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Pediatric Insomnia

Scott Shannon, Janet Opila-Lehman
INTRODUCTION: Anxiety and sleep disorders are often the result of posttraumatic stress disorder and can contribute to an impaired ability to focus and to demonstration of oppositional behaviors. CASE PRESENTATION: These symptoms were present in our patient, a ten-year-old girl who was sexually abused and had minimal parental supervision as a young child under the age of five. Pharmaceutical medications provided partial relief, but results were not long-lasting, and there were major side effects...
October 12, 2016: Permanente Journal
Jonathan Rabner, Alessandra Caruso, David Zurakowski, Lori Lazdowsky, Alyssa LeBel
PURPOSE: To examine symptoms indicating central nervous system (CNS) autonomic dysfunction in pediatric patients with migraine and tension-type headache. METHODS: A retrospective chart review assessed six symptoms (i.e. constipation, insomnia, dizziness, blurry vision, abnormal blood pressure, and cold and clammy palms and soles) indicating central nervous system (CNS) autonomic dysfunction in 231 patients, ages 5-18 years, diagnosed with migraine, tension-type headache (TTH), or Idiopathic Scoliosis (IS)...
October 19, 2016: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
Kelly C Byars, Stacey L Simon, James Peugh, Dean W Beebe
OBJECTIVES : Evaluate psychometric properties of the Pediatric Insomnia Severity Index (PISI), a brief measure of insomnia severity.  METHODS:  Clinically referred youth (n = 462; 283 males, 179 females, mean age = 7.28 ± 2.05 years) and their caregiver(s) completed sleep evaluation including the PISI, Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire, and sleep disorders inventory for students. Tests of reliability and validity and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were conducted to assess PISI psychometric properties...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
Shery Goril, Dora Zalai, Louise Scott, Colin M Shapiro
OBJECTIVES: Caregivers describe significant sleep disturbances in the vast majority of children and adolescents, which is diagnosed as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), but objective data on sleep disorders in this population are almost completely lacking. Animal models suggest that intrauterine alcohol exposure may disrupt sleep wake patterns, cause sleep fragmentation, and specifically affect the suprachiasmatic nucleus, thus disrupting melatonin secretion. The objective of this pioneering study was to evaluate sleep and melatonin abnormalities in children with FASD using objective, gold-standard measures...
July 2016: Sleep Medicine
W Kukwa, E Migacz, S Ishman, A Wichniak
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of difficulty with initiation or maintenance of sleep (DIMS) and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) in a general pediatric population, and to evaluate the relationship between these conditions and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) symptom intensity. METHODS: This population-based cross-sectional study from 27 primary schools in a medium-sized city in Poland was based on use of a questionnaire regarding demographic data, symptoms of SDB, DIMS, and EDS...
July 2016: Sleep Medicine
Magda Kaczor, Michał Skalski
Insomnia presents an increasing and significant health issue in paediatric population. As the problem had grown over past decade, it became recognised by the specialists dealing with children and adolescents. In a recent study American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry members were asked about their experience with patients complaining about sleep disturbances. Doctors reported that sleep was a problem for 1/3 of their patients out of which 1/4 required pharmacotherapy [1]. Multiple studies concerning adults confirmed significance of healthy sleep in optimal cognitive, emotional, social and biological functioning...
2016: Psychiatria Polska
Salima Punja, Catherine J Nikles, Hugh Senior, Geoffrey Mitchell, Christopher H Schmid, Helen Heussler, Manisha Witmans, Sunita Vohra
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurological disorder affecting 5 % of children worldwide. A prevalent problem for children with ADHD is initial insomnia. The gold standard treatment to manage ADHD symptoms is stimulant medications, which may exacerbate the severity of existing initial insomnia. Currently, no gold standard treatment option exists for initial insomnia for these children. Melatonin, a hormone and a popular natural health product, is commonly provided to children by parents and recommended by healthcare providers, but high quality pediatric evidence is lacking...
2016: Trials
Michael A Grandner, Pamela Alfonso-Miller, Julio Fernandez-Mendoza, Safal Shetty, Sundeep Shenoy, Daniel Combs
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sleep plays many roles in maintenance of cardiovascular health. This review summarizes the literature across several areas of sleep and sleep disorders in relation to cardiometabolic disease risk factors. RECENT FINDINGS: Insufficient sleep duration is prevalent in the population and is associated with weight gain and obesity, inflammation, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and mortality. Insomnia is also highly present and represents an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, especially when accompanied by short sleep duration...
September 2016: Current Opinion in Cardiology
Rachael Spooner, Kurt Lushington, Hannah A D Keage, Sarah Blunden, J Declan Kennedy, Mark Schembri, David Wabnitz, A James Martin, Mark J Kohler
BACKGROUND: Cognitive decrements, problematic behaviors, and increased cerebral blood flow velocities (CBFVs) have been reported in children aged 3-7 years with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). Whether similar impairments exist in younger children or those with behavioral insomnia of childhood (BIC) remains unclear. This study aimed to compare cognition and temperament in children aged 1-5 years with SDB or BIC to healthy control children, and to investigate whether cognitive or behavioral deficits associated with sleep problems are related to changes in CBFV...
May 2016: Sleep Medicine
Sarah Verbiest, Erin McClain, Alison Stuebe, M Kathryn Menard
Objectives Our pilot study aimed to build knowledge of the postpartum health needs of mothers with infants in a newborn intensive care unit (NICU). Methods Between May 2008 and December 2009, a Certified Nurse Midwife was available during workday hours to provide health care services to mothers visiting their infants in the NICU at a large tertiary care center. Results A total of 424 health service encounters were recorded. Maternal requests for services covered a wide variety of needs, with primary care being the most common...
June 29, 2016: Maternal and Child Health Journal
Sevliya Öcal Demir, Serkan Atici, Gülşen Akkoç, Nurhayat Yakut, Nilay Baş İkizoğlu, Ela Erdem Eralp, Ahmet Soysal, Mustafa Bakir
Although voriconazole, a triazole antifungal, is a safe drug, treatment with this agent is associated with certain adverse events such as hepatic, neurologic, and visual disturbances. The current report presents two cases, one a 9-year-old boy and the other a 17-year-old girl, who experienced neurologic side effects associated with voriconazole therapy. Our aim is to remind readers of the side effects of voriconazole therapy in order to prevent unnecessary investigations especially for psychological and ophthalmologic problems...
2016: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Osman S Ipsiroglu, Nadia Beyzaei, Mai Berger, Alexandra L Wagner, Sophia Dhalla, Jennifer Garden, Sylvia Stockler
BACKGROUND: Willis-Ekbom disease/restless legs syndrome (WED/RLS) seems to be a frequent cause of intractable chronic insomnia (ICI) but is under-recognized in children/adolescents with neurodevelopmental conditions (NDCs), as many patients do not have the ability to express the underlying "urge-to-move". In light of this, we aim to develop a protocol for behavioral observations supporting the diagnosis of WED/RLS. METHODS: We investigated 26 pediatric patients (age 1-16 years, median 8) with NDCs, ICI and evidence of familial WED/RLS employing (1) "emplotted narratives" for description of the various "urge-to-move" presentations and (2) self-description and "behavioral observations" during a "suggested clinical immobilization test" (SCIT)...
June 13, 2016: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Susan L Calhoun, Julio Fernandez-Mendoza, Alexandros N Vgontzas, Susan D Mayes, Duanping Liao, Edward O Bixler
Based on previous studies reporting on the association of objective sleep duration and physiologic changes (i.e., increased cortisol) in children, we examined the role of objective sleep duration on differentiating behavioral profiles in children with insomnia symptoms. Seven hundred children (ages 5-12, 47.8% male) from the Penn State Child Cohort underwent a nine-hour polysomnography and parent completed Pediatric Behavior Scale. Insomnia symptoms were defined as parent report of difficulty falling and/or staying asleep, sleep disordered breathing as an AHI of ≥1, and objective short sleep duration as a total sleep time < 7...
June 1, 2016: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Beth A Malow, Heidi V Connolly, Shelly K Weiss, Ann Halbower, Suzanne Goldman, Susan L Hyman, Terry Katz, Niru Madduri, Amy Shui, Eric Macklin, Ann M Reynolds
OBJECTIVE: To pilot a clinician-based outcome measure that provides complementary information to objective measures and parent-based questionnaires for insomnia in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). METHOD: The authors developed a Pediatric Sleep Clinical Global Impressions Scale (CGI). Questions included (1) the child's ability to fall asleep and remain sleeping independently (i.e., apart from parents); (2) bedtime resistance; (3) sleep onset delay; (4) night awakening; (5) parental satisfaction with their child's current sleep patterns; (6) family functioning as affected by their child's current sleep patterns; and (7) clinician's overall concern with the child's sleep...
June 2016: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
Lisa J Meltzer, Genery D Booster
OBJECTIVE: To examine sleep patterns and sleep disturbances in caregivers of children with chronic illness.  METHODS:  Caregivers of children with atopic dermatitis (AD, n = 35), asthma (AS, n = 27), atopic dermatitis and asthma (AD + AS, n = 57), ventilator assistance (VENT, n = 61), or typically developing (HEALTHY, n = 63) completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the Insomnia Severity Index, and three items examining reasons for parent sleep disruption...
July 2016: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
Imed Gaaloul, Samira Riabi, Mark Evans, Timothy Hunter, Sally Huber, Mahjoub Aouni
Sudden infant death (SID) is an unresolved problem of high relevance and previous studies have indicated a role of viral heart infections. The diagnosis remains difficult in clinical practice using routine diagnostic tests and must be substantially improved. A prospective study based on post-mortem samples from SID victims whose heart disease was not clinically recognized was conducted for 4 years in a Tunisian University Hospital. Pediatric cases of unnatural death served as controls. Both SID victims and controls were investigated for possible coxsackievirus-B (CV-B) infection in heart tissue...
May 2016: Forensic Science International
Emily Badin, Cynthia Haddad, Jess Parker Shatkin
Insomnia among children and adolescents is ubiquitous and takes a great toll on youth and their families, impacting academic achievement, mood, social functioning, and a variety of developmental outcomes. Unfortunately, however, pediatric insomnia most often remains unidentified and untreated. When treatment is provided, it is most often in the form of medications, which are not FDA approved for that indication in children and adolescents. A comprehensive literature review was employed to establish the recommendations in this report...
May 2016: Current Psychiatry Reports
June-lei Li, Chun-sheng Jia, Jian-ling Wang, Qing-qing Yang, Xin-xin Feng, Zhan-na Tan, Bo-ying Li, Xue-liang Zhu, Jing Shi, Yan-hui Sun, Jing Xu, Xiao-feng Li, Xuan-ping Zhang, Xin Zhang, Yu-zhu Du, Na Bao, Qiong Wang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the regularities and features of clinical application of simplex reinforcing or reducing manipulation of filiform acupuncture needles by data mining in order to guide clinical decision in a better way. METHODS: A database about simplex reinforcing and reducing manipulations of filiform acupuncture needle was established first after collection, sorting, screening, type-in, and collation of the related papers, academic dissertations and theses of academic conferences published from January 1st of 1950 to January 31 of 2015 by using key word "acupuncture" "acupuncture and moxibustion" "needle manipulation" and "filiform needle" from database of China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI, a full-text database of Chinese journals), followed by data extraction and statistical analysis...
December 2015: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
Dirk E Bock, Elizabeth Roach-Fox, Jamie A Seabrook, Michael J Rieder, Doreen Matsui
BACKGROUND: Research indicates that physicians may frequently use pharmacotherapy to treat pediatric insomnia despite minimal safety data and very limited indications. Canadian data on the subject are lacking. This study aimed to determine physicians' views on and prescribing habits for sleep-promoting over-the-counter medication (OTCM) and prescription (RXM) medications for children. METHODS: A modified 26-item version of the 'Pediatric Sleep Medication Survey', originally developed by Judith Owens and colleagues, was sent to 100 pediatricians and a random sample of 421 family physicians in Southwestern Ontario, Canada...
January 2016: Sleep Medicine
Salima Punja, Larissa Shamseer, Lisa Hartling, Liana Urichuk, Ben Vandermeer, Jane Nikles, Sunita Vohra
BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common psychiatric conditions affecting children and adolescents. Amphetamines are among the most commonly prescribed medications to manage ADHD. There are three main classes of amphetamines: dexamphetamine, lisdexamphetamine and mixed amphetamine salts, which can be further broken down into short- and long-acting formulations. A systematic review assessing their efficacy and safety in this population has never been conducted...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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