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Neurological assessment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245126/geographic-and-social-disparities-in-exposure-to-air-neurotoxicants-at-u-s-public-schools
#1
Sara E Grineski, Timothy W Collins
Children are especially vulnerable to the health and developmental impacts of environmental hazards and they spend significant portions of their days at school. Yet there are no national-level studies examining school-level environmental inequalities and few have examined disparate exposure to neurological air toxicants, even though chronic exposure to air pollution impacts children's brain functioning. We paired information about the geographic locations and demographics of each public school in the US with air neurotoxicant exposure estimates pertaining to 24 known neurotoxicants included in the US Environmental Protection Agency's National Air Toxics Assessment...
December 12, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244615/risk-assessment-for-japanese-encephalitis-vaccination
#2
Lance Turtle, Carolyn Driver
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is the most commonly diagnosed viral encephalitis in Asia. JE is caused by a virus called JE virus (JEV), a member of the genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae, and is transmitted by Culex mosquitoes. Neutralising antibody to JEV protects against JE, and can be induced by vaccination. JE is a potential threat to travellers to endemic areas, which are most of South and Southeast Asia and some Pacific Islands. The risk of JE can be expected to increase with increasing mosquito exposure and time spent in regions and seasons of active transmission...
December 15, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244234/mechanisms-of-caspr2-antibodies-in-autoimmune-encephalitis-and-neuromyotonia
#3
Kristina R Patterson, Josep Dalmau, Eric Lancaster
OBJECTIVE: To determine the pathogenic mechanisms of autoantibodies to the cell adhesion molecule Caspr2 in acquired neuromyotonia and autoimmune encephalitis. METHODS: Caspr2 positive samples were confirmed using a cell-based assay, and their IgG subtypes were determined by ELISA and cell-based assay. A solid phase binding assay quantified the binding of Caspr2 to contactin-2 in the presence of Caspr2 autoantibodies. Living cultures of primary rat hippocampal neurons were incubated with Caspr2-positive or control sera and the distribution of Caspr2-positive immunofluorescent puncta and total surface Caspr2 were quantified...
December 15, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244081/atrial-fibrillation-type-matters-greater-infarct-volume-and-worse-neurological-defects-seen-in-acute-cardiogenic-cerebral-embolism-due-to-persistent-or-permanent-rather-than-paroxysmal-atrial-fibrillation
#4
Osamu Inaba, Yasuteru Yamauchi, Masahiro Sekigawa, Naoyuki Miwa, Junji Yamaguchi, Yasutoshi Nagata, Toru Obayashi, Takamichi Miyamoto, Tomoyuki Kamata, Mitsuaki Isobe, Masahiko Goya, Kenzo Hirao
Aims: Some studies have shown that the type of atrial fibrillation (AF), whether paroxysmal AF (PAF) or persistent or permanent AF (PeAF), affects the incidence of ischaemic stroke. This study sought to determine the relationship between the AF pattern and the severity and brain volume of infarction in an AF population including transient ischaemic attack (TIA) patients. Methods and results: This was a retrospective observational study. We studied 161 consecutive patients who were admitted to our stroke care unit with cardiogenic embolism or TIA related to non-valvular AF (age 79 ± 9...
December 12, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243532/use-of-transcranial-direct-stimulation-in-the-treatment-of-negative-symptoms-of-schizophrenia
#5
Maria Pontillo, Floriana Costanzo, Deny Menghini, Roberto Averna, Ornella Santonastaso, Maria Cristina Tata, Stefano Vicari
Schizophrenia is a debilitating disease that affects approximately 1% of the population. Negative symptoms are among the major determinants of the functional impairment and a significant proportion of patients with negative symptoms will continue to experience these symptoms despite antipsychotic medications. There are promising results in the application of brain stimulation, particularly transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), for the reduction of negative symptoms of schizophrenia. However, findings are still controversial...
January 2018: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242126/significance-of-elevated-prohibitin-1-levels-in-multiple-sclerosis-patients-lymphocytes-towards-the-assessment-of-subclinical-disease-activity-and-its-role-in-the-central-nervous-system-pathology-of-disease
#6
Satheesh Kumar M K, Sreepriya Nair, Ullas Mony, Sugavanan Kalingavarman, Ramaswamynathan Venkat, Sivanarayanan T B, Unni Akk, Ramiah Rajeshkannan, Anandakumar Anandakuttan, Sureshkumar Radhakrishnan, Krishnakumar N Menon
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune-neurodegenerative disorder managed therapeutically by modulating lymphocytes activity which has potential in disease management. Prohibitin 1(PHB) that controls the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and present on the activated lymphocytes have significance in the therapy of MS as esters of fumaric acid that regulates ROS is in phase II/III clinical trials. Thus, we evaluated the expression levels of PHB1 in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the animal model of MS and on MS patient's lymphocytes...
December 11, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241812/exploiting-the-therapeutic-potential-of-ready-to-use-drugs-repurposing-antibiotics-against-amyloid-aggregation-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#7
REVIEW
Sergio B Socias, Florencia Gonzalez-Lizarraga, Cesar L Avila, Cecilia Vera, Leonardo Acuña, Julia E Sepulveda-Diaz, Elaine Del-Bel, Rita Raisman-Vozari, Rosana N Chehin
Neurodegenerative diseases are chronic and progressive disorders that affect specific regions of the brain, causing gradual disability and suffering that results in a complete inability of patients to perform daily functions. Amyloid aggregation of specific proteins is the most common biological event that is responsible for neuronal death and neurodegeneration in various neurodegenerative diseases. Therapeutic agents capable of interfering with the abnormal aggregation are required, but traditional drug discovery has fallen short...
December 11, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241628/-care-of-the-newborn-with-perinatal-asphyxia-candidate-for-therapeutic-hypothermia-during-the-first-six-hours-of-life-in-spain
#8
Juan Arnaez, Alfredo Garcia-Alix, Sara Calvo, Simón Lubián-López
INTRODUCTION: The process of care and assistance from birth to the starting of therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is crucial in order to improve its effectiveness and prevent the worsening of hypoxic-ischaemic injury. METHODS: A national cross-sectional study carried out in 2015 by use of a questionnaire sent to all level iii units on the care of the newborn≥35 weeks gestation within the first hours of life after a perinatal asphyxia event. According to clinical practice guidelines, the quality of care was compared between the hospitals that carried out or did not carry out TH, and according to the level of care...
December 11, 2017: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241108/the-efficacy-of-posterior-hemivertebra-resection-with-lumbosacral-fixation-and-fusion-in-the-treatment-of-congenital-scoliosis-a-more-than-2-year-follow-up-study
#9
Qiunan Lyu, Bowen Hu, Chunguang Zhou, Limin Liu, Yueming Song, Xi Yang, Liang Wang, Lei Wang
OBJECTIVE: Hemivertebrae (HV) located at the lower lumbar or lumbosacral region often produce early trunk imbalance and long compensatory curves. Because of the biomechanical characteristics of the lumbosacral junction, the rate of instrumentation failures at the region has always been high. Our study aimed to evaluate the results of posterior HV resection with lumbosacral fixation and fusion in the treatment of congenital scoliosis and to make a preliminary analysis of the possible risk factors for instrument failures...
December 9, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241089/association-of-psychosis-with-antiphospholipid-antibody-syndrome-a-systematic-review-of-clinical-studies
#10
Asma Hallab, Sadiq Naveed, Ahmed Altibi, Mariam Abdelkhalek, Huyen Thi Ngo, Thao Phuong Le, Kenji Hirayama, Nguyen Tien Huy
OBJECTIVE: In this systematic review, we reviewed the association between Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) and psychosis and focused on the prevalence, clinical presentation, immunologic and neurological workup, treatment options, and clinical outcomes. METHODOLOGY: We performed this systematic review according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA)'s guidelines. We searched eight databases for potential articles and manually searched references and relevant articles of included studies...
November 16, 2017: General Hospital Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240838/recognized-focused-practice-does-sub-specialty-designation-offer-value-to-the-neurosurgeon
#11
Maya A Babu, Linda M Liau, Fredric B Meyer
Vehicles for life-long assessment such as Maintenance of Certification tend to focus on generalist neurosurgical knowledge. However, as neurosurgeons advance in their careers, they tend to narrow their practice and increase volumes in certain specific types of operations. Failing to test the type of procedures most relevant to the practitioner is a lost opportunity to improve the knowledge and practice of the individual neurosurgeon. In this study, we assess the neurosurgical community's appetite for designations of board-recognized Recognized Focused Practice (RFP)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239210/serum-neuron-specific-enolase-levels-at-presentation-and-long-term-neurological-sequelae-after-acute-charcoal-burning-induced-carbon-monoxide-poisoning
#12
J M Moon, B J Chun, S D Lee, E J Jung
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate whether clinical parameters and serum neuron-specific enolase (NSE) levels measured at emergency department (ED) presentation help stratify the risk of acute or delayed persistent severe neurological sequelae after acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning induced by charcoal burning. METHODS: This retrospective study included 236 patients who suffered from CO poisoning. Demographic information, serum NSE levels measured in the ED, treatment, clinical course, and long-term neurological outcomes were recorded...
December 14, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239063/stimulating-neural-plasticity-with-real-time-fmri-neurofeedback-in-huntington-s-disease-a-proof-of-concept-study
#13
Marina Papoutsi, Nikolaus Weiskopf, Douglas Langbehn, Ralf Reilmann, Geraint Rees, Sarah J Tabrizi
Novel methods that stimulate neuroplasticity are increasingly being studied to treat neurological and psychiatric conditions. We sought to determine whether real-time fMRI neurofeedback training is feasible in Huntington's disease (HD), and assess any factors that contribute to its effectiveness. In this proof-of-concept study, we used this technique to train 10 patients with HD to volitionally regulate the activity of their supplementary motor area (SMA). We collected detailed behavioral and neuroimaging data before and after training to examine changes of brain function and structure, and cognitive and motor performance...
December 13, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239015/treating-hepatic-encephalopathy-in-cirrhotic-patients-admitted-to-icu-with-sodium-phenylbutyrate-a-preliminary-study
#14
Nicolas Weiss, Simona Tripon, Marion Lodey, Elsa Guiller, Helga Junot, Denis Monneret, Julien Mayaux, Hélène Brisson, Maxime Mallet, Marika Rudler, Françoise Imbert-Bismut, Dominique Thabut
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) influences short and long-term prognosis. Recently, glycerol phenylbutyrate (PB), that lowers ammonia by providing an alternate pathway to urea for waste nitrogen excretion, has shown that it was effective in preventing the occurrence of HE in RCT. The aim was to assess the benefits of sodium PB in cirrhotic patients admitted in ICU for overt HE, in terms of ammonia levels decrease, neurological improvement and survival. Cirrhotic patients who presented with overt HE, ammonia levels >100 μmol/L, and did not display any contra-indication were included...
December 14, 2017: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238648/trends-in-spinal-surgery-for-pott-s-disease-2000-2016-an-overview-and-bibliometric-study
#15
Christian Fisahn, Fernando Alonso, Ghazwan A Hasan, R Shane Tubbs, Joseph R Dettori, Thomas A Schildhauer, Tarush Rustagi
Study Design: Systematic review. Objectives: (1) What are the surgical indications? Have they changed over time since the year 2000? (2) What is the current surgical approaches of choice? Have they changed over time since the year 2000? Do they vary by geographical region? (3) What are the most common outcome measures following surgery? Methods: Electronic databases and reference lists of key articles were searched from database inception from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2016 to identify studies specifically evaluating surgical indications, current surgical approaches, and outcome measures for spinal tuberculosis...
December 2017: Global Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238636/functional-outcome-of-neurologic-controlled-hal-exoskeletal-neurorehabilitation-in-chronic-spinal-cord-injury-a-pilot-with-one-year-treatment-and-variable-treatment-frequency
#16
Oliver Jansen, Thomas A Schildhauer, Renate C Meindl, Martin Tegenthoff, Peter Schwenkreis, Matthias Sczesny-Kaiser, Dennis Grasmücke, Christian Fisahn, Mirko Aach
Study Design: Longitudinal prospective study. Objectives: Whether 1-year HAL-BWSTT of chronic spinal cord injured patients can improve independent ambulated mobility further as a function of training frequency, after an initial 3-month training period. Methods: Eight patients with chronic SCI were enrolled. They initially received full standard physical therapy and neurorehabilitation in the acute/subacute posttrauma phase. During this trial, all patients first underwent a daily (5 per week) HAL-BWSTT for 12 weeks...
December 2017: Global Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238181/the-link-between-weight-shift-asymmetry-and-gait-disturbances-in-chronic-hemiparetic-stroke-patients
#17
Andrzej Szopa, Małgorzata Domagalska-Szopa, Anetta Lasek-Bal, Amadeusz Żak
Introduction: While the asymmetry of body posture and the asymmetrical nature of hemiparetic gait in poststroke (PS) patients are well documented, the role of weight shift asymmetry in gait disorders after stroke remains unclear. Objective: We examined the association of weight-bearing asymmetry (WBA) between paretic and nonparetic lower limbs during quiet standing with the degree of deviation of hemiplegic gait from normal gait evaluated by the Gillette Gait Index (GGI) incorporating 16 distinct clinically important kinematic and temporal parameters in chronic PS patients...
2017: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237549/modeling-parkinson-s-disease-and-treatment-complications-in-rodents-potentials-and-pitfalls-of-the-current-options
#18
REVIEW
Veronica Francardo
Animal models of neurological deficits are essential to assess new therapeutic options and reduce treatment complications. Over the last decades, several rodent models of Parkinson's disease have been developed, and have now become the first-line experimental tool for therapeutic screening purposes. Which model is the most predictive for identifying the efficacy of symptomatic or disease-modifying interventions is still a matter of debate. None of the models so far available is able to recapitulate all the features of the human disease, but several well-characterized models with complementary features currently provide a valuable repertoire of tools to address specific scientific hypotheses...
December 10, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237535/-application-of-movement-recognition-technology-in-assessing-spontaneous-general-movements-in-preterm-infants
#19
Hong-Hua Li, Ling Shan, Bing Wang, Fei-Yong Jia
Preterm birth is a major factor which induces neurological and motor impairments, particularly cerebral palsy, in high-risk infants. Early identification of potential neurodevelopmental impairments provides the opportunity to improve neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm infants through early rehabilitation interventions. Clinically, the general movement assessment is a pivotal tool to predict neurodevelopmental outcomes, especially motor developmental outcomes, in high-risk infants. Movement recognition can continuously capture relevant limb movements and perform objective and quantitative assessment using computerized approaches...
December 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237310/a-pilot-study-to-assess-the-effect-of-acute-exercise-on-brain-glutathione
#20
Sahara Rai, Alimul Chowdhury, Renate L E P Reniers, Stephen J Wood, Samuel J E Lucas, Sarah Aldred
The brain is highly susceptible to oxidative stress due to its high metabolic demand. Increased oxidative stress and depletion of glutathione (GSH) are observed with aging and many neurological diseases. Exercise training has the potential to reduce oxidative stress in the brain. In this study, nine healthy sedentary males (aged 25 ± 4 years) undertook a bout of continuous moderate intensity exercise and a high-intensity interval (HII) exercise bout on separate days. GSH concentration in the anterior cingulate was assessed by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in four participants, before and after exercise...
December 13, 2017: Free Radical Research
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