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Germinal B-Cell

Xiao-Guan Zhu, Zhen-Jian Chu, Sheng-Hua Ying, Ming-Guang Feng
Krs is a class II lysyl-tRNA synthetase (KRS) that is involved in cytosolic protein synthesis in budding yeast but functionally has not been explored in filamentous fungi. Previous transcriptomic analysis has revealed that a Krs-coding gene is likely involved in pathogenesis of Beauveria bassiana, a classic insect pathogen as a global source of fungal insecticides. Here, we show that Krs is localized in the cytoplasm of hyphal cells and acts as a substantial virulence factor in B. bassiana. Deletion of krs resulted in 10-h delayed germination, decreased (15 %) thermotolerance, and lowered (46 %) UV-B resistance of aerial conidia despite limited impact on conidiation capacity and slight or inconspicuous influence on radial growth on rich and minimal media with different carbon (10 sugars/polyols) and nitrogen (17 amino acids) sources...
November 2017: Fungal Biology
Wendy Béguelin, Martín A Rivas, María T Calvo Fernández, Matt Teater, Alberto Purwada, David Redmond, Hao Shen, Matt F Challman, Olivier Elemento, Ankur Singh, Ari M Melnick
The EZH2 histone methyltransferase is required for B cells to form germinal centers (GC). Here we show that EZH2 mediates GC formation through repression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor CDKN1A (p21(Cip1)). Deletion of Cdkn1a rescues the GC reaction in Ezh2 (-/-) mice. Using a 3D B cell follicular organoid system that mimics the GC reaction, we show that depletion of EZH2 suppresses G1 to S phase transition of GC B cells in a Cdkn1a-dependent manner. GC B cells of Cdkn1a (-/-) Ezh2 (-/-) mice have high levels of phospho-Rb, indicating that loss of Cdkn1a enables progression of cell cycle...
October 12, 2017: Nature Communications
J M Reyes, E Silva, J L Chitwood, W B Schoolcraft, R L Krisher, P J Ross
STUDY QUESTION: What effect does maternal age have on the human oocyte's molecular response to in vitro oocyte maturation? SUMMARY ANSWER: Although polyadenylated transcript abundance is similar between young and advanced maternal age (AMA) germinal vesicle (GV) oocytes, metaphase II (MII) oocytes exhibit a divergent transcriptome resulting from a differential response to in vitro oocyte maturation. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Microarray studies considering maternal age or maturation stage have shown that either of these factors will affect oocyte polyadenylated transcript abundance in human oocytes...
September 15, 2017: Human Reproduction
Akifumi Ichiki, Joaquim Carreras, Masashi Miyaoka, Yara Yukie Kikuti, Tadashi Jibiki, Kei Tazume, Shigeki Watanabe, Tamotsu Sasao, Yoshiaki Obayashi, Makoto Onizuka, Ken Ohmachi, Fumiaki Yoshiba, Yukari Shirasugi, Yoshiaki Ogawa, Hiroshi Kawada, Naoya Nakamura, Kiyoshi Ando
The estimation of clinical prognosis for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) with a quick, cost-efficient method is necessary because of the clinical heterogeneity of this disease, which leads to death, relapsed or refractory disease in approximately 40% of patients. We analyzed 320 cases diagnosed from 2007 to 2013 treated with R-CHOP therapy at Tokai University Hospital and associated institutions. DLBCL was classified according to the cell-of-origin using the Hans algorithm [germinal center B-cell-like (GCB) vs non-GCB subtypes], and into 6 subgroups derived from combinations of CD10, BCL6 and MUM1 markers...
2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hematopathology: JCEH
Assia Asrir, Meryem Aloulou, Mylène Gador, Corine Pérals, Nicolas Fazilleau
Follicular helper T cells regulate high-affinity antibody production. Memory follicular helper T cells can be local in draining lymphoid organs and circulate in the blood, but the underlying mechanisms of this subdivision are unresolved. Here we show that both memory follicular helper T subsets sustain B-cell responses after reactivation. Local cells promote more plasma cell differentiation, whereas circulating cells promote more secondary germinal centers. In parallel, local memory B cells are homogeneous and programmed to become plasma cells, whereas circulating memory B cells are able to rediversify...
October 10, 2017: Nature Communications
Ying Wan, Du He, Yunxia Ye, Wenyan Zhang, Sha Zhao, Yanhong Long, Min Chen, Can Küçük
Primary cardiac lymphoma is a rare type of extranodal lymphoma that involves only heart and/or pericardium. It is usually observed in immunodeficient people. However, immunocompetent patients may also suffer from this disease. Most primary cardiac lymphomas are of B-cell lineage, and they usually present as diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with concurrently high MYC and BCL2 expression, which is named as double-expressor lymphoma (DEL), is a rare subtype of DLBCL. Here we report a rare case of a primary cardiac DEL in an immunocompetent 65-year old Chinese woman...
August 4, 2017: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
Kristian R von Schalburg, Brent E Gowen, Jong S Leong, Eric B Rondeau, William S Davidson, Ben F Koop
Much progress has been made regarding our understanding of aromatase regulation, estrogen synthesis partitioning and communication between the germinal and somatic compartments of the differentiating gonad. We now know that most of the enzymatic and signaling apparatus required for steroidogenesis is endogenously expressed within germ cells. However, less is known about the expression and localization of steroidogenic components within mature spermatozoa. We have assembled a sperm library presenting 197,015 putative transcripts...
October 5, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Jeunghun Lee, Yukiko Shishido-Hara, Kaori Suzuki, Saki Shimizu, Keiichi Kobayashi, Hiroshi Kamma, Yoshiaki Shiokawa, Motoo Nagane
Background: Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) remains an aggressive and refractory tumor despite high-dose methotrexate-based chemo-radiotherapy. Age and performance status have been shown to be important clinical prognostic factors, however others, especially molecular factors, affecting the prognosis are still uncertain. Methods: We investigate clinical, neuroimaging and immunohistochemical data in tissue from 41 PCNSL patients treated primarily with methotrexate-based chemo-radiotherapy and evaluate the influence of potential prognostic factors on clinical outcome as well as correlation among these factors...
October 1, 2017: Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology
Kazuyuki Shimada
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) represents the most common subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, accounting for 30%-40% of all types of malignant lymphoma. Importantly, two distinct molecular subtypes, germinal center B-cell (GCB) type and activated B-cell (ABC) type, arising from B lymphocyte differentiation based on the gene expression profiling opened doors to uncover molecular pathogenesis in DLBCL. Since 2010, next-generation sequencing analyses have been revealing the landscape of genetic mutations in DLBCL...
2017: [Rinshō Ketsueki] the Japanese Journal of Clinical Hematology
Hiroki Satooka, Daisuke Nagakubo, Tomomi Sato, Takako Hirata
The ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM) proteins are a family of membrane-associated proteins that link membrane proteins with actin filaments in the cell cortex and regulate many cellular processes, including cell shape determination, membrane transport, and signal transduction. Lymphocytes predominantly express two ERM members, ezrin and moesin. Mutations in the moesin gene in humans are associated with primary immunodeficiency with profound lymphopenia, and moesin-deficient mice exhibit a similar lymphopenia phenotype...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Xiajun Hu, Yihuan Deng, Xiao Chen, Yanzhao Zhou, Hongrong Zhang, Hailang Wu, Shijun Yang, Fen Chen, Zihua Zhou, Min Wang, Zhihua Qiu, Yuhua Liao
We developed a virus-like particle (VLP)-based therapeutic vaccine against angiotensin II receptor type 1, ATR-AP205-001, which could significantly reduce the blood pressure and protect target organs of hypertensive animals. In this study, we focused on the immunological effect and safety of the VLP-based vaccine. By comparing to the depolymerized dimeric vaccine ATR-Dimer-001, we found that ATR-AP205-001 reached subcapsular sinus of lymph node shortly after administration, followed by accumulation on follicle dendritic cells via follicle B cell transportation, while ATR-Dimer-001 vaccine showed no association with FDCs...
October 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
Austin K Mircheff, Yanru Wang, Meng Li, Billy X Pan, Chuanqing Ding
PURPOSE: This study asked whether pregnancy, a risk factor for dry eye disease associated with both chronic, immune-mediated- and autoimmune etiologies, augments development of clusters of coordinately functioning cells (CCFC) that may be precursors to pathological lacrimal gland infiltrates. METHODS: Lacrimal glands were from six virgin- and six term-pregnant rabbits of the same age and environmental exposure history. Seventy-two immune response-related gene transcripts were assayed by real time RT-PCR...
September 30, 2017: Ocular Surface
Takuro Igawa, Rika Omote, Hiaki Sato, Kohei Taniguchi, Katsuya Miyatani, Tadashi Yoshino, Yasuharu Sato
Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is an aggressive B-cell lymphoma characterized by overexpression of cyclin D1 resulting from t(11;14)(q13;q32) translocation. Herein, we report 3 cases of MCL with features of plasma cell-type Castleman disease (CD). The 3 patients were all men, ranging from 51 to 74 years in age, and they all presented with systemic lymphadenopathy with anemia, hypoalbuminemia, elevated serum levels of C-reactive protein, and polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia. Lymph node biopsy specimens of the 3 cases showed histological features of plasma cell-type CD, including atrophic germinal centers and interfollicular plasmacytosis, with no light chain restriction...
September 18, 2017: Pathology, Research and Practice
Yingjia Chen, Fanlei Hu, Xuejiao Dong, Meng Zhao, Jing Wang, Xiaolin Sun, Tae Jin Kim, Zhanguo Li, Wanli Liu
Unlike conventional B cells, regulatory B cells exhibit immunosuppressive functions to downregulate inflammation via IL-10 production. However, the molecular mechanism regulating the production of IL-10 is not fully understood. In this study, we report the finding that activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is highly upregulated in the IL-10-competent B cell (B10) cell from Innp5d(fl/fl)Aicda(Cre/+) mice, whereas the 5' inositol phosphatase SHIP-1 is downregulated. Notably, SHIP-1 deficiency in AID(+) B cells leads to a reduction in cell count and impaired IL-10 production by B10 cells...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
James S Young, Stella H-W Khiew, Jinghui Yang, Augustin Vannier, Dengping Yin, Roger Sciammas, Maria-Luisa Alegre, Anita S Chong
Clinical observations that kidney transplant recipients receiving belatacept who experienced T cell-mediated acute rejection can be successfully treated and subsequently maintained on belatacept-based immunosuppression suggest that belatacept is able to control memory T cells. We recently reported that treatment with CTLA4-Ig from day 6 posttransplantation successfully rescues allografts from acute rejection in a BALB/c to C57BL/6 heart transplant model, in part, by abolishing B cell germinal centers and reducing alloantibody titers...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
Marieke Robinet, Bérengère Villeret, Solène Maillard, Mélanie A Cron, Sonia Berrih-Aknin, Rozen Le Panse
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disease mediated by autoantibodies against the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) at the neuromuscular junction. MG symptoms are characterized by muscle weaknesses. The thymus of MG patients is very often abnormal and possesses all the characteristics of tertiary lymphoid organs such as neoangiogenesis processes, overexpression of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and infiltration of B lymphocytes leading to ectopic germinal center (GC) development. We previously demonstrated that injections of mice with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [Poly(I:C)], a synthetic double-stranded RNA mimicking viral infection, induce thymic changes and trigger MG symptoms...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
Julia Jellusova, Robert C Rickert
B cell activation is accompanied by metabolic adaptations to meet the increased energetic demands of proliferation. The metabolic composition of the microenvironment is known to change during a germinal center response, in inflamed tissue and to vary significantly between different organs. To sustain cellular homeostasis B cells need to be able to dynamically adapt to changes in their environment. An inability to take up and process available nutrients can result in impaired B cell growth and a diminished humoral immune response...
September 29, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
John W Ribis, Priyanka Ravichandran, Emily E Putnam, Keyan Pishdadian, Aimee Shen
The spore-forming bacterial pathogen Clostridium difficile is a leading cause of health care-associated infections in the United States. In order for this obligate anaerobe to transmit infection, it must form metabolically dormant spores prior to exiting the host. A key step during this process is the assembly of a protective, multilayered proteinaceous coat around the spore. Coat assembly depends on coat morphogenetic proteins recruiting distinct subsets of coat proteins to the developing spore. While 10 coat morphogenetic proteins have been identified in Bacillus subtilis, only two of these morphogenetic proteins have homologs in the Clostridia: SpoIVA and SpoVM...
September 2017: MSphere
Assaf Amitai, Luka Mesin, Gabriel D Victora, Mehran Kardar, Arup K Chakraborty
Germinal centers (GCs) are micro-domains where B cells mature to develop high affinity antibodies. Inside a GC, B cells compete for antigen and T cell help, and the successful ones continue to evolve. New experimental results suggest that, under identical conditions, a wide spectrum of clonal diversity is observed in different GCs, and high affinity B cells are not always the ones selected. We use a birth, death and mutation model to study clonal competition in a GC over time. We find that, like all evolutionary processes, diversity loss is inherently stochastic...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Juan Carlos Campuzano-Caballero, Mari Carmen Uribe
Female teleosts do not develop Müllerian ducts; consequently, the ovary of teleosts contains two zones: germinal and gonoduct. The gonoduct lacks germinal cells, but has relevant functions in the reproductive process. We describe the functional morphology of the gonoduct in the viviparous teleost Poeciliopsis gracilis during nongestation and gestation stages. This study tests the hypothesis that the gonoduct functions as a barrier between the germinal zone and the exterior. By providing information about morphology and function of the gonoduct we show that this part of the ovary has an essential role in the reproduction of teleosts...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Morphology
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