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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683413/increased-circulating-follicular-regulatory-t-like-cells-may-play-a-critical-role-in-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-and-disease-progression
#1
Xiaojuan Wu, Zhenzhen Su, Bei Cai, Lin Yan, Yamei Li, Weihua Feng, Lanlan Wang
Follicular helper T cells (TFH) and follicular regulatory T cells (TFR), subsets of T cells, co-regulate the reactions of germinal center (GC) B cells. TFH provide help to the GC response, while the TFR suppress those processes. Nevertheless, the role of circulating TFR (cTFR) and circulating TFH (cTFH) in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains limited. Twenty healthy controls (HCs), 24 patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), 23 with HBV-related liver cirrhosis (LC), and 18 with HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma were enrolled in our study between October 2015 and September 2016...
April 23, 2018: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678747/predictive-markers-for-humoral-influenza-vaccine-response-in-patients-with-common-variable-immunodeficiency-cvid
#2
Ann Gardulf, Hassan Abolhassani, Rolf Gustafson, Lars E Eriksson, Lennart Hammarström
BACKGROUND: A subgroup of patients with common variable immunodeficiencies (CVID) responds to vaccination. The aim of the study was to try to identify predictive markers for those who developed a humoral immune response after influenza vaccination. METHODS: 48 patients with CVID (29 females, 19 males, mean age 59.4 years) were vaccinated with the A(H1N1) influenza vaccine Pandemrix® and boosted after one month. Blood samples were collected prior to each vaccination and two months later...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676593/icos-costimulation-differentially-affects-t-cells-in-secondary-lymphoid-organs-and-inflamed-tissues
#3
Dana Vu Van, Laura Bauer, Richard A Kroczek, Andreas Hutloff
B cell interaction with follicular helper T cells and their subsequent differentiation into high-affinity antibody producing cells normally takes place in secondary lymphoid organs. The costimulator ICOS plays a key role in this process and is therefore considered as an attractive target to modulate exaggerated B cell responses in autoimmune or allergic diseases. Inflamed tissues were recently recognized as additional sites of active T cell/B cell interaction. To analyze whether ICOS costimulation is also important there, we employed a mouse airway inflammation model which allows to directly compare immune reactions in the lung-draining lymph node and the lung tissue and also to assess the relative importance of dendritic cells versus B cells as antigen-presenting cells...
April 20, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676013/insemination-intrafollicular-fertilization-and-development-of-the-fertilization-plug-during-gestation-in-heterandria-formosa-poeciliidae
#4
Mari Carmen Uribe, Harry J Grier
The viviparous teleost Heterandria formosa is a remarkable species for its reproductive characters including: (a) the smallest oocyte in viviparous fish species; (b) a high level of matrotrophy with a complex placenta; and (c) the highest level of superfetation. Superfetation involves (d) the continuous development of oocytes and fertilization at the same time with embryos in gestation. The sequential fertilization of oocytes requires (e) storage of spermatozoa in the ovary. Among these characteristics, fertilization is of fundamental interest, specifically the intrafollicular fertilization of poeciliids, species that do not present micropyle, and the consequent formation of the fertilization plug, a structure developed at the periphery of the follicle where the entrance of spermatozoa occurs...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675946/plasma-proteomics-identifies-a-chemokine-storm-in-idiopathic-multicentric-castleman-disease
#5
Sheila K Pierson, Aaron J Stonestrom, Dustin Shilling, Jason Ruth, Christopher S Nabel, Amrit Singh, Yue Ren, Katie Stone, Hongzhe Li, Frits van Rhee, David C Fajgenbaum
Human Herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8)-negative/idiopathic multicentric Castleman disease (iMCD) is a poorly understood disease involving polyclonal lymphoproliferation with dysmorphic germinal centers, constitutional symptoms, and multi-organ failure. Patients can experience thrombocytopenia, anasarca, reticulin fibrosis, renal dysfunction, organomegaly, and normal immunoglobulin levels, - iMCD-TAFRO. Others experience thrombocytosis, milder effusions, and hypergammaglobulinemia, -iMCD-Not Otherwise Specified (iMCD-NOS)...
April 20, 2018: American Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669924/samhd1-enhances-immunoglobulin-hypermutation-by-promoting-transversion-mutation
#6
Eddy Sanchai Thientosapol, Daniel Bosnjak, Timothy Durack, Igor Stevanovski, Michelle van Geldermalsen, Jeff Holst, Zeenat Jahan, Caitlin Shepard, Wolfgang Weninger, Baek Kim, Robert Brink, Christopher J Jolly
Activation-induced deaminase (AID) initiates hypermutation of Ig genes in activated B cells by converting C:G into U:G base pairs. G1 -phase variants of uracil base excision repair (BER) and mismatch repair (MMR) then deploy translesion polymerases including REV1 and Pol η, which exacerbates mutation. dNTP paucity may contribute to hypermutation, because dNTP levels are reduced in G1 phase to inhibit viral replication. To derestrict G1 -phase dNTP supply, we CRISPR-inactivated SAMHD1 (which degrades dNTPs) in germinal center B cells...
April 18, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669755/zinc-finger-irf-composite-elements-bound-by-ikaros-irf4-complexes-function-as-gene-repression-in-plasma-cell
#7
Kyoko Ochiai, Haruka Kondo, Yasunobu Okamura, Hiroki Shima, Yuko Kurokochi, Kazumi Kimura, Ryo Funayama, Takeshi Nagashima, Keiko Nakayama, Katsuyuki Yui, Kengo Kinoshita, Kazuhiko Igarashi
The transcription factor (TF) interferon regulatory factor-4 (IRF4) promotes both germinal center (GC) reactions and plasma cell (PC) differentiation by binding to alternative DNA motifs including AP-1-IRF composite elements, Ets-IRF composite elements (EICEs), and interferon sequence response elements (ISREs). Although all of these motifs mediate transcriptional activation by IRF4, it is still unknown how some of the IRF4 target genes are downregulated upon PC differentiation. Here, we revealed a molecular mechanism of IRF4-mediated gene downregulation during PC differentiation...
April 24, 2018: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669250/t-follicular-helper-cell-germinal-center-b-cell-interaction-strength-regulates-entry-into-plasma-cell-or-recycling-germinal-center-cell-fate
#8
Wataru Ise, Kentaro Fujii, Katsuyuki Shiroguchi, Ayako Ito, Kohei Kometani, Kiyoshi Takeda, Eiryo Kawakami, Kazuo Yamashita, Kazuhiro Suzuki, Takaharu Okada, Tomohiro Kurosaki
Higher- or lower-affinity germinal center (GC) B cells are directed either to plasma cell or GC recycling, respectively; however, how commitment to the plasma cell fate takes place is unclear. We found that a population of light zone (LZ) GC cells, Bcl6lo CD69hi expressing a transcription factor IRF4 and higher-affinity B cell receptors (BCRs) or Bcl6hi CD69hi with lower-affinity BCRs, favored the plasma cell or recycling GC cell fate, respectively. Mechanistically, CD40 acted as a dose-dependent regulator for Bcl6lo CD69hi cell formation...
April 17, 2018: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669220/sumoylation-regulates-germinal-vesicle-break-down-and-the-akt-pkb-pathway-during-mouse-oocyte-maturation
#9
Weber Beringui Feitosa, Patricia L Morris
SUMOylation, a process of posttranslational modification of proteins by the Small Ubiquitin related Modifier (SUMO) family of proteins, is known to be involved in yeast and mammalian somatic cell-cycle regulation. However, the identities of the SUMO-modified oocyte targets are largely unknown and the functional role(s) for SUMOylation during mammalian oocyte maturation remains unclear. Based upon studies in non-germline cells, protein kinase B/AKT is a potential SUMOylation target in the mouse oocyte, where it plays an essential role in cell-cycle resumption and progression during maturation...
April 18, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666227/anti-hiv-1-b-cell-responses-are-dependent-on-b-cell-precursor-frequency-and-antigen-binding-affinity
#10
Pia Dosenovic, Ervin E Kara, Anna-Klara Pettersson, Andrew T McGuire, Matthew Gray, Harald Hartweger, Eddy S Thientosapol, Leonidas Stamatatos, Michel C Nussenzweig
The discovery that humans can produce potent broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) to several different epitopes on the HIV-1 spike has reinvigorated efforts to develop an antibody-based HIV-1 vaccine. Antibody cloning from single cells revealed that nearly all bNAbs show unusual features that could help explain why it has not been possible to elicit them by traditional vaccination and instead would require a sequence of different immunogens. This idea is supported by experiments with genetically modified immunoglobulin (Ig) knock-in mice...
April 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666116/critical-influences-on-the-pathogenesis-of-follicular-lymphoma
#11
Ralf Küppers, Freda K Stevenson
The development of follicular lymphoma (FL) from a founder B cell with an upregulation of BCL2, via the t(14;18) translocation, to a proliferating clone, poised to undergo further transformation to an aggressive lymphoma, illustrates the opportunistic Darwinian process of tumorigenesis. Protection against apoptosis allows an innocent cell to persist and divide, with dangerous accumulation of further mutational changes, commonly involving inactivation of chromatin-modifying genes. But this is not all. FL cells reflect normal B cells in relying on expression of surface Ig...
April 17, 2018: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666115/genetics-of-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma
#12
Laura Pasqualucci, Riccardo Dalla-Favera
Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), the most frequent subtype of lymphoid malignancy, remains a significant clinical challenge, as approximately 30% of patients are not cured. Over the past decade, remarkable progress has been made in the understanding of the pathogenesis of this disease, spurred by the implementation of powerful genomic technologies that enabled the definition of its genetic and epigenetic landscape. These studies have uncovered a multitude of genomic alterations that contribute to the initiation and maintenance of the tumor clone by disrupting biological functions known to be critical for the normal biology of its cells of origin, germinal center B cells...
April 17, 2018: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665942/-research-progress-of-histone-modification-in-b-cell-lymphoma-pathogenesis-review
#13
Jiao Zhang, Yun Pan, Yan Li
It has been increasingly recognized that the pathogenesis of B-cell lymphoma closely relates to the epigenetic disregulations. Epigenetics is a subdiscipline, which means heritable changes in gene expressions without alterations in the DNA sequence, and the DNA methylation, histone modification and miRNA maily were involved. Histone modification is the most important epigenetic modification, the researches showed that the aberrant histone modification is the important pathogenesis in B-cell lymphoma, especially the aberrant histone methylation and acetylation...
April 2018: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665940/-advances-in-the-molecular-diagnosis-and-therapy-of-relapsed-refractory-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-review
#14
Yi Wang, Bing Xia, Yi-Zhuo Zhang
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is biologically aggressive and most common pathological type of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), and about one-third of these patients are refractory or relapsed ultimately. Based on the molecular heterogeneity, DLBCL can be divided into 3 main molecular subtypes: germinal center B-cell like (GCB), activated B-cell like (ABC) and primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma (PMBL). Arising from B cells at distinct stages of differentiation, these subtypes are also diverse in mechanisms of oncogenic activation...
April 2018: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665320/reduced-lymphotoxin-beta-production-by-tumour-cells-is-associated-with-loss-of-follicular-dendritic-cell-phenotype-and-diffuse-growth-in-follicular-lymphoma
#15
Giuseppina Pepe, Arianna Di Napoli, Claudia Cippitelli, Stefania Scarpino, Emanuela Pilozzi, Luigi Ruco
Cytokine production is essential for follicular dendritic cell (FDC) maintenance and organization of germinal centres. In follicular lymphoma, FDCs are often disarrayed and may lack antigens indicative of terminal differentiation. We investigated the in situ distribution of cells producing lymphotoxin-beta (LTB), lymphotoxin-alpha (LTA), and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFA) transcripts in human reactive lymph nodes and in follicular lymphomas with follicular or diffuse growth pattern. LTB was the cytokine most abundantly produced in germinal centres...
April 2018: Journal of Pathology. Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665205/characterization-of-the-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-properties-of-cfz533-a-blocking-and-non-depleting-anti-cd40-monoclonal-antibody
#16
Jacinda Ristov, Pascal Espie, Peter Ulrich, Denise Sickert, Thierry Flandre, Mirela Dimitrova, Dorothee Müller-Ristig, Doris Weider, Gautier Robert, Patrick Schmutz, Barbara Greutmann, Francisco Cordoba-Castro, Martin A Schneider, Max Warncke, Frank Kolbinger, Serge Cote, Christoph Heusser, Christian Bruns, James S Rush
The CD40-CD154 co-stimulatory pathway is essential for T cell-dependent immune responses, development of humoral memory and antigen presenting cell function. These immune functions have been implicated in the pathology of multiple autoimmune diseases as well as allograft rejection. We have generated CFZ533, a fully human, pathway blocking anti-CD40 monoclonal antibody that has been modified with a N297A mutation to render it unable to mediate Fcγ-dependent effector functions. CFZ533 inhibited CD154-induced activation of human leukocytes in vitro, but failed to induce human leukocyte activation...
April 17, 2018: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662618/ectopic-expression-of-transcription-factor-batf3-induces-b-cell-lymphomas-in-a-murine-b-cell-transplantation-model
#17
Christian Weiser, Mina V Petkova, Benjamin Rengstl, Claudia Döring, Dorothee von Laer, Sylvia Hartmann, Ralf Küppers, Martin-Leo Hansmann, Sebastian Newrzela
The mechanisms involved in malignant transformation of mature B and T lymphocytes are still poorly understood. In a previous study, we compared gene expression profiles of the tumor cells of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) to their normal cellular counterparts and found the basic leucine zipper protein ATF-like 3 (BATF3) to be significantly upregulated in the tumor cells of both entities. To assess the oncogenic potential of BATF3 in lymphomagenesis and to dissect the molecular interactions of BATF3 in lymphoma cells, we retrovirally transduced murine mature T and B cells with a BATF3-encoding viral vector and transplanted each population into Rag1-deficient recipients...
March 23, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661716/small-cell-lymphocytic-variant-of-marginal-zone-lymphoma-a-distinct-form-of-marginal-zone-lymphoma-derived-from-na%C3%A3-ve-b-cells-as-a-cutaneous-counterpart-to-the-na%C3%A3-ve-marginal-zone-lymphoma-of-splenic-origin
#18
REVIEW
Cynthia M Magro, Luke C Olson
Primary cutaneous marginal zone lymphoma most commonly represents an indolent form of cutaneous B cell lymphoma. However, epidermotropic marginal zone lymphoma, blastic marginal zone lymphoma and B cell dominant variants without isotype switching can be associated with extracutaneous dissemination. The presumptive cell of origin is a post germinal center B cell with plasmacytic features. In the extracutaneous setting, however, a naïve B cell origin has been proposed for a subset of marginal zone lymphomas, notably splenic marginal zone lymphoma...
February 21, 2018: Annals of Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660515/aspergillus-fumigatus-viability-drives-allergic-responses-to-inhaled-conidia
#19
Ajay P Nayak, Tara L Croston, Angela R Lemons, W T Goldsmith, Nikki B Marshall, Michael L Kashon, Dori R Germolec, Donald H Beezhold, Brett J Green
BACKGROUND: Aspergillus fumigatus induced allergic airway disease has been shown to involve conidial germination in vivo but the immunological mechanisms remain uncharacterized. OBJECTIVE: A subchronic murine exposure model was used to examine the immunological mediators that are regulated in response to either culturable or non-culturable A. fumigatus conidia. METHODS: Female B6C3F1/N mice were repeatedly dosed via inhalation with 1 x 105 viable or heat inactivated conidia (HIC), twice a week for 13 weeks (26 exposures)...
April 13, 2018: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652829/molecular-and-ultrastructural-mechanisms-underlying-yellow-dwarf-symptom-formation-in-wheat-after-infection-of-barley-yellow-dwarf-virus
#20
Wei Rong, Xindong Wang, Xifeng Wang, Sebastien Massart, Zengyan Zhang
Wheat ( Tritium aestivum L.) production is essential for global food security. Infection of barley yellow dwarf virus-GAV (BYDV-GAV) results in wheat showing leaf yellowing and plant dwarfism symptom. To explore the molecular and ultrastructural mechanisms underlying yellow dwarf symptom formation in BYDV-GAV-infected wheat, we investigated the chloroplast ultrastructure via transmission electron microscopy (TEM), examined the contents of the virus, H₂O₂, and chlorophyll in Zhong8601, and studied the comparative transcriptome through microarray analyses in the susceptible wheat line Zhong8601 after virus infection...
April 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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