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Germinal B-Cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633925/the-discovery-of-plasma-cells-an-historical-note
#1
REVIEW
Domenico Ribatti
The name plasma cell was introduced by the anatomist Heinrich H. von Hartz-Waldeyer in 1875. Plasma cells derive from small B lymphocytes after their activation. A fully mature plasma cell lacks surface immunoglobulin expression. Its form is round or oval, with characteristic basophilic cytoplasm and an eccentric nucleus that contains coarse heterochromatin. Antigen activation of mature B cells leads initially to germinal center development, the transient generation of plasmablasts that secrete antibody while still dividing, and short-lived extrafollicular plasma cells that secrete antigen-specific germ line-encoded antibodies...
June 17, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631322/prolonged-embryogenesis-in-austrobaileya-scandens-austrobaileyaceae-its-ecological-and-evolutionary-significance
#2
Juan M Losada, Julien B Bachelier, William E Friedman
The embryology of basal angiosperm lineages (Amborella, Nymphaeales and Austrobaileyales) is central to reconstructing the early evolution of flowering plants. Previous studies have shown that mature seeds in Austrobaileyales are albuminous, with a small embryo surrounded by a substantial diploid endosperm. However, little is known of seed ontogeny and seedling germination in Austrobaileya scandens, sister to all other extant Austrobaileyales. Standard histochemical techniques were used to study ovule/seed development and germination of Austrobaileya...
July 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630079/what-are-the-primary-limitations-in-b-cell-affinity-maturation-and-how-much-affinity-maturation-can-we-drive-with-vaccination-lessons-from-the-antibody-response-to-hiv-1
#3
Gabriel D Victora, Hugo Mouquet
Most broadly neutralizing antibodies to HIV-1 have in common an extreme degree of somatic hypermutation (SHM), which correlates with their ability to neutralize multiple viral strains. However, achieving such extreme SHM by immunization remains a challenge. Here, we discuss how antigenic variation during HIV-1 infection may work to exacerbate SHM by permitting multiple iterative cycles of affinity maturation in germinal centers, and speculate on how this could be recapitulated through vaccination.
June 19, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630077/what-are-the-primary-limitations-in-b-cell-affinity-maturation-and-how-much-affinity-maturation-can-we-drive-with-vaccination-breaking-through-immunity-s-glass-ceiling
#4
Garnett Kelsoe, Barton F Haynes
A key goal of HIV-1 vaccine development is the induction of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) targeted to the vulnerable regions of the HIV envelope. BnAbs develop over time in ∼50% of HIV-1-infected individuals. However, to date, no vaccines have induced bnAbs and few or none of these vaccine-elicited HIV-1 antibodies carry the high frequencies of V(D)J mutations characteristic of bnAbs. Do the high frequencies of mutations characteristic of naturally induced bnAbs represent a fundamental barrier to the induction of bnAbs by vaccines? Recent studies suggest that high frequencies of V(D)J mutations can be achieved by serial vaccination strategies...
June 19, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628673/multiple-tolerance-defects-contribute-to-the-breach-of-b-cell-tolerance-in-new-zealand-black-chromosome-1-congenic-mice
#5
Nan-Hua Chang, Kieran P Manion, Christina Loh, Evelyn Pau, Yuriy Baglaenko, Joan E Wither
Lupus is characterized by a loss of B cell tolerance leading to autoantibody production. In this study, we explored the mechanisms underlying this loss of tolerance using B6 congenic mice with an interval from New Zealand Black chromosome 1 (denoted c1(96-100)) sufficient for anti-nuclear antibody production. Transgenes for soluble hen egg white lysozyme (sHEL) and anti-HEL immunoglobulin were crossed onto this background and various tolerance mechanisms examined. We found that c1(96-100) mice produced increased levels of IgM and IgG anti-HEL antibodies compared to B6 mice and had higher proportions of germinal center B cells and long-lived plasma cells, suggesting a germinal center-dependent breach of B cell anergy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628194/signals-that-drive-t-follicular-helper-cell-formation
#6
REVIEW
Louise M C Webb, Michelle A Linterman
T follicular helper (TFH) cells are a distinct type of CD4+ T cell specialized in providing help to B cells during the germinal center (GC) reaction. As such, they are critical determinants of the quality of an antibody response following antigen challenge. Excessive production of TFH cells can result in autoimmunity whilst too few can result in inadequate protection from infection. Hence, their differentiation and maintenance must be tightly regulated to ensure appropriate, but limited, help to B cells. Unlike the majority of other CD4+ T cell subsets, TFH cell differentiation occurs in three phases defined by their anatomical location...
June 19, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622456/elevated-ccl25-and-ccr9-expressing-t-helper-cells-in-salivary-glands-of-primary-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome-patients-potential-new-axis-in-lymphoid-neogenesis
#7
Sofie L M Blokland, Maarten R Hillen, Aike A Kruize, Stephan Meller, Bernhard Homey, Glennda M Smithson, Timothy R D J Radstake, Joel A G van Roon
Introduction T follicular helper (Tfh)-cells play a critical role in germinal center formation and B-cell activation, both hallmarks of primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). CCR9-expressing Th-cells have "Tfh-like" characteristics and are increased at mucosa-associated sites in several inflammatory conditions. Because of their unique characteristics and limited evaluation we investigated the local and systemic CCL25/CCR9-axis in pSS. Methods CCL25 protein and mRNA levels and CCR9+ Th-cells were assessed in labial salivary glands (LSG) of pSS and non-Sjögren's sicca (nSS) patients and their correlation with inflammatory and clinical parameters was evaluated...
June 16, 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621910/allospecific-memory-b-cell-responses-are-dependent-on-autophagy
#8
Miguel Fribourg, Jie Ni, F Nina Papavasiliou, Zhenyu Yue, Peter S Heeger, Jeremy S Leventhal
Long-lived, donor-reactive memory B cells (Bmem) can produce alloantibodies that mediate transplant injury. Autophagy, an intrinsic mechanism of cell organelle/component recycling, is required for Bmem survival in infectious and model antigen systems but whether autophagy impacts alloreactive Bmem is unknown. We studied mice with an inducible yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) reporter expressed under the Activation-Induced Cytidine Deaminase (AID) promoter active in B cells undergoing germinal center reactions...
June 16, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617936/t-follicular-regulatory-cells-in-mice-and-men
#9
REVIEW
Ana Raquel Maceiras, Valter R Fonseca, Ana Agua-Doce, Luis Graca
It has long been known that CD4 T cells are necessary to provide help to B cells, triggering a germinal center (GC) reaction where affinity maturation and isotype switching occurs. However, the nature of the dedicated CD4 helper T cells, known as T follicular helper (Tfh), was only recently described. Here, we review the biology and function of the recently described T follicular regulatory (Tfr) cells, another CD4 T cell population also found within GCs but with regulatory function and characteristics. Tfr cells have been identified in mice and humans as simultaneously, presenting simultaneously characteristics of T follicular cells (namely CXCR5 expression) and regulatory T cells (including Foxp3 expression)...
June 15, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614794/an-activated-th17-prone-t-cell-subset-involved-in-chronic-graft-versus-host-disease-sensitive-to-pharmacological-inhibition
#10
Edouard Forcade, Katelyn Paz, Ryan Flynn, Brad Griesenauer, Tohti Amet, Wei Li, Liangyi Liu, Giorgos Bakoyannis, Di Jiang, Hong Wei Chu, Mercedes Lobera, Jianfei Yang, David S Wilkes, Jing Du, Kate Gartlan, Geoffrey R Hill, Kelli Pa MacDonald, Eduardo L Espada, Patrick Blanco, Jonathan S Serody, John Koreth, Corey S Cutler, Joseph H Antin, Robert J Soiffer, Jerome Ritz, Sophie Paczesny, Bruce R Blazar
Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGvHD) remains a major complication of allogeneic stem cell transplantation requiring novel therapies. CD146 and CCR5 are expressed by activated T cells and associated with increased T cell migration capacity and Th17 polarization. We performed a multiparametric flow cytometry analysis in a cohort of 40 HSCT patients together with a cGvHD murine model to understand the role of CD146-expressing subsets. We observed an increased frequency of CD146+ CD4 T cells in the 20 patients with active cGvHD with enhanced RORγt expression...
June 15, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611475/murine-lrba-deficiency-causes-ctla-4-deficiency-in-tregs-without-progression-to-immune-dysregulation
#11
Deborah Burnett, Ian Parish, Etienne Masle-Farquhar, Robert Brink, Christopher Goodnow
Inherited mutations in Lipopolysaccharide Responsive Beige-like Anchor (LRBA) cause a recessive human immune dysregulation syndrome with memory B cell and antibody deficiency (common variable immunodeficiency, CVID), inflammatory bowel disease, enlarged spleen and lymph nodes, accumulation of activated T cells, and multiple autoimmune diseases. To understand the pathogenesis of the syndrome, C57BL/6 mice carrying a homozygous truncating mutation in Lrba were produced using CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene targeting...
June 14, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609275/effect-of-d-ribose-l-cysteine-on-aluminum-induced-testicular-damage-in-male-sprague-dawley-rats
#12
Benedict Falana, Opeyemi Adeleke, Mulikat Orenolu, Abraham Osinubi, Adeoye Oyewopo
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effects of D-ribose and L-cysteine on aluminum-induced testicular damage in male Sprague-Dawley rats. METHOD: A total number of thirty-five (35) adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups (AD). Group A (comprised five (5) rats) was designated the Control Group that received Physiological Saline; while groups B, C, and D (comprised ten (10) rats) were given 75 mg/kg, 150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg of body weight of aluminum chloride respectively for 39 days...
June 1, 2017: JBRA Assisted Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607806/significance-of-stromal-1-and-stromal-2-signatures-and-biologic-prognostic-model-in-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma
#13
Asmaa Gaber Abdou, Nancy Asaad, Mona Kandil, Mohammed Shabaan, Asmaa Shams
OBJECTIVE: : Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL) is a heterogeneous group of tumors with different biological and clinical characteristics that have diverse clinical outcomes and response to therapy. Stromal-1 signature of tumor microenvironment of DLBCL represents extracellular matrix deposition and histiocytic infiltrate, whereas stromal-2 represents angiogenesis that could affect tumor progression. METHODS: : The aim of the present study is to assess the significance of stromal-1 signature using SPARC-1 and stromal-2 signature using CD31 expression and then finally to construct biologic prognostic model (BPM) in 60 cases of DLBCL via immunohistochemistry...
May 2017: Cancer Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606871/higher-ordered-actin-structures-remodeled-by-arabidopsis-actin-depolymerizing-factor5-are-important-for-pollen-germination-and-pollen-tube-growth
#14
Jingen Zhu, Qiong Nan, Tao Qin, Dong Qian, Tonglin Mao, Shunjie Yuan, Xiaorong Wu, Yue Niu, Qifeng Bai, Lizhe An, Yun Xiang
Higher-order structures of the actin cytoskeleton are essential for pollen germination and pollen tube growth. ACTIN-DEPOLYMERIZING FACTORs (ADFs) typically contribute to actin turnover by severing/depolymerizing actin filaments. Recently, we demonstrated that Arabidopsis subclass III ADFs (ADF5 and ADF9) evolved F-actin bundling function from conserved F-actin depolymerizing function. However, little is known about the physiological function, the evolutional significance and the actin-bundling mechanism of these neofunctionalized ADFs...
June 9, 2017: Molecular Plant
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605013/the-strength-of-bcr-signaling-shapes-terminal-development-of-follicular-helper-t-cells-in-mice
#15
Antoine Sacquin, Mylène Gador, Nicolas Fazilleau
Antibody production is key for effective immune response and relies on follicular helper T (Tfh) cells. B cell-Tfh cell interactions result either in an extra-follicular low affinity B-cell response or in germinal center reactions producing high-affinity memory B cells and long-lived plasma cells. As Tfh cells influence B-cell commitment, it also became clear that B cells influence these interactions in ways that still remain unresolved. We observed that strong BCR signals decreased Tfh-cell differentiation in vitro, which correlated with decreased expression of ICOS-L at the surface of stimulated B cells...
June 12, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596090/liposomes-containing-monophosphoryl-lipid-a-and-qs-21-serve-as-an-effective-adjuvant-for-soluble-circumsporozoite-protein-malaria-vaccine-fmp013
#16
Christopher J Genito, Zoltan Beck, Timothy W Phares, Fanta Kalle, Keith J Limbach, Maureen E Stefaniak, Noelle B Patterson, Elke S Bergmann-Leitner, Norman C Waters, Gary R Matyas, Carl R Alving, Sheetij Dutta
Malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum continues to threaten millions of people living in the tropical parts of the world. A vaccine that confers sterile and life-long protection remains elusive despite more than 30years of effort and resources invested in solving this problem. Antibodies to a malaria vaccine candidate circumsporozoite protein (CSP) can block invasion and can protect humans against malaria. We have manufactured the Falciparum Malaria Protein-013 (FMP013) vaccine based on the nearly full-length P...
June 5, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592763/malignant-lymphoma-pathophysiology-and-current-therapy
#17
Koji Izutsu
Recent advances in the understanding of molecular pathogenesis of lymphoma have enabled us to clearly define disease entity by means of a disease-specific gene mutation and to select candidates for novel targeted therapy. In this review three different clinically relevant topics related to the molecular pathogenesis of lymphoma were covered. In the 2016 revision of the World Health Organization classification of lymphoid malignancies, firstly, disease-specific mutations such as MYD88 L265P in Waldenström macroglobulinemia and BRAF V600E in hairy cell leukemia were incorporated into diagnostic tests, and secondly, the determination of cell-of-origin in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) was strongly recommended in diagnosis...
2017: [Rinshō Ketsueki] the Japanese Journal of Clinical Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592540/covalent-linkage-of-hiv-1-trimers-to-synthetic-liposomes-elicits-improved-b-cell-and-antibody-responses
#18
Shridhar Bale, Geraldine Goebrecht, Armando Stano, Richard Wilson, Takayuki Ota, Karen Tran, Jidnyasa Ingale, Michael B Zwick, Richard T Wyatt
We have demonstrated that a liposomal array of well-ordered trimers enhances B cell activation, germinal center formation and the elicitation of tier-2 autologous neutralizing antibodies. Previously, we coupled well-ordered cleavage-independent NFL trimer via their C-terminal poly-histidine tails to nickel-lipids integrated into the lipid bilayer. Despite favorable in vivo effects, concern remains over the potentially longer term in vivo instability of non-covalent linkage of the trimers to the liposomes. Accordingly, we tested both cobalt coupling and covalent linkage of the trimers to the liposomes by reengineering the poly-histidine tail to include a free cysteine on each protomer of model BG505 NFL trimers to allow covalent linkage...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592537/role-of-autophagy-in-the-hiv-1-matrix-protein-p17-driven-lymphangiogenesis
#19
Pietro Mazzuca, Stefania Marsico, Kai Schulze, Stefania Mitola, Marina C Pils, Cinzia Giagulli, Carlos A Guzman, Arnaldo Caruso, Francesca Caccuri
AIDS-related lymphomas (ARLs) are expected to increase in the future since combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) enhances the life expectancy of HIV-1-infected (HIV(+)) patients, but does not affect the occurrence of ARLs to the same extent as of other tumors. Lymphangiogenesis is essential in supporting growth and metastatic spreading of ARLs. HIV-1 does not infect the neoplastic B cells, but HIV-1 proteins have been hypothesized to play a key role in sustaining a pro-lymphangiogenic microenvironment in lymphoid organs...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589364/how-to-simulate-a-germinal-center
#20
Philippe A Robert, Ananya Rastogi, Sebastian C Binder, Michael Meyer-Hermann
Germinal centers host a mini-evolutionary environment where B cells can mutate their receptor and be selected depending on its affinity to target antigens in a process called affinity maturation. Starting from founder cells with a weak B cell receptor affinity, germinal centers release output cells as antibody-secreting cells or memory cells with a very high affinity, a property which is essential for pathogen clearance and immune memory. Therapeutic interventions on the germinal centers are tantalizing approaches to improve vaccines or to support rejection of chronic pathogens such as HIV...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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