth...
January 9, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066690/high-power-365-nm-uv-led-mercury-arc-lamp-replacement-for-photochemistry-and-chemical-photolithography
#17
K Hölz, J Lietard, M M Somoza
Ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV LEDs) have become widespread in chemical research as highly efficient light sources for photochemistry and photopolymerization. However, in more complex experimental setups requiring highly concentrated light and highly spatially resolved patterning of the light, high-pressure mercury arc lamps are still widely used because they emit intense UV light from a compact arc volume that can be efficiently coupled into optical systems. Advances in the deposition and p-type doping of gallium nitride have recently permitted the manufacture of UV LEDs capable of replacing mercury arc lamps also in these applications...
January 3, 2017: ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061410/photocatalytic-oxidation-of-trace-carbamazepine-in-aqueous-solution-by-visible-light-driven-znln2s4-performance-and-mechanism
#18
Longli Bo, Kebo He, Na Tan, Bo Gao, Qiqi Feng, Jiadong Liu, Lei Wang
In this work, visible-light-driven Znln2S4 photocatalyst (band gap 1.98 eV, absorption wavelength 300-600 nm) was synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method for photocatalytic degradation of trace pharmaceutical carbamazepine (CBZ) in aqueous solution, and characterized by UV-Vis diffusive reflectance spectroscopy, BET, SEM and XRD, respectively. It demonstrated that a complete degradation of CBZ was achieved with an optimal Znln2S4 dosage of 30 mg/L under a 100 W iodine-gallium lamp irradiation of 20 min, which afforded the reaction rate constant and half-life being respectively 10...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060312/preparation-of-liquid-exfoliated-transition-metal-dichalcogenide-nanosheets-with-controlled-size-and-thickness-a-state-of-the-art-protocol
#19
Claudia Backes, Damien Hanlon, Beata M Szydlowska, Andrew Harvey, Ronan J Smith, Thomas M Higgins, Jonathan N Coleman
We summarize recent advances in the production of liquid-exfoliated transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) nanosheets with controlled size and thickness. Layered crystals of molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) and tungsten disulphide (WS2) are exfoliated in aqueous surfactant solution by sonication. This yields highly polydisperse mixtures containing nanosheets with broad size and thickness distributions. However, for most purposes, specific sizes (in terms of both lateral dimension and thickness) are required. For example, large and thin nanosheets are desired for (opto) electronic applications, while laterally small nanosheets are interesting for catalytic applications...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050498/evaluation-of-low-level-laser-therapy-on-pain-perception-following-orthodontic-elastomeric-separation-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
Mai M E Almallah, Wael H Almahdi, Mohammad Y Hajeer
INTRODUCTION: Periodontal pain caused by elastomeric separators is a very common problem in the commencement of orthodontic treatment. Previous studies have shown good results in reducing this pain by Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) and different protocols of application have been suggested in the literature. AIM: This trial aimed to evaluate LLLT on managing orthodontic pain caused by elastomeric separators and to compare single versus double irradiation in possible pain reduction...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
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