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lewy body dementia review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305919/pathological-role-of-lipid-interaction-with-%C3%AE-synuclein-in-parkinson-s-disease
#1
REVIEW
Mari Suzuki, Kazunori Sango, Keiji Wada, Yoshitaka Nagai
Alpha-synuclein (αSyn) plays a central role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). In sporadic PD and DLB, normally harmless αSyn proteins without any mutations might gain toxic functions by unknown mechanisms. Thus, it is important to elucidate the factors promoting the toxic conversion of αSyn, towards understanding the pathogenesis of and developing disease-modifying therapies for PD and DLB. Accumulating biophysical and biochemical studies have demonstrated that αSyn interacts with lipid membrane, and the interaction influences αSyn oligomerization and aggregation...
January 3, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305061/a-refined-concept-%C3%AE-synuclein-dysregulation-disease
#2
REVIEW
Hideki Mochizuki, Chi-Jing Choong, Eliezer Masliah
α-synuclein (αSyn) still remains a mysterious protein even two decades after SNCA encoding it was identified as the first causative gene of familial Parkinson's disease (PD). Accumulation of αSyn causes α-synucleinopathies including PD, dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and multiple system atrophy (MSA). Recent advances in therapeutic approaches offer new antibody-, vaccine-, antisense-oligonucleotide- and small molecule-based options to reduce αSyn protein levels and aggregates in patient's brain. Gathering research information of other neurological disease particularly Alzheimer's disease, recent disappointment of an experimental amyloid plaques busting antibody in clinical trials underscores the difficulty of treating people who show even mild dementia as damage in their brain may already be too extensive...
January 2, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249935/loss-of-neuroprotective-factors-in-neurodegenerative-dementias-the-end-or-the-starting-point
#3
REVIEW
Luisa Benussi, Giuliano Binetti, Roberta Ghidoni
Recent clinical, genetic and biochemical experimental evidences highlight the existence of common molecular pathways underlying neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we will explore a key common pathological mechanism, i.e., the loss of neuroprotective factors, across the three major neurodegenerative diseases leading to dementia: Alzheimer's disease (AD), Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and Lewy body dementia (LBD). We will report evidences that the Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF), the most investigated and characterized brain neurotrophin, progranulin, a multi-functional adipokine with trophic and growth factor properties, and cystatin C, a neuroprotective growth factor, are reduced in AD, FTD, and LBD...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196808/propagation-of-alpha-synuclein-pathology-from-the-olfactory-bulb-possible-role-in-the-pathogenesis-of-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#4
REVIEW
María Graciela Cersosimo
Olfactory limbic structures, like the amygdala, the entorhinal, and the piriform cortices, are closely involved in cognitive processes. Thus, besides olfactory dysfunctions, it is conceivable that the compromise of these structures can lead to cognitive impairment. The olfactory bulb is affected by alpha-synuclein pathology in almost all cases of both Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. The clinical distinction between these disorders relies on the timing in the appearance of dementia in relationship to motor symptoms...
December 1, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187334/cognitive-profile-in-prodromal-disease-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#5
Jennifer Kemp, Nathalie Philippi, Clélie Phillipps, Anne Botzung, Frédéric Blanc
This paper reviews findings on cognition in prodromal dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). The issue of differential diagnosis between DLB and Alzheimer's disease (AD) on the one hand, and Parkinson's disease (PD) on the other hand, at prodromal stages of the diseases is discussed. The cognitive profile of prodromal DLB is also evaluated in terms of cognitive deficits and « cognitive weaknesses » (low performances although in normal range). Findings suggest that visuo-constructive tests and verbal fluency are particularly relevant to dfferentiate DLB from AD...
December 1, 2017: Gériatrie et Psychologie Neuropsychiatrie du Vieillissement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170501/idiopathic-rem-sleep-behaviour-disorder-and-neurodegeneration-an-update
#6
REVIEW
Birgit Högl, Ambra Stefani, Aleksandar Videnovic
So-called idiopathic rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behaviour disorder (RBD), formerly seen as a rare parasomnia, is now recognized as the prodromal stage of an α-synucleinopathy. Given the very high risk that patients with idiopathic RBD have of developing α-synucleinopathies, such as Parkinson disease (PD), PD dementia, dementia with Lewy bodies or multiple system atrophy, and the outstandingly high specificity and very long interval between the onset of idiopathic RBD and the clinical manifestations of α-synucleinopathies, the prodromal phase of this disorder represents a unique opportunity for potentially disease-modifying intervention...
November 24, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164600/18f-pet-with-florbetaben-for-the-early-diagnosis-of-alzheimer-s-disease-dementia-and-other-dementias-in-people-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-mci
#7
REVIEW
Gabriel Martínez, Robin Wm Vernooij, Paulina Fuentes Padilla, Javier Zamora, Leon Flicker, Xavier Bonfill Cosp
BACKGROUND: 18F-florbetaben uptake by brain tissue, measured by positron emission tomography (PET), is accepted by regulatory agencies like the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicine Agencies (EMA) for assessing amyloid load in people with dementia. Its added value is mainly demonstrated by excluding Alzheimer's pathology in an established dementia diagnosis. However, the National Institute on Aging and Alzheimer's Association (NIA-AA) revised the diagnostic criteria for Alzheimer's disease and confidence in the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to Alzheimer's disease may be increased when using some amyloid biomarkers tests like 18F-florbetaben...
November 22, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146478/diacylglycerols-as-biomarkers-of-sustained-immune-activation-in-proteinopathies-associated-with-dementia
#8
REVIEW
Paul L Wood, John E Cebak, Randall L Woltjer
Cognitive decline is a devastating clinical condition, heavily correlated with age progression. In the cases of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Lewy body disease, the common neuropathologies are proteinopathies and neuroinflammation. Herein, we review current lipidomics findings and conclude that brain and circulating diacylglycerols represent biomarkers of this ongoing sustained immune response, presumably involving microglia. We further hypothesize that a logical next step will be to evaluate biomarkers of immune activation in a cohort of patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and subsequently attempt to provide therapeutic intervention with anti-inflammatory therapy in MCI patients with immune activation...
November 13, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143692/non-pharmacological-interventions-for-lewy-body-dementia-a-systematic-review
#9
Michael H Connors, Lena Quinto, Ian McKeith, Henry Brodaty, Louise Allan, Claire Bamford, Alan Thomas, John-Paul Taylor, John T O'Brien
Lewy body dementia (consisting of dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson's disease dementia) is a common neurodegenerative disease characterised by visual hallucinations, fluctuating attention, motor disturbances, falls, and sensitivity to antipsychotics. This combination of features presents challenges for pharmacological management. Given this, we sought to review evidence for non-pharmacological interventions with patients with Lewy body dementia and their carers. Bibliographic databases were searched using a wide range of search terms and no restrictions were placed on study design, language, or clinical setting...
November 16, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142140/imaging-and-csf-analyses-effectively-distinguish-cjd-from-its-mimics
#10
Peter Rudge, Harpreet Hyare, Alison Green, John Collinge, Simon Mead
OBJECTIVE: To review clinical and investigation findings in patients referred to a specialist prion clinic who were suspected to have sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) and yet were found to have an alternative final diagnosis. METHODS: Review the clinical findings and investigations in 214 patients enrolled into the UK National Prion Monitoring Cohort Study between October 2008 and November 2015 who had postmortem confirmed sCJD and compare these features with 50 patients referred over the same period who had an alternative final diagnosis (CJD mimics)...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119326/neurodegeneration-and-the-ordered-assembly-of-%C3%AE-synuclein
#11
REVIEW
Maria Grazia Spillantini, Michel Goedert
In 2017, it was 200 years since James Parkinson published 'An Essay on the Shaking Palsy' and 20 years since α-synuclein aggregation came to the fore. In 1998, multiple system atrophy joined Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies as the third major synucleinopathy. Here, we describe the work that led to the identification of α-synuclein in Lewy bodies, Lewy neurites and Papp-Lantos bodies. We also review some of the findings reported since 1997.
November 8, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116402/a-critical-review-of-the-prion-hypothesis-of-human-synucleinopathies
#12
REVIEW
Gültekin Tamgüney, Amos D Korczyn
Parkinson's disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and multiple system atrophy (MSA) are neurodegenerative disorders which have been pathologically classified as synucleinopathies, since they are associated with pathognomonic deposits of misfolded alpha-synuclein in cells of the nervous system. Recently PD, DLB, and MSA were also suggested to be prion-like disorders. Much controversy exists regarding this analogy between synucleinopathies and prion diseases. Here, we discuss what characterizes prion diseases and in which way synucleinopathies may be considered prion-like or -unlike...
November 8, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110781/cerebrospinal-fluid-in-the-dementias
#13
Henrik Zetterberg, Jonathan D Rohrer, Jonathan M Schott
Alzheimer disease, vascular dementia, dementia with Lewy bodies, and frontotemporal dementia are the most common central nervous system disorders that cause progressive neurocognitive dysfunction and ultimately dementia. A number of biomarkers for pathologies reflecting each condition have been developed. Here, we review these and give an overview of the current state of practice and research regarding cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for these disorders. The chapter discusses both established (most of which are tau- and amyloid β-related) and upcoming biomarkers and details, wherever appropriate, clinical use and differential diagnostics aspects...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103031/transcranial-sonography-in%C3%A2-neurodegenerative-diseases-with-cognitive-decline
#14
Silvia Favaretto, Uwe Walter, Claudio Baracchini, Annachiara Cagnin
Transcranial sonography (TCS) of the brain parenchyma detects alterations in the substantia nigra (SN), raphe nuclei, and basal ganglia; this technique has been established as a tool for the early diagnosis of Parkinson's disease and differential diagnosis from atypical parkinsonian syndromes. Here, we aimed to review the main applications of TCS in neurodegenerative diseases presenting with dementia syndrome, focusing on Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), frontotemporal lobar degeneration, idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus, and atypical and secondary parkinsonisms...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067320/multiple-comorbid-neuropathologies-in-the-setting-of-alzheimer-s-disease-neuropathology-and-implications-for-drug-development
#15
REVIEW
Gil D Rabinovici, Maria C Carrillo, Mark Forman, Susan DeSanti, David S Miller, Nicholas Kozauer, Ronald C Petersen, Christopher Randolph, David S Knopman, Eric E Smith, Maria Isaac, Niklas Mattsson, Lisa J Bain, James A Hendrix, John R Sims
Dementia is often characterized as being caused by one of several major diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), cerebrovascular disease, Lewy body disease, or a frontotemporal degeneration. Failure to acknowledge that more than one entity may be present precludes attempts to understand interactive relationships. The clinicopathological studies of dementia demonstrate that multiple pathologic processes often coexist. How overlapping pathologic findings affect the diagnosis and treatment of clinical AD and other dementia phenotypes was the topic taken up by the Alzheimer's Association's Research Roundtable in October 2014...
January 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051842/is-there-a-premotor-phase-of-essential-tremor
#16
REVIEW
Abhishek Lenka, Julian Benito-León, Elan D Louis
BACKGROUND: Essential tremor (ET) is the most common tremor disorder. In addition to its hallmark feature, kinetic tremor of the upper limbs, patients may have a number of non-motor symptoms and signs (NMS). Several lines of evidence suggest that ET is a neurodegenerative disorder and certain NMS may antedate the onset of tremor. This article comprehensively reviews the evidence for the existence of a "premotor phase" of ET, and discusses plausible biological explanations and implications...
2017: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036826/what-can-quantitative-gait-analysis-tell-us-about-dementia-and-its-subtypes-a-structured-review
#17
Ríona Mc Ardle, Rosie Morris, Joanna Wilson, Brook Galna, Alan J Thomas, Lynn Rochester
Distinguishing dementia subtypes can be difficult due to similarities in clinical presentation. There is increasing interest in discrete gait characteristics as markers to aid diagnostic algorithms in dementia. This structured review explores the differences in quantitative gait characteristics between dementia and healthy controls, and between four dementia subtypes under single-task conditions: Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson's disease dementia, and vascular dementia. Twenty-six papers out of an initial 5,211 were reviewed and interpreted using a validated model of gait...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030419/accuracy-of-clinical-diagnosis-of-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
Giovanni Rizzo, Simona Arcuti, Massimiliano Copetti, Maria Alessandria, Rodolfo Savica, Andrea Fontana, Rocco Liguori, Giancarlo Logroscino
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is based on diagnostic clinical criteria, which were updated over the years. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate, through a systematic review, accuracy of the diagnostic criteria, testing a possible improvement over time. METHODS: We searched on MEDLINE and SCOPUS databases for studies reporting diagnostic parameters regarding the clinical diagnosis of DLB until October 2016. We performed meta-analysis, using a Bayesian approach, on those using pathological examination as gold standard, subclassified based on the different diagnostic criteria used...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030055/the-heart-of-pd-lewy-body-diseases-as-neurocardiologic-disorders
#19
David S Goldstein, Yehonatan Sharabi
This review provides an update about cardiac sympathetic denervation in Lewy body diseases. The family of Lewy body diseases includes Parkinson's disease (PD), pure autonomic failure (PAF), and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). All three feature intra-neuronal cytoplasmic deposits of the protein, alpha-synuclein. Multiple system atrophy (MSA), the parkinsonian form of which can be difficult to distinguish from PD with orthostatic hypotension, involves glial cytoplasmic inclusions that contain alpha-synuclein...
October 10, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021741/the-neuroprotective-role-of-protein-quality-control-in-halting-the-development-of-alpha-synuclein-pathology
#20
REVIEW
Destiny-Love Manecka, Benoît Vanderperre, Edward A Fon, Thomas M Durcan
Synucleinopathies are a family of neurodegenerative disorders that comprises Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and multiple system atrophy. Each of these disorders is characterized by devastating motor, cognitive, and autonomic consequences. Current treatments for synucleinopathies are not curative and are limited to improvement of quality of life for affected individuals. Although the underlying causes of these diseases are unknown, a shared pathological hallmark is the presence of proteinaceous inclusions containing the α-synuclein (α-syn) protein in brain tissue...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
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