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lewy body dementia review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211814/are-major-dementias-triggered-by-poor-blood-flow-to-the-brain-theoretical-considerations
#1
Jack C de la Torre
There is growing evidence that chronic brain hypoperfusion plays a central role in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) long before dyscognitive symptoms or amyloid-β accumulation in the brain appear. This commentary proposes that dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) may also develop from chronic brain hypoperfusion following a similar but not identical neurometabolic breakdown as AD. The argument to support this conclusion is that chronic brain hypoperfusion, which is found at the early stages of the three dementias reviewed here, will reduce oxygen delivery and lower oxidative phosphorylation promoting a steady decline in the synthesis of the cell energy fuel adenosine triphosphate (ATP)...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202694/pure-autonomic-failure-predictors-of-conversion-to-clinical-cns-involvement
#2
Wolfgang Singer, Sarah E Berini, Paola Sandroni, Robert D Fealey, Elizabeth A Coon, Mariana D Suarez, Eduardo E Benarroch, Phillip A Low
OBJECTIVE: Based on the observation that a subset of patients originally diagnosed with pure autonomic failure (PAF) eventually develops extrapyramidal or cerebellar involvement consistent with multiple system atrophy (MSA), Parkinson disease (PD), or dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), we aimed to identify predictors of progression of PAF to more sinister synucleinopathies. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, we reviewed patients seen at Mayo Clinic Rochester by autonomic specialists between 2001 and 2011 and during initial evaluation diagnosed with orthostatic hypotension consistent with PAF (possible PAF)...
February 15, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170377/%C3%AE-synuclein-toxicity-in-neurodegeneration-mechanism-and-therapeutic-strategies
#3
REVIEW
Yvette C Wong, Dimitri Krainc
Alterations in α-synuclein dosage lead to familial Parkinson's disease (PD), and its accumulation results in synucleinopathies that include PD, dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and multiple system atrophy (MSA). Furthermore, α-synuclein contributes to the fibrilization of amyloid-b and tau, two key proteins in Alzheimer's disease, which suggests a central role for α-synuclein toxicity in neurodegeneration. Recent studies of factors contributing to α-synuclein toxicity and its disruption of downstream cellular pathways have expanded our understanding of disease pathogenesis in synucleinopathies...
February 7, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103749/clinical-practice-with-anti-dementia-drugs-a-revised-third-consensus-statement-from-the-british-association-for-psychopharmacology
#4
John T O'Brien, Clive Holmes, Matthew Jones, Roy Jones, Gill Livingston, Ian McKeith, Peter Mittler, Peter Passmore, Craig Ritchie, Louise Robinson, Elizabeth L Sampson, John-Paul Taylor, Alan Thomas, Alistair Burns
The British Association for Psychopharmacology coordinated a meeting of experts to review and revise its previous 2011 guidelines for clinical practice with anti-dementia drugs. As before, levels of evidence were rated using accepted standards which were then translated into grades of recommendation A-D, with A having the strongest evidence base (from randomised controlled trials) and D the weakest (case studies or expert opinion). Current clinical diagnostic criteria for dementia have sufficient accuracy to be applied in clinical practice (B) and both structural (computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging) and functional (positron emission tomography and single photon emission computerised tomography) brain imaging can improve diagnostic accuracy in particular situations (B)...
February 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087304/sleep-and-neurodegeneration-a-critical-appraisal
#5
REVIEW
Jagan A Pillai, James B Leverenz
Sleep abnormalities are clearly recognized as distinct clinical symptom of concern in neurodegenerative disorders. Appropriate management of sleep related symptoms has a positive impact on the quality of life of patients with neurodegenerative disorders. This review provides an overview of mechanisms that are currently being considered that tie sleep with neurodegeneration. It appraises the literature regarding specific sleep changes among common neurodegenerative diseases with a focus on Alzheimer's disease and synucleinopathies (i...
January 10, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044062/opening-up-the-dna-methylome-of-dementia
#6
R Delgado-Morales, M Esteller
Dementia is a complex clinical condition characterized by several cognitive impairments that interfere with patient independence in executing everyday tasks. Various neurodegenerative disorders have dementia in common among their clinical manifestations. In addition, these diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies and frontotemporal dementia, share molecular alterations at the neuropathological level. In recent years, the field of neuroepigenetics has expanded massively and it is now clear that epigenetic processes, such as DNA methylation, are mechanisms involved in both normal and pathological brain function...
January 3, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956085/effects-of-%C3%AE-synuclein-on-axonal-transport
#7
Laura A Volpicelli-Daley
Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites composed primarily of α-synuclein characterize synucleinopathies including Parkinson's disease (PD) and Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB). Despite decades of research on the impact of α-synuclein, little is known how abnormal inclusion made of this protein compromise neuronal function. Emerging evidence suggests that defects in axonal transport caused by aggregated α-synuclein contribute to neuronal dysfunction. These defects appear to occur well before the onset of neuronal death...
December 9, 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940650/autopsy-validation-of-123i-fp-cit-dopaminergic-neuroimaging-for-the-diagnosis-of-dlb
#8
Alan J Thomas, Johannes Attems, Sean J Colloby, John T O'Brien, Ian McKeith, Rodney Walker, Lean Lee, David Burn, Debra J Lett, Zuzana Walker
OBJECTIVE: To conduct a validation study of (123)I-N-fluoropropyl-2b-carbomethoxy-3b-(4-iodophenyl) nortropane ((123)I-FP-CIT) SPECT dopaminergic imaging in the clinical diagnosis of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) with autopsy as the gold standard. METHODS: Patients >60 years of age with dementia who had undergone (123)I-FP-CIT imaging in research studies and who had donated their brain tissue to the Newcastle Brain Tissue Resource were included. All had structured clinical research assessments, and clinical diagnoses were applied by consensus panels using international diagnostic criteria...
January 17, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940516/molecular-genetics-of-neurodegenerative-dementias
#9
Flora I Hinz, Daniel H Geschwind
Neurodegenerative dementias are clinically heterogeneous, progressive diseases with frequently overlapping symptoms, such as cognitive impairments and behavior and movement deficits. Although a majority of cases appear to be sporadic, there is a large genetic component that has yet to be fully explained. Here, we review the recent genetic and genomic findings pertaining to Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal dementia, Lewy body dementia, and prion dementia. In this review, we describe causal and susceptibility genes identified for these dementias and discuss recent research pertaining to the molecular function of these genes...
December 9, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899296/targeting-the-norepinephrinergic-system-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-related-disorders-the-locus-coeruleus-story
#10
REVIEW
Yannick Vermeiren, Peter P De Deyn
Parkinson's disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) are related, progressive and debilitating neurodegenerative disorders with hallmark features that include a variety of motor and non-motor symptoms (behavioral, autonomic and cognitive dysfunction). For almost half a century, the motor aspects have been attributed to Lewy pathology (LP) predominantly in the substantia nigra (SN), causing a major loss of dopaminergic neurons. However, the relative success of dopaminergic replacement therapies for alleviation of solely the parkinsonian features has prompted researchers to further explore other monoaminergic strategies which may tackle all PD-related aspects...
November 27, 2016: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891726/everyday-conversation-in-dementia-a-review-of-the-literature-to-inform-research-and-practice
#11
REVIEW
Jacqueline Kindell, John Keady, Karen Sage, Ray Wilkinson
BACKGROUND: There has been increasing interest in dementia care in recent years, including how practitioners, service providers and society in general can help individuals to live well with the condition. An important aspect to this is provision of advice to ensure conversation partners effectively support the person with dementia in conversation. AIMS: To provide a descriptive review of the literature examining everyday conversation in dementia in order to inform practice and research...
November 27, 2016: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878426/the-differential-effects-of-alzheimer-s-disease-and-lewy-body-pathology-on-cognitive-performance-a-meta-analysis
#12
REVIEW
Ashita S Gurnani, Brandon E Gavett
Differential diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) from normal aging and other dementia etiologies is imperative for disease specific treatment options and long-term care planning. Neuropathological confirmation is the gold standard for neurodegenerative disease diagnosis, yet most published studies examining the use of neuropsychological tests in the differential diagnosis of dementia rely upon clinical diagnostic outcomes. The present study undertook a meta-analytic review of the literature to identify cognitive tests and domains that allow for the differentiation of individuals with AD pathology from individuals with dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) pathology and pathology-free individuals...
November 22, 2016: Neuropsychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848117/capgras-syndrome-in-parkinson-s-disease-two-new-cases-and-literature-review
#13
REVIEW
Antonino Cannas, Mario Meloni, Marcello Mario Mascia, Paolo Solla, Luigi Cocco, Antonella Muroni, Gianluca Floris, Francesca Di Stefano, Francesco Marrosu
The Capgras syndrome (CS) is a rare psychiatric disorder. CS is classified as a delusional misidentification syndrome. Initially, CS was described in paranoid schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders. CS has also been reported in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Lewy body dementia. To date, there are very few descriptions of the occurrence of CS in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD), with or without dementia. Considering the recent observation of two new cases in PD patients, a systematic overview of the literature published between 1976 and 2016 reporting CS in PD was conducted...
February 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697033/recombinant-antibody-fragments-for-neurodegenerative-diseases
#14
Karen Manoutcharian, Roxanna Perez-Garmendia, Goar Gevorkian
Recombinant antibody fragments are promising alternatives to full-length immunoglobulins and offer important advantages compared with conventional monoclonal antibodies: extreme specificity, higher affinity, superior stability and solubility, reduced immunogenicity as well as easy and inexpensive large-scale production. Different antibody formats such as single-chain fragment variable (scFv), single-domain antibody fragments (VHHs or sdAbs), bispecific antibodies (bsAbs), intrabodies and nanobodies, are currently being studied in pre-clinical models of cancer as well as infectious and autoimmune diseases and many of them are being tested as therapeutics in clinical trials...
September 30, 2016: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650668/the-diagnosis-of-delirium-superimposed-on-dementia-an-emerging-challenge
#15
REVIEW
Alessandro Morandi, Daniel Davis, Giuseppe Bellelli, Rakesh C Arora, Gideon A Caplan, Barbara Kamholz, Ann Kolanowski, Donna Marie Fick, Stefan Kreisel, Alasdair MacLullich, David Meagher, Karen Neufeld, Pratik P Pandharipande, Sarah Richardson, Arjen J C Slooter, John P Taylor, Christine Thomas, Zoë Tieges, Andrew Teodorczuk, Philippe Voyer, James L Rudolph
Delirium occurring in patients with dementia is referred to as delirium superimposed on dementia (DSD). People who are older with dementia and who are institutionalized are at increased risk of developing delirium when hospitalized. In addition, their prior cognitive impairment makes detecting their delirium a challenge. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition and the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision are considered the standard reference for the diagnosis of delirium and include criteria of impairments in cognitive processes such as attention, additional cognitive disturbances, or altered level of arousal...
January 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613160/-under-pressure-is-there-a-link-between-orthostatic-hypotension-and-cognitive-impairment-in-%C3%AE-synucleinopathies
#16
REVIEW
Sean J Udow, Andrew D Robertson, Bradley J MacIntosh, Alberto J Espay, James B Rowe, Anthony E Lang, Mario Masellis
Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies and multiple system atrophy are characterised by abnormal neuroglial α-synuclein accumulation. These α-synucleinopathies have in common parkinsonism and non-motor features including orthostatic hypotension (OH) and cognitive impairment. However, the nature of the relationship between OH and cognitive impairment is unclear. We therefore systematically reviewed the literature for evidence of an association between OH and cognitive impairment in α-synucleinopathies and discuss possible mechanisms and implications of this relationship...
December 2016: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27583123/antipsychotic-use-in-dementia-a-systematic-review-of-benefits-and-risks-from-meta-analyses
#17
Rajesh R Tampi, Deena J Tampi, Silpa Balachandran, Shilpa Srinivasan
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this review is to evaluate the data on the use of antipsychotics in individuals with dementia from meta-analyses. METHODS: We performed a literature search of PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and Cochrane collaboration databases through 30 November, 2015 using the following keywords: 'antipsychotics', 'dementia' and 'meta-analysis'. The search was not restricted by the age of the patients or the language of the study. However, in the final analysis we only included studies involving patients that were published in English language journals or had official English translations...
September 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27542516/brain-imaging-findings-in-idiopathic-rem-sleep-behavior-disorder-rbd-a-systematic-review-on-potential-biomarkers-for-neurodegeneration
#18
Julia Heller, Nikolina Brcina, Imis Dogan, Florian Holtbernd, Sandro Romanzetti, Jörg B Schulz, Johannes Schiefer, Kathrin Reetz
Idiopathic rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia characterized by the loss of physiological atonia of skeletal muscles with abnormal behavior during dream sleep. RBD may be the initial manifestation of neurodegenerative diseases, particularly of α-synucleinopathies such as Parkinson's disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and multiple system atrophy (MSA). However, gauging the individual risk of subsequent phenoconversion and making assumptions on the type of disease that may subsequently follow RBD is challenging...
June 25, 2016: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27502301/parkinson-disease-and-dementia
#19
Sara Garcia-Ptacek, Milica G Kramberger
Dementia is a frequent complication of Parkinson disease (PD) with a yearly incidence of around 10% of patients with PD. Lewy body pathology is the most important factor in the development of Parkinson disease dementia (PDD) and there is evidence for a synergistic effect with β-amyloid. The clinical phenotype in PDD extends beyond the dysexecutive syndrome that is often present in early PD and encompasses deficits in recognition memory, attention, and visual perception. Sleep disturbances, hallucinations, neuroleptic sensitivity, and fluctuations are often present...
September 2016: Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27498879/metals-in-alzheimer-s-and-parkinson-s-disease-relevance-to-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#20
Erin J McAllum, David I Finkelstein
Despite being a common form of dementia, dementia with Lewy bodies is relatively under-researched when compared with Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. This has arisen from the fact that dementia with Lewy bodies has been historically difficult to diagnose resulting in a lack of well-defined clinical cohorts and post-mortem tissue available for scientific research. Dementia with Lewy bodies shares clinical and pathological features with both Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease so it is therefore likely that it also has similar pathogenic mechanisms leading to disease...
November 2016: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
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