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lewy body dementia review

Karen Manoutcharian, Roxanna Perez-Garmendia, Goar Gevorkian
Recombinant antibody fragments are promising alternatives to full-length immunoglobulins and offer important advantages compared with conventional monoclonal antibodies: extreme specificity, higher affinity, superior stability and solubility, reduced immunogenicity as well as easy and inexpensive large-scale production. Different antibody formats such as single-chain fragment variable (scFv), single-domain antibody fragments (VHHs or sdAbs), bispecific antibodies (bsAbs), intrabodies and nanobodies, are currently being studied in pre-clinical models of cancer as well as infectious and autoimmune diseases and many of them are being tested as therapeutics in clinical trials...
September 30, 2016: Current Neuropharmacology
Alessandro Morandi, Daniel Davis, Giuseppe Bellelli, Rakesh C Arora, Gideon A Caplan, Barbara Kamholz, Ann Kolanowski, Donna Marie Fick, Stefan Kreisel, Alasdair MacLullich, David Meagher, Karen Neufeld, Pratik P Pandharipande, Sarah Richardson, Arjen J C Slooter, John P Taylor, Christine Thomas, Zoë Tieges, Andrew Teodorczuk, Philippe Voyer, James L Rudolph
Delirium occurring in patients with dementia is referred to as delirium superimposed on dementia (DSD). People who are older with dementia and who are institutionalized are at increased risk of developing delirium when hospitalized. In addition, their prior cognitive impairment makes detecting their delirium a challenge. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition and the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision are considered the standard reference for the diagnosis of delirium and include criteria of impairments in cognitive processes such as attention, additional cognitive disturbances, or altered level of arousal...
September 16, 2016: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
Sean J Udow, Andrew D Robertson, Bradley J MacIntosh, Alberto J Espay, James B Rowe, Anthony E Lang, Mario Masellis
Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies and multiple system atrophy are characterised by abnormal neuroglial α-synuclein accumulation. These α-synucleinopathies have in common parkinsonism and non-motor features including orthostatic hypotension (OH) and cognitive impairment. However, the nature of the relationship between OH and cognitive impairment is unclear. We therefore systematically reviewed the literature for evidence of an association between OH and cognitive impairment in α-synucleinopathies and discuss possible mechanisms and implications of this relationship...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
Rajesh R Tampi, Deena J Tampi, Silpa Balachandran, Shilpa Srinivasan
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this review is to evaluate the data on the use of antipsychotics in individuals with dementia from meta-analyses. METHODS: We performed a literature search of PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and Cochrane collaboration databases through 30 November, 2015 using the following keywords: 'antipsychotics', 'dementia' and 'meta-analysis'. The search was not restricted by the age of the patients or the language of the study. However, in the final analysis we only included studies involving patients that were published in English language journals or had official English translations...
September 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Chronic Disease
Julia Heller, Nikolina Brcina, Imis Dogan, Florian Holtbernd, Sandro Romanzetti, Jörg B Schulz, Johannes Schiefer, Kathrin Reetz
Idiopathic rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia characterized by the loss of physiological atonia of skeletal muscles with abnormal behavior during dream sleep. RBD may be the initial manifestation of neurodegenerative diseases, particularly of α-synucleinopathies such as Parkinson's disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and multiple system atrophy (MSA). However, gauging the individual risk of subsequent phenoconversion and making assumptions on the type of disease that may subsequently follow RBD is challenging...
June 25, 2016: Sleep Medicine Reviews
Sara Garcia-Ptacek, Milica G Kramberger
Dementia is a frequent complication of Parkinson disease (PD) with a yearly incidence of around 10% of patients with PD. Lewy body pathology is the most important factor in the development of Parkinson disease dementia (PDD) and there is evidence for a synergistic effect with β-amyloid. The clinical phenotype in PDD extends beyond the dysexecutive syndrome that is often present in early PD and encompasses deficits in recognition memory, attention, and visual perception. Sleep disturbances, hallucinations, neuroleptic sensitivity, and fluctuations are often present...
September 2016: Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology
Erin J McAllum, David I Finkelstein
Despite being a common form of dementia, dementia with Lewy bodies is relatively under-researched when compared with Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. This has arisen from the fact that dementia with Lewy bodies has been historically difficult to diagnose resulting in a lack of well-defined clinical cohorts and post-mortem tissue available for scientific research. Dementia with Lewy bodies shares clinical and pathological features with both Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease so it is therefore likely that it also has similar pathogenic mechanisms leading to disease...
November 2016: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Nikolaus R McFarland
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although increasingly recognized, atypical parkinsonian syndromes remain challenging to diagnose and are underrecognized due to overlap with other parkinsonisms. This article provides a diagnostic approach to atypical parkinsonian syndromes, including progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), multiple system atrophy (MSA), corticobasal degeneration (CBD), and dementia with Lewy bodies. The goal of this review is to aid the clinician in recognizing key clinical and pathologic features and to raise awareness of recent advances in diagnostics and treatment...
August 2016: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
Guerry M Peavy, Steven D Edland, Belinda M Toole, Lawrence A Hansen, Douglas R Galasko, Ann M Mayo
INTRODUCTION: The goal was to compare subgroups of dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) using neuropathological measures to differentiate 'pure' Lewy body (LB) dementia from 'mixed' DLB [co-occurring LB and Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology] to facilitate diagnostic decision-making and future development of interventions based on predicted type(s) of neuropathology. Studies comparing these groups are rare relative to those differentiating 'pure' AD and all-cause DLB, and are limited by insufficient sample size, brief cognitive batteries, and/or absence of autopsy confirmation...
October 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Alireza Atri
This chapter reviews clinical applications and imaging findings useful in medical practice relating to neurodegenerative cognitive/dementing disorders. The preponderance of evidence and consensus guidelines support an essential role of multitiered neuroimaging in the evaluation and management of neurodegenerative cognitive/dementia syndrome that range in severity from mild impairments to frank dementia. Additionally, imaging features are incorporated in updated clinical and research diagnostic criteria for most dementias, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), Frontotemporal Lobar Degenerations/Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD), and Vascular Cognitive Impairment (VCI)...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Richard Cheston, Ada Ivanecka
OBJECTIVES: Psychotherapy provides a means of helping participants to resolve emotional threats and play an active role in their lives. Consequently, psychotherapy is increasingly used within dementia care. This paper reviews the existing evidence base for individual and group psychotherapy with people affected by dementia. DESIGN: The protocol was registered. We searched electronic databases, relevant websites and reference lists for records of psychotherapy with people affected by Alzheimer's Disease, Vascular dementia, Lewy-body dementia or a mixed condition between 1997 and 2015...
July 7, 2016: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Brittany Butler, Danielle Sambo, Habibeh Khoshbouei
Alpha-synuclein is a small, highly charged protein encoded by the synuclein or SNCA gene that is predominantly expressed in central nervous system neurons. Although its physiological function remains enigmatic, alpha-synuclein is implicated in movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease, multiple system atrophy, and in neurodegenerative diseases such as Dementia with Lewy bodies. Here we have focused on reviewing the existing literature pertaining to wild-type alpha-synuclein structure, its properties, and its potential involvement in regulation of dopamine neurotransmission...
June 19, 2016: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Y F Shea, J Ha, S C Lee, L W Chu
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the improvement in the accuracy of diagnosis of dementia subtypes among Chinese dementia patients who underwent [18F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography ((18)FDG PET) with or without carbon 11-labelled Pittsburgh compound B ((11)C-PIB). METHODS: This case series was performed in the Memory Clinic at Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong. We reviewed 109 subjects (56.9% were female) who received PET with or without (11)C-PIB between January 2007 and December 2014...
August 2016: Hong Kong Medical Journal, Xianggang Yi Xue za Zhi
David B Hogan, Kirsten M Fiest, Jodie I Roberts, Colleen J Maxwell, Jonathan Dykeman, Tamara Pringsheim, Thomas Steeves, Eric E Smith, Dawn Pearson, Nathalie Jetté
BACKGROUND: Population-based prevalence and incidence studies are essential for understanding the societal burden of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). METHODS: The MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched to identify publications addressing the incidence and/or prevalence of DLB. References of included articles and prior systematic reviews were searched for additional studies. Two reviewers screened all abstracts and full-text reviews, abstracted data and performed quality assessments...
April 2016: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
Paolo Eusebi, David Giannandrea, Leonardo Biscetti, Iosief Abraha, Davide Chiasserini, Massimiliano Orso, Paolo Calabresi, Lucilla Parnetti
INTRODUCTION: The diagnostic criteria currently used for Parkinson's disease (PD) are mainly based on clinical motor symptoms. For these reasons many biomarkers are under investigation to support the diagnosis at the early stage. The neuropathological hallmark of PD is represented by Lewy bodies (LBs), which are intracytoplasmic inclusions in substantia nigra neurons. The major component of LBs, α-synuclein (α-syn), has been implicated in the pathogenesis of PD and in other 'synucleinopathies' such as multisystem atrophy (MSA) and dementia with LBs (DLBs)...
2016: BMJ Open
Michael Inskip, Yorgi Mavros, Perminder S Sachdev, Maria A Fiatarone Singh
BACKGROUND: Individuals with Lewy body Dementia (LBD), which encompasses both Parkinson disease dementia (PDD) and Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) experience functional decline through Parkinsonism and sedentariness exacerbated by motor, psychiatric and cognitive symptoms. Exercise may improve functional outcomes in Parkinson's disease (PD), and Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the multi-domain nature of the LBD cluster of symptoms (physical, cognitive, psychiatric, autonomic) results in vulnerable individuals often being excluded from exercise studies evaluating physical function in PD or cognitive function in dementia to avoid confounding results...
2016: PloS One
Guillaume Lamotte, Rémy Morello, Adrien Lebasnier, Denis Agostini, Gérard Bouvard, Vincent De La Sayette, Gilles L Defer
OBJECTIVES: Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are the two most common forms of dementia. These two diseases share some clinical and pathological similarities, yet the loss of dopaminergic neurons confirmed by 123-I-Ioflupane Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) is a suggestive feature of DLB. Current evidence suggests that higher education has a protective effect on the risk of developing clinical AD. However, how education influences cognitive performance and the presynaptic dopamine transporter marker in DLB is unknown...
July 2016: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Janine van Kooten, Tarik T Binnekade, Johannes C van der Wouden, Max L Stek, Erik J A Scherder, Bettina S Husebø, Martin Smalbrugge, Cees M P M Hertogh
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have reported on pain in dementia. It has been hypothesized that pain perception differs between dementia subtypes, and therefore, the prevalence of pain differs between dementia subtypes. However, there remains a paucity of evidence on the differences in the prevalence of pain in different dementia subtypes. This review aimed to determine the prevalence of pain for the major dementia subtypes: Alzheimer's disease (AD), vascular dementia (VaD), frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB)...
2016: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
Rosaliana Libro, Sabrina Giacoppo, Thangavelu Soundara Rajan, Placido Bramanti, Emanuela Mazzon
The word dementia describes a class of heterogeneous diseases which etiopathogenetic mechanisms are not well understood. There are different types of dementia, among which, Alzheimer's disease (AD), vascular dementia (VaD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) are the more common. Currently approved pharmacological treatments for most forms of dementia seem to act only on symptoms without having profound disease-modifying effects. Thus, alternative strategies capable of preventing the progressive loss of specific neuronal populations are urgently required...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Luigi Trojano, Guido Gainotti
Drawing is a multicomponential process that can be impaired by many kinds of brain lesions. Drawing disorders are very common in Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia, and can provide clinical information for the distinction of the different dementing diseases. In our review we started from an overview of the neural and cognitive bases of drawing, and from a recollection of the drawing tasks more frequently used for assessing individuals with dementia. Then, we analyzed drawing disorders in dementia, paying special attention to those observed in Alzheimer's disease, from the prodromal stages of the amnesic mild cognitive impairment to the stages of full-blown dementia, both in the sporadic forms with late onset in the entorhino-hippocampal structures and in those with early onset in the posterior neocortical structures...
April 21, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
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