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Nancy Wang, Matthias Osswald
The majority of meningiomas, the most common primary brain tumor, are considered to be benign, and characteristic magnetic resonance imaging features allow a preliminary diagnosis. Meningiomas can be classified in the World Health Organization system as grade I, II, or III, depending on various histological features. In many cases, observation is the preferred management option, although this means the absence of a histological diagnosis. If necessary, standard therapy consists of surgery with or without adjuvant radiation, depending on the tumor grade and the degree of resection...
February 2018: Seminars in Neurology
Elizabeth R Gerstner, Kristian W Pajtler
Ependymoma can arise throughout the whole neuraxis. In children, tumors predominantly occur intracranially, whereas the spine is the most prevalent location in adults. Significant variance in the grade II versus grade III distinction of ependymomas has led to the acknowledgment that the clinical utility of histopathological classification is limited. Epigenomic profiling efforts have identified molecularly distinct groups of ependymomas that adequately reflect the biological, clinical, and histopathological heterogeneities across anatomical compartments, age groups, and grades...
February 2018: Seminars in Neurology
Michael Platten, David A Reardon
Strategies to empower the immune system to successfully attack cancers, including vaccination approaches, adaptive T cell therapies, and immune checkpoint modulators, have recently achieved remarkable success across a spectrum of cancer indications. Nonetheless, with rare exception, only a minority of patients with a given type of cancer respond to an immunotherapeutic when administered as single-agent therapy. Although under extensive laboratory and clinical investigation, the role of these approaches for glioma patients remains to be determined...
February 2018: Seminars in Neurology
Julie J Miller, Wolfgang Wick
The majority of World Health Organization grade II and grade III gliomas harbor heterozygous mutations in the metabolic enzyme isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1), and tumors with an IDH wild-type status show molecular features of a glioblastoma and simply may constitute a separate disease entity. This discovery has led to a profound shift in the way that gliomas are classified and, consequently, how treatment decisions are made. We will review the current understanding of IDH- mutant gliomagenesis and the preclinical models being used to investigate the underlying biology of these tumors and to explore new therapeutic options for these patients...
February 2018: Seminars in Neurology
Andreas von Deimling, Takahiro Ono, Mitsuaki Shirahata, David N Louis
Estimating the malignancy level of tumors is key to management, and has been part of oncology practice for the past ∼100 years. A central aspect of assessing malignancy level is based on histological "grading"-a process in which a pathologist evaluates microscopic features of a tumor and interprets those findings in light of large prognostic studies. For the diffuse astrocytic gliomas, there have been many such studies over the past century and these have proven useful in estimating prognosis for patients...
February 2018: Seminars in Neurology
Jitka Rybová, Ladislav Kuchar, Helena Hulková, Befekadu Asfaw, Robert Dobrovolný, Jakub Sikora, Vladimír Havlícek, Ludovít Škultéty, Jana Ledvinová
Blood group B glycosphingolipids (B-GSLs) are substrates of the lysosomal alpha-galactosidase A (AGAL). Similar to its major substrate - globotriaosylceramide (Gb3Cer) - B-GSLs are not degraded and accumulate in the cells of patients affected by an inherited defect of AGAL activity (Fabry disease - FD).The pancreas is a secretory organ known to have high biosynthesis of blood group GSLs. Herein, we provide a comprehensive overview of the biochemical and structural abnormalities in pancreatic tissue from two male FD patients with blood group B...
March 14, 2018: Glycobiology
J Michael Dickson, Xu Wang, Alexander E St John, Esther B Lim, Susan A Stern, Nathan J White
Introduction: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and hemorrhagic shock (HS) are the leading causes of traumatic death worldwide and particularly on the battlefield. They are especially challenging when present simultaneously (polytrauma), and clear blood pressure end points during fluid resuscitation are not well described for this situation. The goal of this study is to evaluate for any benefit of increasing blood pressure using a vasopressor on brain blood flow during initial fluid resuscitation in a swine polytrauma model...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Karishma S Furtado, Elizabeth L Budd, Xiangji Ying, Anna J deRuyter, Rebecca L Armstrong, Tahna L Pettman, Rodrigo S Reis, Pauline Sung-Chan, Zhaoxin Wang, Tahnee Saunders, Leonardo A Becker, Jianwei Shi, Long Sum Tabitha Mui, Ross C Brownson
Implementation of evidence-based practices can improve efficiency and effectiveness of public health efforts. Few studies have explored the political contextual factors that impact implementation of evidence-based non-communicable disease prevention (EBNCDP). This study aimed to do so in Australia, Brazil, China and the United States. Investigators conducted 10-13 qualitative, semi-structured interviews of public health practitioners working in functionally similar public health organizations in each country (total N = 50)...
March 14, 2018: Health Education Research
Peter Vegh, Muzlifah Haniffa
Application of single-cell genomics technologies has revolutionized our approach to study the immune system. Unravelling the functional diversity of immune cells and their coordinated response is key to understanding immunity. Single-cell transcriptomics technologies provide high-dimensional assessment of the transcriptional states of immune cells and have been successfully applied to discover new immune cell types, reveal haematopoietic lineages, identify gene modules dictating immune responses and investigate lymphocyte antigen receptor diversity...
March 14, 2018: Briefings in Functional Genomics
Marine Landa, Stéphane Blain, Jérôme Harmand, Sébastien Monchy, Alain Rapaport, Ingrid Obernosterer
In the Southern Ocean, natural iron fertilization in the wake of islands leads to annually occurring spring phytoplankton blooms associated with enhanced heterotrophic activity through the release of labile dissolved organic matter (DOM). The aim of this study was to investigate experimentally how diatom-derived DOM affects the composition of Southern Ocean winter water bacterial communities and to identify the most responsive taxa. A bacterial community collected in the naturally iron-fertilized region off Kerguelen Island (KEOPS2 October-November 2011) was grown onboard in continuous cultures, on winter water alone or amended with diatom-derived DOM supplied at identical DOC concentrations...
March 14, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Hyungsub Park, Kwangmin Kim
The incidence of an isolated femoral vessel injury in the absence of fractures or other organ injury is extremely rare. A 20-yr-old male Korean soldier was taken to the hospital with a common femoral artery (CFA) obstruction. Injured CFA segment was resected and replaced by using 7-mm PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) graft. Two months after the surgical treatment, the patient discharged from the hospital without any complaints or postoperative complications. We report an unusual case of isolated femoral artery injury due to blunt trauma during military service with following review of literature...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Pollyana Trigueiro, Silvia Pedetti, Baptiste Rigaud, Sebastien Balme, Jean-Marc Janot, Ieda M G Dos Santos, Régis Gougeon, Maria G Fonseca, Thomas Georgelin, Maguy Jaber
Wine chemistry inspires and challenges with its complexity and intriguing composition. In this context, the composites based on the use of a model protein, a polyphenol of interest and montmorillonite in a model hydroalcoholic solution have been studied. A set of experimental characterization techniques highlighted the interactions between the organic and the inorganic parts in the composite. The amount of the organic part was determined by ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) and thermal analysis. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) informed about the stacking/exfoliation of the layers in the composites...
March 6, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Xuan Shi, Huu Hao Ngo, Langtao Sang, Pengkang Jin, Xiaochang C Wang, Guanghua Wang
In this study, a pilot combined sewer system was constructed to characterize the pollutant transformation in sewer sediment. The results showed that particulate contaminants deposited from sewage could be transformed into dissolved matter by distinct pollutant transformation pathways. Although the oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) was varied from -80 mV to -340 mV in different region of the sediment, the fermentation was the dominant process in all regions of the sediment, which induced hydrolysis and decomposition of particulate contaminants...
March 13, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Bin Hua, John Yang, Fengjing Liu, Guocheng Zhu, Baolin Deng, Jingdong Mao
Characterization of dissolved organic matter/nitrogen (DOM/DON) is critical in water quality assessment and nutrient management in watershed or ecosystem. This study was to investigate the link between DOM/DON and its source using fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy coupled with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). Water samples were collected from various aquatic systems in a watershed located in central Missouri, including rural watershed with various land use and land cover (LULC), landfill, and constructed wetland...
March 6, 2018: Chemosphere
Weihua Peng, Xiaomin Li, Tong Liu, Yingying Liu, Jinqian Ren, Dawei Liang, Wenhong Fan
Sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) was used to stabilize cadmium (Cd) in sediments spiked with Cd. The study found that the Cd in sediments (≤600 mg kg-1 ) was successfully stabilized after 166 d SRB bio-treatment. This was verified by directly and indirectly examining Cd speciation in sediments, mobilization index, and Cd content in interstitial water. After 166 d bio-treatment, compared with control groups, Cd concentrations in interstitial water of Cd-spiked sediments were reduced by 77.6-96.4%. The bioavailable fractions of Cd (e...
March 1, 2018: Chemosphere
Mahfuza Mubarak, Hyokyung Jeon, Md Shahinul Islam, Cheolho Yoon, Jong-Seong Bae, Seong-Ju Hwang, Won San Choi, Ha-Jin Lee
Herein, Mg/Fe layered double hydroxide (MF-LDH) hollow nanospheres were successfully prepared by a one-step thermal method. After the thermal treatment of MF-LDH nanospheres at 400 °C, the MF-LDH was converted into the corresponding oxide, Mg/Fe layered double oxide (MF-LDO), which maintained the hollow nanosphere structure. The MF-LDO hollow nanospheres exhibited excellent adsorption efficiency for both As(V) and Cr(VI), showing 99% removal within 5 min and providing maximum removal capacities of 178...
March 6, 2018: Chemosphere
Jin-Na Zhang, Guang-Guo Ying, Yuan-Yuan Yang, Wang-Rong Liu, Shuang-Shuang Liu, Jun Chen, You-Sheng Liu, Jian-Liang Zhao, Qian-Qian Zhang
Androgens are one class of steroids that could cause endocrine disrupting effects in aquatic organisms. However, little information is available about androgens in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with different treatment technologies. Here we investigated the occurrence, removal, and fate of fourteen natural and synthetic androgens in ten WWTPs of Guangdong province, south China. The results showed detection of ten androgens in the influents of the ten WWTPs, with concentrations up to 4650 ng/L (androsta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione)...
February 26, 2018: Chemosphere
Jiade Wang, Tian Zhang, Yu Mei, Bingjun Pan
Reverse osmosis concentrate (ROC) of printing and dyeing wastewater remains as a daunting environmental issue, which is characterized by high salinity, chemical oxygen demand (COD), chroma and low biodegradability. In this study electro-oxidation process (PbO2 /Ti electrode) coupled with oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) online monitor was applied to treat such a ROC effluent. The results show that with the increase of specific electrical charge (Qsp ), the removal efficiencies of COD, TN and chroma increased significantly at the incipience and then reached a gentle stage; the optimal total current efficiency (12...
March 8, 2018: Chemosphere
Asmaa E Kassab, Ehab M Gedawy
As we are interested in synthetizing biologically active leads with dual anticancer and antibacterial activity, we adopted biology oriented drug synthesis (BIODS) strategy to synthesize a series of novel ciprofloxacin (CP) hybrids. The National Cancer Institute (USA) selected seventeen newly synthesized compounds for anticancer evaluation against 59 different human tumor cell lines. Five compounds 3e, 3f, 3h, 3o and 3p were further studied through determination of IC50 values against the most sensitive cancer cell lines...
March 9, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Priti Sengupta, Aniruddha Ganguly, Adity Bose
The crucial role of chemosensor for the immediate recognition of environment pollutant motivates the researchers to develop variety of sensing protocols. Of various chemosensory protocols, the colour change observed by the naked eye is considered to be a conceivable and on-site way to indicate the presence of an analyte. We herein report a colourimetric and commercially available absorption probe, sinapic acid (SA) that is completely ready to use for "on-site" visual determination of copper ions. The molecule, SA is well-known phenolic acid, often utilized for its antibacterial activity...
March 3, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
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