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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806345/pediatric-optic-neuritis-what-is-new
#1
Mark Borchert, Grant T Liu, Stacy Pineles, Amy T Waldman
Few diseases blur the margins between their childhood and adult-onset varieties as much as optic neuritis. This report will review our state of knowledge of pediatric optic neuritis, as well as its relationship to the latest consensus definitions of neuroinflammatory disease. Current diagnostic and treatment options will be explored, as well as our potential to uncover an understanding of pediatric optic neuritis through systematic prospective studies. The risk of evolving multiple sclerosis is probably less than in adults, but pediatric optic neuritis is more likely to be an initial manifestation of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis...
September 2017: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805938/what-is-new-in-the-pathophysiology-of-acne-an-overview
#2
REVIEW
B Dréno
Acne is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous unit. Its pathophysiology includes hyperseborrhoea, abnormal follicular keratinization and Propionibacterium acnes proliferation in the pilosebaceous unit. Recent research has shed some new light on the involvement of the sebaceous gland, as well as on the pro-inflammatory activity of the cutaneous microbiome. During puberty, alteration of the sebaceous lipid profile, called dysseborrhoea, stress, irritation, cosmetics and potential dietary factors lead to inflammation and formation of different types of acne lesions...
September 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805911/effects-of-post-weaning-growth-rate-and-puberty-induction-protocol-on-reproductive-performance-of-bos-indicus-influenced-beef-heifers
#3
P Moriel, P Lancaster, G C Lamb, J M B Vendramini, J D Arthington
A 3-yr study evaluated the effectiveness of puberty induction using exogenous reproductive hormones in beef heifers undergoing different post-weaning growth rates. On d 0 of each year, grazing Angus × Brahman heifers (60 heifers/yr) were stratified by initial BW and age (BW = 253 ± 30 kg; age = 310 ± 18 d), and randomly assigned, in a 3 × 2 factorial design, to achieve a low (LOW; 0.45 kg/d), medium (MED; 0.73 kg/d), or high (HIGH; 1.00 kg/d) growth rate from d 0 to 168 (5 heifers/pasture; 4 pastures/growth rate/yr)...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805600/the-effect-of-oxytocin-and-kisspeptin-10-in-ovary-and-uterus-of-ischemia-reperfusion-injured-rats
#4
M Aslan, G Erkanli Senturk, H Akkaya, S Sahin, B Yılmaz
OBJECTIVE: Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injuries result in damage to endothelial and parenchymal cells. Oxytocin (OXY) stimulates uterine contraction during parturition and myoepithelial cells during suckling. OXY has been used as a protective antioxidant. Kisspeptin plays a key role in the central control of reproductive functions and onset of puberty. Recent studies show that these reproductive hormones have protective potential as antioxidant. The aim of this study is to investigate the potential protective effects of Kisspeptin and OXY as antioxidants on I/R injured ovary and uterus of female rats...
August 2017: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803635/varicoceles-in-the-pediatric-and-adolescent-population-threat-to-future-fertility
#5
REVIEW
Deborah L Jacobson, Emilie K Johnson
Determining the effect of varicoceles on future fertility is challenging owing to multiple issues in children/adolescents, including: limitations in obtaining and interpreting semen analyses; potential for unequal differential testicular growth during puberty regardless of varicocele presence; and the potential for a lengthy interval between surgical intervention for varicocele in adolescence and attempts at paternity. This review presents a summary and evaluation of the available evidence relating to future fertility among children and adolescents with varicoceles...
August 10, 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801297/-effect-of-metformin-on-insulin-resistance-during-catch-up-growth-in-mice-with-fetal-growth-restriction
#6
Ping Peng, Chun-Ling Ma, Shu-Mei Wan, Wen-Sheng Jin, Yan Gao, Tian-Qing Huang, Qi Cheng, Chang-Lan Ye
OBJECTIVE: To study the efficacy of metformin intervention on insulin resistance during catch-up growth in mice with fetal growth restriction (FGR). METHODS: Mouse models of FGR were established by low protein diet feeding of the pregnant mice. Both the newborn female mice with FGR and normal control (NC) mice were randomized for feeding with a standard diet (SF) or a high-fat diet (HF) after weaning and treatment with gavage of either metformin or normal saline...
August 20, 2017: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801227/estrogen-directly-stimulates-lhb-expression-at-the-pituitary-level-during-puberty-in-female-zebrafish
#7
Gaofei Li, Haipei Tang, Yu Chen, Yike Yin, Satoshi Ogawa, Meifeng Liu, Yin Guo, Xin Qi, Yun Liu, Ishwar S Parhar, Xiaochun Liu, Haoran Lin
The LHb expression is up-regulated during puberty in female zebrafish. However, the molecular mechanism underlying how LHb expression is regulated during puberty remains largely unknown. In this study, we found that the mRNA expression levels of lhb, fshb and cyp19a1b were up-regulated along with the puberty onset in zebrafish. Among the three nuclear estrogen receptors (nERs), the esr2b is the only type whose expression is significantly up-regulated during puberty onset in the pituitary. However, in situ hybridization results revealed that lhb mRNA was colocalized with esr1 and esr2a but not esr2b...
August 8, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801138/cadmium-exposure-in-newborn-rats-ovary-induces-developmental-disorders-of-primordial-follicles-and-the-differential-expression-of-scf-c-kit-gene
#8
Wenchang Zhang, Tingting Wu, Chenyun Zhang, Lingfeng Luo, Meimei Xie, Huiling Huang
Since the 1990s, the rising problem that gonad reproductive toxicity on adult female after exposing to cadmium (Cd), an environmental endocrine disruptor, has attracted high attention at home and abroad,and was systematically studied. Our research focuses on a further problem is that early cadmium exposure (during birth to before puberty) impact on development and function of ovarian cells and its possible mechanism. Our research focuses on the changes of ovarian cells growth and development after the newborn rat ovaries with cadmium exposure in vitro, and different expression of ovarian cells development-related factors, SCF/c-kit and changes of their DNA methylation status...
August 8, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795206/children-and-adolescents-with-cystic-fibrosis-display-moderate-bone-microarchitecture-abnormalities-data-from-high-resolution-peripheral-quantitative-computed-tomography
#9
C Braun, J Bacchetta, P Braillon, R Chapurlat, J Drai, P Reix
We investigated whether bone microstructure assessed by high-resolution peripheral quantitative tomography (HR-pQCT) could be altered in children and teenagers with cystic fibrosis (CF). In comparison to their healthy counterparts, bone microstructure was mildly affected at the tibial level only. INTRODUCTION: Cystic fibrosis-related bone disease (CFBD) may alter bone health, ultimately predisposing patients to bone fractures. Our aim was to assess bone microstructure using high-resolution peripheral quantitative tomography (HR-pQCT) in a cohort of children and teenagers with CF in comparison to age-, puberty-, and gender-matched healthy volunteers (HVs)...
August 9, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795005/participation-in-sports-in-relation-to-adolescent-growth-and-development
#10
REVIEW
Kelly A Brown, Dilip R Patel, Daphne Darmawan
Puberty is defined by physical growth, development of secondary sexual characteristics, and maturation of psychosocial skills. The initiation and rate of progression of pubertal events varies among adolescents, but pubertal changes occur in a predictable stepwise manner. Factors including individual differences in physical and psychosocial development, stage of development based on age (early, middle, and late), and the rate of pubertal development, may all contribute to the way in which adolescents experience sports activities...
July 2017: Translational pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792785/puberty-is-an-important-developmental-period-for-the-establishment-of-adipose-tissue-mass-and-metabolic-homeostasis
#11
Brandon Holtrup, Christopher D Church, Ryan Berry, Laura Colman, Elise Jeffery, Jeremy Bober, Matthew S Rodeheffer
Over the past 2 decades, the incidence of childhood obesity has risen dramatically. This recent rise in childhood obesity is particularly concerning as adults who were obese during childhood develop type II diabetes that is intractable to current forms of treatment compared with individuals who develop obesity in adulthood. While the mechanisms responsible for the exacerbated diabetic phenotype associated with childhood obesity is not clear, it is well known that childhood is an important time period for the establishment of normal white adipose tissue in humans...
August 8, 2017: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792084/genetic-control-of-complex-traits-with-a-focus-on-reproduction-in-pigs
#12
REVIEW
Louisa J Zak, Ann Helen Gaustad, Alfonso Bolarin, Marleen Broekhuijse, Grant A Walling, Egbert F Knol
Reproductive traits are complex, and desirable reproductive phenotypes, such as litter size or semen quality, are true polygenetic traits determined by multiple pathways. Each individual gene contributes to the overall variation in these traits, so genetic improvements can be achieved using conventional selection methodology. In the past, a pedigree-based-relationship matrix was used; this is now replaced by a combination of pedigree-based- and genomic-relationship matrices. The heritability of reproductive traits is low to moderate, so large-scale data recording is required to identify specific, selectable attributes...
August 9, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791667/prevalence-of-vitamin-d-deficiency-in-girls-with-idiopathic-central-precocious-puberty
#13
Yue Zhao, Wenjun Long, Caiqi Du, Huanhuan Yang, Shimin Wu, Qin Ning, Xiaoping Luo
The relationship between vitamin D deficiency and idiopathic central precocious puberty (ICPP) has been recently documented. In this study, 280 girls diagnosed with ICPP and 188 normal puberty control girls of similar ages were enrolled and retrospectively studied. The ICPP group had significantly lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels than the control group. Furthermore, a nonlinear relationship was found between serum 25[OH]D and ICPP, and a cut-off point for serum 25[OH]D was found at 31.8 ng/ml for ICPP with and without adjusting the different confounding factors...
August 8, 2017: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791575/symptoms-and-clinical-parameters-of-pediatric-and-adolescent-migraine-by-gender-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#14
Tal Eidlitz-Markus, Avraham Zeharia
BACKGROUND: The available data on gender differences in clinical migraine parameters among pediatric patients are based on relatively few studies, which did not use the current version of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD) of the International Headache Society. The aim of the present study was to compare between males and females, demographic and clinical characteristics of children and adolescents with migraines diagnosed according to the ICDIII-beta version...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Headache and Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791270/herlyn-werner-wunderlich-syndrome-an-unusual-presentation-with-pyocolpos
#15
Eun Jung Jung, Moon Hyeong Cho, Da Hyun Kim, Jung Mi Byun, Young Nam Kim, Dae Hoon Jeong, Moon Su Sung, Ki Tae Kim, Kyung Bok Lee
Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly of the urogenital tract, which is characterized by the triad of uterus didelphys, obstructed hemivagina, and ipsilateral renal agenesis. It usually presents at puberty with pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea, and a vaginal or pelvic mass. Although rare, it may present with purulent vaginal discharge due to secondary infection of the obstructed hemivagina, making diagnosis difficult. A careful pelvic examination to identify the cervix and vagina is the key to the diagnosis of Müllerian duct anomalies and magnetic resonance imaging can provide additional useful information...
July 2017: Obstetrics & Gynecology Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791186/a-case-of-male-osteoporosis-a-37-year-old-man-with-multiple-vertebral-compression-fractures
#16
Suhaib Radi, Andrew C Karaplis
While the contributing role of testosterone to bone health is rather modest compared to other factors such as estradiol levels, male hypogonadism is associated with low bone mass and fragility fractures. Along with stimulating physical puberty by achieving virilization and a normal muscle mass and improving psychosocial wellbeing, the goals of testosterone replacement therapy in male hypogonadism also include attainment of age-specific bone mineral density. We report on a 37-year-old man who presented with multiple vertebral compression fractures several years following termination of testosterone replacement therapy for presumed constitutional delay in growth and puberty...
2017: Case Reports in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791047/central-precocious-puberty-and-response-to-gnrha-therapy-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy-and-moderate-to-severe-motor-impairment-data-from-a-longitudinal-case-control-multicentre-italian-study
#17
Patrizia Bruzzi, Maria Francesca Messina, Alessandra Bartoli, Barbara Predieri, Laura Lucaccioni, Simona Filomena Madeo, Alberto Verrotti, Filippo De Luca, Lorenzo Iughetti
BACKGROUND: Children affected by neurodevelopmental disability could experience early pubertal changes at least 20 times more than the general population. Limited data about central precocious puberty (CPP) among children affected by cerebral palsy (CP) are available. METHODS: This is a longitudinal, observational, retrospective, case-control study involving 22 children affected by CPP and CP (group A), 22 paired with CP but without CPP (group B), and 22 children with CPP without CP...
2017: International Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789969/tissue-control-of-androgen-action-the-ups-and-downs-of-androgen-receptor-expression
#18
REVIEW
Irene Hunter, Colin W Hay, Bianca Esswein, Kate Watt, Iain J McEwan
The hormone testosterone plays crucial roles during male development and puberty and throughout life, as an anabolic regulator of muscle and bone structure and function. The actions of testosterone are mediated, primarily, through the androgen receptor, a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily. The androgen receptor gene is located on the X-chromosome and receptor levels are tightly controlled both at the level of transcription of the gene and post-translationally at the protein level. Sp1 has emerged as the major driver of expression of the androgen receptor gene, while auto-regulation by androgens is associated with both positive and negative regulation in a possible cell-selective manner...
August 5, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783504/puberty-arises-with-testicular-alterations-and-defective-amh-expression-in-rams-prenatally-exposed-to-testosterone
#19
S E Recabarren, M Recabarren, D Sandoval, A Carrasco, V Padmanabhan, R Rey, H G Richter, C C Perez-Marin, T Sir-Petermann, P P Rojas-Garcia
The male gonadal tissue can be a sensitive target to the reprogramming effects of testosterone (T) during prenatal development. We have demonstrated that male lambs born to dams receiving T during pregnancy-a model system to the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)-show a decreased number of germ cells early in life, and when adult, a reduced amount of sperm and ejaculate volume. These findings are a key to put attention to the male offspring of women bearing PCOS, as they are exposed to increased levels of androgen during pregnancy which can reprogram their reproductive outcome...
June 23, 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774622/method-to-assess-component-contribution-to-toxicity-of-complex-mixtures-assessment-of-puberty-acquisition-in-rats-exposed-to-disinfection-byproducts
#20
Shahid Parvez, Glenn E Rice, Linda K Teuschler, Jane Ellen Simmons, Thomas F Speth, Susan D Richardson, Richard J Miltner, E Sidney Hunter, Jonathan G Pressman, Lillian F Strader, Gary R Klinefelter, Jerome M Goldman, Michael G Narotsky
A method based on regression modeling was developed to discern the contribution of component chemicals to the toxicity of highly complex, environmentally realistic mixtures of disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Chemical disinfection of drinking water forms DBP mixtures. Because of concerns about possible reproductive and developmental toxicity, a whole mixture (WM) of DBPs produced by chlorination of a water concentrate was administered as drinking water to Sprague-Dawley (S-D) rats in a multigenerational study...
August 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
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