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Puberty

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341896/luteinizing-hormone-signaling-phosphorylates-and-activates-the-cyclic-gmp-phosphodiesterase-pde5-in-mouse-ovarian-follicles-contributing-an-additional-component-to-the-hormonally-induced-decrease-in-cyclic-gmp-that-reinitiates-meiosis
#1
Jeremy R Egbert, Siu-Pok Yee, Laurinda A Jaffe
Prior to birth, oocytes within mammalian ovarian follicles initiate meiosis, but then arrest in prophase until puberty, when with each reproductive cycle, one or more follicles are stimulated by luteinizing hormone (LH) to resume meiosis in preparation for fertilization. Within preovulatory follicles, granulosa cells produce high levels of cGMP, which diffuses into the oocyte to maintain meiotic arrest. LH signaling restarts meiosis by rapidly lowering the levels of cGMP in the follicle and oocyte. Part of this decrease is mediated by the dephosphorylation and inactivation the NPR2 guanylyl cyclase in response to LH, but the mechanism for the remainder of the cGMP decrease is unknown...
January 13, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341246/risk-factors-for-disordered-weight-control-behaviors-among-korean-adolescents-multilevel-analysis-of-the-korea-youth-risk-behavior-survey
#2
Yongjoo Kim, S Bryn Austin, S V Subramanian, Jennifer J Thomas, Kamryn T Eddy, Debra L Franko, Rachel F Rodgers, Ichiro Kawachi
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and risk factors for disordered weight control behaviors (DWCB) in South Korean adolescents at multiple levels, including individual, family, school, and geographic area. METHOD: We drew participants from the 11th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey, conducted in 2015, with 65,529 adolescents (31,687 girls, 33,842 boys) aged 12-18 years. DWCB was defined as engaging in any of the following behaviors for weight control over the past month: fasting, one-food diet (eating only one food over an extended period of time for weight control), vomiting, and taking laxatives/diuretics/unprescribed diet pills...
January 17, 2018: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338025/adolescent-cohorts-assessing-growth-cardiovascular-and-cognitive-outcomes-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#3
Joseph L Ward, Katherine Harrison, Russell M Viner, Anthony Costello, Michelle Heys
INTRODUCTION: Life-course studies are needed to explore how exposures during adolescence, particularly puberty, contribute to later cardiovascular risk and cognitive health in low and middle-income countries (LMIC), where 90% of the world's young people live. The extent of any existing cohorts investigating these outcomes in LMIC has not previously been described. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature review to identify population cohort studies of adolescents in LMIC that assessed anthropometry and any of cardiovascular risk (blood pressure, physical activity, plasma glucose/lipid profile and substance misuse), puberty (age at menarche, Tanner staging, or other form of pubertal staging) or cognitive outcomes...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335001/different-clinical-presentation-and-management-of-temporal-bone-fibrous-dysplasia-in-children
#4
REVIEW
Józef Mierzwiński, Justyna Kosowska, Justyna Tyra, Karolina Haber, Maria Drela, Dariusz Paczkowski, Paweł Burduk
BACKGROUND: Fibrous dysplasia is a slowly progressive benign fibro-osseous disorder that involves one or multiple bones with a unilateral distribution in most cases. It is a lesion of unknown etiology, uncertain pathogenesis, and diverse histopathology. Temporal bone involvement is the least frequently reported type, especially in children. We reviewed available articles regarding fibrous dysplasia with temporal bone involvement in children and added four patients aged 7 to 17 years who were diagnosed and treated in our institution from 2006 to 2017...
January 15, 2018: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330018/testicular-adrenal-rest-tumor-screening-and-fertility-counseling-among-males-with-congenital-adrenal-hyperplasia
#5
Monika Chaudhari, Emilie K Johnson, Daniel DaJusta, Leena Nahata
BACKGROUND: Reduced fertility is a common potential problem among males with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), with nearly half experiencing impaired sperm production. The major cause of oligo/azoospermia in CAH is testicular adrenal rest tumors (TARTs). Studies indicate that ultrasound screening for TARTs should begin during childhood, yet it remains unclear whether boys with CAH are routinely screened for TARTs and/or counseled about infertility risk and potential interventions such as fertility testing and/or preservation...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329382/adolescent-synthetic-cannabinoid-exposure-produces-enduring-changes-in-dopamine-neuron-activity-in-a-rodent-model-of-schizophrenia-susceptibility
#6
David D Aguilar, Andrea Giuffrida, Daniel J Lodge
Background: Epidemiological studies recognize cannabis intake as a risk factor for schizophrenia, yet the majority of adolescents who use marijuana do not develop psychosis. Similarly, the abuse of synthetic cannabinoids poses a risk for psychosis. For these reasons, it is imperative to understand the effects of adolescent cannabinoid exposure in susceptible individuals. Method: We have recently developed a novel rodent model of schizophrenia susceptibility, the F2 MAM rat, where only a proportion (~40%) of rats display a schizophrenia-like phenotype...
January 10, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323694/the-short-child
#7
Armin Valdes, Jorge Cervantes, Yezika Delgado, Marisol Valdes, Hector Granados
Growth is one of the most important characteristics of human development. This process occurs from the moment of conception through the final stages of puberty. There are multiple factors that contribute to growth in humans. Although it may seem complex, a pediatrician should note that growth can be fairly predictable. The advantage to predictable changes in growth is that clinicians should be able to promptly detect any deviation and evaluate it in a timely manner. One of the most helpful tools to assess changes in growth is the use of a growth chart...
January 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323692/delayed-puberty
#8
Alyssa M Dye, Grace B Nelson, Alicia Diaz-Thomas
Delayed puberty is defined as the absence of physical signs of puberty 2 to 2.5 standard deviations above the mean age and affects approximately 2% of adolescents. Causes of delayed puberty are broadly divided into two categories: hypergonadotropic hypogonadism and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. One exception to this classification system is constitutional delay of growth and puberty, the most common cause of delayed puberty. For the general pediatrician, knowledge of the different causes and initial steps to evaluation is crucial when a patient with delayed puberty presents...
January 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323691/premature-thelarche
#9
Aditi Khokhar, Angela Mojica
Premature thelarche is a benign condition that affects young girls and may be interpreted as a sign of central precocious puberty (CPP). Parental concern is common when breast development is noted in a young girl. It is important to differentiate premature thelarche from CPP, as the latter is a more serious disorder that may affect final adult height and menarcheal age, and may have psychological implications as well. Distinguishing between the two conditions clinically may help the patients avoid unnecessary testing...
January 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323690/premature-adrenarche
#10
Laura Novello, Phyllis W Speiser
Adrenarche is when a child's adrenal cortex starts to secrete adrenal androgen precursors. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is the most abundant product of the adrenal cortex, and is a weak androgen agonist thought to be responsible for the clinical signs of pubarche by conversion to more potent androgens, testosterone, and dihydrotestosterone. DHEA's extra-adrenal sulfation product, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, is a stable marker for adrenal androgenic activity. Pubarche is the physical manifestation of androgenic hormone production, and includes the development of pubic and axillary hair, adult body odor, and acne...
January 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321542/timing-of-spermarche-and-menarche-among-urban-students-in-guangzhou-china-trends-from-2005-to-2012-and-association-with-obesity
#11
Yusheng Deng, Jianping Liang, Yinan Zong, Ping Yu, Runsheng Xie, Yangfeng Guo, Zhen Wang, Nali Deng, Yanhui Gao, Yi Jiang, Yi Yang, Jiewen Yang, Li Liu
In Guangzhou, China, whether the trend of a decreasing pubertal age has continued in recent years remained unknown, and the association between obesity and early puberty was still controversial. Herein, we conducted a serial cross-sectional study using data from physical fitness surveillance (2005-2012), to determine the recent trends in age at spermarche and menarche among students in Guangzhou, and to investigate whether elevated BMI modified timing of spermarche and menarche. This study included 1,278,258 urban students...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319267/kallman-syndrome
#12
N Nand, R Mittal, M Yadav, S Venu, A R Deshmukh
Kallman syndrome (KS) is a rare genetic disorder characterized clinically by failure to attain puberty or failure to fully complete it along with an absent or impaired sense of smell with absence of bilateral olfactory bulbi and sulci alongwith absent olfactory tracts. Only very few cases of Kallman syndrome have been reported in females in Indian population.
October 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315373/female-offspring-from-chronic-hyperandrogenemic-dams-exhibit-delayed-puberty-and-impaired-ovarian-reserve
#13
Zhiqiang Wang, Mingjie Shen, Ping Xue, Sara A DiVall, James Segars, Sheng Wu
Female offspring of many species exposed to high doses of androgens in utero experience endocrine dysfunction during adulthood. The phenotype of offspring from females with pre-pregnancy hyperandrogenemia and impaired ovulation, however, has not been examined. We developed a mouse model of hyperandrogenemia by implanting a low dose dihydrotestosterone (DHT) pellet 15 days before conception. The serum DHT levels in dams treated with the pellet were 1.7 to 2 fold higher (p<0.005) than levels in dams without DHT...
January 5, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312590/gnrh-agonist-treatment-for-idiopathic-central-precocious-puberty-can-improve-final-adult-height-in-chinese-girls
#14
Yanqin Ying, Jing Tang, Wei Chen, Zemin Cai, Wan Ting Niu
Object: To study the outcomes of GnRHa on final adult height in Chinese idiopathic central precocious puberty (ICPP) girls and the involved factor(s) that can predict height gain. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis on 10 years of data obtained from three clinical hospitals from January 2005 to March 2015, and 101 girls with ICPP, who received GnRHa therapy for more than six months and already reached their adult height were enrolled. Results: Height, bone age, midparent height, HtSDS, sexual development, therapy duration and predicted adult height(PAH)at start and end of GnRHa, and the final adult height(FAH) were recorded and calculated...
December 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311684/a-severely-short-statured-girl-with-47-xx-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-14-46-xx-upd-14-mat-mosaicism
#15
Kikumi Ushijima, Syuichi Yatsuga, Takako Matsumoto, Akie Nakamura, Maki Fukami, Masayo Kagami
The predominant symptoms of trisomy 14 mosaicism are prenatal and postnatal growth failure, ear abnormalities, congenital heart disease, developmental delay, and genitourinary abnormalities. Maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 14 (upd(14)mat) presents discernible clinical features such as prenatal and postnatal growth failure, hypotonia, precocious puberty, and obesity. Given the small number of previously reported patients with a combination of trisomy 14 mosaicism and upd(14)mat, the detailed clinical features of these patients remain to be elucidated...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310614/preterm-birth-and-the-timing-of-puberty-a-systematic-review
#16
Evlyn James, Claire L Wood, Harish Nair, Thomas C Williams
BACKGROUND: An estimated 11% of births occur preterm, and survival is improving. Early studies suggested an association between preterm birth and earlier puberty. Given the adverse outcomes associated with early puberty this could have significant public health implications. The objective of this review was to assess the timing of puberty after preterm birth. METHODS: Pubmed, Embase, Popline, Global Health and Global Health Library were searched using terms relating to "premature birth", "menarche", "puberty" and "follow up studies"...
January 8, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309847/longitudinal-changes-in-bone-testis-axis-and-their-associations-with-insulin-resistance-in-11-to-12-year-old-boys
#17
Jaak Jürimäe, Evelin Lätt, Liina Remmel, Priit Purge, Vallo Tillmann
PURPOSE: Associations between osteocalcin (OCN), an osteoblast-specific hormone, and different markers of energy metabolism and insulin resistance have been reported in adults, but few studies have investigated this in children. The aim of the current study was to investigate serum OCN levels during pubertal development in normal weight (NW) and overweight (OW) boys, and to evaluate possible associations of OCN with body composition, testosterone, insulin resistance and adipocytokine values during puberty...
January 5, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307303/hormones-and-ms-risk-factors-biomarkers-and-therapeutic-targets
#18
Riley Bove, Wendy Gilmore
Sex differences in epidemiological, clinical, and pathological features of multiple sclerosis (MS) have been observed for decades, establishing a foundation for more recent progress in our understanding of their overall impact on the disease. In the ACTRIMS session on Hormones, Sex Chromosomes, and MS: Risk Factors, Biomarkers, and Therapeutic Targets, this progress was summarized in three presentations by pioneers in the field, revealing evidence that sex chromosomes, epigenetic factors, and sex hormones function as interactive determinants of disease risk and phenotype in a fashion dependent upon life stage, from prenatal development, childhood, and adolescence to adulthood and aging...
January 2018: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307289/effect-of-puberty-on-multiple-sclerosis-risk-and-course
#19
Emmanuelle Waubant
Puberty occurs over several years and is a time of major sex hormone changes. These changes impact many physiological functions including immune system maturation. This review details the current understanding of the impact of puberty on the risk to develop multiple sclerosis (MS) and the age at which it occurs, as well as its effect on the risk of relapses.
January 2018: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303780/clinical-and-cytogenetic-features-of-516-patients-with-suspected-turner-syndrome-a-single-center-experience
#20
Annelise B Carvalho, Sofia H V Lemos-Marini, Gil Guerra-Junior, Andréa T Maciel-Guerra
BACKGROUND: Clinical suspicion of Turner syndrome (TS) may be challenging. Short stature and absent puberty are not mandatory and the dysmorphic picture is widely variable. The aim of the study was to describe a representative sample of patients with suspected TS in a single center and to verify which set of features may help discriminate those with TS. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of patients with suspected TS evaluated between 1989 and 2012 with the same clinical and cytogenetic protocols...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
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