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lewy body dementia review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324300/%C3%AE-synuclein-and-parkinsonism-updates-and-future-perspectives
#1
REVIEW
Kaie Rosborough, Neha Patel, Lorraine V Kalia
Mutations in the SNCA gene, which encodes the α-synuclein protein, were the first discovered genetic causes of familial parkinsonism with Lewy pathology. To date, six different SNCA missense mutations as well as multiplications are known to cause parkinsonism. For this review, we performed a literature search to identify all published cases of SNCA-related parkinsonism to provide an updated summary of the clinical and neuropathological features of parkinsonism due to SNCA mutations. Familial parkinsonism associated with SNCA is rare, but α-synuclein aggregation is a core feature of sporadic parkinsonism, including Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and multiple system atrophy...
April 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317651/clinical-validity-of-presynaptic-dopaminergic-imaging-with%C3%A2-123-i-ioflupane%C3%A2-and-noradrenergic-imaging-with-123-i-mibg-in-the-differential-diagnosis-between-alzheimer-s-disease-and-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-in-the-context-of-a-structured-5-phase-development
#2
REVIEW
Ida Sonni, Osman Ratib, Marina Boccardi, Agnese Picco, Karl Herholz, Flavio Nobili, Andrea Varrone
The use of biomarkers (BMs) for accurate diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been proposed by recent diagnostic criteria; however, their maturity is not sufficient to grant implementation in the clinical routine. A proper diagnostic process requires not only confirmation of the disease but also the exclusion of similar disorders entering differential diagnosis, like dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). This review is aimed at evaluating the clinical validity of (123)I-ioflupane brain single photon emission tomography and (123)I-MIBG cardiac scintigraphy as imaging BMs for DLB...
April 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315409/in-vivo-tau-pet-imaging-in-dementia-pathophysiology-radiotracer-quantification-and-a-systematic-review-of-clinical-findings
#3
REVIEW
Benjamin Hall, Elijah Mak, Simon Cervenka, Franklin I Aigbirhio, James B Rowe, John T O'Brien
In addition to the deposition of β-amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles composed of aggregated hyperphosphorylated tau are one of the pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders. Until now, our understanding about the natural history and topography of tau deposition has only been based on post-mortem and cerebrospinal fluid studies, and evidence continues to implicate tau as a central driver of downstream neurodegenerative processes and cognitive decline. Recently, it has become possible to assess the regional distribution and severity of tau burden in vivo with the development of novel radiotracers for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging...
March 15, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282814/the-synucleinopathies-twenty-years-on
#4
Michel Goedert, Ross Jakes, Maria Grazia Spillantini
In 2017, it is two hundred years since James Parkinson provided the first complete clinical description of the disease named after him, fifty years since the introduction of high-dose D,L-DOPA treatment and twenty years since α-synuclein aggregation came to the fore. In 1998, multiple system atrophy joined Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies as the third major synucleinopathy. Here we review our work, which led to the identification of α-synuclein in Lewy bodies, Lewy neurites and Papp-Lantos bodies, as well as what has happened since...
2017: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259856/7t-mri-for-neurodegenerative-dementias-in-vivo-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#5
REVIEW
Elizabeth Frances McKiernan, John Tiernan O'Brien
The spatial resolution of 7T MRI approaches the scale of pathologies of interest in degenerative brain diseases, such as amyloid plaques and changes in cortical layers and subcortical nuclei. It may reveal new information about neurodegenerative dementias, although challenges may include increased artefact production and more adverse effects. We performed a systematic review of papers investigating Alzheimer's disease (AD), Lewy body dementia (LBD), frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and Huntington's disease (HD) in vivo using 7T MRI...
March 4, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241427/potential-modes-of-intercellular-%C3%AE-synuclein-transmission
#6
REVIEW
Dario Valdinocci, Rowan A W Radford, Sue Maye Siow, Roger S Chung, Dean L Pountney
Intracellular aggregates of the α-synuclein protein result in cell loss and dysfunction in Parkinson's disease and atypical Parkinsonism, such as multiple system atrophy and dementia with Lewy bodies. Each of these neurodegenerative conditions, known collectively as α-synucleinopathies, may be characterized by a different suite of molecular triggers that initiate pathogenesis. The mechanisms whereby α-synuclein aggregates mediate cytotoxicity also remain to be fully elucidated. However, recent studies have implicated the cell-to-cell spread of α-synuclein as the major mode of disease propagation between brain regions during disease progression...
February 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236526/-atypical-atypical-parkinsonism-critical-appraisal-of-a-cohort
#7
Stephanie T Hirschbichler, Roberto Erro, Christos Ganos, Maria Stamelou, Amit Batla, Bettina Balint, Kailash P Bhatia
BACKGROUND: Atypical parkinsonian conditions such as multiple system atrophy (MSA), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), corticobasal syndrome (CBS) and Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) comprise 10-15% of parkinsonian syndromes. Misdiagnosis with Parkinson disease (PD) and within the entities is common, given the absence of reliable biomarkers. However a correct diagnosis is not only important in clinical practice, but also crucial for any trial attempting to identify biomarkers or new treatments...
December 14, 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211814/are-major-dementias-triggered-by-poor-blood-flow-to-the-brain-theoretical-considerations
#8
Jack C de la Torre
There is growing evidence that chronic brain hypoperfusion plays a central role in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) long before dyscognitive symptoms or amyloid-β accumulation in the brain appear. This commentary proposes that dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) may also develop from chronic brain hypoperfusion following a similar but not identical neurometabolic breakdown as AD. The argument to support this conclusion is that chronic brain hypoperfusion, which is found at the early stages of the three dementias reviewed here, will reduce oxygen delivery and lower oxidative phosphorylation promoting a steady decline in the synthesis of the cell energy fuel adenosine triphosphate (ATP)...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202694/pure-autonomic-failure-predictors-of-conversion-to-clinical-cns-involvement
#9
Wolfgang Singer, Sarah E Berini, Paola Sandroni, Robert D Fealey, Elizabeth A Coon, Mariana D Suarez, Eduardo E Benarroch, Phillip A Low
OBJECTIVE: Based on the observation that a subset of patients originally diagnosed with pure autonomic failure (PAF) eventually develops extrapyramidal or cerebellar involvement consistent with multiple system atrophy (MSA), Parkinson disease (PD), or dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), we aimed to identify predictors of progression of PAF to more sinister synucleinopathies. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, we reviewed patients seen at Mayo Clinic Rochester by autonomic specialists between 2001 and 2011 and during initial evaluation diagnosed with orthostatic hypotension consistent with PAF (possible PAF)...
March 21, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170377/%C3%AE-synuclein-toxicity-in-neurodegeneration-mechanism-and-therapeutic-strategies
#10
REVIEW
Yvette C Wong, Dimitri Krainc
Alterations in α-synuclein dosage lead to familial Parkinson's disease (PD), and its accumulation results in synucleinopathies that include PD, dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and multiple system atrophy (MSA). Furthermore, α-synuclein contributes to the fibrilization of amyloid-b and tau, two key proteins in Alzheimer's disease, which suggests a central role for α-synuclein toxicity in neurodegeneration. Recent studies of factors contributing to α-synuclein toxicity and its disruption of downstream cellular pathways have expanded our understanding of disease pathogenesis in synucleinopathies...
February 7, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103749/clinical-practice-with-anti-dementia-drugs-a-revised-third-consensus-statement-from-the-british-association-for-psychopharmacology
#11
John T O'Brien, Clive Holmes, Matthew Jones, Roy Jones, Gill Livingston, Ian McKeith, Peter Mittler, Peter Passmore, Craig Ritchie, Louise Robinson, Elizabeth L Sampson, John-Paul Taylor, Alan Thomas, Alistair Burns
The British Association for Psychopharmacology coordinated a meeting of experts to review and revise its previous 2011 guidelines for clinical practice with anti-dementia drugs. As before, levels of evidence were rated using accepted standards which were then translated into grades of recommendation A-D, with A having the strongest evidence base (from randomised controlled trials) and D the weakest (case studies or expert opinion). Current clinical diagnostic criteria for dementia have sufficient accuracy to be applied in clinical practice (B) and both structural (computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging) and functional (positron emission tomography and single photon emission computerised tomography) brain imaging can improve diagnostic accuracy in particular situations (B)...
February 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087304/sleep-and-neurodegeneration-a-critical-appraisal
#12
REVIEW
Jagan A Pillai, James B Leverenz
Sleep abnormalities are clearly recognized as distinct clinical symptom of concern in neurodegenerative disorders. Appropriate management of sleep related symptoms has a positive impact on the quality of life of patients with neurodegenerative disorders. This review provides an overview of mechanisms that are currently being considered that tie sleep with neurodegeneration. It appraises the literature regarding specific sleep changes among common neurodegenerative diseases with a focus on Alzheimer's disease and synucleinopathies (i...
January 10, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044062/opening-up-the-dna-methylome-of-dementia
#13
R Delgado-Morales, M Esteller
Dementia is a complex clinical condition characterized by several cognitive impairments that interfere with patient independence in executing everyday tasks. Various neurodegenerative disorders have dementia in common among their clinical manifestations. In addition, these diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies and frontotemporal dementia, share molecular alterations at the neuropathological level. In recent years, the field of neuroepigenetics has expanded massively and it is now clear that epigenetic processes, such as DNA methylation, are mechanisms involved in both normal and pathological brain function...
April 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956085/effects-of-%C3%AE-synuclein-on-axonal-transport
#14
Laura A Volpicelli-Daley
Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites composed primarily of α-synuclein characterize synucleinopathies including Parkinson's disease (PD) and Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB). Despite decades of research on the impact of α-synuclein, little is known how abnormal inclusion made of this protein compromise neuronal function. Emerging evidence suggests that defects in axonal transport caused by aggregated α-synuclein contribute to neuronal dysfunction. These defects appear to occur well before the onset of neuronal death...
December 9, 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940650/autopsy-validation-of-123i-fp-cit-dopaminergic-neuroimaging-for-the-diagnosis-of-dlb
#15
Alan J Thomas, Johannes Attems, Sean J Colloby, John T O'Brien, Ian McKeith, Rodney Walker, Lean Lee, David Burn, Debra J Lett, Zuzana Walker
OBJECTIVE: To conduct a validation study of (123)I-N-fluoropropyl-2b-carbomethoxy-3b-(4-iodophenyl) nortropane ((123)I-FP-CIT) SPECT dopaminergic imaging in the clinical diagnosis of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) with autopsy as the gold standard. METHODS: Patients >60 years of age with dementia who had undergone (123)I-FP-CIT imaging in research studies and who had donated their brain tissue to the Newcastle Brain Tissue Resource were included. All had structured clinical research assessments, and clinical diagnoses were applied by consensus panels using international diagnostic criteria...
January 17, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940516/molecular-genetics-of-neurodegenerative-dementias
#16
Flora I Hinz, Daniel H Geschwind
Neurodegenerative dementias are clinically heterogeneous, progressive diseases with frequently overlapping symptoms, such as cognitive impairments and behavior and movement deficits. Although a majority of cases appear to be sporadic, there is a large genetic component that has yet to be fully explained. Here, we review the recent genetic and genomic findings pertaining to Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal dementia, Lewy body dementia, and prion dementia. In this review, we describe causal and susceptibility genes identified for these dementias and discuss recent research pertaining to the molecular function of these genes...
December 9, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899296/targeting-the-norepinephrinergic-system-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-related-disorders-the-locus-coeruleus-story
#17
REVIEW
Yannick Vermeiren, Peter P De Deyn
Parkinson's disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) are related, progressive and debilitating neurodegenerative disorders with hallmark features that include a variety of motor and non-motor symptoms (behavioral, autonomic and cognitive dysfunction). For almost half a century, the motor aspects have been attributed to Lewy pathology (LP) predominantly in the substantia nigra (SN), causing a major loss of dopaminergic neurons. However, the relative success of dopaminergic replacement therapies for alleviation of solely the parkinsonian features has prompted researchers to further explore other monoaminergic strategies which may tackle all PD-related aspects...
November 27, 2016: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891726/everyday-conversation-in-dementia-a-review-of-the-literature-to-inform-research-and-practice
#18
REVIEW
Jacqueline Kindell, John Keady, Karen Sage, Ray Wilkinson
BACKGROUND: There has been increasing interest in dementia care in recent years, including how practitioners, service providers and society in general can help individuals to live well with the condition. An important aspect to this is provision of advice to ensure conversation partners effectively support the person with dementia in conversation. AIMS: To provide a descriptive review of the literature examining everyday conversation in dementia in order to inform practice and research...
November 27, 2016: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878426/the-differential-effects-of-alzheimer-s-disease-and-lewy-body-pathology-on-cognitive-performance-a-meta-analysis
#19
REVIEW
Ashita S Gurnani, Brandon E Gavett
Differential diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) from normal aging and other dementia etiologies is imperative for disease specific treatment options and long-term care planning. Neuropathological confirmation is the gold standard for neurodegenerative disease diagnosis, yet most published studies examining the use of neuropsychological tests in the differential diagnosis of dementia rely upon clinical diagnostic outcomes. The present study undertook a meta-analytic review of the literature to identify cognitive tests and domains that allow for the differentiation of individuals with AD pathology from individuals with dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) pathology and pathology-free individuals...
March 2017: Neuropsychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848117/capgras-syndrome-in-parkinson-s-disease-two-new-cases-and-literature-review
#20
REVIEW
Antonino Cannas, Mario Meloni, Marcello Mario Mascia, Paolo Solla, Luigi Cocco, Antonella Muroni, Gianluca Floris, Francesca Di Stefano, Francesco Marrosu
The Capgras syndrome (CS) is a rare psychiatric disorder. CS is classified as a delusional misidentification syndrome. Initially, CS was described in paranoid schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders. CS has also been reported in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Lewy body dementia. To date, there are very few descriptions of the occurrence of CS in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD), with or without dementia. Considering the recent observation of two new cases in PD patients, a systematic overview of the literature published between 1976 and 2016 reporting CS in PD was conducted...
February 2017: Neurological Sciences
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