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Neurological assessment

J Reginald Fils-Aimé, David J Grelotti, Tatiana Thérosmé, Bonnie N Kaiser, Giuseppe Raviola, Yoldie Alcindor, Jennifer Severe, Emmeline Affricot, Katherine Boyd, Rupinder Legha, Shin Daimyo, Stephanie Engel, Eddy Eustache
This study evaluates the use of a mental health mobile clinic to overcome two major challenges to the provision of mental healthcare in resource-limited settings: the shortage of trained specialists; and the need to improve access to safe, effective, and culturally sound care in community settings. Employing task-shifting and supervision, mental healthcare was largely delivered by trained, non-specialist health workers instead of specialists. A retrospective chart review of 318 unduplicated patients assessed and treated during the mobile clinic's first two years (January 2012 to November 2013) was conducted to explore outcomes...
2018: PloS One
Takamasa Kayama, Shinya Sato, Kaori Sakurada, Junki Mizusawa, Ryo Nishikawa, Yoshitaka Narita, Minako Sumi, Yasuji Miyakita, Toshihiro Kumabe, Yukihiko Sonoda, Yoshiki Arakawa, Susumu Miyamoto, Takaaki Beppu, Kazuhiko Sugiyama, Hirohiko Nakamura, Motoo Nagane, Yoko Nakasu, Naoya Hashimoto, Mizuhiko Terasaki, Akira Matsumura, Eiichi Ishikawa, Toshihiko Wakabayashi, Yasuo Iwadate, Shiro Ohue, Hiroyuki Kobayashi, Manabu Kinoshita, Kenichiro Asano, Akitake Mukasa, Katsuyuki Tanaka, Akio Asai, Hideo Nakamura, Tatsuya Abe, Yoshihiro Muragaki, Koichi Iwasaki, Tomokazu Aoki, Takao Watanabe, Hikaru Sasaki, Shuichi Izumoto, Masahiro Mizoguchi, Takayuki Matsuo, Hideo Takeshima, Motohiro Hayashi, Hidefumi Jokura, Takashi Mizowaki, Eiji Shimizu, Hiroki Shirato, Masao Tago, Hiroshi Katayama, Haruhiko Fukuda, Soichiro Shibui
Purpose Whereas whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) has been the standard treatment of brain metastases (BMs), stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is increasingly preferred to avoid cognitive dysfunction; however, it has not been clearly determined whether treatment with SRS is as effective as that with WBRT or WBRT plus SRS. We thus assessed the noninferiority of salvage SRS to WBRT in patients with BMs. Patients and Methods Patients age 20 to 79 years old with performance status scores of 0 to 2-and 3 if caused only by neurologic deficits-and with four or fewer surgically resected BMs with only one lesion > 3 cm in diameter were eligible...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Victor Chang, Brendan O'Donnell, William J Bruce, Uma Maduekwe, Max Drescher, Bernandino M Mendez, Anai N Kothari, Parit A Patel
BACKGROUND: The utilization of ambulatory surgical centers (ASCs) for cleft lip repair is increasing to reduce costs. This study better defines the patient population appropriate for ambulatory cleft repair with uplift modeling, a predictive analytics technique. METHODS: Pediatric patients who underwent cleft lip repair were identified in the 2007 to 2011 California Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project State Inpatient Database and State Ambulatory Surgery and Services Database...
January 1, 2018: Cleft Palate-craniofacial Journal
L A Paes, O H Della Torre, T B Henriques, M P de Mello, E H R V Celeri, P Dalgalarrondo, G Guerra Júnior, A Dos Santos Júnior
Serotonin 2C receptors (5HT2C) are involved in serotonin-driven dynamic equilibrium adjustments responsible for homeostatic stability in brain structures that modulate behavior and emotions. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the serotonin 2C receptor gene (HTR2C) have been associated with several neurological and mental disorders, including abnormalities in cognitive and emotional processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the rs6318 SNP of the HTR2C gene and behavioral characteristics exhibited by children and adolescents based on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL/6-18) inventory...
2018: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
L D Ladino, V Benjumea-Cuartas, D M Diaz-Marin, R Lopez-Gonzalez, J P Orozco-Hernandez, P Bedoya-Rodriguez, J F Tellez-Zenteno
INTRODUCTION: Selected patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsy benefit from epilepsy surgery, however significant delays remain. The aim of this study was to assess knowledge and attitudes toward epilepsy surgery among patients with epilepsy and identify barriers that might delay the treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A 10-minute questionnaire was administered to patients with epilepsy in Colombia. Survey assessed the following: knowledge of surgical options, perceptions about the risks of surgery vs...
July 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
Aude Paquet, Bertrand Olliac, Bernard Golse, Laurence Vaivre-Douret
INTRODUCTION: Several authors have suggested the existence of motor disorders associated with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, there are few comparative studies of psychomotor profiles that include assessments of neurological soft signs in children with ASD or DCD. We used a neuropsychomotor assessment for children with ASD from a standardized neurodevelopmental examination to understand the nature of the difficulties these children encounter...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Leanne K Winner, Neil R Marshall, Robert D Jolly, Paul J Trim, Stephen K Duplock, Marten F Snel, Kim M Hemsley
Mucopolysaccharidosis IIIA (MPS IIIA) is an inherited neurodegenerative disease of childhood that results in early death. Post-mortem studies have been carried out on human MPS IIIA brain, but little is known about early disease development. Here, we utilised the Huntaway dog model of MPS IIIA to evaluate disease lesion development from 2 to 24 weeks of age. A significant elevation in primarily stored heparan sulphate was observed in all brain regions assessed in MPS IIIA pups ≤9.5 weeks of age. There was a significant elevation in secondarily stored ganglioside (GM3 36:1) in ≤9...
June 20, 2018: JIMD Reports
Freya Corfield, Dawn Langdon
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurological disease of the central nervous system which can lead to a range of severe physical disabilities. A large proportion of those affected will experience cognitive impairment, which is associated with a worse prognosis. Effective assessment of cognition in MS has been problematic due to a lack of suitable scales. The Brief International Cognitive Assessment for Multiple Sclerosis (BICAMS) was developed in 2010 as part of an international endeavour to facilitate cognitive assessment...
June 19, 2018: Neurology and Therapy
Heather Burke, Agnieszka Boron, Jung-Hyun Lee, Kudrit Riana Kahlon
Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is a newer alternative to surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) for patients with severe aortic stenosis. Clinical trials have investigated TAVR's safety and effectiveness. Cerebral embolization is a common complication leading to stroke after TAVR and SAVR; different cerebral protection methods have been studied to prevent this. This paper evaluates the rate of post-procedural stroke rates between TAVR and SAVR and investigates the effect of cerebral protective methods on the stroke risk post-TAVR...
April 17, 2018: Curēus
Roberto Teggi, Bruno Colombo, Roberto Albera, Giacinto Asprella Libonati, Cristiano Balzanelli, Angel Batuecas Caletrio, Augusto P Casani, Juan Manuel Espinosa-Sanchez, Paolo Gamba, Jose A Lopez-Escamez, Sergio Lucisano, Marco Mandalà, Giampiero Neri, Daniele Nuti, Rudi Pecci, Antonio Russo, Eduardo Martin-Sanz, Ricardo Sanz, Gioacchino Tedeschi, Paola Torelli, Paolo Vannucchi, Giancarlo Comi, Mario Bussi
Migraine is a common neurological disorder characterized by episodic headaches with specific features, presenting familial aggregation. Migraine is associated with episodic vertigo, named Vestibular Migraine (VM) whose diagnosis mainly rely on clinical history showing a temporary association of symptoms. Some patient refers symptoms occurring in pediatric age, defined "episodic symptoms which may be associated with migraine." The aim of this cross sectional observational study was to assess migraine-related clinical features in VM subjects...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Johanna Anneser, Victoria Arenz, Gian Domenico Borasio
Background: Neurological expertise in palliative care may be required not only for patients with primary neurological disorders but also for patients with non-neurological diseases suffering from burdensome neurological symptoms. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of neurological diagnoses and symptoms in palliative care patients, as well as the related burden and impact on everyday life. Methods: We analyzed retrospectively the medical records of 255 consecutive patients from a tertiary medical center, at the time point of referral to an inpatient palliative care consultation service...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Chun Kwang Tan, Hideki Kadone, Hiroki Watanabe, Aiki Marushima, Masashi Yamazaki, Yoshiyuki Sankai, Kenji Suzuki
Gait disturbance is commonly associated with stroke, which is a serious neurological disease. With current technology, various exoskeletons have been developed to provide therapy, leading to many studies evaluating the use of such exoskeletons as an intervention tool. Although these studies report improvements in patients who had undergone robotic intervention, they are usually reported with clinical assessment, which are unable to characterize how muscle activations change in patients after robotic intervention...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Alaini Priebe, Megan Hunke, Raquel Tonello, Yogesh Sonawane, Temugin Berta, Amarnath Natarajan, Nattamai Bhuvanesh, Mahesh Pattabiraman, Surabhi Chandra
Purpose: Search for alternate pain medications has gained more importance in the past few years due to adverse effects associated with currently prescribed drugs including nervous system dysfunction with opioids, gastrointestinal discomfort with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and cardiovascular anomalies with cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors. Phytomedicine has been explored for the treatment of pain, as these have been used for generations in regional communities and tend to lack major side effects in general...
2018: Journal of Pain Research
Bruno P Mmbando, Patrick Suykerbuyk, Mohamed Mnacho, Advocatus Kakorozya, William Matuja, Adam Hendy, Helena Greter, Williams H Makunde, Robert Colebunders
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a neurological disorder with a multitude of underlying causes, which may include infection with Onchocerca volvulus, the parasitic worm that causes human onchocerciasis. A survey carried out in 1989 revealed a high prevalence of epilepsy (1.02% overall, ranging from 0.51 to 3.71% in ten villages) in the Mahenge area of Ulanga district, an onchocerciasis endemic region in south eastern Tanzania. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and incidence of epilepsy following 20 years of onchocerciasis control through annual community directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI)...
June 20, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Chanchala D Kaddi, Bradley Niesner, Rena Baek, Paul Jasper, John Pappas, John Tolsma, Jing Li, Zachary van Rijn, Mengdi Tao, Catherine Ortemann-Renon, Rachael Easton, Sharon Tan, Ana Cristina Puga, Edward H Schuchman, Jeffrey S Barrett, Karim Azer
Acid sphingomyelinase deficiency (ASMD) is a rare lysosomal storage disorder with heterogeneous clinical manifestations, including hepatosplenomegaly and infiltrative pulmonary disease, and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Olipudase alfa (recombinant human acid sphingomyelinase) is an enzyme replacement therapy under development for the non-neurological manifestations of ASMD. We present a quantitative systems pharmacology (QSP) model supporting the clinical development of olipudase alfa...
June 19, 2018: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
Preet G S Makker, José Manuel Matamala, Susanna B Park, Justin G Lees, Matthew C Kiernan, David Burke, Gila Moalem-Taylor, James Howells
Non-invasive nerve excitability techniques have provided valuable insight into the understanding of neurological disorders. The widespread use of mice in translational research on peripheral nerve disorders and by pharmaceutical companies during drug development requires valid and reliable models that can be compared to humans. This study established a novel experimental protocol that enables comparative assessment of the excitability properties of motor and sensory axons at the same site in mouse caudal nerve, compared the mouse data to data for motor and sensory axons in human median nerve at the wrist, and constructed a mathematical model of the excitability of mouse axons...
June 19, 2018: Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System: JPNS
Omar Hikmat, Karin Naess, Martin Engvall, Claus Klingenberg, Magnhild Rasmussen, Chantal M E Tallaksen, Eylert Brodtkorb, Torunn Fiskerstrand, Pirjo Isohanni, Johanna Uusimaa, Niklas Darin, Shamima Rahman, Laurence A Bindoff
OBJECTIVE: Epilepsy is common in individuals with mutations in POLG, the gene encoding the catalytic subunit of the mitochondrial DNA polymerase gamma. Early recognition and aggressive seizure management are crucial for patient survival. Disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is implicated in various neurological disorders including epilepsy. The aim of this study was to assess whether POLG-related disease is associated with BBB dysfunction and what clinical implications this has for patients...
June 19, 2018: Epilepsia
Himani Kaushik, Aparna Dixit, Lalit C Garg
The epsilon toxin (Etx) produced by Clostridium perfringens type B and D causes severe enterotoxaemia associated with a general edema and neurological alterations, leading to subsequent death and is listed as one of the most lethal toxins. Currently employed vaccines against C. perfringens epsilon toxin include toxoid based vaccines. Use of peptide vaccines has become an interesting approach for vaccination after the successful licensing of peptide vaccines against Haemophilus influenza, Neisseria meningitides and Streptococcus pneumonia that have demonstrated the potential and effectiveness of these vaccines...
June 16, 2018: Anaerobe
Yong-Gui Yu, Jian Yang, Xin-Hua Cheng, Wei Shang, Bing-Hao Zhao, Fei Zhao, Zhi-Guo Chen, Zhen-Hua Huang
Context/Objective Following acute spinal cord injury (ASCI) in rabbits, subarachnoid space injection of Danshen was performed to protect the neurological damage. In this study, we established rabbit models of spinal cord injury using a modified Allen's method. Design After the operation introducing the injuries, the rabbits were randomized into two different groups, control group (normal saline, NS) and Danshen, a component extracted from Chinese herb, treatment group. Each rabbit was supplied with either the drug or placebo at 0...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
Rosa Michaelis, Venus Tang, Laura H Goldstein, Markus Reuber, William Curt LaFrance, Tobias Lundgren, Avani C Modi, Janelle L Wagner
Given the significant impact that psychosocial factors and epilepsy treatments can have on the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of individuals with epilepsy and their families, there is great clinical interest in the role of psychological evaluation and treatments to improve HRQOL and comorbidities. Therefore, the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) charged the Psychology Task Force with the development of recommendations for clinical care based on evaluation of the evidence from their recent Cochrane review of psychological treatments in individuals with epilepsy...
June 19, 2018: Epilepsia
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